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  • 1.
    Ahlberg-Eliasson, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish Rural Economy and Agricultural Society, Sweden.
    Nadeau, Elisabet
    Swedish Rural Economy and Agricultural Society, Sweden : SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Levén, Lotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Schnürer, Anna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Production efficiency of Swedish farm-scale biogas plants2017In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 97, p. 27-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas from agricultural waste streams represents an important way to produce fossil-free energy, allow nutrient recycling and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, biogas production from agricultural substrates is currently far from reaching its full potential. In Sweden, the number of biogas plants and their output have increased in recent years, but they are still experiencing harsh economic conditions. A recent evaluation (2010–2015) of 31 farm-scale biogas production facilities in Sweden sought to identify parameters of importance for further positive development. In this paper, data on plant operation, gas yield and digestate quality for 27 of these plants are summarised and statistically analysed to investigate factors that could allow an increase in overall biogas production and in nutrient content in the digestate. The analysis showed that addition of co-substrates to manure results in higher gas production, expressed as both specific methane potential and volumetric gas production, than when manure is the sole substrate. Use of co-substrate was also found to be influential for the nutrient content of the digestate. These observed improvements caused by co-digestion should be considered when subsidy systems for manure-based biogas processes are being created, as they could also improve the economics of biogas production. However, to achieve higher efficiency in existing biogas plants and to improve the situation for future investments, a more detailed, long-term evaluation programme should also be considered.

  • 2.
    Alsanius, Beatrix
    et al.
    SLU Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Sweden.
    Löfström, Charlotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Vattenrening för ökad hygien vid odling av frilandsgrönsaker och bär2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senare år har ett flertal utbrottmed magsjuka kopplats till konsumtionav grönsaker, frukt och bär. Sjukdomsframkallandebakterier och virus, såsomnorovirus, Salmonella, toxinproducerandeE. coli, Campylobacter och Listeria. kanspridas från bevattningsvatten via grö-dan till människor och orsaka sjukdom.Smittat bevattningsvatten kan därförförorena frilandsproducerade grönsakeroch bär. Det är alltås viktigt att hakontroll på bevattningsvattnets kvalitet.Dessutom är det viktigt att känna tillvilken typ av kultur som vattnet skaanvändas till, eftersom risken för vidaresmitta till människor varierar mellanolika typer av kulturer. T.ex. är det störrerisk att använda kontaminerat vatten tillkulturer som äts råa utan uppvärmninghos livsmedelsproducenten eller konsument,eftersom det då inte finns nå-gon möjlighet att avdöda de oönskademikroorganismerna i ett efterföljandesteg. Genom rätt hantering och adekvatbehandling av bevattningsvattnetkan dess hygieniska kvalitet förbättras.Ibland finns det möjlighet för odlarenatt byta vattenkälla, men då detta inte ärpraktiskt möjligt kan det kontamineradevattnet renas innan bevattning. I dettafaktablad beskrivs två grundläggandetekniker för rening av bevattningsvattenvid frilandsproduktion, nämligen fotokemi(fotokatalys, UV) och filtrering(mekanisk filtrering, långsamfiltrering).Dessa används för att minska risken försmittspridning med bevattningsvattnet.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nordberg, Åke
    SLU, Sweden.
    Westin, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Processum.
    Askfilter för rening av svavelväte i deponigas2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill gas is formed under anaerobic conditions in landfills by microbial degradation of organic material. The gas composition can vary, but at Swedish landfills the gas generally consists of 40-60% methane, 30-40% carbon dioxide and 5-20% nitrogen. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a highly toxic and corrosive gas, which occur in landfill gas in varying concentrations, from 10 to 30,000 ppm (equivalent to 0.001 to 3.0%). It is desirable that the landfill gas is used for electricity and/or heat production, but to do that there is a need to clean the gas to reach <200 ppm H2S. High levels of H2S increases wear on the engine/boiler and thus the frequency of servicing. This leads to expensive maintenance costs, and ultimately shortens the economic life of the plant. To reduce corrosion, it is common to adjust the flue gas temperature, but this also leads to a lower efficiency and thus reduces the energy utilization of the gas. In some cases the gas concentration of H2S is judged to be too high to be used for energy production at all. In 2015, approximately 53 GWh of landfill gas was flared in Sweden, which in many cases is due to problems with high levels of H2S.

     

    Cleaning of landfill gas from H2S leads to several values; the gas energy is used efficiently, maintenance and service costs of the engines/boiler are reduced, and emissions of acidifying sulphur dioxide from combustion of landfill gas decreases. There are commercial cleaning technologies for H2S but they are expensive, both in terms of capital cost and operating cost. Thus, there is a need to develop new cost efficient cleaning technologies that improve the economic outcome at landfills and that enables landfill gas with high H2S concentrations to be utilized for valuable energy transformation.

     

    RISE (formerly JTI – Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering) together with SLU develops new, potentially cost-efficient methods for upgrading biogas to fuel quality. One of the methods is based on the gas passing through a bed of moist ash (a so-called ash filter), where carbon dioxide and H2S are fixed. The hypothesis of this project was that ashes originating from the incineration of waste, recycled waste wood etc., can be used to clean the high levels of H2S in landfill gas. This type of ashes will usually be disposed of in landfills anyway and if the treatment effect is good, it would generate synergy effects in the form of the ash first being used to clean landfill gas from sulphur before it is used as a construction material at landfills.

     

    This project performed two trials in pilot scale at a Swedish landfill with very high concentration of H2S, approximately 15,000 ppm. Different gas flow rates were studied (0.7 to 7.6 m3 / h), while the volume of ash used were similar in the two trials, 0,37 m3. The concentration of H2S in the cleaned gas was consistently very low during treatment, < 10 ppm at low gas flow rates and < 200 ppm at high gas flow rates. Two types of ash were investigated and both proved to have very good capacity to fix H2S, 44-61 g H2S/kg dry ash. In comparison with literature values, there is only one study showing an uptake capacity in the same order. Other studies report an order of magnitude lower uptake capacity.

    Based on the experimental results, the technical and economic potential for an ash filter as the cleaning method was assessed. The calculations were made for various typical landfills to cover the different range of landfills. For normal sized landfills with gas flow rates of 100-1 000 m3/h and H2S concentrations between 100 and 1 000 ppm, the amount of ash needed is 10-130 tons of dry ash per year. For the special case where the H2S concentration is extremely high, the amount of ash increases and a plant with 15 000 ppm H2S and a gas flow rate of 200 m3/h requires approximately 800 tons of dry ash per year. However, overall modest amounts of ash is required and considering all Swedish landfills the requirement of ash would be only 0.2-0.3% of the annual production of ash in Sweden.

     

    The economic calculations show that the ash filter is a competitive method for removal of H2S. For the special case of extremely high levels of H2S, it turned out that the cost of the ash filter is approximately 20% lower in comparison with the cheapest feasible conventional cleaning technology on the market. Also for the cleaning of landfill gas at more normal levels of H2S, the ash filter is competitive. At low gas flow rates (100 m3/h), the ash filter is clearly competitive compared to literature values for conventional cleaning technologies. The economy of scale seems to be higher for the conventional cleaning technologies, and consequently the difference between the cost of ash filter cleaning and other technologies is less at higher gas flow rates.

     

    The low treatment cost of the ash filter reveals opportunities for landfills that currently do not clean the gas from H2S. During the project 15 Swedish landfills was contacted and none of these reported any form of H2S cleaning. When using cleaning, the landfill gas can be used effectively, i.e. reduced flaring, increased efficiency of electricity and heat production with reduced wear on boilers and combustion equipment as well as reduced emissions of sulphur into the atmosphere, which also reduces the potential odour problems around the landfill.

     

    For further development, the design of an ash filter module prototype at full-scale is important. Furthermore, the treated ashes should be analysed for leaching characteristics, storability and usability as construction materials or as cover landfills along with an assessment of the overall environmental impact. Further tests at full scale should be made at other landfills with various gas flow rates and H2S concentrations to verify the performance of the conducted pilot tests.

  • 4.
    Ascard, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Board of Agriculture, Sweden.
    Löfkvist, Klara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Mie, Axel
    SLU Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden ; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Wivstad, Maria
    SLU Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden .
    Växtskyddsmedel i ekologisk produktion – användning och risker2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förebyggande åtgärder dominerar i växtskyddet i ekologisk produktion och användningen av växtskyddsmedel är begränsad. Främst biologiska växtskyddsmedel används och utöver det ett fåtal kemiska växtskyddsmedel, de flesta med låg risk för hälsa och miljö. Dessa används främst i produktion av frukt, bär och grönsaker.

  • 5.
    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    de Hooge, Ilona E.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Rohm, Harald
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Bossle, Marilia B.
    Unisinos Business School, Brazil.
    Grønhøj, Alice
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Oostindjer, Marije
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Key characteristics and success factors of supply chain initiatives tackling consumer-related food waste – A multiple case study2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 155, p. 33-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste accounts for a considerable share of the environmental impact of the food sector. Therefore, strategies that aim to reduce food waste have great potential to improve sustainability of the agricultural and food supply chains. Consumer-related food waste is a complex issue that needs collaboration between various supply chain actors and sector stakeholders. Although a range of initiatives from various actors already exists internationally, there is still a lack of knowledge on which lessons can be derived from such cases. The current multiple case study provides insights into how to successfully design future actions, by analysing common and distinct key success factors in 26 existing initiatives to reduce consumer-related food waste. The findings reveal that collaboration between stakeholders, timing and sequence of initiatives, competencies that the initiative is built on, and a large scale of operations are key success factors. Success factors are identified for the primary design, for the development and maintenance phase, and for reaching out to consumers. There are three general types of initiatives that differ in their aims and characteristics: information and capacity building, redistribution, and retail and supply chain alteration. The first type focuses most strongly on motivating consumer food waste avoidance behaviour and strengthening consumer abilities, while the second and third focus primarily on altering consumer food choice context, but combine this with aspects of raising awareness. Recommendations are derived for future initiatives which should take inspiration from existing initiatives, especially considering the right partners, competencies involved, timing the start of the initiative right, and aim to soon achieve a large scale.

  • 6.
    Avadí, Angel
    et al.
    UPR Recyclage et Risque, France ; University of Montpellier, France.
    Henriksson, Patrik J. G.
    Stockholm University, Sweden ; WorldFish, Malaysia.
    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian
    Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Peru.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Towards improved practices in Life Cycle Assessment of seafood and other aquatic products2018In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 979-981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: 

    Aquatic supply chains, based on e.g. fish, molluscs, crustaceans and algae, provide products aimed for direct or indirect human consumption and other uses. Global demand for these products is increasing, but the fact that wild-capture fisheries—supplying inputs for the food and feed industries—have stagnated (FAO 2016), or even declined, has raised questions about the environmental consequences of aquatic supply chains  Research applying LCA to seafood products has emerged since the early years of the century and, until today, dozens of case studies of fisheries and aquaculture systems from all around the world have been published. The body of literature in this field has grown to the extent of allowing systematic reviews to be undertaken on specific production sectors, such as for capture fisheries 

    The lifecycle of seafood commodities differs from that of terrestrial production systems in their diversity, in the case of fisheries, the reliance on extraction of a natural resource (fish stocks), their impacts on often unmapped ecosystems (e.g. seafloors and deep sea fish stocks) and the more complex trophic webs of aquatic ecosystems. To capture also these biotic and fisheries-specific impacts, an increasing number of fisheries and aquaculture LCAs apply novel impact categories such as biotic resource use and benthic ecosystems impacts. Aquaculture systems, in addition, often rely on feed resources from capture fisheries, agriculture and livestock, requiring extensive LCI models.

