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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Johan
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Value chains for integrated production of liquefied bio-SNG at sawmill sites – Techno-economic and carbon footprint evaluation2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 206, p. 1590-1608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry's increasing demand for liquefied natural gas could be met in the future by liquefied methane produced from biomass feedstock (LBG - liquefied biogas). This study presents results from an investigation of value chains for integrated production of LBG at a generic sawmill site, based on gasification of sawmill waste streams and forest residues. The objective was to investigate the cost for, as well as the carbon footprint reduction associated with, production and use of LBG as a fuel. Five different LBG plant sizes were investigated in combination with three different sawmill sizes. The resulting cases differ regarding biomass feedstock composition, biomass transportation distances, LBG plant sizes, how efficiently the excess heat from the LBG plant is used, and LBG distribution distances. Pinch technology was used to quantify the heat integration opportunities and to design the process steam network. The results show that efficient use of energy within the integrated process has the largest impact on the performance of the value chain in terms of carbon footprint. The fuel production cost are mainly determined by the investment cost of the plant, as well as feedstock transportation costs, which mainly affects larger plants. Production costs are shown to range from 68 to 156 EUR/MW hfuel and the carbon footprint ranges from 175 to 250 kg GHG-eq/MW hnet biomass assuming that the product is used to substitute fossil LNG fuel. The results indicate that process integration of an indirect biomass gasifier for LBG production is an effective way for a sawmill to utilize its by-products. Integration of this type of biorefinery can be done in such a way that the plant can still cover its heating needs whilst expanding its product portfolio in a competitive way, both from a carbon footprint and cost perspective. The results also indicate that the gains associated with efficient heat integration are important to achieve an efficient value chain.

  • 2.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    During, Otto
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Silva, Nelson
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The influence of supplementary cementitious materials on climate impact of concrete bridges exposed to chlorides2018In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 188, p. 391-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reach a specific service life of reinforced concrete structures a certain cover thickness is needed. At present, this is regulated by national standards that also limit the amount and type of supplementary cementitious materials in different exposure environments. The regulations do not, however, consider the actual durability performance of concrete with supplementary cementitious materials. As a consequence, the LCA results might be misleading. This paper shows the environmental impact of concrete with supplementary cementitious materials in chloride environment considering their specific performances. Prescriptive and performance based service life prediction models for chloride ingress are applied and compared.

  • 3.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Hadi, Mohammad
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Neaz Sheikh, M.
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Karoumi, Raid
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Environmental impact of concrete structures reinforced with GFRP bars: A simplified study on columns2019In: Proceedings of the fib Symposium 2019: Concrete - Innovations in Materials, Design and Structures, International Federation for Structural Concrete , 2019, p. 1998-2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete has a significant influence on the global warming due to its high usage in the construction industry. There are a few different strategies to increase the sustainability potential of concrete structures. Most of these strategies involve reduction of the total clinker content. One strategy, which is often neglected due to its complexity, is to increase the durability of the concrete structure. By increasing the durability, the need for repair and maintenance is reduced and thus less resources are consumed during the service life. One of the main deterioration mechanisms in concrete structures is the corrosion of steel reinforcement. A strategy to increase the service life of concrete structures in harsh environment would therefore be to increase the durability of concrete or to use low- or non-corrosive reinforcement instead of traditional steel reinforcement. This paper focuses on the latter. Glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars are non-corrosive and have emerged as an alternative to steel bars in reinforced concrete structures in harsh environment. They have other mechanical properties than steel and opens for alternative mix designs for concrete. However, the environmental impact of concrete structures reinforced with GFRP bars has not been fully investigated and most life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies have an exchange ratio of 1:1 between GFRP and steel bars despite differences in the mechanical properties. This paper studies the climate impact of concrete columns reinforced with GFRP bars through an LCA methodology, focusing on the functional unit.

  • 4. Alberg, Ingmarie
    et al.
    Berntsson, Britt
    Andersson, Kjell
    Dannestam, Åse
    Persson Boonkaew, Frida
    (Larsson) Gulliksson, Daniel
    Fält, Jenny
    Good, Johanna
    Tiden, Sophie
    Nordin, Mats
    Claesson, Per
    Åhström, Mikael
    Edwards, Ylva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Lyne, Åsa Laurell
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Kvalitetssäkrade systemlösningar för gröna anläggningar/tak på betongbjälklag med nolltolerans mot läckage: Rapport- Arbetsprocessen2017Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Algehed, Jessica
    et al.
    foginnovation, Sweden.
    Eneqvist, Erica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jensen, Christian
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lööf, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Innovation + stadsutveckling = sant?2019In: INNOVATION OCH STADSUTVECKLING : En forskningsantologi om organiseringsutmaningar för stad och kommun / [ed] Jessica Algehed, Erica Eneqvist,Christian Jensen & Jenny Lööf, 2019, p. 5-12Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Andersson, L.
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Selander, A.
    Cementa AB, Sweden.
    Trägårdh, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Continuous preventive bridge maintenance in Sweden - Field experiment on the effect of washing on concrete bridges2019In: Proceedings of the fib Symposium 2019: Concrete - Innovations in Materials, Design and Structures, International Federation for Structural Concrete , 2019, p. 1135-1141Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bridges are an important part of the infrastructure. For the bridges to have the longest possible service life with minimum repairs, the maintenance is of great importance. One type of bridge maintenance that is rarely researched is the continuous preventive maintenance. The continuous preventive maintenance consists of removal of vegetation, cleaning of bridge joints and drainage systems as well as high-pressure washing of the structure. The effects of washing is heavily discussed but not properly researched. A study on the effectiveness of washing concrete is therefore being conducted. A field experiment has been initiated where concrete specimens are installed on an edge beam of a road bridge. The specimens are of two recipes where one represents an old bridge with rather high water-cement ratio and the other one represents a new bridge with a low water-cement ratio. 50% of the specimens are washed annually, while the others are not. Each year samples are collected and tested for a chloride profile. The results for the first year of exposure have been determined. They are promising but are still only very preliminary. The effect of washing, if any, will be visible after a longer exposure.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Lisa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ernits, Heiti
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Stoltz Ehn, Anna-Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Från living labs till transition labs - En forskningsöversikt och kartläggning av innovationsmiljöer för hållbara städer2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhällen ställs i allt större grad inför komplexa utmaningar som blir allt svårare att hanteramed befintliga resurser och arbetssätt. För att kunna skapa förutsättningar för ett välmående,ekologiskt och socialt hållbart samhälle, nu och i framtiden, behöver en omfattande kursändringske. Behovet av sociala, organisatoriska och tekniska innovationer, som på olika sättbidrar till att ersätta ohållbara energi- och transportsystem samt föråldrade sätt att producerasamhällstjänster och kunskap på, är stort.Den samhällsvetenskapliga forskningen lyfter fram vikten av bred samverkan mellan sektorsochmyndighetsgränser för att kunna ta sig an komplexa hållbarhetsutmaningar. Dagensstuprörstänkande försvårar gemensam kunskapsproduktion och problemlösning. Däremotfinns det tecken på att den traditionella, hierarkiska och centralistiska samhällsstyrningenhåller på att omformas till att bli mer nätverksbaserad, horisontell och samarbetsbaserad.Denna styrningsform - som i den engelska litteraturen kallas för governance - bygger i högre gradpå nätverkande och flernivåsamverkan mellan näringsliv, offentlig sektor och civilsamhället.När det gäller hållbar utveckling och innovation anses städerna spela en allt viktigare roll. Delsär städer kraftfulla påverkansnoder som främjar spridningen av radikala innovationer; dels bidrarstädernas unika synergier och tillgång till infrastruktur, kapital och kompetenser till ökadinnovationsförmåga. Hur skall städerna organisera sig för att kunna öka samverkan och främja ettexperimentellt förhållningssätt för att kunna ta sig an komplexa utmaningar? Hur skallstäderna organisera sig för att dra nytta av den ökade innovationsförmågan givet desamhällsutmaningar vi står inför?I Sverige och internationellt har nya typer av organisationsformer och arenor börjar växa framsom ett svar på ovan tecknade utmaningar: urban living labs, urban transition labs, social labs, policy labs,innovationsplattform för att ta några exempel. Alla dessa miljöer har som syfte att främja flernivåsamverkan,innovation och problemlösning. I Sverige främjas denna utveckling främst tackvare innovationsmyndigeten Vinnova som på olika sätt stödjer dessa framväxande försök atthitta nya typer av organisationsformer. I Europa sker stora satsningar på liknande miljöergenom Horizon 2020 och JPI Urban Europe. Syftet med den här rapporten är att ge en bild avhur dessa nya innovationsmiljöer växer fram som styrverktyg för att driva hållbar stadsutveckling.I anslutning till rapporten har även gjorts en kartläggning och klassificering avsvenska innovationsmiljöer för hållbara städer.

