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  • 1.
    Abdelraheem, Mohamed Ahmed
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Andersson, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Gehrmann, Christian
    Lunds university, Sweden.
    Searchable Encrypted Relational Databases:Risks and Countermeasures2017In: Data Privacy Management, Cryptocurrencies and Blockchain Technology: ESORICS 2017 International Workshops, DPM 2017 and CBT 2017, Oslo, Norway, September 14-15, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Joaquin Garcia-Alfaro et al., Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland: Springer Nature , 2017, Vol. 10436, p. 70-85Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We point out the risks of protecting relational databases viaSearchable Symmetric Encryption (SSE) schemes by proposing an infer-ence attack exploiting the structural properties of relational databases.We show that record-injection attacks mounted on relational databaseshave worse consequences than their file-injection counterparts on un-structured databases. Moreover, we discuss some techniques to reducethe effectiveness of inference attacks exploiting the access pattern leak-age existing in SSE schemes. To the best of our knowledge, this is thefirst work that investigates the security of relational databases protectedby SSE schemes.

  • 2.
    Abdelraheem, Mohamed
    et al.
    Intelligent Voice Ltd., UK.
    Andersson, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Gehrmann, Christian
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Glackin, Cornelius
    Intelligent Voice Ltd., UK.
    Practical Attacks on Relational Databases Protected via Searchable Encryption2018In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., 2018, p. 171-191Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Searchable symmetric encryption (SSE) schemes are commonly proposed to enable search in a protected unstructured documents such as email archives or any set of sensitive text files. However, some SSE schemes have been recently proposed in order to protect relational databases. Most of the previous attacks on SSE schemes have only targeted its common use case, protecting unstructured data. In this work, we propose a new inference attack on relational databases protected via SSE schemes. Our inference attack enables a passive adversary with only basic knowledge about the meta-data information of the target relational database to recover the attribute names of some observed queries. This violates query privacy since the attribute name of a query is secret.

  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Alonso, Juan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Andersson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Kreuger, Per
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    A Multi Path Routing Algorithm for IP Networks Based on Flow Optimisation.2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Alonso, Juan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Andersson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Kreuger, Per
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    From QoS provisioning to QoS charging2002In: Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Internet Charging and QoS Technologies, ICQT 2002, 2002, 1, Vol. Lectures Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) no. 2511, p. 135-144Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Lindvall, Patrik
    TeliaSonera, Sweden.
    Nieminen, Johanna
    TeliaSonera, Sweden.
    Tholin, Per
    TeliaSonera, Sweden.
    Traffic Characteristics on 1Gbit/s Access Aggregation Links2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large network operators have thousands or tens of thousands of access aggregation links that they need to manage and dimension properly. Measuring and understanding the traffic characteristics on these type of links are therefore essential. What do the traffic intensity characteristics look like on different timescales from days down to milliseconds? How do the characteristics differ if we compare links with the same capacity but with different type of clients and access technologies? How do the traffic characteristics differ from that on core network links? These are the type of questions we set out to investigate in this paper. We present the results of packet level measurements on three different 1Gbit/s aggregation links in an operational IP network. We see large differences in traffic characteristics between the three links. We observe highly skewed link load probability densities on timescales relevant for buffering (i.e. 10-milliseconds). We demonstrate the existence of large traffic spikes on short timescales (10-100ms) and show their impact on link delay. We also found that these traffic bursts often are caused by only one or a few IP flows.

  • 6.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Ben Abdesslem, Fehmi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University; Sweden.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Marsh, Ian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Selecting Operator in 3G/4G Networks for Time-Critical C-ITS Applications2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Ben Abdesslem, Fehmi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Marsh, Ian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Connected Vehicles in Cellular Networks: Multi-access versus Single-access Performance2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Connected vehicles can make roads traffic safer andmore efficient, but require the mobile networks to handle timecriticalapplications. Using the MONROE mobile broadbandmeasurement testbed we conduct a multi-access measurementstudy on buses. The objective is to understand what networkperformance connected vehicles can expect in today’s mobilenetworks, in terms of transaction times and availability. The goalis also to understand to what extent access to several operatorsin parallel can improve communication performance.In our measurement experiments we repeatedly transfer warningmessages from moving buses to a stationary server. Wetriplicate the messages and always perform three transactionsin parallel over three different cellular operators. This creates adataset with which we can compare the operators in an objectiveway and with which we can study the potential for multi-access.In this paper we use the triple-access dataset to evaluate singleaccessselection strategies, where one operator is chosen for eachtransaction. We show that if we have access to three operatorsand for each transaction choose the operator with best accesstechnology and best signal quality then we can significantlyimprove availability and transaction times compared to theindividual operators. The median transaction time improves with6% compared to the best single operator and with 61% comparedto the worst single operator. The 90-percentile transaction timeimproves with 23% compared to the best single operator andwith 65% compared to the worst single operator.