    Among the existing aquaculture seafood LCA studies, there is a strong focus on salmonids aquaculture in Europe and North America. The globally largest aquaculture sector, carp farming in China, has, however, been poorly covered. Peruvian anchoveta, the world’s largest fishery and the primary source of fishmeal and fish oil, was first modelled in 2014. Consequently, while the number of aquatic LCAs has steadily been increasing, the uniqueness of aquatic production chains and the diversity of species leave many inventories overlooked and some relevant impact categories unaddressed. In response, we initiated this Special Issue (SI), to supplement literature and highlight shortcomings. Thirteen articles were ultimately accepted in the SI

  • 7.
    Axelson, U.
    et al.
    The Rural Economy and Agricultural Society, Sweden ; Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Söderström, M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Risk assessment of high concentrations of molybdenum in forage2018In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, ISSN 0269-4042, E-ISSN 1573-2983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molybdenum is toxic to ruminants when present in high levels in forage, causing physiological copper deficiency. A critical level for ruminants is 3–10 mg Mo kg−1 dry matter. The average Mo level varies considerably between different arable soils, depending mainly on soil parent material. This study investigated the possibility of using various existing sources of geospatial information (geophysical, biogeochemical and soil chemical) to develop a geography-based risk assessment system. Forage samples (n = 173) were collected in 2006–2007. Three types of national geoscientific datasets were tested: (1) SEPA topsoil, comprising data from arable land within the Swedish environmental monitoring programme; (2) SGU biogeochemical, containing data from aquatic plant root material collected in small streams; and (3) SGU geophysical, consisting of data from airborne gamma-ray scanning. The digital postcode area map was used for geocoding, with Mo concentrations in forage assigned to arable parts of the corresponding postcode area. By combining this with the three national geoscientific databases, it was possible to construct a risk map using fuzzy classification depicting High-risk, Intermediate-risk, Low-risk and Very-low-risk areas. The map was validated using 42 randomly selected samples. All samples but one with Mo &gt; 3 mg kg−1 were found in postcode areas designated High risk. Thus, the risk map developed seems to be useful as a decision support system on where standard forage analyses need to be supplemented with Mo analyses.

  • 8.
    Barba, Francisco
    et al.
    University of Valencia, Spain.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    Universiry of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Landerslev, Martin G.
    Universiry of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Orlien, Vibeke
    Universiry of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Chapter 2. Innovative technologies2017In: Innovative Technologies for Food Preservation: Inactivation of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms / [ed] Francisco J. Barba; Mohamed Koubaa; Vibeke Orlien; Anderson Sant´Ana, Elsevier, 2017, p. 25-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Bergjord Olsen, A. K.
    et al.
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), Norway.
    Persson, T.
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), Norway.
    de Wit, A.
    Alterra - Wageningen UR, The Netherlands.
    Nkurunziza, L.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sindhøj, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Eckersten, H.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Estimating winter survival of winter wheat by simulations of plant frost tolerance2018In: Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, ISSN 0931-2250, E-ISSN 1439-037X, Vol. 204, no 1, p. 62-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on soil temperature, snow depth and the grown cultivar's maximum attainable level of frost tolerance (LT50c), the FROSTOL model simulates development of frost tolerance (LT50) and winter damage, thereby enabling risk calculations for winter wheat survival. To explore the accuracy of this model, four winter wheat cultivars were sown in a field experiment in Uppsala, Sweden in 2013 and 2014. The LT50 was determined by tests of frost tolerance in November, and the cultivars’ LT50c was estimated. Further, recorded winter survival from 20 winter wheat field variety trials in Sweden and Norway was collected from two winter seasons with substantial winter damages. FROSTOL simulations were run for selected cultivars at each location. According to percentage of winter damage, the cultivar survival was classified as “survived,” “intermediate” or “killed.” Mean correspondence between recorded and simulated class of winter survival was 75% and 37% for the locations in Sweden and Norway, respectively. Stress factors that were not accounted for in FROSTOL might explain the poorer accuracy at the Norwegian locations. The accuracy was poorest for cultivars with intermediate LT50c levels. When low temperature was the main cause of damage, as at the Swedish locations, the model accuracy was satisfying.

  • 10.
    Bergman, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Environmental impacts of alternative antifouling methods and use patterns of leisure boat owners2018In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Leisure boaters in the Baltic Sea apply more copper as antifoulant than needed and permitted. Initiatives have been started to identify efficient means making boat owners comply with regulations through changed consumer behavior. We compare the environmental impacts of conventional and alternative antifouling methods, using Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Methods: Two non-toxic methods were compared with biocide paint. To study the influence of boat owner use patterns, paint and brush washer scenarios (e.g., different paints, amounts, and maintenance) were created based on current use and recommendations. The functional unit was an average Swedish leisure boat kept fouling free for 1 year and impact categories studied were freshwater eco-toxicity and greenhouse gas emissions. Production of paints, fuel, electricity, and material used in the non-toxic methods was included. Sensitivity analysis was performed regarding the characterization method for toxicity, the fuel consumption data, and the copper release data. Results and discussion: The non-toxic methods, hull cover and brush washer, performed best, but a trade-off was identified when the brush washer was located further away from the home port, when additional transportation increased greenhouse gas emissions. The resources needed for the non-toxic methods (production of materials and electricity used) cause considerably lower toxic emissions than paint. In the paint scenarios, using less paint and cleaning the boat over a washing pad with water treatment reduces aquatic emissions significantly. Fuel-related emissions were consistently lower than paint-related emissions. In the best-performing paint scenario, fuel- and paint-related emissions represented 26 and 67% of total emissions, respectively. Conclusions: The non-toxic methods hull cover and brush washers lead to lower emissions, especially when brush washers were located close to the home port. Lacking such infrastructure, “painting less” is a way to reduce emissions, by using lower amounts of paint and painting less frequently. More widespread use of these antifouling strategies would considerably reduce copper emissions from leisure boating to the Baltic Sea. We suggest that support to marinas for investments in brush washers and washing pads should be further developed to enable boat owners to choose more sustainable antifouling methods and that information campaigns on the combined economic, health, and ecosystem impacts of antifouling are especially designed for boaters, marinas, market actors, and policy makers for a change to take place towards more sustainable practices.

  • 11.
    Bergstrand, Karl-Johan
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Löfkvist, Klara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Organisk gödsling i krukodlade kulturer2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns en ökande efterfrågan på ekologiska produkter. Producenter av ekologiskt producerade krukodlade produkter såsom kryddväxter, prydnadsväxter och grönsakplantor har stora odlingsutmaningar för att uppnå god kvalitet. Den stora utmaningen ligger i näringstillförseln och tidigare erfarenheter har varit blandade, ibland har produktkvalitén blivit dålig och man har misstänkt att obalanser i växtnäringstillförseln har varit orsak till detta. I ett pilotprojekt finansierat av Tillväxt Trädgård undersöktes kvävetillgängligheten från olika organiska gödselmedel i krukodlade kulturer.

  • 12.
    Bergstrand, Kjell
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Löfkvist, Klara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Asp, Håkan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Dynamics of nitrogen availability in pot grown crops with organic fertilization2018In: Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, ISSN 0144-8765, E-ISSN 2165-0616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pot grown herbs are often cultivated as certified organic products, and there is an increasing demand for organically certified ornamental plants. Supplying the required nutrients using organic fertilizers is a challenge with respect to matching the mineralization and thus the availability of dissolved nutrients in the growing medium with plant demand. In experiments, sweet basil and Pelargonium × hortorum were cultivated using two different organic fertilizer strategies and controlled-release mineral nutrients as control treatment. The two organic strategies were, i) blood meal + Baralith® Enslow (a plant-based organic fertilizer), and ii) poultry manure. The availability of dissolved nitrogen was monitored during the crop cycle by under-pressure lysimeter sampling. Plant development parameters were measured along with chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll concentration of leaves. For both organic treatments, nitrate-N availability was low at the beginning of the experiment, whereas ammonium-N was high. During the experiment, ammonium availability decreased at the same time as nitrate availability increased after a few weeks and then declined again by the end of the experiment. The blood meal + Enslow treatment caused poor germination and slow growth in basil. Plant height and fresh weight was also affected by this treatment for basil but not for Pelargonium. Chlorophyll concentration was affected by treatment, with also visually detectable paler leaves in the treatment with poultry manure. There were no differences in chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) between treatments, indicating that plants were not stressed in any of the treatments.

  • 13.
    Bienert, K.
    et al.
    DBFZ, Germany.
    Shakya, S.
    DBFZ, Germany.
    Fischer, E.
    DBFZ, Germany.
    Schumacher, B.
    DBFZ, Germany.
    Rojas, M.
    DBFZ, Germany.
    Rogstrand, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Zieliński, M.
    Universtiy of Warmia and Mazury, Poland.
    Dębowski, M.
    Universtiy of Warmia and Mazury, Poland.
    Technologies for biomethane production in small and medium scale applications – Assessment within the European project record biomap2018In: European Biomass Conf. Exhib. Proc., 2018, no 26thEUBCE, p. 586-591Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Horizon 2020 project “Research Coordination for a Low-Cost Biomethane Production at Small and Medium Scale Applications”, short Record Biomap aims to foster technology solutions for a cost efficient biomethane production at small to medium scale. This includes substrate pre-treatment, digestion systems and gas upgrading processes. The project collected technology descriptions of 46 technologies which are still in their development phase and presented them on the biomethane map (https://biomethane-map.eu). All technologies with a Technology Readiness Level between 3 and 7, which are in the focus of this project, were also evaluated through an impact assessment. The presentation gives an overview of the project´s results, concentrating on the first results of the assessment for innovative technology solutions along the biomethane supply chain and especially upgrading of biogas to biomethane. The assessment includes aspects such as energy efficiency, specific technical characteristics of the systems as well as economic parameters. Results are expected to characterise those new technologies and to highlight their special application areas. In addition, the paper presents a roadmap and an EU level biomethane structural analysis as the groundwork for a more detailed strategy for market implementation of innovative technologies for small- to medium scale upgrading of biogas to biomethane.

  • 14.
    Bjerketorp, Joakim
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Röling, Wilfred F. M.
    VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Feng, Xinmei
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Garcia, Armando Hernández
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Heipieper, Hermann J.
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research—UFZ, Germany.
    Håkansson, Sebastian
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Formulation and stabilization of an Arthrobacter strain with good storage stability and 4-chlorophenol-degradation activity for bioremediation2018In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, ISSN 0175-7598, E-ISSN 1432-0614, Vol. 102, no 4, p. 2031-2040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorophenols are widespread and of environmental concern due to their toxic and carcinogenic properties. Development of less costly and less technically challenging remediation methods are needed; therefore, we developed a formulation based on micronized vermiculite that, when air-dried, resulted in a granular product containing the 4-chlorophenol (4-CP)-degrading Gram-positive bacterium Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6. This formulation and stabilization method yielded survival rates of about 60% that remained stable in storage for at least 3 months at 4 °C. The 4-CP degradation by the formulated and desiccated A. chlorophenolicus A6 cells was compared to that of freshly grown cells in controlled-environment soil microcosms. The stabilized cells degraded 4-CP equally efficient as freshly grown cells in two different set-ups using both hygienized and non-treated soils. The desiccated microbial product was successfully employed in an outdoor pot trial showing its effectiveness under more realistic environmental conditions. No significant phytoremediation effects on 4-CP degradation were observed in the outdoor pot experiment. The 4-CP degradation kinetics from both the microcosms and the outdoor pot trial were used to generate a predictive model of 4-CP biodegradation potentially useful for larger-scale operations, enabling better bioremediation set-ups and saving of resources. This study also opens up the possibility of formulating and stabilizing also other Arthrobacter strains possessing different desirable pollutant-degrading capabilities.