  • 8.
    Anderzén, Christina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Hellström, Hanna
    Göteborgsregionens kommunalförbund.
    Blom, Angelika
    NSR.
    Matavfallets väg från bord till jord – en översiktlig kartläggning av olika insamlingssystem för källsorterat matavfall från hushåll2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid förbehandling av matavfall uppstår ofta en balansgång mellan att ta bort föroreningar och att minimera förluster av insamlat matavfall. Fler separeringssteg innebär större förluster. Mer kunskap behövs dock kring vilka faktiska förluster av matavfall som görs vid olika typer av förbehandling samt koppling till olika insamlingssystem. Ett väl sorterat matavfall med så lite ovidkommande material som möjligt underlättar fortsatt behandling och möjligheter till avsättning av biogödsel samtidigt som det skapar förutsättningar för mindre förluster. 

    Syftet med insamling av källsorterat matavfall är i första hand att återvinna växtnäring, vilket även kommer att säkerställa produktionen av biogas. I denna rapport följer vi påsen med matavfall från hushållet hela vägen till åkermarken. Projektet har gjort en ansats att försöka beskriva vad som händer längs vägen och utifrån detta bedöma hur det påverkar kvalitén samt vilka förluster som görs i olika steg. Resonemang förs även avseende skillnader mellan de i Sverige vanligaste insamlingssystemen för källsorterat matavfall; fyrfackskärl, separata kärl och olikfärgade påsar för optisk sortering.

    Målet är att kommunerna efter genomläsning ska få en bättre förståelse för hela kedjan ”från bord till jord”. Därmed också att utformningen av egna mål och val av insamlingssystem, i större utsträckning än idag, baseras på en helhetssyn avseende biologisk återvinning där även kvalitetssäkring och förutsättningar för återföring av växtnäring vägs in. Förhoppningen är även att kommuner som redan är igång med insamling av matavfall, ska finna stöd i arbetet med att säkra kvaliteten och mängder då ”från bord till jord” ger en överblick över de olika stegen. 

    Det är så klart önskvärt att så stor andel matavfall som möjligt samlas in och att det är rätt sorterat. Rapporten konstaterar att andra faktorer än typ av insamlingssystem, bl.a. hur man arbetar med information, är viktiga för vilket insamlingsresultat som uppnås. Därmed föreslås att informationsmodeller beaktas vid jämförande studier avseende utsorteringsgrad, mängd och kvalitet. Även resultat vid källsortering av matavfall i större mekaniska system såsom sopsug och underjordsbehållare anpassade för flerbostadshus/tätbebyggda områden bör utvärderas. Detta eftersom dessa system blir allt vanligare särskilt i storstadsregionerna. Förlust av biogaspotential då matavfall mellanlagras har inte utretts vidare i denna rapport och bör också studeras närmare. Vilken påverkan har exempelvis hämtningsintervall och transportsträcka mellan insamling och behandling?

    Sammanfattningsvis kan sägas att det behövs mer kunskap och konkreta siffror längs hela kedjan för biologisk återvinning - från insamling till återföring av växtnäring – för att kunna sätta resultat och kostnader i ett systemperspektiv.

  • 9.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Lufttäta klimatskal under verkligaförhållanden2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Beständigheten hos klimatskalets lufttäthetsystem är helt avgörande för om näranollenergihus, passivhus och plushus kommer att fungera som det var tänkt över tid. Eftersom produkterna som säkerställer lufttätheten oftast befinner sig inuti konstruktionen kan det därför innebära stora ingrepp i byggnader om de behöver bytas ut i förtid. Att i laboratorium i förväg kunna utvärdera beständigheten hos det lufttätande systemet är viktigt och för detta behövs en provningsmetod.

    Det överordnade syftet med hela projektet är att utveckla en metod där hela system för lufttäthet kan undersökas. Detta så att god lufttäthet och låg energianvändning kan erhållas under lång tid hos framtidens lufttäthetssystem. Denna etapp av projektet har innehållit utveckling och provkörning av en ny provningsmetod. Provningsmetodiken har dokumenterats i SP-metod 5264, utgåva 2, bilaga 2 till denna rapport. Provningsmetoden har fungerat ypperligt vid pilotprovningarna. Man ser en förändring av lufttätheten vid mätningar före respektive efter värmebehandlingen. Provningsmetoden är mycket noggrann och känslig på så sätt att förändring i lufttätheten kan registreras.

    Provningsmetoden är ett mycket bra verktyg för producenter av lufttäthetssystem vid produktutveckling. Metoden är också lämplig för användning vid utvärdering av lufttäthetssystem för olika godkännandesystem och certifiering. Samtliga provade lufttäthetssystem var mycket lufttäta före värmebehandlingen. Alla systemen visar på resultat under 0,1 l/(s∙m²). Efter värmebehandlingen visar alla undersökta lufttäthetssystem dock en ökande luftgenomsläpplighet, i varierande grad.

    I projektet har även montage av lufttäthetssystem gjorts i miljöer som valts för att efterlikna realistiska byggarbetsplatsförhållanden. Alla de undersökta lufttäthetssystemen visar på förändringar i lufttätheten då montaget har skett i kall och fuktig miljö och vid montage i dammig miljö. Variationen mellan de olika systemen har dock varit ganska stor.

    Det är vår uppfattning om alla lufttäthetsystem i framtiden undersöks med hjälp av denna provningsmetod så kommer man att få en stark förbättring av lufttätheten och därmed lägre energianvändning.

    .

  • 10.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Utveckling av metodik för verifiering av beständighet hos system för lufttäthet, etapp 12015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Development of methodology for verification of the durability of systems for airtightness, stage 1 This is a project that is intended to treated durability of airtightness systems for buildings with typically related details, such as foil, tape, prefabricated lead-through, etc. This stage of the project has included the development, design and construction of prototype equipment. This is so that dimensioning, heating method, the level of dynamic loading, etc. could be selected and tested. Some shorter pilot tests of dimensions stability have been performed and testing methodology has been documented.

  • 11.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Jansson, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Utmaningar och möjligheter vid renovering av våtrum2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport har varit att redogöra för vad som krävs när man skall bygga eller renovera våtrum på ett fuktsäkert sätt. Eftersom det finns många olika typer av konstruktioner, material, förutsättningar och tätskikt är det svårt men framför allt tidsödande att göra rapporten heltäckande. Vi har dock försökt att med dagens kunskap ta fram ett dokument där helheten är överskådlig men som även ger information om de viktigaste detaljkunskaperna från vår fältverksamhet och tidigare utförda forskningsprojekt.

  • 12.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Nordling, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Demker, Ingvar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Sjöqvist, Mia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Funktionsprovning av tätskiktsystem förvåtutrymmen 20192019Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional testing of waterproofing systems for use behind ceramic tiling based on flexible sheets 2019

    Functional testing

    The result is worse than before.

    Six (32%) of the nineteen tested waterproofing systems passed the function test without leakage. Thirteen (68%) tests resulted in leakage.

    This result is worse than that obtained in the previous project in 2016, (1) when eight (40%) of twenty tested waterproofing systems passed the functional test without leakage. There has therefore been some deterioration in the as constructed systems.

    The result, however, is better than in the project performed in 2014 (2) when only three (15%) of twenty tested waterproofing systems passed without leakage.

    In this project, several leakages are localised around the penetrations of large and small drainpipes. This is an increase compared to previous studies. We have seen on several occasions that pipe collars have had poor quality. This has been noticed by that the polymer material used for sealing around the tube has lost its water tightness ability during the test. It is most probable that the material has a residual deformation (from setting) that causes the material to lose its ability to seal around the tube. We have also noted that the pipe collars have delaminated i.e. the layers in the collars have been divided into their individual constituents during the test.

    Leakages have also been caused by connections to gullies, inside corners, outside corners and in joints of foils.

    Fortunately, none of the investigative systems showed leakage that was so extensive that one could describe it as total damage.

    Water vapour resistance and mass per unit area

    Thirteen tested waterproofing on flexible sheet systems show a result between 2,5 and 4,5 million s/m, which is a high or very-high water vapour resistance. Six flexible sheet systems have a result below 2,5 million s/m.

    In the determination of water vapour resistance and mass per unit area, we can clearly see that some manufacturers have made changes in or replaced their flexible sheet with a new one, compared with the previous investigation (1).

    We further note that 10 out of 14 flexible sheets have a lower water vapor resistance than in the previous investigation (1). It is also notable that the PVC sealing layer has a low water vapor resistance.

    Indication of long-term properties

    In order to obtain an indication of the amount added antioxidants that improves the long-term properties of the materials, the DSC analysis of flexible sheets have been performed. In the same way as in the previous project, 2016, (1) it seems that the flexible sheets to be more stabilized for long-term use compared to the previous study in 2014, (2). However, for all analysed materials, to make a reliable service life prediction of the material, an accelerated ageing at moderate temperature is recommended.