  • 8.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Hagsand, Olof
    Marsh, Ian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    TCP over High Speed Variable Capacity Links: A Simulation Study for Bandwidth Allocation2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Marsh, Ian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    DTMsim - DTM channel simulation in ns2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic Transfer Mode (DTM) is a ring based MAN technology that provides a channel abstraction with a dynamically adjustable capacity. TCP is a reliable end to end transport protocol capable of adjusting its rate. The primary goal of this work is investigate the coupling of dynamically allocating bandwidth to TCP flows with the affect this has on the congestion control mechanism of TCP. In particular we wanted to find scenerios where this scheme does not work, where either all the link capacity is allocated to TCP or congestion collapse occurs and no capacity is allocated to TCP. We have created a simulation environment using ns-2 to investigate TCP over networks which have a variable capacity link. We begin with a single TCP Tahoe flow over a fixed bandwidth link and progressively add more complexity to understand the behaviour of dynamically adjusting link capacity to TCP and vice versa.

  • 10.
    Adler, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Virtual Audio - Three-Dimensional Audio in Virtual Environments1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Three-dimensional interactive audio has a variety ofpotential uses in human-machine interfaces. After lagging seriously behind the visual components, the importance of sound is now becoming increas-ingly accepted. This paper mainly discusses background and techniques to implement three-dimensional audio in computer interfaces. A case study of a system for three-dimensional audio, implemented by the author, is described in great detail. The audio system was moreover integrated with a virtual reality system and conclusions on user tests and use of the audio system is presented along with proposals for future work at the end of the paper. The thesis begins with a definition of three-dimensional audio and a survey on the human auditory system to give the reader the needed knowledge of what three-dimensional audio is and how human auditory perception works.

  • 11.
    Afanasov, Mikhail
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Iavorskii, Aleksandr
    John Wiley & Sons Inc, Russia.
    Mottola, Luca
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Programming Support for Time-sensitive Adaptation in Cyberphysical Systems2018In: ACM SIGBED Review, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 27-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyberphysical systems (CPS) integrate embedded sensors,actuators, and computing elements for controlling physicalprocesses. Due to the intimate interactions with thesurrounding environment, CPS software must continuouslyadapt to changing conditions. Enacting adaptation decisionsis often subject to strict time requirements to ensure controlstability, while CPS software must operate within the tightresource constraints that characterize CPS platforms. Developersare typically left without dedicated programmingsupport to cope with these aspects. This results in either toneglect functional or timing issues that may potentially ariseor to invest significant efforts to implement hand-crafted solutions.We provide programming constructs that allow developersto simplify the specification of adaptive processingand to rely on well-defined time semantics. Our evaluationshows that using these constructs simplifies implementationswhile reducing developers’ effort, at the price of a modestmemory and processing overhead.

  • 12.
    Afanasov, Mikhail
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Mottola, Luca
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Ghezzi, Carlo
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Software Adaptation in Wireless Sensor Networks2018In: ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 1-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present design concepts, programming constructs, and automatic verification techniques to support thedevelopment of adaptive Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) software. WSNs operate at the interface betweenthe physical world and the computing machine, and are hence exposed to unpredictable environment dynamics.WSN software must adapt to these dynamics to maintain dependable and efficient operation. Whilesignificant literature exists on the necessary adaptation logic, developers are left without proper support inmaterializing such a logic in a running system. Our work fills this gap with three key contributions: i) designconcepts help developers organize the necessary adaptive functionality and understand their relations,ii) dedicated programming constructs simplify the implementations, iii) custom verification techniques allowdevelopers to check the correctness of their design before deployment. We implement dedicated toolsupport to tie the three contributions, facilitating their practical application. Our evaluation considers representativeWSN applications to analyze code metrics, synthetic simulations, and cycle-accurate emulationof popular WSN platforms. The results indicate that our work is effective in simplifying the developmentof adaptive WSN software; for example, implementations are provably easier to test and to maintain, therun-time overhead of our dedicated programming construct is negligible, and our verification techniquesreturn results in a matter of seconds.