  • 15.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nordén, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Innemiljö i nytt ljus: Metoder för objektiv bedömning av belysning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nuvarande belysningsstandarder baseras enbart på tekniska krav, såsom ljusstyrka, jämnhet och luminans. Att även inkludera upplevelsebaserade krav skulle troligen främja bättre ljuskomfort, men även mer energieffektiva ljusmiljöer och produkter. Kunskapen om hur upplevda belysningsparametrar kan beskrivas är dock begränsad. Detta hämmar fastighetsägare och brukare att precisera önskvärda ljusmiljöer, liksom belysningstillverkare att utveckla produkter för nya marknader och tillämpningar. Syftet med detta forskningsprojekt var att utveckla och tillämpa sensoriska metoder på belysning. Till skillnad från tidigare metoder möjliggör sensoriska metoder objektiva bedömningar av upplevda belysningsparametrar.

    En analytisk panel bestående av åtta personer som uppfyller särskilda urvalskriterier rekryterades och tränades att bedöma belysningsprodukter i ett multisensoriskt laboratorium på SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut i Borås. Metodutvecklingen fokuserade särskilt på en effektiv träningsprocedur, hantering av ögats adaption, samt bedömning av färg och skuggningar. Förutom laboratorie-försök undersöktes möjligheten att genomföra analytiska bedömningar i en verklig kontext med samma försöksuppställning och panel.

    Resultaten visar att det är möjligt att använda sensorisk metodik för att genomföra objektiva belysningsbedömningar av armaturer; paneldeltagarna kunde skilja mellan attribut och prover. Signifikanta skillnader identifierades mellan de olika armaturerna, både i form av sensoriska och fysikaliska egenskaper såsom läsbarhet och bländning. Fysikaliska och sensoriska parametrar samvarierar dock inte alltid, vilket visar att fysikaliska och sensoriska mätningar ger kompletterande information om belysningskvalitet. Vidare visade bedömningsförsök i en verklig kontext att samma resultat uppnåddes som i laboratoriet, men med lägre signifikans, vilket verifierar metodens tillämpbarhet på belysning.

    Den genererade kunskapen väntas på sikt bidra till utveckling av verktyg som stödjer kommunikationen mellan olika professioner inom ljusdesign och planering och på så vis främja mer önskvärda och energieffektiva ljusmiljöer.

  • 16.
    Borch, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Green Cleaning - Utveckling av testbädden Cleaning Innovation2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En ökad användning av miljösmart teknik och förfarande vid rengöring och desinfektion i livsmedelsindustrin förväntas leda till mindre miljöpåverkan genom mindre vatten-, energi-, kemikalie- och materialförbrukning och mindre matsvinn. Detta gynnar också tillväxten hos miljöteknikföretag som bidrar med gröna lösningar. Testbädden Cleaning Innovation (www.cleaninginnovation.se) medverkar till utveckling av miljösmarta och effektiva metoder för rengöring och desinfektion i många branscher. Huvudintressenter är leverantörer/utvecklare av kemikalier, utrustning eller material; hygienföretag; livsmedelsföretag; offentliga aktörer. Cleaning Innovation, som ägs av RISE, är en öppen, oberoende testbädd och erbjuder utvärdering av teknik, kemikalier, material, utrustning och metoder. Testbädden bygger på samverkan mellan olika typer av verksamheter inom RISE (Research Institutes of Sweden) inriktade mot mikrobiologi, miljö, processteknik, certifiering, mätteknik, kemi, material, energiteknik samt med hygienteknikföretaget Lagafors AB. Inom Cleaning Innovation finns marknadskunskap, tvärvetenskaplig kompetens, analys-, beräknings- och mätutrustning, laboratorier samt testutrustningar i pilotskala. I projektet utvecklades befintlig verksamhet avseende testlokal, utrustning och produkterbjudande. Ett viktigt resultat från projektet är att vi har genomfört mer än 10 projekt där utvärdering av renhet och desinfektion görs med kunder. Eftersom detta är betydligt mer än planerat har egen finansiering blev betydligt högre än budgeterad. Detta visar på ett bra utbud och en tydlig marknad. Vi har också breddat vår målgrupp och inkluderar nu alla branscher med behov av rengöring och desinfektion; i motsats till bara livsmedelsindustrin som beskrivit i projektansökan.

    Testbädden Cleaning Innovation lanserades 29 november 2016. Cleaning Innovations utveckling i framtiden ser ljus ut och har en stark och naturlig förankring inom RISE. Framtidsplanerna involverar ett succesivt bräddande till kunder inom fler industrityper och en långsam expansion av verksamheten.

  • 17.
    Bradley, Siobhan J.
    et al.
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
    Kroon, Renee
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Laufersky, Geoffry
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
    Röding, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Goreham, Renee V.
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
    Gschneidtner, Tina
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Schroeder, Kathryn
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mats
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden ; University of South Australia, Australia.
    Nann, Thomas
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
    Heterogeneity in the fluorescence of graphene and graphene oxide quantum dots2017In: Microchimica Acta, ISSN 0026-3672, E-ISSN 1436-5073, Vol. 184, no 3, p. 871-878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterogeneity is an inherent property of a wealth of real-world nanomaterials and yet rarely in the reporting of new properties is its effect sufficiently addressed. Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) – fluorescent, nanoscale fragments of graphene - are an extreme example of a heterogeneous nanomaterial. Here, top-down approaches – by far the most predominant – produce batches of particles with a distribution of sizes, shapes, extent of oxidation, chemical impurities and more. This makes characterization of these materials using bulk techniques particularly complex and comparisons of properties across different synthetic methods uninformative. In particular, it hinders the understanding of the structural origin of their fluorescence properties. We present a simple synthetic method, which produces graphene quantum dots with very low oxygen content that can be suspended in organic solvents, suggesting a very pristine material. We use this material to illustrate the limitations of interpreting complex data sets generated by heterogeneous materials and we highlight how misleading this “pristine” interpretation is by comparison with graphene oxide quantum dots synthesized using an established protocol. In addition, we report on the solvatochromic properties of these particles, discuss common characterization techniques and their limitations in attributing properties to heterogeneous materials.

  • 18.
    Canali, Massimo
    et al.
    Università di Bologna, Italy.
    Amani, Pegah
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Aramyan, Lusine
    LEI, The Netherlands.
    Gheoldus, Manuela
    Deloitte Développement Durable, France.
    Moates, Graham
    Institute of Food Research, Colney, Norwich, UK.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Silvennoinen, Kirsi
    Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Finland.
    Waldron, Keith
    Institute of Food Research, UK.
    Vittuari, Matteo
    Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Food Waste Drivers in Europe, from Identification to Possible Interventions2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, article id 37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing volumes of food globally lost or wasted and implications for food security and sustainability have raised the concern of researchers, governments, international organizations and grass-root movements. Much research and experiences investigating food waste causes and drivers focus on one specific segment of the food supply chain and limit the analysis to the situation of one or few countries, while the few studies of wider geographical scope also target other relevant and diversified objectives (e.g., food waste definition, quantification, environmental and economic impacts, and recommendations for interventions). This study, carried out by a network of European institutions involved in research and initiatives against food waste, focuses on the analysis of a broad area, Europe, through a wide and systematic literature review and consultation with stakeholders in international focus groups. The food supply chain was divided into seven segments and three main contexts were defined for the examination of food waste sources: Technological, Institutional (related to organisational factors, i.e., business management, economy, legislation, and policy), and Social (related to consumers’ behaviours and lifestyles). Results suggest a wide and multifaceted problem, interconnected across all stages of the food supply chain, from primary production, to final consumption. Within each context, the identified drivers have been grouped according to the possibilities and the type of interventions for food waste reduction. A final cross-contextual prioritization distinguished food waste sources related to (A) inherent characteristics of food; (B) social and economic factors; (C) individual non-readily changeable behaviours; (D) other priorities targeted by private and public stakeholders; (E) diversified factors, such as mismanagement, inefficient legislation, lack of awareness or information; and sub-optimal use of available technologies, which could be more promptly changed. Such diversification of causes calls for specific monitoring systems, targeted policy measures, and actions of individual stakeholders at each stage of the food supply chain.

  • 19.
    Casimir, Justin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Östlund, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Holtz, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Hondo, Haris
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Moore, Susanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Småskalighet som ett medel för att bana väg för framtidens livsmedel?2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The food value chain system in Sweden is well established making it hard for small companies to develop new products and even harder to create new food supply systems Obstacles could lay at the beginning of the chain (food production or processing), at the end (marketing, consumer) or could even be related to the legislative regulation framing the food supply chain. Smaller actors often lack resources and networks to develop their sector. However, their degree of creativity, innovativeness, and engagement is high, and their energy is needed in the development of new sustainable food value chains.

    The aim of this project was to develop and apply a methodology for evaluating food value chains, focusing on profitable small-scale production systems in Sweden that show potential for fast development of new products that quickly reach the market. The work also included identifying Swedish raw food materials with growth potential and to identify how they could come into greater demand. Ten food value chains with high development potential in Sweden and for export were mapped and the main bottlenecks briefly described. Three food chains where selected based on a potential-difficulty-benefit matrix. The three selected food value chains were: (i) Hops, (ii) Swedish forest berries, and (iii) Land-based fish farming. These three food value chains where further studied looking at the whole value chain, from production to end consumer. Through literature review and contacts with relevant stakeholders (telephone interview, face-to-face interview, or workshop) the bottlenecks were clarified and potential solutions for increased demand where identified.

    Swedish hops production is carried out by passionate and engaged smaller actors, mostly on a hobby level, and the hops is used as an ingredient for beer. Germany and the USA produce about 75% of the worldwide production These hops varieties are not adapted to the Swedish climate and therefore result in a low volume and poor quality. However, domestic varieties have been grown in the past giving better yield under Swedish climate conditions. More work is needed to characterize the quality of Swedish hops. At the present time, knowledge about the characteristics of Swedish hops is low, explaining the lack of interest from brewers. In Sweden most hops are harvested by hand, making it nearly impossible to be profitable on the market. The mechanization of the harvesting step is necessary to move Swedish hops from a hobby to a commercial activity. No solutions are available on the Swedish market, RISE together with SLU is looking to develop a hops harvester fulfilling Swedish and EU regulations and adapted to small scale cultivation. At the end of the value chain, innovative products could increase the need for Swedish hops, for example by developing beers brewed with fresh hops. Moreover, hops have antiseptic characteristics and could potentially be used in other food products than beer.