  • 13.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Samuelson, Ingemar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Nordling, Bengt
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Jansson, Anna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Demker, Ingvar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Funktionsprovning av tätskiktsystem för våtutrymmen 20162016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är andra gången ett forskningsprojekt av denna typ genomförs och syftet och målet är att kunna visa på tätskiktssystem som har god prognos att uppfylla kravet på vattentäthet och därmed vara vattenskadesäkrande. Ett annat syfte har varit att se om tillverkarna har tagit till sig av resultaten från den tidigare utförda undersökningen som rapporterades 2014 i SP Rapport 2014:45.

  • 14.
    Appelquist, Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Trägårdh, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Detection of potential alkali-silica reactivity of aggregates from Sweden2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Implementation of the Bürger-Diehl settler model on the benchmark simulation platform2015Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lund University, Sweden.
    Astals, Sergi
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Åmand, Linda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Batstone, Damien
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Jensen, Paul
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Substrate fractionation for modelling of anaerobic co-digestion with a plant-wide perspective2016In: 5th IWA/WEF Wastewater Treatment Modelling Seminar (WWTmod2016), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Modellering av avloppsreningsverk för multikriteriebedömning av prestanda och miljöpåverkan2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By using detailed dynamic plant-wide models and combining results from one-year simulations of ’within-the-fence’ WWTPs (both water- and sludge lines) with life-cycle analysis, different operational strategies can be developed and evaluated based on the total environmental impact (including external activities) while maximizing resource recovery and energy efficiency, maintaining good effluent quality and keeping track of the operational costs. The methodology has been applied and tested in an extensive case study of Käppala WWTP.

  • 18.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lund university, Sweden.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Sustainability Analysis forWastewater Heat Recovery - Literature Review2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This technical report describes the literature review conducted on wastewater heat recovery (WWHR). As part of the urban water cycle, domestic hot water consumes the lion share – up to 90 % – of the total energy requirement for water management. Individual energy consumption of 780 to 1 150 kWh/cay/yr has been estimated in Sweden. Energy can be recovered from wastewater, in buildings close to the source or further downstream in the wastewater system. Depending on wastewater flow and temperature heat exchangers or heat pumps (or a combination of both) can be used for extracting heat the energy. Obstacles for utilizing this potential are for example: clogging and fouling of equipment, potentially negative system impacts and economic feasibility. Examples of various WWHR implementations have been found in Sweden, Switzerland and North America. Some installations have been running for a long time and technical function and financial viability has been evaluated and are reviewed in the report. Generally, heat pumps reach a coefficient of performance of 3 to 7, better the higher the wastewater temperature is, i.e. further up-stream.

    WWHR application in a wastewater system can be modelled. The domestic hot water requirement and associated energy use has been modelled previously and concepts can be adapted for modelling the larger system. Equations for calculating performance and output variables from heat recovery equipment have been reviewed and is presented. For the purpose of assessing single WWHR installations in sewers, detailed models have been developed and presented. There are reviewed in the text. Concepts for estimating temperature variations in sewers are essential to assess the impact on wastewater treatment plants. Performance of wastewater treatment plants and their temperature dependence can be modelled with existing process models. Temperature variations along the course of the treatment plant might be important to consider.

    In Sweden, there are currently some regulations related to WWHR. The temperature of hot water systems in buildings are regulated to prevent Legionella outbreaks. Furthermore, the practice of WWHR is limited in extent and requires a permit from the utility as by the contract between the consumer and the utility. Currently, this limits the implementation of WWHR in Sweden.

  • 19.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lunds university, Sweden.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, Sweden.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Multi-objective performance assessment of wastewatertreatment plants combining plant-wide process modelsand life cycle assessment2017In: Journal of Water and Climate Change, ISSN 20402244, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 715-729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-objective performance assessment of operational strategies at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is a challenging task. The holistic perspective applied to evaluation of modern WWTPs, including not only effluent quality but also resource efficiency and recovery, global environmental impact and operational cost calls for assessment methods including both on- and off-site effects. In this study, a method combining dynamic process models – including greenhouse gas (GHG), detailed energy models and operational cost – and life cycle assessment (LCA) was developed. The method was applied and calibrated to a large Swedish WWTP. In a performance assessment study, changing the operational strategy to chemically enhanced primary treatment was evaluated. The results show that the primary objectives, to enhance bio-methane production and reduce GHG emissions were reached. Bio-methane production increased by 14% and the global warming potential decreased by 28%. However, due to increased consumption of chemicals, the operational cost increased by 87% and the LCA revealed that the abiotic depletion of elements and fossil resources increased by 77 and 305%, respectively. The results emphasize the importance of using plant-wide mechanistic models and life cycle analysis to capture both the dynamics of the plant and the potential environmental impacts.

  • 20.
    Arvidsson, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Bolin, Lisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Lindberg, Siv M
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Linder, Marcus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Norefjell, Fredric
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Nyström, Thomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Norrblom, Hans-Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Tööj, Lars
    Industrial Development Center, Sweden.
    Cirkulära möbelflöden: Hur nya affärsmodeller kan bidra till hållbar utveckling inom offentliga möbler2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige har en stark möbelindustri och en stolt tradition av att tillverka tidlösa och högkvalitativa möbler, ofta av naturmaterial. 2016 producerade Sverige möbler för 22,8 miljarder SEK, varav kontorsmöbler stod för nästan en fjärdedel1. Det saknas idag statistik över vad som händer med dessa möbler när de inte längre används, men det står klart att många av dem slängs i förtid när verksamheter flyttar eller när deras behov ändras. Samtidigt syns en tydlig utveckling mot att kunder mer och mer efterfrågar återbrukade eller renoverade möbler som en del i sitt hållbarhetsarbete. Denna utveckling var startpunkten för projektet ”Affärsmodell-innovation för cirkulära möbelflöden”.

    Affärsmodellinnovation för cirkulära möbelflöden är ett Vinnovafinansierat projekt som under åren 2015-2017 arbetat med att utveckla och testa koncept för cirkulära affärsmodeller för i första hand offentliga möbler. I projektet har tjugo aktörer från hela värdekedjan, från underleverantörer, möbelproducenter, återförsäljare och användare till forskare och branschorgan, samarbetat kring affärsutveckling, kundincitament, produktdesign, logistik, hållbarhets- och certifieringsfrågor.

    Den här skriften belyser hur nya affärsmodeller för mer cirkulära möbelflöden kan bidra till en mer hållbar utveckling och ger smakprov på slutsatser från projektet. Skriften riktar sig framför allt till producenter och återförsäljare av möbler för offentliga miljöer, men även kunder och inköpare tror vi kan ha stor nytta av skriften. Vi hoppas att den även kan fungera som inspiration för andra industrier och branscher som funderar på en övergång till mer cirkulära affärsekosystem.

  • 21.
    Atashipour, S. R.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Al-Emrani, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Accuracy evaluation of gamma-method for deflection prediction of partial composite beams2018In: WCTE 2018 - World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a precise model is established for deflection prediction of mechanically jointed beams with partial composite action. High accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated through comparison with a comprehensive finite element (FE) modelling for a timber-concrete partial composite beam. Next, the obtained numerical results are compared with gamma-method, a well-known simplified solution for timber engineers according to the Eurocode 5. Validity and accuracy level of the gamma-method are investigated for various boundary conditions as well as different values of beam length-to-depth ratio, and discussed in details.

  • 22.
    Axelson, Mats
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Nagy, Agnes
    Förstärkning av massivträelement – en experimentell studie2014In: Bygg & teknik, Vol. 106, no 2, p. 65-70Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Babaahmadi, Arezou
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tang, Luping
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Abbas, Zareen
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zack, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Per
    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, Sweden.
    Development of an electro-chemical accelerated ageing method for leaching of calcium from cementitious materials2015In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 49, no 1-2, p. 705-718Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To facilitate the long term durability predictions of nuclear waste repositories, acceleration methods enhancing calcium leaching process from cementitious materials are needed, even though mechanisms not necessarily comparable to those predominant in a natural leaching process may be developed. In the previously published acceleration methods the samples are very small, which limits further physical or mechanical tests. In this paper, a new acceleration method based on electro-chemical migration is presented. The method although not driven with the same kinetics as in natural leaching, was designed in such a way that unnecessarily destructive by-effects could be minimized while promoting a higher leaching rate for a sample size suitable for further testing the mechanical and physical properties. It is shown that approximately 1 × 106C of electrical charge per paste specimen of size Ø50 × 75 mm (approximately 230 g) is required to leach out the total amount of Portlandite. The chemical and mineralogical properties of leached samples are characterized by various techniques. It is concluded that aged samples are comparable to those leached in a natural leaching process as both are characterized by a layered system comprising an unaltered core delineated by total dissolution of Portlandite followed by a progressive decalcification of the calcium silicate hydrate gel.