  • 13.
    Aghaeinezhadfirouzja, Saeid
    et al.
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China.
    Liu, Hui
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China.
    Balador, Ali
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Practical 3-D beam pattern based channel modeling for multi-polarized massive MIMO systems2018In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 18, no 4, article id 1186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a practical non-stationary three-dimensional (3-D) channel models for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, considering beam patterns for different antenna elements, is proposed. The beam patterns using dipole antenna elements with different phase excitation toward the different direction of travels (DoTs) contributes various correlation weights for rays related towards/from the cluster, thus providing different elevation angle of arrivals (EAoAs) and elevation angle of departures (EAoDs) for each antenna element. These include the movements of the user that makes our channel to be a non-stationary model of clusters at the receiver (RX) on both the time and array axes. In addition, their impacts on 3-D massive MIMO channels are investigated via statistical properties including received spatial correlation. Additionally, the impact of elevation/azimuth angles of arrival on received spatial correlation is discussed. Furthermore, experimental validation of the proposed 3-D channel models on azimuth and elevation angles of the polarized antenna are specifically evaluated and compared through simulations. The proposed 3-D generic models are verified using relevant measurement data.

  • 14.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Andersson, Anders
    Hagsand, Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Marsh, Ian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Dimensioning links for IP telephony2001In: Proceedings of the 2nd IP-Telephony Workshop (IPtel 2001), 2-3 April 2001, New York City, New York, USA, 2001, 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Packet loss is an important parameter for dimensioning network links or traffic classes carrying IP telephony traffic. We present a model based on the Markov modulated Poisson process (MMPP) which calculates packet loss probabilities for a set of super positioned voice input sources and the specified link properties. We do not introduce another new model to the community, rather try and verify one of the existing models via extensive simulation and a real world implementation. A plethora of excellent research on queuing theory is still in the domain of ATM researchers and we attempt to highlight its validity to the IP Telephony community. Packet level simulations show very good correspondence with the predictions of the model. Our main contribution is the verification of the MMPP model with measurements in a laboratory environment. The loss rates predicted by the model are in general close to the measured loss rates and the loss rates obtained with simulation. The general conclusion is that the MMPP-based model is a tool well suited for dimensioning links carrying packetized voice in a system with limited buffer space.

  • 15.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Andersson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Hagsand, Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Marsh, Ian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Dimensioning Links for IP Telephony2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transmitting telephone calls over the Internet causes problems not present in current telephone technology such as packet loss and delay due to queueing in routers. In this undergraduate thesis we study how a Markov modulated Poisson process is applied as an arrival process to a multiplexer and we study the performance in terms of loss probability. The input consists of the superposition of independent voice sources. The predictions of the model is compared with results obtained with simulations of the multiplexer made with a network simulator. The buffer occupancy distribution is also studied and we see how this distribution changes as the load increases.

  • 16.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Björkman, Mats
    Gunningberg, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    The applicability of integrated layer processing1998In: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 317-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we review previous work on the applicability and performance of Integrated Layer Processing (ILP). ILP has been shown to clearly improve computer communication performance when integrating simple data manipulation functions, but the situation has been less clear for more complex functions and complete systems. We discuss complications when applying ILP to protocol stacks, the requirements of ILP on the communication subsystem, caching aspects, the importance of the processor registers, and a model for predicting the performance of data manipulation functions. We conclude that the main drawback of ILP is its limited aplicability to complex data manipulation functions. The performance to expect from an ILP implementation also depends heavily on the protocol architecture and the host system architecture.

  • 17.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Björkman, Mats
    Gunningberg, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Towards predictable ILP performance-controlling communication buffer cache effects1995Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    D’Ambrosio, Matteo
    4WARD.
    Dannewitz, Christian
    4WARD.
    Marchisio, Marco
    Marsh, Ian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Ohlman, Börje
    Pentikousis, Kostas
    Rembarz, René
    Strandberg, Ove
    Vercellone, Vinicio
    Design considerations for a network of information2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing Internet ecosystem is a result of decades of evolution. It has managed to scale well beyond the original aspirations. Evolution, though, highlighted a certain degree of inadequacies that is well documented. In this position paper we present the design considerations for a re-architected global networking architecture which delivers dissemination and non-dissemination objects only to consenting recipients, reducing unwanted traffic, linking information producers with consumers independently of the hosts involved, and connects the digital with the physical world. We consider issues ranging from the proposed object identifier/locator split to security and trust as we transition towards a Network of Information and relate our work with the emerging paradigm of publish/subscribe architectures. We introduce the fundamental components of a Network of Information, i.e., name resolution, routing, storage, and search, and close this paper with a discussion about future work.