    Only about four percent of the berries that are produced by the Swedish forests every year are picked. The largest volumes picked are for bilberry (Swedish: blåbär), lingonberry, and cloudberry and most of them are washed and frozen in Sweden. Processing of berries, however, has to a large extent moved out of the country while the products produced for the Swedish market are quite traditional, low-processed foods such as jams, juices and dessert soups. The majority of the Swedish berries mainly bilberries due to their nutritional content are exported and are further processed into value added powders or extracts in Asia and Europe. In Sweden this kind of value chain is under developed largely due to knowledge barriers and to the currently very traditional market. However, there is a great consumer interest in berries and they have a perceived healthiness also in Sweden. Consumers are also increasingly aware of the origin of berries used as ingredients in products such as jams, purees and juice, as well as in health food products. To fill this gap between consumer interest/demand and raw materials available new businesses can be developed. To facilitate such development there is a need for knowledge generation and transfer along the whole value chain (picking, processing, product development and consumer studies), which can be generated by starting up new innovation and research projects. It is also of importance to facilitate networking, for example in the ‘berry network’ (coordinated by RISE), as the creation of a new value chain will require different businesses to cooperate. Also, product development projects will need support for testing, pilot production, and possibly in finding investment funding for new equipment.

    Land-based fish farming is small in comparison to traditional fish farming in Sweden, but several actors see a great potential in this system which has a lower impact on the environment compared to conventional fish farms. For instance, the Swedish farmer federation (LRF) has invested in a land-based fish farm recently. As in other EU-countries, the number of active farms in Sweden is decreasing and some see the potential to recycle unused animal stables into fish farms. A major bottleneck for land-based fish farming is current legislation as it is based on conventional fish farming and therefore does not consider the environmental benefits of land-based systems. Knowledge should be spread to relevant authorities and policy makers to open a dialog and facilitate the development of a relevant regulatory framework. Regarding the production phase, access to sustainably produced feed and technical competence are lacking. Moreover, as the technology is costly learning through trial and error would not be recommended. A testbed dedicated to land-based fish farming could support companies who wish to try modifications to their system. Furthermore, smaller producers have difficulties in finding processing solutions for their products; e.g. slaughterhouses and conditioning. Two potential solutions would be to develop a land-based fish farm cooperative and/or mobile systems that could take care of smaller productions. Finally, the competition on the market is tough as land-based fishes are competing with large-scale conventional fish farms from Norway and Asia. To overcome this bottleneck, the sector could develop its own certification as well as increasing the consumers awareness and knowledge.

    Some conclusions could be applied to all the studied food chains. For instance, each value chain can be seen as a puzzle with many pieces. In order to develop new food value chains many separate pieces need to fall into place. Therefore, it is necessary to increase collaboration between stakeholders but also to have a stakeholder driven coordination of this collaboration. The stakeholders within the developing value chains often do not have all the resources to carry out this task, especially if they are small businesses. The development of cooperatives also seems to be a solution to overcome bottlenecks in the studied food chains. Likewise, logistics in the developing value chains have a great margin for improvement. Furthermore, this project focused on value chains where food commodities are the end product but investigating the potential for non-food uses would also be of interest.

    The method used in this project can be replicated to other value chains with potential of development. It would help the users to get a holistic view of the current bottlenecks and facilitate contact between stakeholders. The list of bottlenecks can be followed up and used as an indicator to evaluate if the value chain in moving forward.

  • 20.
    Chen, Si-Qian
    et al.
    Dongguan University of Technology, China.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Wang, Dongjie
    Tianjin University of Science and Technology, China.
    Mikkelsen, Deidre
    The University of Queensland, Australia.
    Gidley, Michael J
    The University of Queensland, Australia.
    Mechanical properties of bacterial cellulose synthesised by diverse strains of the genus Komagataeibacter2018In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 81, p. 87-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) has several current and potential future uses in the food industry because of its ability to form hydrogels with distinctive properties. The texture of BC hydrogels is determined by both the cellulose fibre network and the internal dispersed water. In this study, mechanical properties of hydrated BC synthesised by six different strains of Komagataeibacter genus were investigated with regards to their extensibility, compressive strength, relaxation ability, viscoelasticity and poroelasticity. The stress/strain at failure and Young's modulus were assessed by uniaxial tensile testing. The compressive strength, relaxation ability and viscoelasticity were measured via a series of compression and small amplitude oscillatory shear steps. A poroelastic constitutive modelling simulation was used to investigate the mechanical effects of water movement. The morphology of the BC fibril network under compression was observed via scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the mechanics of BC were highly dependent on the cellulose concentration, as well as the morphology of the fibril network. BC synthesised by ATCC 53524 was the most concentrated (0.71 wt%), and exhibited high tensile properties, stiffness and storage moduli; whereas comparatively low mechanical properties were noted for BC produced by ATCC 700178 and ATCC 10245, which contained the lowest cellulose concentration (0.18 wt%). Small deformation responses (normal stress, G') scaled with cellulose concentration for all samples, whereas larger deformation responses (Young's modulus, poroelasticity) depended on both cellulose concentration and additional factors, presumably related to network morphology. Increasing concentration and compressive coalescence of fibres in the integrated BC network reduced both the relaxation of the normal stress and the movement of water. This research aids the selection of bacterial strains to modulate the texture and mechanical properties of hydrated BC-based food systems. 

  • 21.
    Dalvi-Isfahan, Mohsen
    et al.
    Isfahan University of Technology, Iran.
    Hamdami, Nasser
    Isfahan University of Technology, Iran.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Le-Bail, Alain
    UMR GEPEA, France.
    Review on the control of ice nucleation by ultrasound waves, electric and magnetic fields2017In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 195, p. 222-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Freezing is the most popular and widely used food preservation method of the modern times. The freezing process of food matrices is related to their high water content and its metamorphoses into ice on cooling. The final quality of the frozen product is highly depended on the ice crystal morphology because it can cause irreversible damage on the microstructure of the food matrix. Supercooling and ice nucleation temperature need to be controlled both in suppressing and inducing the solidification to improve technological processes such as freeze drying, freeze concentration, cryopreservation, ice formation and cold-energy storage both in food industry and domestic preservation. However, the mechanism of freezing is not yet well known and it is affected by several factors. Several emerging technologies have been recently proposed for ice nucleation control during freezing. This review article is focused on the alternative freezing methods such as ultrasound waves, magnetic, electric, and electromagnetic field assisted freezing. In addition, the properties, mechanism of action and possible applications of electrofreezing are extensively discussed.

  • 22.
    Davis, Jennifer
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    De Menna, Fabio
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Unger, Nicole
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Austria.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Loubiere, Marion
    Deloitte Sustainability, US.
    Vittuari, Matteo
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Generic strategy LCA and LCC: Guidance for LCA and LCC focused on prevention, valorisation and treatment of side flows from the food supply chain2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Urged by the importance of resource efficiency and circular economy agenda of EU and national policy makers, many stakeholders are seeking alternatives for current surplus food or side flows within the food supply chain. Any new valorisation route for side flows (i.e. not the main product) will be associated with impacts (monetary and environmental). To allow informed decision making at all levels, from individual stakeholder to policy level, robust, consistent and science based approaches are required. The EU H2020 funded project REFRESH (Resource Efficient Food and dRink for the Entire Supply cHain) aims to contribute to food waste reduction throughout the food supply chain, and evaluate the environmental impacts and life cycle costs.

    Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) are well documented and generic approaches for assessing the environmental and cost dimensions of a system. Both LCA and LCC are characterised by allowing for a large flexibility in system scoping. To allow for comparison between different options consistent approaches are required. Furthermore, there is a need to bridge the gap between assessors who might have a deep knowledge of the systems they are assessing, but are not in depth method experts on LCA or LCC. Highlighting challenging methodological aspects and encouraging the practitioner to ask the most relevant questions contributes to a better scoping practice of LCA and LCCs.

    The objective of this study was to develop a consistent approach, combining LCA and LCA specifically to assess impacts of prevention of resource inefficiencies, valorisation routes and waste handling in the food supply chain. The recommendations build on existing standards and state-of-the-art LCA/LCC research, and provide guidance on how to overcome specific methodological challenges. They focus particularly on the goal and scope stage of an LCA and Environmental LCC and on side flows from the food supply chain.

    To categorise systems in order to be assessed, the concept of “REFRESH situations” (RS) has been developed (De Mena et al., 2016; Unger et al., 2016). The four REFRESH situations (RS) are: Prevention of side flow (RS 1), side flow valorisation (RS 2), valorisation as part of waste management (RS 3), and end-of-life treatment (RS 4). The REFRESH situations can take place at any point/process in the life cycle, within the remit of any stakeholder (including consumers) and are independent of the perspective taken, i.e. of the producer of side stream or the receiver. For each REFRESH situation, specific recommendations on setting of system boundary, functional unit(s) and handling of multi-functionality in relation to the stated problem are provided (beside some other aspects). The importance to differentiate between attributional and consequential approaches is discussed in detail. This consistent approach contributes towards more harmonised use of LCA and LCC for informed decision for handling side flows in the food supply chain.

    The focus of the specific recommendations given in this report is primarily on change-oriented studies on interventions for side flows since foot print studies are to a higher degree covered in existing frameworks such as the ILCD-handbook and the PEF framework under development.

  • 23.
    de Hooge, Ilona E.
    et al.
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Oostindjer, Marije
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Muller Loose, Simone
    Chair of Food Engineering, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany ; University of South Australia, Australia.
    Lengard Almli, Valerie
    Nofima, Norway.
    This apple is too ugly for me!: Consumer preferences for suboptimal food products in the supermarket and at home2017In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 56, p. 80-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste has received increasing scientific and societal attention during the last decade. One important cause of food waste is thought to be the un-willingness of supply chains and consumers to sell, purchase, and consume suboptimal or imperfect foods. Yet, empirical research on this issue is scarce and contradictory. The current research investigates under which conditions consumers purchase or consume foods that deviate from regular products in terms of appearance standards, date labelling, or damaged packaging, without deviation on the intrinsic quality or safety. An online choice experiment among 4214 consumers from five Northern European countries reveals that consumer preferences for suboptimal products differ depending on whether the consumer is in a supermarket or at home, and depending on the type of sub-optimality. Moreover, consumer choices, discount preferences, and waste behaviors of suboptimal products are influenced by demographics (nationality, age), by personality characteristics (value orientation, commitment to environmental sustainability, and perceived consumer effectiveness in saving the environment), and by individual-waste aspects (perceived food waste of the household, perceived importance of food waste, engaging in shopping/cooking). These findings provide important insights into consumer preferences for suboptimal products, and useful suggestions for supply-chain regulations on suboptimal products.

  • 24.
    de Kort, Daan W
    et al.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands; TI-COAST, Netherlands.
    Schuster, Erich
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Hoeben, Freek J M
    TI-COAST, Netherlands; SyMO-Chem B.V, Netherlands.
    Barnes, Ryan
    University of California, US.
    Emondts, Meike
    University of California, US.
    Janssen, Henk M
    TI-COAST, Netherlands; SyMO-Chem B.V, Netherlands.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Han, Songi
    University of California, US.
    Van As, Henk
    Wageningen University, Netherlands; TI-COAST, Netherlands.
    van Duynhoven, John P M
    Wageningen University, Netherlands; TI-COAST, Netherlands ; Unilever R&D, Netherlands.
    Heterogeneity of Network Structures and Water Dynamics in κ-Carrageenan Gels Probed by Nanoparticle Diffusometry.2018In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 34, no 37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of functionalized nanoparticles (PEGylated dendrimers, d = 2.8-11 nm) was used to probe the structural heterogeneity in Na+/K+ induced κ-carrageenan gels. The self-diffusion behavior of these nanoparticles as observed by 1H pulsed-field gradient NMR, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, and raster image correlation spectroscopy revealed a fast and a slow component, pointing toward microstructural heterogeneity in the gel network. The self-diffusion behavior of the faster nanoparticles could be modeled with obstruction by a coarse network (average mesh size <100 nm), while the slower-diffusing nanoparticles are trapped in a dense network (lower mesh size limit of 4.6 nm). Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization-enhanced NMR relaxometry revealed a reduced local solvent water diffusivity near 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-labeled nanoparticles trapped in the dense network, showing that heterogeneity in the physical network is also reflected in heterogeneous self-diffusivity of water. The observed heterogeneity in mesh sizes and in water self-diffusivity is of interest for understanding and modeling of transport through and release of solutes from heterogeneous biopolymer gels.

