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  • 1.
    Abitbol, Tiffany
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    UV-blocking hybrid nanocellulose films containing ceria and silica nanoparticles2018In: International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials 2018, 2018, p. 503-515Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Abitbol, Tiffany
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
    Kam, Doron
    The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
    Levi-Kalisman, Yael
    The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
    Gray, Derek G
    McGill University, Canada.
    Shoseyov, Oded
    The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
    Surface Charge Influence on the Phase Separation and Viscosity of Cellulose Nanocrystals2018In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 34, no 13, p. 3925-3933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    counterions in the suspensions. The results suggest that there is a threshold surface charge density (∼0.3%S) above which effective volume considerations are dominant across the concentration range relevant to liquid crystalline phase formation. Above this threshold value, phase separation occurs at the same effective volume fraction of CNCs (∼10 vol %), with a corresponding increase in critical concentration due to the decrease in effective diameter that occurs with increasing surface charge. Below or near this threshold value, the formation of end-to-end aggregates may favor gelation and interfere with ordered phase formation.

  • 3.
    Abitbol, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    UV-blocking hybrid nanocellulose films containing ceria and silica nanoparticles2018In: International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials 2018, 2018, p. 503-515Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Ahlberg-Eliasson, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish Rural Economy and Agricultural Society, Sweden.
    Nadeau, Elisabet
    Swedish Rural Economy and Agricultural Society, Sweden; SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Levén, Lotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Schnürer, Anna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Production efficiency of Swedish farm-scale biogas plants2017In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 97, p. 27-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas from agricultural waste streams represents an important way to produce fossil-free energy, allow nutrient recycling and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, biogas production from agricultural substrates is currently far from reaching its full potential. In Sweden, the number of biogas plants and their output have increased in recent years, but they are still experiencing harsh economic conditions. A recent evaluation (2010–2015) of 31 farm-scale biogas production facilities in Sweden sought to identify parameters of importance for further positive development. In this paper, data on plant operation, gas yield and digestate quality for 27 of these plants are summarised and statistically analysed to investigate factors that could allow an increase in overall biogas production and in nutrient content in the digestate. The analysis showed that addition of co-substrates to manure results in higher gas production, expressed as both specific methane potential and volumetric gas production, than when manure is the sole substrate. Use of co-substrate was also found to be influential for the nutrient content of the digestate. These observed improvements caused by co-digestion should be considered when subsidy systems for manure-based biogas processes are being created, as they could also improve the economics of biogas production. However, to achieve higher efficiency in existing biogas plants and to improve the situation for future investments, a more detailed, long-term evaluation programme should also be considered.

  • 5.
    Almhöjd, Ulrika S.
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden.
    Lingström, Peter
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Åke
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden.
    Noren, Jörgen G.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden.
    Siljeström, Silje
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    ֖stlund, Å.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Bernin, D.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Molecular Insights into Covalently Stained Carious Dentine Using Solid-State NMR and ToF-SIMS2017In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 255-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dyes currently used to stain carious dentine have a limited capacity to discriminate normal dentine from carious dentine, which may result in overexcavation. Consequently, finding a selective dye is still a challenge. However, there is evidence that hydrazine-based dyes, via covalent bonds to functional groups, bind specifically to carious dentine. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible formation of covalent bonds between carious dentine and 15N2-hydrazine and the hydrazine-based dye, 15N2-labelled Lucifer Yellow, respectively. Powdered dentine from extracted carious and normal teeth was exposed to the dyes, and the staining reactions were analysed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), solid-state 13C-labelled nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 15N-NMR spectroscopy. The results showed that 15N2-hydrazine and 15N2-labelled Lucifer Yellow both bind to carious dentine but not to normal dentine. It can thus be concluded that hydrazine-based dyes can be used to stain carious dentine and leave normal dentine unstained.