  • 19.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Gunningberg, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Moldeklev, Kjersti
    Increasing communication performance with a minimal-copy data path supporting ILP and ALF1996In: Journal of High Speed Networks, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 203-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many current implementations of communication subsystems on workstation class computers transfer communication data to and from primary memory several times. This is due to software copying between user and operating system address spaces, presentation layer data conversion and other data manipulation functions. The consequence is that memory bandwidth is one of the major performance bottlenecks limiting high speed communication on these systems. We propose a communication subsystem architecture with a minimal-copy data path to widen this bottleneck. The architecture is tailored for protocol implementations using Integrated Layer Processing (ILP) and Application Layer Framing (ALF). We choose to implement these protocols in the address space of the application program. We present a new application program interface (API) between the protocols and the communication service in the operating system kernel. The API does not copy data, but instead passes pointers to page size data buffers. We analyze and discuss ILP loop and cache memory requirements on these buffers. Initial experiments show that the API can increase the communication performance with 50% compared to a standard BSD Unix socket interface.

  • 20.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Köckemann, Uew
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Run-Time Assurance for the E-care@home System2018In: Part of the Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering book series (LNICST, volume 225), 2018, p. 107-110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design and implementation of the software for a run-time assurance infrastructure in the E-care@home system. An experimental evaluation is conducted to verify that the run-time assurance infrastructure is functioning correctly, and to enable detecting performance degradation in experimental IoT network deployments within the context of E-care@home. © 2018, ICST Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering.

  • 21.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Köckemann, Uwe
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Run-Time Assurance for the E-care@home System2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Al Nahas, Beshr
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Landsiedel, Olaf
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Network Bootstrapping and Leader Election in Low-power Wireless Networks2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (ACM SenSys 2017), November 5-8, 2017, Delft, The Netherlands, ACM Press, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Al Nahas, Beshr
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Landsiedel, Olaf
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Network-wide Consensus Utilizing the Capture Eect in Low-power Wireless Networks2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (ACM SenSys 2017), November 5-8, 2017, Delft, The Netherlands, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many protocols in low-power wireless networks require a root nodeor a leader to bootstrap and maintain its operation. For example,Chaos and Glossy networks need an initiator to synchronize andinitiate the communications rounds. Commonly, these protocolsuse a xed, compile-time dened node as the leader. In this work,we tackle the challenge of dynamically bootstrapping the networkand electing a leader in low-power wireless scenarios, and we focuson Chaos-style networks

  • 24.
    Albertsson, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    An Overview of Practical Research Approaches to Real-Time System Engineering2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a state of the art report and literature overview of practical methods for constructing and analysing real-time systems. It covers operating system support, monitoring methods, and execution time prediction through simulation.

  • 25.
    Albertsson, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Entropy Injection2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing is the predominant software quality assurance method today, but it has a major flaw --- it cannot reliably catch race conditions, intermittent errors caused by factors that cannot be controlled during testing, such as unpredictable timing behaviour in concurrent software. We present entropy injection, a extension of traditional test methods, which enable developers to create tests for arbitrary types of race conditions in any software application, reusing the application's existing test cases. An entropy injector runs the software under test in an instruction set simulator, where all factors that normally are unpredictable can be explicitly controlled. The injector provokes race condition defects by artificially changing the timing behaviour of the simulated processors, hardware devices, clocks, and input models. Provoked defects can be debugged by developers in a non-intrusive, programmable debugger, which allows race condition defects to be reproduced and provides access to all software state in a distributed system. Developers can use its services to create application-specific injection strategies and directed regression test cases that monitor application state and test specific interleavings of events. Our proof-of-concept entropy injector implementation Njord is built on Nornir, a debugger environment based on the complete system simulator Simics. Njord provokes test case failures by suspending simulated processors, thereby injecting delays in the processes in a concurrent application. We demonstrate Njord on a small test routine, and show how a developer can write a race condition regression test that triggers errors with very high probability, or provoke errors with good probability without using application knowledge.

  • 26.
    Albertsson, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Holistic debugging2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present holistic debugging, a novel method for observing execution of complex and distributed software. It builds on an instruction set simulator, which provides reproducible experiments and non-intrusive probing of state in a distributed system. Instruction set simulators, however, provide low-level information, so a holistic debugger contains a translation framework that maps this information to higher abstraction level observation tools, such as source code debuggers. We have created Nornir, a proof-of-concept holistic debugger, built on the simulator Simics. For each observed process in the simulated system, Nornir creates an abstraction translation stack, with virtual machine translators that map machine-level storage contents (e.g. physical memory, registers) provided by Simics, to application-level data (e.g. virtual memory contents) by parsing the data structures of operating systems and virtual machines. Nornir includes a modified version of the GNU debugger (GDB), which supports non-intrusive symbolic debugging of distributed applications. Nornir's main interface is a debugger shepherd, a programmable interface that controls multiple debuggers, and allows users to coherently inspect the entire state of heterogeneous, distributed applications. It provides a robust observation platform for construction of new observation tools.