  • 25.
    Eckersten, Henrik
    et al.
    SLU Swedish Univeristy of Agriculture, Sweden.
    Bolinder, Martin
    SLU Swedish Univeristy of Agriculture, Sweden.
    Johnsson, Holger
    SLU Swedish Univeristy of Agriculture, Sweden.
    Kätterer, Thomas
    SLU Swedish Univeristy of Agriculture, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Kristina
    SLU Swedish Univeristy of Agriculture, Sweden.
    Collentine, Dennis
    SLU Swedish Univeristy of Agriculture, Sweden : University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Tidåker, Pernilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Marstorp, Håkan
    SLU Swedish Univeristy of Agriculture, Sweden.
    Nitrogen leaching and soil organic carbon sequestration of a Barley crop with improved N use efficiency – A regional case study2017In: Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica - Section B, ISSN 0906-4710, E-ISSN 1651-1913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of modified spring barley crops with improved nitrogen (N) use efficiency to reduce nitrogen (N) leaching and to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) storage was assessed at the regional scale. This was done using simulation model applications designed for reporting according to the Helcom (Helsinki Commission) and Kyoto protocols. Using model simulations based on modified crops N dynamics and SOC were assessed for three agro-ecological regions (latitudes ranging 55°20′–60°40′ N) in Sweden over a 20-year period. The modified N use properties of spring barley were implemented in the SOILNDB model (simulating soil C, N, water and heat, and plant N dynamics) by changing the parameters for root N uptake efficiency and plant N demand within a range given by previous model applications to different crops. A doubling of the daily N uptake efficiency and increased N demand (by ca 30%) reduced N leaching by 24%–31%, increased plant N content by 9%–12%, depending on region. The effects of the modified crop on SOC was simulated with the ICBM model, resulting in an increased SOC content (0–25 cm depth) by 57–79 kg C ha−1 y−1. The results suggest that a modified crop might reduce N leaching from spring barley area, in a range similar to the targets of relevant environmental protection directives, a result which held more in the northern than southern regions. The simulated SOC increase on a hectare basis was highest for the central region and least for the most northern region. For the total agricultural area the share of spring barley area was small and more crops would need to be modified to reach the emission reduction targets.

  • 26.
    Edström, Mats
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ljung, Emelie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Halldorf, Stefan
    Persson, Sven
    Welander, Ulrika
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    Rötning av fjäderfägödsel med gödselförädling i tillämpad skala2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Digestion of poultry manure with digestate processing in pilot scale tests

    Twenty farmers in the municipality of Mönsterås in southern Sweden are jointly planning to build a large biogas plant. The plant will digest a very high proportion of poultry manure, resulting in significantly greater biogas yield than normally expected, and higher nitrogen contents in the digestate. A major obstacle to realising the biogas plant is controlling digestion operation under high nitrogen levels resulting from the considerable amounts of poultry manure substrate. Poultry manure also contains both heavy and light particles that can cause challenges with poor stability in the digestion process, formation of sediments and crust in digester tanks. The high nitrogen contents together with high phosphorus and solids concentrations will also create difficulties for digestate management and use as fertiliser. 

    Today solid poultry manure is mainly used as a phosphorus fertiliser, not only due to high concentration of phosphorus but also due to relatively poor utilisation of the nitrogen by crops. However, due to the high concentration of phosphorus, the application rate needed to meet plant needs is lower than modern solid manure spreaders can evenly apply. Over application and inefficient use of nitrogen increases risk of nutrient losses to waters and the environment.

    To study these issues for biogas production, Vinnova (Sweden's innovation agency) has supported this research project in applied digestion and digestate processing.

    The project contained the following components: i) 6 months digestion tests with prospective substrates in a pilot-plant with 5 m3 active digesting volume, provided with mixers and pumps commonly used in full-scale plants, ii) laboratory tests to determine biogas potential for feedstocks, and to determine the potential for increased gas production by post-digestion, iii) applied trials of separating and concentrating the digestate with centrifuge followed by industrial evaporation of the liquid phase, iv) analysis of the nutrient value and the function of the concentrated fertilizer in organic farming.

    The biological and technical operational performance in the pilot test was evaluated in a complete stirred tank reactor at mesophilic temperature during co-digestion of poultry manure, liquid manure and glycerol. The poultry manure contributed with approx. 70% of dry matter in the substrate mixture and 80% of the nitrogen and phosphorus. The digestion process was stable with NH4-N levels close to 6 g/l. To control hydrogen sulphide in the biogas to approx. 100 ppm, ferric chloride was added to the digester. Volumetric methane production reached 1,1 m3 CH4/ m3 digester and day. Significant formation of sediment occurred in both digester and in pipes, however, no crust formation was observed in the digester. The outflow of ammonia from the digester by the digestate was 3.7 times higher than the ammonia inflow by the substrate mixture. Thirteen tonnes of digestate was produced during the pilot test. The digestate was separated with a decanter centrifuge generating a solid fraction corresponding to 23% of digestate weight and approx. 70% of the phosphorus in the digestate. Sulfuric acid was added to the liquid fraction generated by the centrifuge before evaporation to stabilize the ammonium nitrogen. Industrial evaporation of the liquid fraction produced a concentrate corresponding to 23% of digestate weight and containing approx. 70% of the ammonium nitrogen in the digestate.

    The pilot test generated four different fertilisers, (digestate, solid fraction, liquid fraction and concentrate) each with very different physical and chemical properties. Digestate processing increased the N/P ration of the liquid fraction and concentrate allowing more balanced N and P supply to crop demand, reducing the risk of nutrient losses to waters but also increasing the resource use efficiency of the plant nutrients. Processing was also successful at concentrating the two of the fertilisers, enabling cost effective long-distance transport for use in areas with low animal density and a need for the soil amendment properties of from manure.

    These project results have contributed to plans for a full-scale plant by developing the basis of design and the credibility for implementation, resulting in an investment grant and the formation of a new economically stronger company.  Based on the results from the project, the estimated production of biogas in a full-scale plant is 70 GWh /year for renewable automotive fuels. Post-digestion of the digestate with 10 days retention time can increase biogas production with an extra 3 GWh/year (4%). The solid and liquid products can fertilise 12 000 ha/year of organic cultivation with nitrogen and up to 20 000 up to ha/year with phosphorus.

  • 27.
    Ekman Nilsson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Macias Aragones, Marta
    Fundación Corporación Tecnológica de Andalucía, Spain ; Universidad de Sevilla, Spain.
    Arroyo Torralvo, Fatima
    Universidad de Sevilla, Spain.
    Dunon, Vincent
    ARCHE Consulting, Belgium.
    Angel, Hanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Komnitsas, Konstantinos
    Technical University Crete, Greece.
    Willquist, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    A review of carbon footprint of Cu and Zn production from primary and secondary sources2017In: Minerals, ISSN 2075-163X, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 7, no 9, p. 168-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) with their unique propertiesare central for economic growth, quality of life and creation of new jobs. The base-metalproducing sector is, however, under growing public pressure in respect toenergy and water requirements and needs to meet several challenges, includingincreased demand and lower ore grades generally associated with larger resourceuse. The development of technologies for metal production from secondarysources is often motivated by increased sustainability and this paper aims to providefurther insights about one specific aspect of sustainability, namely climatechange. The paper presents a review of carbon footprints (CF) for Cu and Znproduced from primary and secondary raw materials, by analyzing data taken fromscientific literature and the Ecoinvent database. Comparisons are carried outbased on the source of data selected as reference case. In the case of Cu,reduced CF of secondary production is indicated, although there is large datavariation. As for Zn, production of this metal from secondary sources seems to bebeneficial but the number of data and cases to be compared is much smallercompared to Cu. The general variation of data suggests that standardization ofcomparison is needed when assessing the environmental benefits of production inline with the principles of waste valorization, zero waste approach andcircular economy.

  • 28.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Labrosse, Lydie
    Agrosup Dijon Engineering School, France.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Effect of drying technique and particle size of bilberry press cake on the extraction efficiency of anthocyanins by pressurized carbon dioxide extraction2017In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve the extraction efficiency of anthocyanins from bilberry press cake using pressurized carbon dioxide, the combined effect of drying technique and bilberry press cake particle size was assessed. Pressurized carbon dioxide using ethanol as co-solvent was compared with a simple and efficient solvent extraction using methanol. The press cake with large (>710 mm) size particles had a higher anthocyanins content (84 g/kg dry matter to 87 g/kg dry matter) than did the small (<710 mm) size particles (60 g/kg dry matter to 65 g/kg dry matter). Although, the large size particles contained more anthocyanins, more efficient anthocyanins extraction using pressurized carbon dioxide extraction was obtained with the small than the large size particles. The press cake dried by freeze-drying generated a powder with smaller particles and lower bulk density than either the microwave-assisted hot-air-dried or hot-airdried powders. In comparison to methanol extraction, the most efficient anthocyanins extraction was obtained from the freeze-dried small size particles. This work showed that there is a potential to improve the extraction efficiency of anthocyanins extracted by pressurized carbon dioxide by selecting appropriate drying technology and particle size distribution of the press cake.

  • 29.
    Engström, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Lagnelöv, Oscar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Batteridriven autonom jordbruksmaskin: Simulering av maskinaktiviteter på en svensk gård2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the project "Concept study battery-powered autonomous agricultural machine", an electric autonomous agricultural machine has been compared with a conventional diesel tractor by simulating all machine activities in a field on an organic dairy farm of 200 hectares during one year. Combine Harvesting was not included. The results show that it is possible to replace a conventional tractor (160 kW) with two autonomous battery-powered machines (36 kW motor, 113 kWh battery) with 15% lower costs. Even better, energy consumption was reduced by 58% and greenhouse gas emissions by 92% compared to diesel when energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from battery manufacturing were included. Furthermore local emissions were avoided and the sound pollution greatly reduced.  The major efficiency increase can be explained by the higher efficiency of electric power drivelines, and that the Swedish and Nordic electricity mix has very low greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact. We also see that the weight of the conventional diesel tractor is more than four times the weight of the autonomous battery-powered, and that's only the tractor without any implements or payload. In the sensitivity calculations, changes in the cost of implements or driver / operator costs have the greatest impact on the total price. It is also important not to have a charger with low power, while the battery price does not have such big impact on the total cost. Continued research is needed to verify the theoretical simulation by building a test platform where knowledge can be gathered about the problems and opportunities in practical work - both in the field of battery-electric operation and autonomous driving.