  • 24.
    Bachmaier, Hans
    et al.
    Centre of Excellence for Renewable Resources, Germany.
    Oehler, H.
    Centre of Excellence for Renewable Resources, Germany.
    Hartmann, Hans
    Centre of Excellence for Renewable Resources, Germany.
    Rönnbäck, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jespersen, M. G.
    Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Jensen, Jeppe H.
    Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Schmidl, Christoph
    Bioenergy 2020+, Germany.
    Reichert, Gabriel
    Bioenergy 2020+, Germany.
    Pelz, Stefan K.
    University of Applied Forest Sciences, Germany.
    Wöhler, Marius
    University of Applied Forest Sciences, Germany.
    Bereal - method for pellet stoves: Field test and round robin2017In: European Biomass Conf. Exhib. Proc., ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2017, no 25thEUBCE, p. 642-647Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent pellet stoves perform excellently under type test conditions. In contrast, typical real life emissions show significantly higher values under usual operational conditions. Consequently, type testing procedures may not account for real life stove operation and, thus, do not allow to distinguish between low- and high-tech appliances. The EU-project beReal aimed at the development of a testing method for pellet stoves that reflects real life operations better and to support innovative pellet stoves that perform well under typical operational conditions. Based on an online survey and field observations, an advanced real life testing procedure for pellet stoves was established reflecting real life user behavior, e.g. regarding different load levels and the ignition phase. A field test was designed at the end of the project to demonstrate the applicability and practical relevance. The field test proved that emission values for beReal at the test stand and in the field stay within the same range. A Round Robin test proved the repeatability and reproducibility of the beReal testing procedure. The beReal method can be reproduced with the same statistical variability or performed even better than the type testing method with exception of PM between different laboratories. © 2017, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies. All rights reserved.

  • 25.
    Bedon, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Machalická, Klara
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Eliášová, Martina
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Vokáč, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland; Lund University, Sweden.
    Wüest, Thomas
    Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Switzerland.
    Santos, Filipe
    LucerneUniversity of Applied Sciences and Arts, Switzerland.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Structural characterisation of adaptive facades in Europe - Part II: Validity of conventional experimental testing methods and key issues2019In: Journal of Building Engineering, E-ISSN 2352-7102, Vol. 25, article id 100797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given their intrinsic features, adaptive facades are required to satisfy rigid structural performances, in addition to typical insulation, thermal and energy requirements. These include a minimum of safety and serviceability levels under ordinary design loads, durability, robustness, fire resistance, capacity to sustain severe seismic events or other natural hazards, etc. The overall design process of adaptive facades may include further challenges and uncertainties especially in the case of complex assemblies, where multiple combinations of material-related phenomena, kinematic effects, geometrical and mechanical characteristics could take place. In this context, experimental testing at the component and/or at the full-scale assembly level has a fundamental role, to prove that all the expected performance parameters are properly fulfilled. Several standards and guideline documents are available in the literature, and provide recommendations and procedures in support of conventional testing approaches for the certification and performance assessment of facades. These documents, however, are specifically focused on ordinary, static envelopes, and no provisions are given for the experimental testing of dynamic, adaptive skins. In this regard, it is hence expected that a minimum of conventional experimental procedures may be directly extended from static to dynamic facades. However, the validity of standardized procedures for adaptive skins is still an open issue. Novel and specific experimental approaches are then necessarily required, to assess the structural characteristics of adaptive facades, depending on their properties and on the design detailing. In this paper, existing fundamental standards for testing traditional facades are first recalled and commented. Special care is spent for the validity and reliability of conventional testing methods for innovative, adaptive envelopes, including a discussion on selected experimental methods for facade components and systems. Non-conventional testing procedures which may be useful for adaptive skins are then also discussed in the paper, as resulting from the research efforts of the European COST Action TU1403 ‘Adaptive facades network’ - ‘Structural’ Task Group.

  • 26.
    Bedon, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Machalická, Klára V.
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Eliášová, Martina
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Vokáč, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland.
    Wüest, Thomas
    Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Switzerland.
    Santos, Filipe
    CERIS, Portugal.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Structural characterisation of adaptive facades in Europe – Part I: Insight on classification rules, performance metrics and design methods2019In: Journal of Building Engineering, E-ISSN 2352-7102, Vol. 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive facades are increasingly used in modern buildings, where they can take the form of complex systems and manifest their adaptivity in several ways. Adaptive envelopes must meet the requirements defined by structural considerations, which include structural safety, serviceability, durability, robustness and fire safety. For these novel skins, based on innovative design solutions, experimentation at the component and / or assembly level is required to prove that these requirements are fulfilled. The definition of appropriate metrics is hence also recommended. A more complex combination of material-related, kinematic, geometrical and mechanical aspects should in fact be properly taken into account, compared to traditional, static facades. Accordingly, specific experimental methods and regulations are required for these novel skins. As an outcome of the European COST Action TU1403 ‘Adaptive facades network’ - ‘Structural’ Task Group, this paper collects some recent examples and design concepts of adaptive systems, specifically including a new classification proposal and the definition of some possible metrics for their structural performance assessment. The aim is to provide a robust background and detailed state-of-the-art information for these novel structural systems, towards the development of standardised and reliable procedures for their mechanical and thermo-physical characterisation.

  • 27.
    Bekhta, Pavlo
    et al.
    Ukrainian National Forestry University, Ukraine.
    Sedliacik, Jan
    Technical University in Zvolen, Slovakia.
    Jones, Dennis
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Effect of short-term thermomechanical densification of wood veneers on the properties of birch plywood2017In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the physical and mechanical properties of plywood panels made from pre-compressed birch (Betula verrucosa Ehrh.) veneer were evaluated. Veneer sheets underwent short-term thermo-mechanical (STTM) compression at temperatures of 150 or 180 °C and at pressures of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 or 3.5 MPa for a period of 1 min prior to adhesive being applied and pressed into panels using phenol formaldehyde adhesive at 100 g/m2 spread rate; this was one-third less than the adhesive spread used for the control panels (150 g/m2). The pressing pressure was 1.0 MPa, which was almost half of the pressure used for the control panels (1.8 MPa); and pressing time was 3 min, also half of the pressing time used for the control panels (6 min). The results showed that surface roughness of compressed veneer, water absorption and thickness swelling of plywood panels made from compressed veneer were significantly improved. The shear strength values of plywood panels made from compressed birch veneer even with reduced adhesive spread were higher than those of plywood panels made from uncompressed veneer. The findings in this study indicated that compression of birch veneer could be considered as an alternative to produce more eco-friendly (owing to smaller adhesive spread) value-added material with enhanced properties.

  • 28.
    Berg, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Sweden; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Langton, Maud
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Josell, Åsa
    Atria Scandinavia AB, Sweden.
    Fredrik, Davidsson
    Geoloc AB, Sweden.
    State of the Art Report Insects as Food and Feed2017In: Annals of Experimental Biology, ISSN ISSN:2348-1935, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 37-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    FAO has considered insects as food since 2003 and is promoting consumption of insects (entomophagy) in the Western world because of the possibilities for sustainable production it offers. Insects as food are considered to leave smaller ecological footprints than conventional livestock (beef, pigs, and poultry) regarding feed, land and water needs, as well as greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions. As an example regarding water, taken from a recent TV documentary, if a family of four people got their protein need from insects one day a week instead of from conventional livestock, over a year they would save the planet about a million Liters of water. This is in agreement with figures above. One of the main reasons that insects for food in general have such positive environmental properties is that they are cold-blooded and thus use no energy to maintain their body temperature, in contrast to mammals (beef, pig) and birds (poultry), so their feed conversion is considerably more effective than that of conventional livestock. However, differences in feed conversion may also have other reasons, and are complicated to explain, as discussed in a recent review of Life Cycle Assessments of edible insects [9]. In addition, insects can be reared on organic side streams. For example, mealworms can recycle organic residues into high-quality potential feed rich in energy, protein and fat. Insects as food are generally considered as healthy, nutritious alternatives to conventional meats such as chicken, pork, and beef. They are rich in protein, 40-60% of dry matter, with content of essential amino acids similar to beef and soy. Unsaturated fat content is 10-30% of dry matter, and they are high in calcium, iron and zinc. However, there are significant differences depending on insect species, rearing method and feed, etc. .

  • 29.
    Björkmalm, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Byrne, Eoin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    van Niel, Ed
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Willquist, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    A non-linear model of hydrogen production by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus for diauxic-like consumption of lignocellulosic sugar mixtures2018In: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 11, article id 175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus is an attractive hydrogen producer suitable for growth on various lignocellulosic substrates. The aim of this study was to quantify uptake of pentose and hexose monosaccharides in an industrial substrate and to present a kinetic growth model of C. saccharolyticus that includes sugar uptake on defined and industrial media. The model is based on Monod and Hill kinetics extended with gas-to-liquid mass transfer and a cybernetic approach to describe diauxic-like growth.