  • 27.
    Albertsson, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Simulation-based debugging of soft real-time applications2001In: Real-Time Technology and Applications Symposium, 2001. Proceedings. Seventh IEEE, 2001, 1, p. 107-109Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a temporal debugger, capable of examining time flow of soft real-time applications in Unix systems. The debugger is based on a simulator modelling an entire workstation in sufficient detail to run unmodified operating systems and applications. It provides a deterministic and non-intrusive debugging environment, allowing reproducible presentation of program time flow. The primary contribution of this paper is virtual machine translation, a technique necessary to debug applications in a simulated Unix system. We show how a virtual machine translator maps low-level data, provided by the simulator, to data useful to a symbolic debugger. The translator operates by parsing data structures in the target operating system and has been implemented for the GNU debugger and simulated Linux systems.

  • 28.
    Albertsson, Lars
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Magnusson, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Simulation-based temporal debugging of Linux2000In: Proceedings of the Second Real-Time Linux Workshop, 27-28 Nov 2000, Orlando, Florida, USA, 2000, 1Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Albertsson, Lars
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Magnusson, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Using complete system simulation for temporal debugging of general purpose operating systems and workloads2000In: Proceedings of MASCOTS 2000, 29 Aug - 01 Sept 2000, San Francisco, California, USA, IEEE, 2000, 1Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Ali, Khayri Mohammed
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    A method for implementing out in parallel execution of Prolog1987Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for implementing cut in parallel execution of Prolog is presented. It takes advantages of the efficient implementation of cut in the sequential WAM. It restricts the parallelism, however, it is simple and adds a small extra overhead over the sequential scheme. The method can be used in parallel execution of Prolog on shared amd nonshared memory multiprocessors.

  • 31.
    Ali, Khayri Mohammed
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    OR parallel execution of horn clause programs based on WAM and shared control information1988Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for OR parallel execution of Horn clause programs on a shared memory multiprocessor is presented. The shared memory contains only control information that guide processors requesting a job to independently construct the environment required to get a new job from the other processors without degrading the performance. Each processor has a local memory containing its own binding environment. This reduces the traffic to the shared memory and allows each processor to process its job with high performance. Each processor is almost the same as the Warren Abstract Machine (WAM). Modification to the WAM for supporting the method is described in detail. A method for nonshared memory multiprocessor architecture is outlined.

  • 32.
    Ali, Khayri Mohammed
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    OR parallel execution of Prolog on BC-machine1988Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the principles of OR-parallel execution of Prolog on a special parallel inference machine, named BC-machine. The machine is a combined local and shared memory multiprocessor with a special interconnection network. The network allows write operations of an active processor to be broadcasted to several idle processors simultaneously. The shared memory is mainly used for sharing some control information among processors in the system. The amount of shared control information is small and accessed relatively seldom. The execution model is based on the local address space approach. It allows all the technology developed for standard Prolog to be used without loss of efficiency. We expect that the model substantially reduces the copying overhead in comparision with all previous related models. This reduction is due to our new idea of dynamic load balancing and the broadcast mechanism supported by the network. A prototype system of 9 processors is under construction at the Swedish Institute of Computer Science in Stockholm.

  • 33.
    Ali, Khayri Mohammed
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Haridi, Seif
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Global garbage collection for distributed heap storage systems1987Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a garbage-collection algorithm, suitable for loosely-coupled multiprocessor systems, in which the processing elements (PE's) share only the communication medium. The algorithm is global, i.e. it involves all the PE's in the system. It allows space compaction, and it uses a system-wide marking phase to mark all accessible objects where a combination of parallel breadth-first/depth-first strategies is used for tracing the object-graphs according to a decentralized credit mechanism that regulates the number of garbage collection messages in the system. The credit mechanism is crucial for determining the space requirement of the garbage-collection messages. Also a variation of the above algorithm is presented for systems with high locality of reference. It allows each PE to perform first its local garbage collection and only invokes the global garbage collection when the freed space by the local collector is insufficient.