  • 30.
    Fachmann, M S R
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Löfström, Charlotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Hoorfar, J
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Hansen, F
    Danish Technological Institute, DMRI.
    Christensen, J
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mansdal, S
    Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Josefsen, M H
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Detection of Salmonella in meat in less than 5 hours by a low-cost and non-complex sample preparation method.2017In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 83, no 5, article id e03151-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Salmonella is recognised as one of the most important foodborne bacteria, and has a wide health and socioeconomical impact worldwide. Fresh pork meat is one of the main sources of Salmonella and efficient and fast methods for detection are therefore necessary. Current methods for Salmonella detection in fresh meat usually include >16 h of culture enrichment, in few cases < 12 h, thus requiring at least two working shifts. Here, we report a rapid (< 5 h) and high throughput method, for screening of Salmonella in samples from fresh pork meat, consisting of a 3-h enrichment in standard buffered peptone water, and a real-time PCR compatible sample preparation method, based on filtration, centrifugation, and enzymatic digestion, followed by fast cycling real-time PCR detection. The method was validated in an un-paired, comparative study against the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL) reference culture method 187. Pork meat samples (n=140) were either artificially contaminated with Salmonella at levels: 0, 1-10 and 10-100 CFU/25 g, or naturally contaminated. Cohen's Kappa for degree of agreement between the rapid method and the reference was 0.64 and the relative accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for the rapid method were 81.4, 95.1 and 97.9 %, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD50) was 8.8 CFU/25 g for the rapid method and 7.7 CFU/25 g for the reference method. Implementation of this method will enable faster release of Salmonella low risk meat, providing savings for meat producers, and help contribute to improved food safety.

    IMPORTANCE: While the cost of analysis and hands-on time of the presented rapid method were comparable to reference culture methods, the fast product release by this method can provide the meat industry with a competitive advantage. Not only will the abattoirs save costs for work hours and cold storage; consumers as well as retailers will also benefit from fresher meat with a longer shelf life. Furthermore, the presented sample preparation might be adjusted for application in detection of other pathogenic bacteria in different sample types.

  • 31.
    Florén, Brita
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Amani, Pegha
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Climate database facilitating climate smart meal planning for the public sector in Sweden2017In: International Journal on Food System Dynamics, ISSN 1869-6945, E-ISSN 1869-6945, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 72-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food consumption corresponds to around 25 % of the total consumption-driven climate change impact in Sweden. Dietary change has a considerable potential to reduce this negative impact. To motivate dietary changes adequate information about food climate impact has to be communicated at the decision making point. This study aims at facilitating availability and communication of such information specifically for meal planners at the public sector. Thereby a database is developed and incorporated into the Diet and Nutrition planning software systems used in planning meals in public kitchens. The results provide the meal planners with the opportunity to design climate-conscious and healthy meals by choosing resource-efficient and nutritious ingredients. This provides the potential of reducing the climate impact of an average meal by about 20%. Given the total amount of ca. 3 million public meals served each day in Sweden, use of this integrated tool has the potential to reduce the climate impact by more than 700 tonnes of CO2-eq per day

  • 32.
    Folkeson, Björn
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Fernqvist, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Vattenanvändning med energieffektiva blandare2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the short and long term impacts of domestic hot and cold water use and associated energy use when replacing conventional faucets in 100 apartments with energy efficient faucets labeled with energy class A-B according to the Swedish energy labeling system. The study included a behavioural study to increase the understanding of the users’ perception of the faucets and to investigate the underlying reasons for acceptance of the installed products.

     

    The results showed a reduction in domestic hot water use and energy use for domestic hot water of 28 %. No reduction of cold water use could be identified although changes in occupancy of the apartments might have contributed to this result. The savings in hot water use did not diminish over the measurement period.

     

    The acceptance of the energy efficient faucets did not increase over time, which was likely due to the lack of feedback on the assumption that the faucets provided the indicated savings. It was also indicated that the perception of the faucets differed between contexts in the home. The acceptance was also found to be linked to factors that could not be isolated from the faucet and its function.

  • 33.
    Fors, Kikki
    et al.
    Hushållningssällskapet i Uppsala, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Bannbers, Hanna
    Hushållningssällskapet i Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Strand, Line
    Hushållningssällskapet i Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Arbetsmiljö och säkerhet vid surgörning av flytgödsel: Rapport från WP2, Aktivitet 52018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stallgödsel från animalieproduktion är en källa för kvävetillförseln till Östersjön i form av utsläpp till vatten och atmosfäriskt nedfall. Ammoniakavgång kommer från gödseln vid hantering i stallar, vid lagring och spridning. Jordbruket står för största delen av ammoniakutsläppen och åtgärder för att minska ammoniak-avgången från jordbruket har därför stor effekt på de totala utsläppsmängderna. Att minska kväveläckaget från jordbruket är en viktig del i att minska övergöd-ningen av Östersjön. Minskade kväveförluster från stallgödseln ger även ökad växtnäring till de odlade grödorna och en effektivare recirkulation av kvävet. Ökat växtnäringsvärde hos stallgödseln leder till bättre utvecklade grödor, som förmår att ta upp mer av miljöbelastande fosfor jämfört med sämre utvecklade grödor. Att minska kväveförlusterna genom att förbättra hanteringen av stall-gödseln ger därmed många vinster för miljön och odlaren.

    Surgörning av flytgödsel är en känd metod för att minska ammoniakavgången från stallgödsel i stall, i lager och vid och efter spridning i fält (Petersen, 2012). Metoden praktiseras dock inte i Sverige, till stor del för att tekniken inte är till-gänglig och för att det i stort saknas erfarenheter. Teknik för surgörning finns nu utvecklad i Danmark, där 18 % av all flytgödsel försurades år 2014 (SEGES, 2015). Vid surgörningen minskas förlusterna av kväve genom att den kemiska jämvikten mellan ammonium och ammoniak förskjuts mot större andel ammoniumkväve, som inte kan avgå i gasform.

    Teknik finns för surgörning i stallar, i lager respektive vid spridning. I stallar och lager strävar man efter att pH-värdet i gödseln ska vara mindre än 5,5 för att få effekt under längre tid dvs. under efterföljande lagring och spridning. I test enligt VERA:s testprotokoll minskade ammoniakavgången i medeltal med 64 % från de två studerade svinstallarna när man surgjorde gödseln i stallet med tekniken från JH Forsuring NH4+ jämfört med ingen surgörning (ETA-Danmark, 2011). I ett av de två studerade stallarna kunde man påvisa en årlig luktminskning med 29 procent vid surgörning. För Sverige är det dock inte aktuellt med surgörning i stallar med nuvarande system och lagstiftning. Istället kan system för tillförsel av syra i lager vara aktuellt. Vid tillförsel i lager strax innan spridning eftersträvas pH<6. För att begränsa mängden syra som behöver tillsättas är det då viktigt att snarast möjligt påbörja spridningen efter att svavelsyran blandats med gödseln i lagret, med tanke på gödselns buffrande förmåga (pH stiger). För att surgöra flytgödseln under spridning doseras svavelsyran till gödseln automatiskt under körning i fält med på marknaden olika tekniker. Målet är då att gödseln håller pH <6,4 vid spridningstillfället för att det ska vara godkänt i Danmark som ammoniakbegränsande åtgärd, och ett alternativ till att mylla ner gödseln vid spridning. Enligt VERA:s testprotokoll så minskade ammoniakavgången med 49 % vid surgörning till pH 6,4 vid spridning med tekniken SyreN jämfört med ingen försurning (VERA, 2012). Det gick inte att påvisa någon luktminskning med surgörning.

  • 34.
    Forsgren-Brusk, Ulla
    et al.
    SCA Hygiene Products AB, Sweden..
    Yhlen, Birgitta
    SCA Hygiene Products AB, Sweden..
    Blomqvist, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Larsson, Peter
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden ; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Method for Bacterial Growth and Ammonia Production and Effect of Inhibitory Substances in Disposable Absorbent Hygiene Products2017In: Journal of Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing (WOCN), ISSN 1071-5754, E-ISSN 1528-3976, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 78-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a pragmatic laboratory method to provide a technique for developing incontinence products better able to reduce malodor when used in the clinical setting. METHODS:: Bacterial growth and bacterially formed ammonia in disposable absorbent incontinence products was measured by adding synthetic urine inoculated with bacteria to test samples cut from the crotch area of the product. The inhibitory effectʼs of low pH (4.5 and 4.9) and 3 antimicrobial substances—chlorhexidine, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), and thymol—at 2 concentrations each, were studied. RESULTS:: From the initial inocula of 3.3 log colony-forming units per milliliter (cfu/mL) at baseline, the bacterial growth of the references increased to 5.0 to 6.0 log cfu/mL at 6 hours for Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Enterococcus faecalis. At 12 hours there was a further increase to 7.0 to 8.9 log cfu/mL. Adjusting the pH of the superabsorbent in the incontinence product from 6.0 to pH 4.5 and pH 4.9 significantly (P < .05) inhibited the bacterial growth rates, in most cases, both at 6 and 12 hours. The effect was most pronounced at pH 4.5. Chlorhexidine had significant (P < .05) inhibitory effect on E. coli and E. faecalis, and at 12 hours also on P. mirabilis. For PHMB and thymol the results varied. At 6 hours, the ammonia concentration in the references (pH 6.0) was 200 to 300 ppm and it was 1500 to 1600 ppm at 8 hours. At pH 4.5, no or little ammonia production was measured at 6 and 8 hours. At pH 4.9, there was a significant reduction (P < .01). Chlorhexidine and PHMB exerted a significant (P < .01 or P < .001) inhibitory effect on ammonia production at both concentrations and at 6 and 8 hours. Thymol 0.003% and 0.03% showed inhibitory effect at both 6 hours (P < .01 or P < .001) and at 8 hours (P < .05 or P < .001). CONCLUSION:: The method described in this study can be used to compare the ability of various disposable absorbent products to inhibit bacterial growth and ammonia production. This technique, we describe, provides a pragmatic method for assessing the odor-inhibiting capacity of specific incontinence products.

  • 35.
    Garrido-Bañuelos, Gonzalo
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Buica, Astrid
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Schückel, Julia
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Zietsman, Anscha
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Willats, William
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark ; Newcastle University, UK.
    Moore, John
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Du Toit, Wessel
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Investigating the relationship between cell wall polysaccharide composition and the extractability of grape phenolic compounds into Shiraz wines. Part II: Extractability during fermentation into wines made from grapes of different ripeness levels2019In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 278, p. 26-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the relationship between cell wall breakdown, from Shiraz grapes harvested at three different ripeness levels and the colour and phenolics extracted during alcoholic fermentation into wines. Phenolic differences between the ripeness treatments were minimal after ¼ of the fermentation was completed. However, colour and phenolic content were significantly higher in finished wines made from 25°Brix grapes compared to those from 21°Brix and 23°Brix. Levels of grape cell wall polysaccharide deconstruction during fermentation was a determining correlative factor in relation to phenolic extractability. In this context, the de-pectination observed during ripening was found to enhance this deconstruction or “opening-up” of the grape pomace during fermentation, thus increasing the differential extraction of specific polyphenols, especially polymeric polyphenols, into the wines. Additionally, the degree of cell wall deconstruction seemed to play a role in the possible retention and extraction of specific grape proanthocyanidins, depending on their nature and polymer length.

  • 36.
    Garrido-Bañuelos, Gonzalo
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Buica, Astrid
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Schückel, Julia
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Zietsman, Anscha
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Willats, William
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark ; Newcastle University, UK.
    Moore, John
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Du Toit, Wessel
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Investigating the relationship between grape cell wall polysaccharide composition and the extractability of phenolic compounds into Shiraz wines. Part I: Vintage and ripeness effects2019In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 278, p. 36-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phenolic compounds play an important role in colour stability and sensory properties of red wine. This study evaluated berry skin cell wall composition and how this influences grape and wine phenolics at different ripeness levels (21°Brix, 23°Brix, and 25°Brix) over two consecutive vintages. The vintage effect was highly significant, especially in the pectin fraction of the grape cell walls and affected the concentrations of certain phenolics extracted. The climatic variance between the seasons might have influenced the differences observed in the grape cell wall compositions. Firstly, a higher grape and wine phenolic content, especially in polymeric phenols, was found in 2015 wines. Additionally, grape berry cell walls, especially at the earliest stages of ripening, were found to be more intact in 2015 than in 2016. Thus, a possible relationship was found between the degree of berry intactness, especially for pectin-rich components, and the corresponding phenolic extractability during the winemaking.