  • 6.
    Alsanius, Beatrix
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Löfström, Charlotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Vattenrening för ökad hygien vid odling av frilandsgrönsaker och bär2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senare år har ett flertal utbrottmed magsjuka kopplats till konsumtionav grönsaker, frukt och bär. Sjukdomsframkallandebakterier och virus, såsomnorovirus, Salmonella, toxinproducerandeE. coli, Campylobacter och Listeria. kanspridas från bevattningsvatten via grö-dan till människor och orsaka sjukdom.Smittat bevattningsvatten kan därförförorena frilandsproducerade grönsakeroch bär. Det är alltås viktigt att hakontroll på bevattningsvattnets kvalitet.Dessutom är det viktigt att känna tillvilken typ av kultur som vattnet skaanvändas till, eftersom risken för vidaresmitta till människor varierar mellanolika typer av kulturer. T.ex. är det störrerisk att använda kontaminerat vatten tillkulturer som äts råa utan uppvärmninghos livsmedelsproducenten eller konsument,eftersom det då inte finns nå-gon möjlighet att avdöda de oönskademikroorganismerna i ett efterföljandesteg. Genom rätt hantering och adekvatbehandling av bevattningsvattnetkan dess hygieniska kvalitet förbättras.Ibland finns det möjlighet för odlarenatt byta vattenkälla, men då detta inte ärpraktiskt möjligt kan det kontamineradevattnet renas innan bevattning. I dettafaktablad beskrivs två grundläggandetekniker för rening av bevattningsvattenvid frilandsproduktion, nämligen fotokemi(fotokatalys, UV) och filtrering(mekanisk filtrering, långsamfiltrering).Dessa används för att minska risken försmittspridning med bevattningsvattnet.

  • 7.
    An, Jungxue
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jin, Chunsheng
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dėdinaitė, Andra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Holgersson, Jan
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Niclas G.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Influence of Glycosylation on Interfacial Properties of Recombinant Mucins: Adsorption, Surface Forces, and Friction2017In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 33, no 18, p. 4386-4395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interfacial properties of two brush-with-anchor mucins, C-P55 and C-PSLex, have been investigated at the aqueous solution/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) interface. Both are recombinant mucin-type fusion proteins, produced by fusing the glycosylated mucin part of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSLG-1) to the Fc part of a mouse immunoglobulin in two different cells. They are mainly expressed as dimers upon production. Analysis of the O-glycans shows that the C-PSLex mucin has the longer and more branched side chains, but C-P55 has slightly higher sialic acid content. The adsorption of the mucins to PMMA surfaces was studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. The sensed mass, including the adsorbed mucin and water trapped in the layer, was found to be similar for these two mucin layers. Atomic force microscopy with colloidal probe was employed to study surface and friction forces between mucin-coated PMMA surfaces. Purely repulsive forces of steric origin were observed between mucin layers on compression, whereas a small adhesion was detected between both mucin layers on decompression. This was attributed to chain entanglement. The friction force between C-PSLex-coated PMMA is lower than that between C-P55-coated PMMA at low loads, but vice versa at high loads. We discuss our results in terms of the differences in the glycosylation composition of these two mucins.

  • 8.
    An, Junxue
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Liu, Xiaoyan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dedinaite, Andra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Korchagina, Evgeniya
    University of Montreal, Canada.
    Winnik, Francoise M.
    University of Montreal, Canada; National Institute for Materials Science, Japan; University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dedinaite, Andra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of solvent quality and chain density on normal and frictional forces between electrostatically anchored thermoresponsive diblock copolymer layers2017In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 487, p. 88-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equilibration in adsorbing polymer systems can be very slow, leading to different physical properties at a given condition depending on the pathway that was used to reach this state. Here we explore this phenomenon using a diblock copolymer consisting of a cationic anchor block and a thermoresponsive block of poly(2-isopropyl-2-oxazoline), PIPOZ. We find that at a given temperature different polymer chain densities at the silica surface are achieved depending on the previous temperature history. We explore how this affects surface and friction forces between such layers using the atomic force microscope colloidal probe technique. The surface forces are purely repulsive at temperatures <40 °C. A local force minimum at short separation develops at 40 °C and a strong attraction due to capillary condensation of a polymer-rich phase is observed close to the bulk phase separation temperature. The friction forces decrease in the cooling stage due to rehydration of the PIPOZ chain. A consequence of the adsorption hysteresis is that the friction forces measured at 25 °C are significantly lower after exposure to a temperature of 40 °C than prior to heating, which is due to higher polymer chain density on the surface after heating.