  • 34.
    Ali, Khayri Mohammed
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Wong, Milton
    An investigation of an OR parallel execution model for horn clause programs1988Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a model for OR parallel execution of Horn clause programs on a combined local and shared memory multiprocessor system. In this model, the shared memory only contains control information that guides processors requesting a job to independently construct the environment required to get a new job. Each processor has a local memory containing its own binding environment. This reduces the traffic to the shared memory and allows each processor to process its job with high performance. Each processor is almost the same as Warren's Abstract Machine (WAM). A method for nonshared memory multiprocessor architectures is outlined. We also present some preliminary results of an experimental investigation of the model.

  • 35.
    Alima, Luc Onana
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Ghodsi, Ali
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Haridi, Seif
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    A Framework for Structured Peer-to-Peer Overlay Networks2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Structured peer-to-peer overlay networks have recently emerged as good candidate infrastructure for building novel large-scale and robust Internet applications in which participating peers share computing resources as equals. In the past three year, various structured peer-to-peer overlay networks have been proposed, and probably more are to come. We present a framework for understanding, analyzing and designing structured peer-to-peer overlay networks. The main objective of the paper is to provide practical guidelines for the design of structured overlay networks by identifying a fundamental element in the construction of overlay networks: the embedding of k-ary trees. Then, a number of effective techniques for maintaining these overlay networks are discussed. The proposed framework has been effective in the development of the DKS system.

  • 36.
    Alirezaie, Marjan
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Hammar, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    SmartEnv as a network of ontology patterns2018In: Semantic Web, ISSN 1570-0844, E-ISSN 2210-4968, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 903-918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we outline the details of an ontology, called SmartEnv, proposed as a representational model to assist the development process of smart (i.e., sensorized) environments. The SmartEnv ontology is described in terms of its modules representing different aspects including physical and conceptual aspects of a smart environment. We propose the use of the Ontology Design Pattern (ODP) paradigm in order to modularize our proposed solution, while at the same time avoiding strong dependencies between the modules in order to manage the representational complexity of the ontology. The ODP paradigm and related methodologies enable incremental construction of ontologies by first creating and then linking small modules. Most modules (patterns) of the SmartEnv ontology are inspired by, and aligned with, the Semantic Sensor Network (SSN) ontology, however with extra interlinks to provide further precision and cover more representational aspects. The result is a network of 8 ontology patterns together forming a generic representation for a smart environment. The patterns have been submitted to the ODP portal and are available on-line at stable URIs.

  • 37.
    Alirezaie, Marjan
    et al.
    Orebro University, Sweden .
    Hammar, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Nystrom, Mikael
    Link¨oping University, Sweden.
    Ivanova, Valentina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    SmartEnv ontology in E-care@home (Short paper)2018In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2018, p. 72-79Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this position paper we briey introduce SmartEnv ontology which relies on SEmantic Sensor Network (SSN) ontology and is used to represent different aspects of smart and sensorized environments. We will also talk about E-carehome project aiming at providing an IoT-based health-care system for elderly people at their homes. Furthermore, we refer to the role of SmartEnv in Ecarehome and how it needs to be further extended to achieve semantic interoperability as one of the challenges in development of autonomous health care systems at home.

  • 38.
    Alirezaie, Marjan
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Renoux, Jennifer
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Köckemann, Uwe
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Loutfi, A
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    An ontology-based context-aware system for smart homes: E-care@home2017In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 17, no 7, article id 1586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart home environments have a significant potential to provide for long-term monitoring of users with special needs in order to promote the possibility to age at home. Such environments are typically equipped with a number of heterogeneous sensors that monitor both health and environmental parameters. This paper presents a framework called E-care@home, consisting of an IoT infrastructure, which provides information with an unambiguous, shared meaning across IoT devices, end-users, relatives, health and care professionals and organizations. We focus on integrating measurements gathered from heterogeneous sources by using ontologies in order to enable semantic interpretation of events and context awareness. Activities are deduced using an incremental answer set solver for stream reasoning. The paper demonstrates the proposed framework using an instantiation of a smart environment that is able to perform context recognition based on the activities and the events occurring in the home.

  • 39.
    Almgren, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Andersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Flood, Lena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Frisk, Claes
    Nilsson, Hans
    Sundberg, Jan
    SICStus Prolog library manual1991Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Alonso, Juan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Andersson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Kreuger, Per
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Objective Functions for Balance in Traffic Engineering2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We prove a result concerning objective functions that can be used to obtain efficient and balanced solutions to the multi-commodity network flow problem. This type of solution is of interest when routing traffic in the Internet. A particular case of the result proved here (see Corollary 2 below) was stated without proof in a previous paper.