    Results

    Mathematical expressions were developed to describe hydrogen production by C. saccharolyticus consuming glucose, xylose, and arabinose. The model parameters were calibrated against batch fermentation data. The experimental data included four different cases: glucose, xylose, sugar mixture, and wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) fermentations. The fermentations were performed without yeast extract. The substrate uptake rate of C. saccharolyticus on single sugar-defined media was higher on glucose compared to xylose. In contrast, in the defined sugar mixture and WSH, the pentoses were consumed faster than glucose. Subsequently, the cultures entered a lag phase when all pentoses were consumed after which glucose uptake rate increased. This phenomenon suggested a diauxic-like behavior as was deduced from the successive appearance of two peaks in the hydrogen and carbon dioxide productivity. The observation could be described with a modified diauxic model including a second enzyme system with a higher affinity for glucose being expressed when pentose saccharides are consumed. This behavior was more pronounced when WSH was used as substrate.

    Conclusions

    The previously observed co-consumption of glucose and pentoses with a preference for the latter was herein confirmed. However, once all pentoses were consumed, C. saccharolyticus most probably expressed another uptake system to account for the observed increased glucose uptake rate. This phenomenon could be quantitatively captured in a kinetic model of the entire diauxic-like growth process. Moreover, the observation indicates a regulation system that has fundamental research relevance, since pentose and glucose uptake in C. saccharolyticus has only been described with ABC transporters, whereas previously reported diauxic growth phenomena have been correlated mainly to PTS systems for sugar uptake.

  • 30.
    Björngrim, N.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fjellström, P-A
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Hagman, O.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Resistance measurements to find high moisture content inclusions adapted for large timber bridge cross-sections2017In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 3570-3582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One challenge of monitoring and inspecting timber bridges is the difficulty of measuring the moisture content anywhere other than close to the surface. Damage or design mistakes leading to water penetration might not be detected in time, leading to costly repairs. By placing electrodes between the glulam beams, the moisture content through the bridge deck can be measured. Due to the logarithmic decrease of the resistance in wood as a function of electrode length, the model must be calibrated for measurement depth. Two models were created: one for electrode lengths of 50 mm and one for electrode lengths up to 1355 mm. The model for short electrodes differed by no more than 1 percentage points compared with the oven dry specimens. The model for long electrodes differed up to 2 percentage points for lengths up to 905 mm, and over that it could differ up to 4 percentage points.

  • 31.
    Björn-Hansen, Aksel
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Building Momentum: Scaling up Change in Community Organizations2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Addressing calls in Sustainable HCI to scale up our work in HCI targeting sustainability, and the current knowledge gap of how to do this practically, we here present a qualitative study of 10 sustainability-oriented community organizations that are working to scale up their change making. They are all loosely connected to a local Transition network, meaning that they are aiming at transforming current practices in society, through local and practical action, to meet challenges related to climate change. We wanted to know how they try to scale up their change making, and what role ICT plays in enabling scaling up. The study contributes new insights about three stages of scaling up, in which ICT plays different roles. We conclude with implications for HCI for how to support community organizations in scaling up, while keeping values important for working toward a more resilient society.

  • 32.
    Björnsson, Ivar
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ivanov, O. L.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Gabrielsson, H.
    Tyréns AB, Sweden.
    Fröderberg, M.
    Tyréns AB, Sweden.
    Lechner, T.
    NCC AB, Sweden; ÅF Infrastructure AB, Sweden.
    Suitable degree of crudeness in engineering practice2019In: IABSE Symposium, Guimaraes 2019: Towards a Resilient Built Environment Risk and Asset Management - Report, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) , 2019, p. 1592-1599Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Practicing structural engineers may be familiar with the main principles of structural reliability but may not necessarily be experts in using such methods. This may lead to a lack in understanding the effect of uncertainties on the ensuing structural safety and to sub-optimization of more traditional structural engineering aspects. The aim of the current paper is to highlight the importance of considering risks and uncertainties in design and to improve the awareness of practicing engineers to such considerations. The importance of a consistent treatment of uncertainties in structural engineering is brought to attention with focus on the modelling approaches which often underlie decisions. Different aspects discussed are: decision making in light of uncertainty, principles of consistent crudeness and the influence of engineering performance in practice on the safety of structures. A simplified model, considering strategies for improving engineering models, is considered and examples, based on simplified decision models, are also provided.

  • 33.
    Björnsson, Ivar
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Larsson Ivanov, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Leander, John
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Decision support framework for bridge condition assessments2019In: Structural Safety, ISSN 0167-4730, E-ISSN 1879-3355, Vol. 81, article id 101874Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An essential aspect in the maintenance of existing bridges is the ability to adequately and accurately assess and evaluate the condition of the structure. Condition assessments, which can be carried out in any number of ways, provide valuable information concerning the actual state of a bridge, including the severity of potential damages, and form the basis for further maintenance decisions. Any decision support concerning the management of existing structures thus requires attention towards the uncertainties associated with the assessment methods when applied in practice as well as the maintenance actions these support. These uncertainties cannot be solely described as model uncertainties but are also a result of the variation in engineering performance observed in practice. In the current paper a rational and systematic framework is presented which provides practical decision support concerning whether condition assessments are necessary, what assessment methods are recommended, if invasive actions are needed, or if some other non-invasive option may be more appropriate. The framework takes into account three main attributes of an enhanced condition assessment, namely, modelling sophistication, considerations of uncertainties and risks, and knowledge/information content. Increasing the level of one or more of these attributes may be advantageous only if the expected benefits or added value of information is considered appropriate in relation to the cost of implementation in practice. A decision making model, based on Bayesian decision theory, is adopted to evaluate this problem. Two case studies, in which the framework is applied, are provided for illustrative purposes; the first is a generic numerical example and the second a decision scenario related to the fatigue assessment of an existing railway bridge.

  • 34.
    Blomfors, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Ivanov, O. L.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Zandi, K.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, K.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Reliability analysis of corroded reinforced concrete beam with regards to anchorage failure2019In: Life-Cycle Analysis and Assessment in Civil Engineering: Towards an Integrated Vision - Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Life-Cycle Civil Engineering, IALCCE 2018, CRC Press/Balkema , 2019, p. 337-344Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reinforcement corrosion is a common problem in reinforced concrete infrastructure today, and it is expected to increase in the future. To simply replace the corroded structures with new ones requires large resources, both in financial and environmental terms. Therefore it is important that existing structures are used to their full potential, also after the onset of corrosion. This paper presents a reliability study of the anchorage capacity of a reinforced concrete beam including reinforcement corrosion. The sensitivity of the different input parameters is also studied. As expected, the results show that the reliability is reduced with corrosion; the magnitude depends to a large extent on the modelling uncertainty used for the bond model for corroded reinforcement. The sensitivity analysis shows an influence of corrosion also on the sensitivities of the input parameters, which is expected based on the properties of the underlying bond model. This paper demonstrates that probabilistic evaluations give valuable insight of the reliability, which can be used to prolong the service-life of existing infrastructure and save both money and the environment.

  • 35.
    Blomfors, Mattias
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson Ivanov, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Engen, Morten
    Multiconsult ASA; NTNU, Norway.
    Partial safety factors for the anchorage capacity of corroded reinforcement bars in concrete2019In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 181, p. 579-588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many reinforced concrete bridges in Europe and around the world are damaged by reinforcement corrosion and the annual maintenance costs are enormous. It is therefore important to develop reliable methods to assess the structural capacity of corroded reinforced concrete structures and avoid unnecessary maintenance costs. Although there are advanced models for determining the load carrying capacity of structures, it is not obvious how they should be used to verify the performance of existing structures. To confidently assess the bond of corroded reinforcement in concrete, for example, the calculation model must give a sufficient safety margin. When designing new structures, semi-probabilistic approaches (such as the partial safety factor method) are adopted to achieve the target reliabilities specified in structural design codes. This paper uses probabilistic methods to develop partial factors for application in an existing bond model, to assess the safety of corroded reinforced concrete structures. The response of the bond model was studied using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for several design cases, with probability distributions fitted to the results. Partial factors were then derived, based on these distributions. Furthermore, an MC-based simulation technique called “importance sampling” was used to study the reliability of several deterministic bond assessments conducted using these partial factors. The results show that deterministic assessments which use the proposed partial factors lead to a safety level at least equal to the target value. The results presented in this paper will support the assessment of reinforced concrete structures with anchorage problems and give a reasonable approximation of the anchorage capacity with sufficient safety margin. When generalised to cover other failure modes and structural configurations, this will enable better utilisation of damaged structures and lead to major environmental and economical savings for society.