  • 37.
    Gmoser, Rebecca
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Bordes, Romain
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berta, Marco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Effect of dispersed particles on instant coffee foam stability and rheological properties2017In: European Food Research and Technology, ISSN 1438-2377, E-ISSN 1438-2385, Vol. 243, no 1, p. 115-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Properties of instant coffee foam constitute the focus of this study. The coffee, obtained from commercial sources, was dispersed in water at a concentration in the range of standard use. The resulting solution contained a substantial amount of micron and submicron size particles that were filtered with membranes having difference size cut-offs in order to investigate the relationship foam properties—particles size. The foams produced from these solutions have been imaged by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and their moduli and stability have been measured by oscillatory rheology, using an in-house developed rheometric set-up. The results show that particles larger than 0.8 µm have little effect on the reduction of drainage while a clear strengthening effect on the foam was evident. This was a result of their diffusion to the lamellae borders, which increases the viscosity of the liquid–air interface. Particles smaller than 0.2 µm affect bubble coarsening and likely hinder the migration of soluble surface active species to the bubble surface. Particles also participate in the stabilization of the air–water interface, and this affects both the foam stability and mechanical properties. Established models developed for ideal foam systems containing particles are difficult to apply due to the complexity of the system studied. Despite this limitation, these results provide increased understanding of the effect of particles on instant coffee foams.

  • 38.
    Gontard, Natalie
    et al.
    University of Montpellier, France.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Birkved, Morten
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Majone, Mauro
    University of Montpellier, France.
    Bolzonella, David
    University of Verona, Italy.
    Celli, Annamaria
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Angellier-Coussy, Helene
    University of Montpellier, France.
    Jang, Guang Way
    Industry Technology Research Institute, Taiwan.
    Verniquet, Anne
    SOFIES Solutions for Industrial Ecosystems, Switzerland.
    Broeze, Jan
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Schaer, Burkhard
    ECOZEPT, Germany.
    Batista, Ana Paula
    University of Montpellier, France.
    Sebok, Andras
    Campden BRI, Hungary.
    A research challenge vision regarding management of agricultural waste in a circular bio-based economy2018In: Critical reviews in environmental science and technology, ISSN 1064-3389, E-ISSN 1547-6537, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 614-654Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural waste is a huge pool of untapped biomass resources that may even represent economic and environmental burdens. They can be converted into bioenergy and bio-based products by cascading conversion processes, within circular economy, and should be considered residual resources. Major challenges are discussed from a transdisciplinary perspective, focused on Europe situation. Environmental and economic consequences of agricultural residue management chains are difficult to assess due to their complexity, seasonality and regionality. Designing multi-criteria decision support tools, applicable at an early-stage of research, is discussed. Improvement of Anaerobic Digestion (AD), one of the most mature conversion technologies, is discussed from a technological point of view and waste feedstock geographical and seasonal variations. Using agricultural residual resources for producing high-value chemicals is a considerable challenge analysed here, taking into account innovative eco-efficient and cost-effective cascading conversion processes (bio-refinery concept). Moreover, the promotion of agricultural residues-based business is discussed through industrial ecology, to promote synergy, on a local basis, between different agricultural and industrial value chains. Finally, to facilitate a holistic approach and optimise materials and knowledge flows management, the connection of stakeholders is discussed to promote cross-sectorial collaboration and resource exchange at appropriate geographic scales. © 2018, © 2018 Nathalie Gontard, Ulf Sonesson, Morten Birkved, Mauro Majone, David Bolzonella, Annamaria Celli, Hélène Angellier-Coussy, Guang-Way Jang, Anne Verniquet, Jan Broeze, Burkhard Schaer, Ana Paula Batista, and András Sebok.

  • 39.
    Gustinelli, Graziele
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Svelander, Cecilia
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Alminger, Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ahrne, Lilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Supercritical CO2 extraction of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) seed oil: Fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity2018In: Journal of Supercritical Fluids, ISSN 0896-8446, E-ISSN 1872-8162, Vol. 135, p. 91-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bilberry seed oils extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) for 80 min at 20, 35, and 50 MPa and at 40 degrees, 50 degrees and 60 degrees C were evaluated to compare the yield, composition, and antioxidant recovery. Analyses of fatty acids, free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), vitamin E and peroxide contents revealed that yield, vitamin E, efficient concentration (EC50), and Peroxide value (PV) varied significantly among the obtained bilberry seed oils, whereas the fatty acid compositions were similar. The oil extracted at 20 MPa and 60 degrees C had the best recovery of vitamin E and the lowest EC50 and PV. The high levels of vitamin E and polyunsaturated fatty acids, as well as the low omega 6/omega 3 ratios (< 1) and the low PVs in all the extracts suggest bilberry seed oil is a valuable source of bioactive compounds and high potential for use of bilberry by-product extracts in added value foods and nutraceutical products.

  • 40.
    Gustinelli, Graziele
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Svelander, Cecilia
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andlid, Thomas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundin, Leif
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Alminger, Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Berry Seeds: Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity2018In: Journal of Food Quality, ISSN 0146-9428, E-ISSN 1745-4557, Vol. 2018, article id 6046074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and solvent extraction of oils from cloudberry, bilberry, and black currant seeds on the yield, chemical properties, and recovery of antioxidant compounds was investigated. SFE was performed for 1 h at 350 bar and at 50°C and 80°C. Fatty acids, vitamin E, carotenoids, and free radical-scavenging activity (DPPH) were assayed. SFE at 80°C resulted in higher oil yields for cloudberry and black currant seeds. The oils were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (66.8%-75.9% w/w), with high percentages of linoleic and α-linolenic acids. The black currant seed extracts had the highest concentrations of vitamin E (range, 113.0-241.8 mg/100 g oil) and carotenoids (range, 11.5-32.3 mg/100 g oil) and the highest antioxidant activity. The cloudberry seed oils also had high antioxidant content and activity. These findings indicate the potential of SFE for the recovery of PUFA and antioxidant compounds in berry by-products.

  • 41.
    Gómez-Heincke, Diana
    et al.
    Universidad de Huelva, Spain.
    Martínez, Immaculada
    Universidad de Huelva, Spain.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gallegos, Crispulo
    Universidad de Huelva, Spain.
    Partal, Perdro
    Universidad de Huelva, Spain.
    Improvement of mechanical and water absorption properties of plant protein based bioplastics2017In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 73, p. 21-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioplastics deriving from plant proteins are becoming an increasingly popular source of raw material for plastic products since they are not only biodegradable but renewable resources. However, these bioplastics require improved mechanical and water absorption properties to be suitable for many applications, such as packaging. For this reason, this study considers potato and rice proteins as a new source for the manufacture of bioplastics. The proteins were mixed with different glycerol concentrations followed by thermomoulding at temperatures from 60 to 180 °C. The resulting bioplastic is characterized in terms of thermo-mechanical properties, water absorption and molecular weight distribution. Compared to well-known wheat gluten, these bioplastics required higher temperatures for their thermomoulding. However, both of them were more structured materials and exhibited less water absorption (e.g. as low as 9 wt.%) than those obtained for wheat gluten blend. Potato protein-based bioplastics showed complex modulus values comparable to synthetic polymers such as Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE).

  • 42.
    Hall, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Alenljung, Susanne
    SCA Hygiene Products AB, Sweden..
    Forsgren-Brusk, Ulla
    SCA Hygiene Products AB, Sweden..
    Identification of Key Odorants in Used Disposable Absorbent Incontinence Products2017In: Journal of Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing (WOCN), ISSN 1071-5754, E-ISSN 1528-3976, Vol. 44, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:

    The purpose of this study was to identify key odorants in used disposable absorbent incontinence products.

    DESIGN:

    Descriptive in vitro study SUBJECTS AND SETTING:: Samples of used incontinence products were collected from 8 residents with urinary incontinence living in geriatric nursing homes in the Gothenburg area of Sweden. Products were chosen from a larger set of products that had previously been characterized by descriptive odor analysis.

    METHODS:

    Pieces of the used incontinence products were cut from the wet area, placed in glass bottles, and kept frozen until dynamic headspace sampling of volatile compounds was completed. Gas chromatography-olfactometry was used to identify which compounds contributed most to the odors in the samples. Compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    RESULTS:

    Twenty-eight volatiles were found to be key odorants in the used incontinence products. Twenty-six were successfully identified. They belonged to the following classes of chemical compounds: aldehydes (6); amines (1); aromatics (3); isothiocyanates (1); heterocyclics (2); ketones (6); sulfur compounds (6); and terpenes (1).

    CONCLUSION:

    Nine of the 28 key odorants were considered to be of particular importance to the odor of the used incontinence products: 3-methylbutanal, trimethylamine, cresol, guaiacol, 4,5-dimethylthiazole-S-oxide, diacetyl, dimethyl trisulfide, 5-methylthio-4-penten-2-ol, and an unidentified compound.

    This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited.

     

  • 43.
    Hallström, Elinor
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Woodhouse, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Using dietary quality scores to assess sustainability of food products and human diets: A systematic review2018In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 93, p. 219-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased recognition of inter-relationships between the environmental and health effects of food has resulted in a new fast-growing research area. Development of methods for integrated analysis of environmental and nutritional impacts is essential to facilitate policy decisions and actions for sustainable food systems. Dietary quality scores is one of the methods suggested to combine environmental and nutritional assessments of foods, meals and diets. This systematic review provides an overview of how dietary quality scores are used in environmental sustainability studies of food products and diets. The review includes 24 articles applying 20 different types of dietary quality scores. We describe current approaches used to combine environmental and nutritional assessments, discuss methodological choices of importance and their impact on results, and identify research gaps that require further efforts to push the current frontier of knowledge. Based on our analysis we identify two different categories of dietary quality scores and four approaches used to integrate environmental and nutritional assessments. There is a large number of methods available to quantify a dietary quality score: which one is chosen as well as how they are combined with environmental assessments can affect the results, and hence also the conclusions of which foods that are more sustainable to eat. This is critical to understand for the set-up of studies and for the interpretation of results and drawing conclusions. Our categorization of existing methods used, how they differ, what applications they are suited for, and which methodological challenges they involve increases the understanding of what analyzes are possible today and point out areas where methods are lacking and where more research is required. Continued efforts are needed to bring about a transition to sustainable food systems that do not exceed the planets ecological limits and promote healthy populations. This systematic review provides guidance for future use and development of methods within the field of sustainable nutrition.