  • 9.
    Andersson, I. M.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Glantz, M.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Alexander, M.
    Arla Foods Ingredients Group P/S, Denmark.
    Millqvist-Fureby, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Paulsson, M.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bergenståhl, B.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Impact of surface properties on morphology of spray-dried milk serum protein/lactose systems2018In: International Dairy Journal, ISSN 0958-6946, E-ISSN 1879-0143, Vol. 85, p. 86-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated milk serum protein concentrate/lactose systems with varying ratios and how the morphology of the spray-dried particles of these systems could be described by the surface properties of the feed as well as the protein surface coverage of the particles. An extrapolation of the surface pressure of the feed to 0.3 s, the approximate time for molecular diffusion in an atomised droplet in the spray-dryer, showed a relationship with the particle morphology. At low protein concentrations (<1%), the particles were almost totally smooth. At higher protein concentrations (≥1%), the particles became dented and ridged, and these tended to become deeper and thicker as the protein concentration increased. It is suggested that the surface pressure of the feed at low protein concentrations is the most prominent surface property, whereas the modulus of elasticity seems to be the most prominent surface property for particle surface deformation at higher protein concentrations.

  • 10.
    Andersson, I. M.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Millqvist-Fureby, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Sommertune, Jens
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Alexander, M.
    Arla Foods Ingredients Group P/S, Denmark.
    Hellström, N.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Glantz, Maria
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Paulsson, M.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bergenståhl, Björn
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Impact of protein surface coverage and layer thickness on rehydration characteristics of milk serum protein/lactose powder particles2019In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 561, p. 395-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spray-dried powders were produced from milk serum protein concentrate and lactose in varying ratios, and the rehydration characteristics of the powders were evaluated. The dissolution rate was estimated with a flow-cell based technique, and the external and internal distribution of the powder components were evaluated with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and confocal Raman microscopy, respectively. The surface of the powder particles is more or less covered by a thin protein layer. A phase segregation between protein and lactose is observed in the interior of the particle resulting in a protein rich layer in the vicinity of the surface. However, the protein layer in the vicinity of the particle surface tends to become thinner as the bulk protein concentration increases in the powders (from 10 to 60% w/w). The time for the spontaneous imbibition to occur show a linear correlation with the protein surface coverage. The dissolution rate of powders containing 0.1% w/w protein is around 60 times faster than for a powder containing 1% w/w protein but the dissolution rate of powders containing 1% and 100% w/w differ only by a factor of 2. Thus, it is suggested that the outer protein layer becomes denser at the interface as the protein content increases in the powders, thereby causing poorer rehydration characteristics of the powders (especially for low protein concentrations 0.1–1% w/w). This insight has relevance for the formulation of whey protein powders with improved rehydration characteristics. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nordberg, Åke
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Westin, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Processum.
    Askfilter för rening av svavelväte i deponigas2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill gas is formed under anaerobic conditions in landfills by microbial degradation of organic material. The gas composition can vary, but at Swedish landfills the gas generally consists of 40-60% methane, 30-40% carbon dioxide and 5-20% nitrogen. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a highly toxic and corrosive gas, which occur in landfill gas in varying concentrations, from 10 to 30,000 ppm (equivalent to 0.001 to 3.0%). It is desirable that the landfill gas is used for electricity and/or heat production, but to do that there is a need to clean the gas to reach <200 ppm H2S. High levels of H2S increases wear on the engine/boiler and thus the frequency of servicing. This leads to expensive maintenance costs, and ultimately shortens the economic life of the plant. To reduce corrosion, it is common to adjust the flue gas temperature, but this also leads to a lower efficiency and thus reduces the energy utilization of the gas. In some cases the gas concentration of H2S is judged to be too high to be used for energy production at all. In 2015, approximately 53 GWh of landfill gas was flared in Sweden, which in many cases is due to problems with high levels of H2S.