  • 36.
    Blomfors, Mattias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ivanov, Oskar L.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Practical bond model for corroded RC bridges2017In: High Tech Concrete: Where Technology and Engineering Meet - Proceedings of the 2017 fib Symposium, 2017, p. 1793-1803Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion of steel reinforcement is a common cause of deterioration in reinforced concrete bridges and many existing bridges are damaged to varying degrees. The rate of deterioration of the bridge stock has been shown to increase due to climate change. Unsympathetically, the demand for load-carrying capacity is however often increased with time. Therefore there is an increasing need for reliable methods to assess the load-carrying capacity and remaining service-life of existing infrastructure. A simple model for the assessment of Anchorage in corroded Reinforced Concrete structures (ARC) has previously been developed. It was originally based on fib Model Code 1990 and has been verified with experiments and three-dimensional nonlinear finite element (3D NLFE) analyses for both accelerated and natural corrosion as well as for different degrees of corrosion. The model was applied when assessing two road bridges in Sweden. The investigation demonstrated great cost savings but also areas for improvement, in particular regarding (a) applicability to practical cases and (b) incorporation of uncertainties in the assessment. The primary focal point of this paper is to present an overview of the development of the ARC model together with recent verifications against a large bond test database as well as foreseen future developments. It was found that the ARC model represents the physical behaviour reasonably well, and gives conservative values of bond strength compared to the bond tests database. In future works, among others, uncertainties of the input variables will be incorporated by means of probabilistic modelling, making way for implementation of the ARC model into semi-probabilistic safety concepts by extraction of modification factors. Overall, with more accurate and reliable assessment methods for corroded RC structures, environmental and economic savings are imminent as more of the potential of existing structures can be realized.

  • 37.
    Blomfors, Mattias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Coronelli, Dario
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Engineering bond model for corroded reinforcement2018In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 156, p. 394-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion of the reinforcement in concrete structures affects their structural capacity. This problem affects many existing concrete bridges and climate change is expected to worsen the situation in future. At the same time, assessment engineers lack simple and reliable calculation methods for assessing the structural capacity of structures damaged by corrosion. This paper further develops an existing model for assessing the anchorage capacity of corroded reinforcement. The new version is based on the local bond stress-slip relationships from fib Model Code 2010 and has been modified to account for corrosion. The model is verified against a database containing the results from nearly 500 bond tests and by comparison with an empirical model from the literature. The results show that the inherent scatter among bond tests is large, even within groups of similar confinement and corrosion level. Nevertheless, the assessment model that has been developed can represent the degradation of anchorage capacity due to corrosion reasonably well. This new development of the model is shown to represent the experimental data better than the previous version; it yields similar results to an empirical model in the literature. In contrast to many empirical models, the model developed here represents physical behaviour and shows the full local bond stress-slip relationship. Using this assessment model will increase the ability of professional engineers to estimate the anchorage capacity of corroded concrete structures.

  • 38.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Berg, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech.
    Distortion in Laminated Veneer Products Exposed to Relative-Humidity Variations Experimental Studies and Finite-Element Modelling2019In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 3768-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A shortcoming of the laminated bending process is that the product may become distorted after moulding. This study focused on the influence of fibre orientation deviation for individual veneers on the distortion of a moulded shell. The distortion of 90 cross-laminated shells of the same geometrical shape, consisting of seven peeled birch veneers, were studied under relative humidity variation. All the veneers were straight-grained in the longitudinal-tangential plane, but to simulate a deviation in fibre orientation, some of the individual veneers were oriented at an angle of 7 degrees relative to the main orientation of the other veneers in the laminate. A finite element model (FEM) was applied to study the possibility of predicting the results of a practical experiment. The study confirms the well-known fact that deviation in fibre orientation influences shape stability. The results also show how the placement of the abnormal veneer influences the degree of distortion. From this basic knowledge, some improvements in the industrial production were suggested. However, the FE model significantly underestimated the results, according to the empirical experiment, and it did not show full coherence. The survey shows the complexity of modelling the behaviour of laminated veneer products under changing climate conditions and that there is a great need to improve the material and process data to achieve accurate simulations. Examples of such parameters that may lead to distortion are density, annual ring orientation in the cross section of the veneer, the orientation of the loose and tight sides of the veneer, and parameters related to the design of the moulding tool.

  • 39.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Ormarsson, Sigurdur
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Impact of surface pressure on the shape stability of laminated veneer products2019In: Proceedings ofthe 15th Annual Meeting ofthe Northern European Network for Wood Science and EngineeringWSE2019 / [ed] Maria Fredriksson, Lund: Lund University , 2019, p. 164-166Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Bok, Gunilla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Brander, Linus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Nya möjligheter att minska mängden deponerat gipsavfall från bygg- och ombyggnadsprojekt2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasterboard is a common building material used in several parts of a building. In the case of retrofitting and demolition a part of the waste consists of components combined with the plasterboards, for example, frame work timber.

    In the case of new construction and retrofitting, construction waste is produced from clean plasterboard boards, either as cut off pieces or as unused whole boards. This waste can be used as raw material to produce new plasterboards. Manufacturers want to use gypsum from wasted boards to decrease the use of primary gypsum from mining and the quality requirements are relatively easy to achieve.

    In this project it has been found that the major construction companies already handle gypsum from new construction separately. This waste fraction could already be used in the production of new boards. Gypsum from retrofitting is usually assembled with other building materials and require more extensive efforts to achieve necessary purity to be used in the productions of new boards. Today, plasterboard waste is deposited or used to improve soil and/or sludge. In order to increase the recycling of plasterboards new inventory routines of rebuilding and demolition projects need to be elaborated. New tools and methods for dismantling plasterboard need to be development to achieve safe working environment and environmentally and economically sustainable recycling.

    Preparation plants producing raw material from plasterboard waste are already in operation. Today the waste mainly is wastage from the production stage. In order to increase the recycling of plasterboards from the construction- and demolition branch new logistic systems need to be developed, for example by creating collection points for gypsum board waste and / or developing new transport vehicles and systems. Prerequisites of changing the system of piece work in the construction industry need to be investigated with the intension to create a more sustainable building industry.

  • 41.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Enger, Johanna
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Hiller, Carolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Bright Communication: Belysningskommunikation med fokus på perception och energi2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to promote an efficient use of energyfor lighting, while putting the user's perception and light comfort in focus,this project has developed methods and tools to communicate light and lighting.To ensure that light environments are designed from a user perspective,existing definitions of light quality, which are mainly based on technicalterms, have been supplemented with concepts and definitions of visual and emotionalcharacter of light. The lighting industry and professional purchasers have beeninvolved in all phases of the project in order to develop methods and toolsthat are well-grounded and applicable by different actors involved in theprocess from light planning to the implementation of lighting environments. Lighting accounts for a significant part of the total energy use in buildings,about 20 per cent for households and 40 per cent for premises. The energysaving potential is thus high. Moreover, Europe is facing a shift towards moreenergy efficient lighting as a result of both regulations and technologydevelopment. Still, Swedish consumers tend to prefer incandescent light, as itis perceived to provide better comfort compared to modern light sources.Therefore, in order to motivate property owners and consumers to convert tomore energy-efficient products, it is necessary to focus more on the visual andemotional qualities of light. Today, however, knowledge, concepts and tools to communicateand measure visual light quality are lacking. This challenge has been the motivationand starting point for the development of methods for assessing objective andsubjective light qualities for light sources, luminaires and light environmentswithin this project and to translate the results into tools targeting theindustry. The project has developed a draft communication tool based on the humanperception of light quality. The tool aims to constitute a neutralcommunication point and to supports both the lighting industry and professionalpurchaser, and thus also the end user. By reducing misunderstandings andincreasing the consensus between actors in different parts of the process fromlight planning to implementation, the tool is expected to promote lightenvironments that are both energy-efficient and provide attractive perceptionand comfort.

  • 42.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Lane, Anna-Lena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Larsson, Annika
    Solbruket: Batterilager för ökad solelproduktion i det moderna lantbruket2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential for solar power production in the Swedish agriculture is significant but is highly limited by the capacity in the low-voltage grid. The use of battery storages may be a possibility to increase the self-consumption of solar power and reduce the power exchange to the grid, and thereby avoid expensive grid reinforcements.In order to build knowledge about both technical and user-related possibilities and challenges with grid-connected battery storages for Swedish farms with PV, RISE and Vattenfall have built a pilot plant on a farm in Hälsingland and conducted two sociotechnical studies with interviews and questionnaires concerning obstacles, drivers and benefits associated with battery storages, as they are perceived by Swedish farmers at present.The results point at a number of challenges for battery storages to become an attractive investment for farmers, which include:- Reliability: lifetime and performance of the battery technology is unclear.- Economy: profit versus investment costs.- Long-term storage: seasonal storage of energy is perceived as more attractive than short-term storage.- Supporting backup power: an added value that may motivate higher investment costs.- Climate and environmental benefits: important aspects that are unclear for the present battery technology.These challenges need to be addressed in technical system solutions, services and business models in order to motivate this particular group to invest in battery storages to complement their existing PV power plants.The results from the pilot plant also points at a number of practical benefits and possibilities associated with the system solution. Apart from creating value by cutting power peaks and enable increased self-consumption of solar power, the farmers appreciate the increased convenience provided by the batteries. Since the battery storage cuts the highest power peaks and thereby reduces the risk of local power failures, it is no longer crucial when in time power-consuming equipment is used. This offers a new flexibility in the daily routines. The main economic benefit raised by the farmers is the possibility of a lower fuse subscription.The results from Solbruket provide increased knowledge about farmers with PV and how battery storages can create value for the specific target group. This knowledge can be used by product and services developers to develop attractive technical solutions, services and business models targeting the specific market. However, it is crucial to keep in mind that the battery technology is perceived as immature, and that an investment is regarded as a significant risk. Only when there is balance between technical maturity and investment costs, it is reasonable for the consumer to consider different business models.