  • 44.
    Hallström, Elinor
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Håkansson, N.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Åkesson, A.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Wolk, A.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Climate impact of alcohol consumption in Sweden2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 201, p. 287-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about the environmental impact of alcohol is limited and as an effect alcohol is often excluded from environmental studies of diets or included in incomplete ways. This paper describes the climate impact of beer, wine and liquor by using life cycle assessment. The climate impact is quantified per litre of specific alcoholic beverages and per total amount of alcohol consumed based on self-reported data of 50 000 individuals from 2009 within two population-based cohorts in Sweden. The results show that alcoholic beverages generate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the range of 0.73–2.38 kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) per litre. Alcohol consumption in the population studied generates on average 52 kg CO2e per person and year. Within the 10% of the population with the highest intake of alcohol GHG emissions are up to 202 kg CO2e per person and year. Consumption of wine is responsible for the largest share of GHG emissions from alcoholic beverages (61%) followed by beer (33%), while liquor and strong wine account for a smaller share (6%). Alcohol consumption among men generates 90% higher GHG emissions than among women. Alcohol consumption and in consequence alcohol-related emissions are decreasing with increasing age of men and women. Our results indicate that alcohol consumption in Swedish men and women is responsible for an average of 3% of total diet-related GHG emissions and in sub-populations with the highest consumption up to 6–11%. Limiting alcohol could be an effective option to reduce the climate impact of diets, especially among men.

  • 45.
    Hamngren Blomqvist, C.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gebäck, T.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden .
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden .
    Gustafsson, S.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden .
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden .
    Olsson, E.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden .
    Interconnectivity imaged in three dimensions: Nano-particulate silica-hydrogel structure revealed using electron tomography2017In: Micron, ISSN 0968-4328, E-ISSN 1878-4291, Vol. 100, p. 91-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used Electron Tomography (ET) to reveal the detailed three-dimensional structure of particulate hydrogels, a material category common in e.g. controlled release, food science, battery and biomedical applications. A full understanding of the transport properties of these gels requires knowledge about the pore structure and in particular the interconnectivity in three dimensions, since the transport takes the path of lowest resistance. The image series for ET were recorded using High-Angle Annular Dark Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF-STEM). We have studied three different particulate silica hydrogels based on primary particles with sizes ranging from 3.6 nm to 22 nm and with pore-size averages from 18 nm to 310 nm. Here, we highlight the nanostructure of the particle network and the interpenetrating pore network in two and three dimensions. The interconnectivity and distribution of width of the porous channels were obtained from the three-dimensional tomography studies while they cannot unambiguously be obtained from the two-dimensional data. Using ET, we compared the interconnectivity and accessible pore volume fraction as a function of pore size, based on direct images on the nanoscale of three different hydrogels. From this comparison, it was clear that the finest of the gels differentiated from the other two. Despite the almost identical flow properties of the two finer gels, they showed large differences concerning the accessible pore volume fraction for probes corresponding to their (two-dimensional) mean pore size. Using 2D pore size data, the finest gel provided an accessible pore volume fraction of over 90%, but for the other two gels the equivalent was only 10–20%. However, all the gels provided an accessible pore volume fraction of 30–40% when taking the third dimension into account.

  • 46.
    Hernandez-Cerdan, Pablo
    et al.
    Institute of Fundamental Sciences,New Zealand ; The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, New Zealand ; Riddet Insitute, New Zealand.
    Mansel, Bradley W
    Institute of Fundamental Sciences,New Zealand ; The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, New Zealand.
    Leis, Andrew
    The University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Lundin, Leif
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Williams, Martin A K
    Institute of Fundamental Sciences, New Zealand ; The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, New Zealand.
    Structural Analysis of Polysaccharide Networks by Transmission Electron Microscopy: Comparison with Small-Angle X-ray Scattering.2018In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 989-995Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polysaccharide gels assembled from the anionic biopolymers pectin and carrageenan have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Gels were formed in several different ways: for pectin, hydrogen bonding was used to form junction zones between strands, whereas for carrageenan systems, several different ion types were used to form ionotropic networks. Using this approach, several distinct network architectures were realized. In addition to preparing gelled samples for electron microscopy, a set of samples was taken without performing the additional treatment necessitated by the TEM measurements, and these were studied directly by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Taking careful consideration of the relative merits of different image sizes and available processing techniques, the real-space images acquired by TEM were used via radial integration of the Fourier transform to produce simulated scattering patterns. These intensity-versus-wavevector plots were compared with the results of SAXS experiments carried out on the unadulterated gels using synchrotron radiation. Although information regarding chain thicknesses and flexibilities was found to be modified by labeling and changes in the dielectric constant and mechanical properties of the surroundings in the TEM, the studies carried out here show that careful protocols can produce data sets where information acquired above ∼20 nm is broadly consistent with that obtained by SAXS studies carried out on unadulterated samples. The fact that at larger length scale the structure of these water-rich networks seems largely preserved in the TEM samples suggests that three-dimensional (3D) TEM tomography experiments carried out with careful sample preparation will be valuable tools for measuring network architecture and connectivity; information that is lost in SAXS owing to the intrinsic averaging nature of the technique.

  • 47.
    Hiller, Carolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Utveckling och tillämpning av sensoriska metoder för objektiva belysnings-bedömningar, del I2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dag finns tekniska belysningsstandarder som inkluderar parameterar så som ljusstyrka, jämnhet och luminans. Det som saknas är krav som grundar sig på människors upplevelser av belysning och ljusmiljöer. Att få med den upplevelsebaserade dimensionen skulle betyda ett helhetstänk som förmodligen skulle gynna både ljuskomforten och än mer energieffektiva ljusmiljöer och produkter. Att beskriva upplevda belysningsparametrar har hittills visat sig inte vara helt enkelt, och här saknas både kunskap och en gemensam begreppsvärld inom branschen; något som hämmar fastighetsägare att ställa lämpliga krav vid en upphandling liksom belysningstillverkare att utveckla produkter för nya marknader och tillämpningar. Det övergripande syftet med detta forskningsprojekt är att utveckla och tillämpa sensoriska metoder på belysning. Till skillnad från tidigare metoder möjliggör sensoriska metoder objektiva bedömningar av upplevda belysningsparametrar. Syftet med försöken som redovisas i denna delrapport är att vidareutveckla och testa metoden ytterligare. Detta görs genom att nya armaturer testas liksom att försök utförs i en ny verklig kontext (kontorsmiljö). Försöken bygger vidare på resultat från tidigare försök som har rapporterats om i (Boork et al, 2017).

    En analytisk panel bestående av åtta personer, som uppfyllde särskilda urvalskriterier, har tidigare rekryterats och dessa personer tränades nu för detta specifika delprojekt för att bedöma belysningsprodukter i ett multisensoriskt laboratorium på RISE Research Institutes of Sweden i Borås. Metodutvecklingen fokuserade särskilt på en effektiv träningsprocedur, hantering av ögats adaption, samt bedömning av färg och skuggningar. Förutom laboratorieförsök undersöktes möjligheten att genomföra analytiska bedömningar i en verklig kontext med samma försöksuppställning och panel.

    Resultaten visade att det är möjligt att använda sensorisk metodik för att genomföra objektiva belysningsbedömningar även för de testade belysningsprodukterna, dvs mindre LED-spotlights. Signifikanta skillnader identifierades mellan de olika armaturerna och som i tidigare försök spelade färgtemperaturen en stor roll för flera av de bedömda egenskaperna; inte minst förstås för ljuskällans gulhet och för läsbarhet (textkontrasten). Liksom i tidigare försök fanns det samband mellan de fysikaliska mätningarna och sensoriska bedömningarna, men inte för alla egenskaper, vilket visar att fysikaliska och sensoriska mätningar ger kompletterande information om belysning.  Vidare visade bedömningsförsök i en verklig kontext att likvärdiga resultat uppnåddes som i laboratoriet, om ändock något spretigare och inte heller lika entydiga i jämförelse med verklig kontext i tidigare försök.

    Den genererade kunskapen väntas på sikt bidra till utveckling av verktyg som stödjer kommunikationen mellan olika professioner inom ljusdesign och planering och på så vis främja mer önskvärda och energieffektiva ljusmiljöer.

  • 48.
    Hintzmann, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Søborg, Denmark.
    Sørensen, Gitte
    National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Søborg, Denmark.
    Löfström, Charlotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Søborg, Denmark.
    Baggesen, Dorte Lau
    National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Søborg, Denmark.
    Whole genome sequencing data confirm transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage type DT41 in the Danish poultry production chain2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Hjelmsø, Mathis Hjort
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Hellmér, Maria
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Fernandez-Cassi, Xavier
    University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Timoneda, Natàlia
    University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Lukjancenko, Oksana
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Seidel, Michael
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Elsässer, Dennis
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Aarestrup, Frank M
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Löfström, Charlotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Bofill-Mas, Sílvia
    University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Abril, Josep F
    University of Barcelona,Spain.
    Girones, Rosina
    University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Schultz, Anna Charlotte
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Evaluation of Methods for the Concentration and Extraction of Viruses from Sewage in the Context of Metagenomic Sequencing.2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Viral sewage metagenomics is a novel field of study used for surveillance, epidemiological studies, and evaluation of waste water treatment efficiency. In raw sewage human waste is mixed with household, industrial and drainage water, and virus particles are, therefore, only found in low concentrations. This necessitates a step of sample concentration to allow for sensitive virus detection. Additionally, viruses harbor a large diversity of both surface and genome structures, which makes universal viral genomic extraction difficult. Current studies have tackled these challenges in many different ways employing a wide range of viral concentration and extraction procedures. However, there is limited knowledge of the efficacy and inherent biases associated with these methods in respect to viral sewage metagenomics, hampering the development of this field. By the use of next generation sequencing this study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of four commonly applied viral concentrations techniques (precipitation with polyethylene glycol, organic flocculation with skim milk, monolithic adsorption filtration and glass wool filtration) and extraction methods (Nucleospin RNA XS, QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit, NucliSENS® miniMAG®, or PowerViral® Environmental RNA/DNA Isolation Kit) to determine the viriome in a sewage sample. We found a significant influence of concentration and extraction protocols on the detected viriome. The viral richness was largest in samples extracted with QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit or PowerViral® Environmental RNA/DNA Isolation Kit. Highest viral specificity were found in samples concentrated by precipitation with polyethylene glycol or extracted with Nucleospin RNA XS. Detection of viral pathogens depended on the method used. These results contribute to the understanding of method associated biases, within the field of viral sewage metagenomics, making evaluation of the current literature easier and helping with the design of future studies.

  • 50.
    Hobday, Alistair J.
    et al.
    CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Australia ; University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.
    Fleming, Aysha
    CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Australia ; University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia ; CSIRO Land and Water, Australia.
    Ogier, Emily M
    University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.
    Thomas, Linda
    CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Australia ; .
    Hartog, Jason R
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Australia ; University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia ; CSIRO Land and Water, Australia.
    Stephenson, Robert L
    CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Australia ; University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia ; Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canada.
    Perceptions regarding the need for broad sustainability assessments of Australian fisheries2018In: Fisheries Research, ISSN 0165-7836, E-ISSN 1872-6763, Vol. 208, p. 247-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demonstration of fishery sustainability has expanded from a relatively narrow biological focus to one that includesa wide range of issues in response to environmental legislation, social factors, and demands from marketsand consumers. The Healthcheck for Australian Fisheries Sustainability (Healthcheck) is a new initiative designedto be comprehensive with regard to ecological, economic, social and governance aspects, presentingavailable information about a fishery for easy access and use. Here we report on the framework developmentprocess, including engagement with fishery managers, environmental non-government organisations, andfishery participants. All participants emphasized the need for a broad sustainability assessment with timelyreporting, easy availability, and wider coverage of seafood sustainability information than is currently accessible,and expressed the importance of trustworthy and transparent information. Differences were found whencomparing sustainability issues generally reported and issues of main concern to stakeholders. Subsequent refinementof the Healthcheck extended coverage into issues that are on the horizon for fishery reporting, but maysoon be of interest to a wide range of stakeholders.

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