  • 41.
    Alonso, Juan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Dunkels, Adam
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Bounds on the Energy Consumption of Routings in Wireless Sensor Networks2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy is one of the most important resources in wireless sensor networks. We use an idealized mathematical model to study the impact of routing on energy consumption. Our results are very general and, within the assumptions listed in Section 2, apply to arbitrary topologies, routings and radio energy models. We find bounds on the minimal and maximal energy routings will consume, and use them to bound the lifetime of the network. The bounds are sharp, and can be achieved in many situations of interest. We illustrate the theory with some examples.

  • 42. Alshawi, Hiyan
    et al.
    Brown, Carl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Carter, David
    Gambäck, Björn
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Pulman, Steve
    Rayner, Manny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Bilingual conversation interpreter : a prototype interactive message translator. Final report1991Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This document is the final report for a research project aimed at producing a prototype system for on-line translation of typed dialogues between speakers of different natural languages. The work was carried out jointly by SICS and SRI Cambridge. The resulting prototype system (called Billingual Conversation Interpreter, or BCI) translates between english and Swedish in both directions.The Major components of the BCI are two copies of the SRI Core Language Engine, equipped with English and Swedish grammars respectively. These are linked by the transfer and disambiguation components. Translation takes place by analyzing the source-language sentence into Quasi Logical Form ( QLF), a linguistically motivated logical representation, transferring this into a target-language QLF, and generating a target-language sentence. When ambiguities occur that cannot be resolved automatically, they are clarified by Querying the appropriate user. The clarification dialogue presupposes no knowledge of either linguistics or the other language. The prototype system has a broad grammatical coverage, a initial vocabulary of about 1000 words together with vocabulary expansion tools, and a set of English-Swedish transfer rules. The formalism developed for coding this linguistic information make it relatively easy to extend the system. We believe that the project was successful in demonstrating the feasibility of using these techniques for interactive translation applications, and provides a sound basis for development of a large scale message translator system with potential for commercial exploitation.The main sections of this report are the following: * A non-technical introduction, summarizing the BCI's design , and containing a sample session. * An overview of the Swedish version of the CLE. * A detailed discussion of the theory and practice of QLF transfer. * A description of the interactive disambiguation method. * Suggestions for possible follow-on projects aimed in the direction of practically usable commercial systems.

  • 43. Alshawi, Hiyan
    et al.
    Carter, David
    Gambäck, Björn
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Pulman, Steve
    Rayner, Manny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Transfer through quasi logical form - A new approach to machine translation1991Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Document is an introduction to a research project aimed at producing a prototype system for on-line translation of typed dialogues between speakers of different natural languages. The work was carried out jointly by SICS and SRI Cambridge. The resulting prototype system (called Billingual Conversation Interpreter, or BCI) translates between English and Swedish in both Directions. The major components of the BCI are two copies of the SRI Core Language Engine, equipped with English and Swedish grammars respectively. These are linked by the transfer and disambiguation components. Translation takes place by analyzing the source-language sentence into Quasi Logical Form (QLF), a linguistically motivated logical representation, transferring this onto a target-language QLF, and generating a target-language sentence. We believe that the project was successful in demonstrating the feasibility of using these techniques for interactive translation applications, and provides a sound basis for development of a large scale message translator system. The final section of the paper points to several possible follow-on projects aimed in the direction of practically usable commercial systems.

  • 44. Amadio, Roberto
    et al.
    Dam, Mads
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    A Proof System for the pi-calculus1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the problem of specifying and verifying properties of pi-calculus processes while relying on a bisimulation semantics. As our property specification language we use a version of the modal mu-calculus adapted to the pi-calculus. We show that the logical language is sufficiently expressive to characterize by means of a finite formula a process up to any approximation of the bisimulation relation. We consider the problem of checking that a process of the pi-calculus satisfies a specification expressed in this modal mu-calculus. We develop an algorithm which is sound in general, and complete for processes having a finite reachability property. Finally, we present a proof system which can be applied to prove non-recursive properties of arbitrary processes. We show that the system is complete on the non-recursive fragment of the logical language.

  • 45. Amadio, Roberto
    et al.
    Dam, Mads
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Reasoning about Higher-Order Processes1994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We address the specification and verification problem for process calculi such as Chocs, CML and Facile where processes or functions are transmissible values. Our work takes place in the context of a static treatment of restriction and of a bisimulation-based semantics. As a paradigmatic and simple case we concentrate on (Plain) Chocs. We show that Chocs bisimulation can be characterized by an extension of Hennessy-Milner logic including a constructive implication, or function space constructor. This result is a non-trivial extension of the classical characterization result for labelled transition systems. In the second part of the paper we address the problem of developing a proof system for the verification of process specifications. Building on previous work for CCS we present an infinitary sound and complete proof system for the fragment of the calculus not handling restriction.