  • 43.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nordén, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Innemiljö i nytt ljus: Metoder för objektiv bedömning av belysning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nuvarande belysningsstandarder baseras enbart på tekniska krav, såsom ljusstyrka, jämnhet och luminans. Att även inkludera upplevelsebaserade krav skulle troligen främja bättre ljuskomfort, men även mer energieffektiva ljusmiljöer och produkter. Kunskapen om hur upplevda belysningsparametrar kan beskrivas är dock begränsad. Detta hämmar fastighetsägare och brukare att precisera önskvärda ljusmiljöer, liksom belysningstillverkare att utveckla produkter för nya marknader och tillämpningar. Syftet med detta forskningsprojekt var att utveckla och tillämpa sensoriska metoder på belysning. Till skillnad från tidigare metoder möjliggör sensoriska metoder objektiva bedömningar av upplevda belysningsparametrar.

    En analytisk panel bestående av åtta personer som uppfyller särskilda urvalskriterier rekryterades och tränades att bedöma belysningsprodukter i ett multisensoriskt laboratorium på SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut i Borås. Metodutvecklingen fokuserade särskilt på en effektiv träningsprocedur, hantering av ögats adaption, samt bedömning av färg och skuggningar. Förutom laboratorie-försök undersöktes möjligheten att genomföra analytiska bedömningar i en verklig kontext med samma försöksuppställning och panel.

    Resultaten visar att det är möjligt att använda sensorisk metodik för att genomföra objektiva belysningsbedömningar av armaturer; paneldeltagarna kunde skilja mellan attribut och prover. Signifikanta skillnader identifierades mellan de olika armaturerna, både i form av sensoriska och fysikaliska egenskaper såsom läsbarhet och bländning. Fysikaliska och sensoriska parametrar samvarierar dock inte alltid, vilket visar att fysikaliska och sensoriska mätningar ger kompletterande information om belysningskvalitet. Vidare visade bedömningsförsök i en verklig kontext att samma resultat uppnåddes som i laboratoriet, men med lägre signifikans, vilket verifierar metodens tillämpbarhet på belysning.

    Den genererade kunskapen väntas på sikt bidra till utveckling av verktyg som stödjer kommunikationen mellan olika professioner inom ljusdesign och planering och på så vis främja mer önskvärda och energieffektiva ljusmiljöer.

  • 44.
    Borgqvist, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ågren, Thomas
    ICA Fastigheter, Sweden.
    Westman, Bo
    INCERT, Sweden.
    Swartz, Harry
    Hållbar miljö & strategi, Sweden.
    Certifierad energikonsult livsmedelsbutiker2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna förstudie har undersökt förutsättningarna för en frivillig, ej ackrediterad certifiering av energikonsulter för livsmedelsbutiker. Det långsiktiga målet är att butiker med hjälp av certifierade energikonsulter skall få effektiva och kvalitativa energikartläggningar som innefattar såväl fastighetens som verksamhetens energianvändning och hur de olika delarna kan samverka för största möjliga energieffektivisering.

    Det finns en mycket stor potential att spara energi i butiker. Dagens genomsnittsbutik kan minska sin energianvändning med en tredjedel. Idag finns också en ökad miljömedvetenhet hos svenska livsmedelsbutiker, och med ett större behov av kyld mat har energifrågorna fått en allt större betydelse. Medlemmar i BELIVS Innovationskluster har länge efterfrågat en certifiering av energikonsulter för livmedelsbutiker, som utgår ifrån beställarnas behov. Detta för att öka andelen butiker med låg energianvändning, säker drift och liten miljöpåverkan.

    Förstudiens resultat består av; identifierade behov ur ett beställarperspektiv, en kravspecifikation som beskriver certifieringens kompetenskrav, en beskrivning av hur en certifiering är tänkt att gå till, samt ett exempel på hur ett certifieringsprov kan se ut. Dessutom har fyra stycken testcertifieringar genomförts, där exempelprovet har testats av energikonsulter. Tanken är att förstudiens resultat skall kunna användas som underlag för att ta fram ett färdigt certifieringsprogram.

    Den generella slutsatsen från förstudien är att certifieringen av energikonsulter för livsmedelsbutiker är genomförbar, men beställarna behöver efterfråga certifieringen i sina upphandlingar av konsulter om denna skall slå på marknaden. Baserat på diskussioner med representanter från konsultsidan, bedömer projektgruppen att det finns ett intresse för certifieringen så länge beställarna kommer att efterfråga detta. Att få fler beställare bakom den föreslagna certifieringen är den viktigaste åtgärden i ett nästa steg.

    RISE har drivit projektet tillsammans med INCERT, ICA Fastigheter, Coop och Hållbar Miljö & Strategi. Projektgruppen har haft kontakt med Bergendahls och Axfood vilka har deltagit vid enstaka arbetsmöten.

    Finansiärer av förstudien är Energimyndigheten, INCERT, ICA Fastigheter, Coop samt Bergendahls.

  • 45.
    Boss, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Sacco, Francesco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Molnar, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Systematisk utvärdering av hållbarhet vid renovering2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det europeiska fastighetsbeståndet är i behov av omfattande renoveringar för att uppnå minskade koldioxidutsläpp, men också för att skapa förbättrade livsvillkor för människor samtidigt som fastighetsägare drivs av ökad ekonomisk bärkraft. Men det är inte alltid lätt att veta hur mål av detta slag ska uppnås och balanseras. Därför har RISE tillsammans med partners i fastighetsbranschen tagit fram Renobuild – en beslutsmetod för att utvärdera renoveringar utifrån ett hållbarhetsperspektiv. I projektet har två versioner av metodiken tagits fram, testats och vidareutvecklats via fallstudier.

    Med hjälp av Renobuild Bostad utvärderas renoveringar av flerbostadshus och deras omgivningar med hänsyn till klimatpåverkan, livscykelkostnader och sociala faktorer så som trygghet, säkerhet, hälsa och sociala relationer. Med Renobuild Skola utvärderas skolrenoveringar och dess effekter på inte bara ekonomi och miljö, utan också med hänsyn till elevers lärande, trygghet och sociala relationer. Metodiken genererar en sammantagen hållbarhetsvärdering som ska ge fastighetsägare och samarbetspartners fördjupad förståelse för möjliga hållbarhetskonsekvenser av olika renoveringsalternativ samt tillfälle att diskutera och göra avvägningar mellan olika mål.

    Renobuild består av en Excelfil och en användarhandbok fritt tillgängliga för vem som helst att använda. Dessa nås via en webbplats, tillsammans med bakgrundsmaterial för den som vill få en djupare förståelse för hur metodiken har utvecklats. Förhoppningen är att metodiken nu ska spridas i fastighetsbranschen och därmed generera en större medvetenhet om hållbarhetsfrågor vid renoveringar.

  • 46.
    Boss, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Sacco, Francesco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Molnar, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Folland, Anna
    Hedén, Alice
    Renobuild 2.0 – verktyg för systematisk hållbarhetsutvärdering vid renovering2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fastighetsbeståndet i Sverige och resten av Europa är i behov av omfattande renoveringar för att uppnå minskade koldioxidutsläpp, skapa förbättrade livsvillkor för människor och öka dess ekonomiska bärkraft. Men det är inte alltid lätt att veta hur dessa mål ska uppnås och balanseras. Därför har RISE tillsammans med partners i fastighetsbranschen tagit fram Renobuild – en beslutsmetod för att utvärdera renoveringar utifrån ett hållbarhetsperspektiv. I projektet har två versioner av metodiken tagits fram, testats och vidareutvecklats via fallstudier. I Renobuild Bostad utvärderas renoveringar av flerbostadshus och deras omgivningar. Analysen tar hänsyn till klimatpåverkan, livscykelkostnader och sociala faktorer så som trygghet, säkerhet, hälsa och sociala relationer. Renobuild Skola utvärderar skolrenoveringar och dess effekter på ekonomi, miljö och sociala aspekter så som elevers lärande, trygghet och sociala relationer. Resultatet ger en sammantagen hållbarhetsvärdering som fördjupar fastighetsägares och samarbetspartners förståelse för möjliga konsekvenser av olika renoveringsalternativ. Renobuild består av ett Excelark och en användarhandbok som är fritt tillgängliga för vem som helst att använda. Dessa nås via en webbsida tillsammans med bakgrundsmaterial. En del av det materialet är den här rapporten som ämnar ge en djupare förståelse för hur metodiken har utvecklats. Rapporten beskriver vad användaren kan utvärdera med hjälp av dessa verktyg, hur verktyget behandlar indata, hur resultatet framställs och visualiseras samt hur den nya version 2.0 skiljer sig från en tidigare version. Här beskrivs också hur bakgrundsdata och teori har används för att utveckla innehållet i verktygen. Dessutom diskuteras det vilka avgränsningar som har gjorts i den miljömässiga, ekonomiska och sociala analysen – alltså reflektioner kring systemgränserna för respektive hållbarhetsdimension. Förhoppningen är att metodiken ska spridas i fastighetsbranschen och därmed generera en större medvetenhet om hållbarhetsfrågor vid renoveringar.