  • 46.
    Andersson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Capacity Study of Statistical Multiplexing for IP Telephony2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transmitting telephone calls over the Internet causes problems not present in current telephone technology such as packet loss and delay due to queueing in routers. In this undergraduate thesis we study how a Markov modulated Poisson process is applied as an arrival process to a multiplexer and we study the performance in terms of loss probability. The input consists of the superposition of independent voice sources. The predictions of the model is compared with results obtained with simulations of the multiplexer made with a network simulator. The buffer occupancy distribution is also studied and we see how this distribution changes as the load increases.

  • 47.
    Andersson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    SAGA -- Syntax Analyzer Generator for Agents1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    LALR(1) parser generators in conjunction with imperative programming languages is the standard solution for parsing applications. Contrary to popular belief, this situation is not entirely satisfactory. With imperative tools like Yacc, it is difficult to add actions to a grammar without introducing conflicts. Also, LALR(1) is not powerful enough to meet the needs of languages like C++. We argue that LALR(1) parsing in conjuction with concurrent constraint programming is an interesting option that solves the former problem. We also show how deep guards and don't-know non-determinism can be exploited to solve the latter problem. These ideas have been incorporated in the Saga parser generator described in this report. Saga is an integrated generator for lexical analyzers and parsers. It is based on AKL, a multiparadigm programming language based on a concurrent constraint framework. It is intended both as a research tool to demonstrate the power offered by concurrent constraints, and as a practical tool for the Agents programming system. As a practical tool, Saga features many improvements over tools like Yacc. For example, Saga offers powerful syntax, elegant reporting and resolution of conflicts and powerful error handling in the generated syntax analyzers.

  • 48.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Westerberg, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Eveborn, Annelie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Lagerlöf, Axel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Sandberg, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Norberg, Petronella
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Screen printed digital circuits based on vertical organicelectrochemical transistors2017In: Flex. Print. Electron., Vol. 2, article id 045008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertical organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) have been manufactured solely using screenprinting. The OECTs are based on PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonic acid)), which defines the active material for both the transistor channel and the gateelectrode. The resulting vertical OECT devices and circuits exhibit low-voltage operation, relativelyfast switching, small footprint and high manufacturing yield; the last three parameters are explainedby the reliance of the transistor configuration on a robust structure in which the electrolyte verticallybridges the bottom channel and the top gate electrode. Two different architectures of the verticalOECT have been manufactured, characterized and evaluated in parallel throughout this report. Inaddition to the experimental work, SPICE models enabling simulations of standalone OECTs andOECT-based circuits have been developed. Our findings may pave the way for fully integrated, lowvoltageoperating and printed signal processing systems integrated with e.g. printed batteries, solarcells, sensors and communication interfaces. Such technology can then serve a low-cost basetechnology for the internet of things, smart packaging and home diagnostics applications.

  • 49. Andersson, Gerd
    et al.
    Bullock, Adrian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Laaksolahti, Jarmo
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Nylander, Stina
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Sjölinder, Marie
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Waern, Annika
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Boman, Magnus
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Classifying Mobile Services2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A categorization of telecommunications services is presented, as a deliverable in a project commissioned by TeliaSonera.

  • 50. Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Andersson, Stefan
    Boortz, Kent
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Sjöland, Thomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Widén, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    SICStus Prolog user's manual, version 2.1 #81993Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Manual corresponds to SICStus Prolog release 2.1. #8 Prolog is a simple but powerful programming language developed at the University of Marseilles (Prolog : Manuel de Reference et d'Utilisation by P.Roussel, Groupe d'Intelligence Artificielle, Marseille-Luminy, 1975), as a practical tool for programming in Logic (Logic for Problem Solving by R.A. Kowalski, DCL Memo 75, Dept. of Artificial Intelligence, University of Edinburgh, March, 1974.)) From a user's point of view the major attraction of the language is ease of programming. Clear, readable, concise programs can be written quickly with few errors. This manual describes a Prolog system developed at the Swedish Institute of Computer Science in collaboration with Ericsson Telecom AB, NobelTech Systems AB, Infologics AB and Televerket under the IT4 program. The system consists of a WAM emulator written in C, a library and runtime system written in C and Prolog and an interpreter and a compiler written in Prolog. The Prolog engine is a Warren Abstract Machine (WAM) emulator defined by D:H:D: Warren in An Abstract Prolog Instruction Set, Tech. Note 309, International, Menlo Park, CA, 1983. Two modes of compilation are available: in-core i.e. incremental, and file-to-file.

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