  • 47.
    Boubitsas, Dimitiros
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Tang, Luping
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fridh, Katja
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Utgenannt, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Frost Resistance of Concrete – Experience from Long-Term Field Exposure2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results from a research project financed by Trafikverket, the Swedish Transport Administration, co-financed by Cementa AB.

    The purpose of this project is to investigate concrete specimens exposed to a de-icing salt highway environment at Highway 40 close to Borås after about 20 years. The project work was divided into two parts: Part One for frost resistance of concrete and Part Two for chloride ingress and reinforcement corrosion.

    In Part One, more than 100 types of concrete mixes with different binder types/combinations, water-binder ratios (w/b) and air contents exposed at three field test sites were examined for external and internal frost damage by measurements of the changes in volume of, and in ultrasonic transmission time through, the specimens. Furthermore, some laboratory tests were carried out to supply necessary data for modelling and identify the possible mechanisms causing frost damage.

    The results show clearly that the highway environment is the most aggressive with regard to external frost damage. Further, the results from this study show that the existence of entrained air and the water-binder ratio are the main parameters influencing the resistance of concrete to external salt-frost damage. Furthermore, the concrete mixes with CEM I, CEM I + 5 % silica, CEM II/A-LL, CEM II/A-S and CEM I + 30 % slag as binder with entrained air and a water/binder ratio of 0.4 or below, has good resistance to internal and external frost damage. Results show that concrete containing large amounts of slag as part of the binder (CEM III/B) have the severest scaling, irrespective of its content of entrained air.

    Comparing results from laboratory testing of salt-frost resistance in accordance with SS 13 72 44 (the ‘Slab test’ in CEN/TS 12390-9) with results after nineteen years’ exposure at the highway exposure site shows that the laboratory standard classifies most concrete qualities correctly.

    However, there is an indication that the laboratory test method may overestimate the scaling resistance of concrete containing a medium to high content of slag as part of the binder. This indicates a need to consider a revision of the slab test procedure so that aging processes is better taken into consideration. A somewhat longer preconditioning time with at least partially an increased carbon dioxide content would for example lead to that the effect of carbonation is better reflected.

  • 48.
    Brolin, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Fahnestock, Jesse
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Rootzen, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Industry’s Electrification and Role in the Future Electricity System: A Strategic Innovation Agenda2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Trends visible today suggest that a transformation of industrial firms’ use of electricity, and a change in their role in the electricity system, could take place as a part of a long-term transition towards a low-carbon Swedish economy. The shape of these changes remains highly uncertain, but electrification, flexible electricity use, and emerging roles in the electricity system for industrial consumers are interdependent developments and should be investigated from a holistic perspective where possible.

    Swedish industry is relatively energy intensive, and has stood for roughly 37% of the country’s electricity use for a decade. The Swedish Energy Agency’s Vivace scenario suggests that this share could expand, despite improved efficiency, to 49% by 2050. The increased use of electricity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and take advantage of market conditions would play out differently in different sectors, and depending on the development of different technologies. However large-scale opportunities may exist in the long-term, such as using electrolysis to produce hydrogen for replacing coke in the iron and steel industry and as a feedstock in the petrochemical industry.

    Smaller-scale but still important options for electrification include electric/hybrid boilers in the pulp and paper industry and a variety of electro-thermal technologies for heating and drying.

    Increased use of electricity in industry is likely to go hand-in-hand with increasingly flexible use of electricity. In some cases, such as the production of hydrogen or process media, this flexibility will be in-built since the storable energy carriers create new production planning options. In other cases, new approaches to planning, process design, and the use of automation may allow firms to match electricity use to favourable market conditions.

    The expected high penetration of intermittent renewable electricity in the power system may create incentives for this flexibility. These incentives should appear on the wholesale market, in the form of high- and low-price periods. They may also appear via new capacity markets, or through markets for new system services needed to support stability in both transmission and distribution networks. The frameworks and regulations needed to create these markets are not yet in place, and firms will also need to develop technical and management capabilities to take advantage of them.

  • 49.
    Brorström, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ernits, Heiti
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Gränsöverskridande organiseringför hållbar utveckling2019In: INNOVATIONOCHSTADSUTVECKLING : En forskningsantologiom organiseringsutmaningarför stad och kommun / [ed] Jessica Algehed, Erica Eneqvist,Christian Jensen & Jenny Lööf, 2019, p. 149-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att skapa en framtida hållbar stad krävs ambitioner, mål och en tydlighet angående vart staden är på väg och hur förvaltningar och bolag tillsammans ska ta sig dit. Över tid har hållbarhetsfrågan mer och mer kommitatt handla om organisation: hur ska våra organisationer se ut och hur skade arbeta för att kunna hantera alla de utmaningar vi står inför? ForskarnaMoldavanova och Goerdel (2018) menar till exempel att en organisationmåste vara ”self-sustainable”, för att kunna hantera stora utmaningar ochhöga ambitioner. Det innebär att en organisation måste ha kapacitet för attkunna hantera en så stor utmaning som hållbarhet är. När vi pratar om organiseringen av hållbarhetsfrågan har diskussionen rört sig till en ”meso-nivå”, det vill säga en organisationsnivå. Det finns idag en kritik mot attmoderna organisationer ofta är kortsiktigt fokuserade, något som förstärksav New Public Management-paradigmet. Att utvärderas och kontrolleras på kort sikt men samtidigt arbeta motlångsiktiga mål är en problematik som vi har stött på i våra studier avsvenska städer och deras hållbarhetsarbete. Vi möter också ofta uttalandensom tyder på att det tar upp mycket tid och kraft för tjänstepersoner attfundera på hur organisationen ska se ut, vem som ska ingå i olika projekt,hur beslut fattas och hur kultur kan förändras. Våra studier visar också attmånga komplexa frågor som handlar om hur staden ska te sig i framtidenbehandlas i gränsöverskridande samverkan. Detta är i sig inte förvånande,många har konstaterat att de samhälleliga utmaningar vi står inför inte kanhanteras av en organisation enskilt, utan måste hanteras över gränser (Williams, 2012). Men förutom att hållbarhetsfrågan är utmanande i sig, finnsdet också flertalet utmaningar som har att göra med själva organiseringen.I det här kapitlet beskriver vi utmaningarna som uppstår i organisationersom har att arbeta med hållbarhetsfrågan. Vi kommer att utgå från två olikastudier av två städer, där organiseringen skiljer sig åt och där man därförhar valt två olika sätt att lösa ett problem, eller snarare att möta en utmaning. Vi inleder med att först kortfattat beskriva de två städernas arbete föratt sedan beskriva utmaningarna.

  • 50.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Falk, Petter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    What can LCA learnfrom service design: User integration?2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a sustainable society, the use of resources and climate issues needs to be reduced, and the introduction of services seems to be the solution in the new “service” economy. Similar to products, services are designed to fulfill costumer needs. However, customers are seldom involved in the design of products, while they are in the process of service design. Here we look at the leisure service sector to find method concepts for sustainable analysis (Berlin & Brunklaus 2016).

    So far, a literature study and LCA studies on services (Brunklaus 2016) like the opera and theatre (Algehed et al 2010), tourist (Brunklaus et al 2015), and film (Brunklaus et al 2015) has been performed using a producer and consumer perspective, which led to discussion about the reuse of scenes at the opera, and discussion about tourist packages and discussion about film production design. To get this even further, we have looked into the area of service design.

    The purpose of this project is to further develop the various LCA based methods (E-LCA, S-LCA, LCC) in order to integrate user into the design process. The questions are: What can the life cycle methodology learn from service design? What are the similarities and differences?

    The service design includes several parts: Prepare and define the problem, capture the service and user through ethograpichly oriented research tools, Understand the employee and the user, Improve the working process, and Renew the user function (SP service LABs 2016). The life cycle methodology includes also several parts: Goal and scope including the problem and the system of study, the Inventory includes the technical system and environmental or social or economic data, the Impact Assessment includes indicators, and the Interpretation includes technical solutions and hot spot analysis of various kinds (Bauman and Tillman 2004).

    The results show that the service design is developed close to the customer, including study visits and observation, which the life cycle methodology seems to lack. On the other hand the life cycle methodology gains in the well-structured goal and scope. In order to develop the life cycle methodology further we therefore recommend integrating the user more and focusing on the implementation and visualization, similar to Service design.

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