     

    Cleaning of landfill gas from H2S leads to several values; the gas energy is used efficiently, maintenance and service costs of the engines/boiler are reduced, and emissions of acidifying sulphur dioxide from combustion of landfill gas decreases. There are commercial cleaning technologies for H2S but they are expensive, both in terms of capital cost and operating cost. Thus, there is a need to develop new cost efficient cleaning technologies that improve the economic outcome at landfills and that enables landfill gas with high H2S concentrations to be utilized for valuable energy transformation.

     

    RISE (formerly JTI – Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering) together with SLU develops new, potentially cost-efficient methods for upgrading biogas to fuel quality. One of the methods is based on the gas passing through a bed of moist ash (a so-called ash filter), where carbon dioxide and H2S are fixed. The hypothesis of this project was that ashes originating from the incineration of waste, recycled waste wood etc., can be used to clean the high levels of H2S in landfill gas. This type of ashes will usually be disposed of in landfills anyway and if the treatment effect is good, it would generate synergy effects in the form of the ash first being used to clean landfill gas from sulphur before it is used as a construction material at landfills.

     

    This project performed two trials in pilot scale at a Swedish landfill with very high concentration of H2S, approximately 15,000 ppm. Different gas flow rates were studied (0.7 to 7.6 m3 / h), while the volume of ash used were similar in the two trials, 0,37 m3. The concentration of H2S in the cleaned gas was consistently very low during treatment, < 10 ppm at low gas flow rates and < 200 ppm at high gas flow rates. Two types of ash were investigated and both proved to have very good capacity to fix H2S, 44-61 g H2S/kg dry ash. In comparison with literature values, there is only one study showing an uptake capacity in the same order. Other studies report an order of magnitude lower uptake capacity.

    Based on the experimental results, the technical and economic potential for an ash filter as the cleaning method was assessed. The calculations were made for various typical landfills to cover the different range of landfills. For normal sized landfills with gas flow rates of 100-1 000 m3/h and H2S concentrations between 100 and 1 000 ppm, the amount of ash needed is 10-130 tons of dry ash per year. For the special case where the H2S concentration is extremely high, the amount of ash increases and a plant with 15 000 ppm H2S and a gas flow rate of 200 m3/h requires approximately 800 tons of dry ash per year. However, overall modest amounts of ash is required and considering all Swedish landfills the requirement of ash would be only 0.2-0.3% of the annual production of ash in Sweden.

     

    The economic calculations show that the ash filter is a competitive method for removal of H2S. For the special case of extremely high levels of H2S, it turned out that the cost of the ash filter is approximately 20% lower in comparison with the cheapest feasible conventional cleaning technology on the market. Also for the cleaning of landfill gas at more normal levels of H2S, the ash filter is competitive. At low gas flow rates (100 m3/h), the ash filter is clearly competitive compared to literature values for conventional cleaning technologies. The economy of scale seems to be higher for the conventional cleaning technologies, and consequently the difference between the cost of ash filter cleaning and other technologies is less at higher gas flow rates.

     

    The low treatment cost of the ash filter reveals opportunities for landfills that currently do not clean the gas from H2S. During the project 15 Swedish landfills was contacted and none of these reported any form of H2S cleaning. When using cleaning, the landfill gas can be used effectively, i.e. reduced flaring, increased efficiency of electricity and heat production with reduced wear on boilers and combustion equipment as well as reduced emissions of sulphur into the atmosphere, which also reduces the potential odour problems around the landfill.

     

    For further development, the design of an ash filter module prototype at full-scale is important. Furthermore, the treated ashes should be analysed for leaching characteristics, storability and usability as construction materials or as cover landfills along with an assessment of the overall environmental impact. Further tests at full scale should be made at other landfills with various gas flow rates and H2S concentrations to verify the performance of the conducted pilot tests.

  • 12.
    Andren, Oliver C J
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ingverud, Tobias
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hult, Daniel
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Bogestål, Yalda
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Caous, Josefin S
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Blom, Kristina
    Medibiome AB, Sweden.
    Zhang, Yuning
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Therese
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Pedersen, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Björn, Camilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Löwenhielm, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Antibiotic-Free Cationic Dendritic Hydrogels as Surgical-Site-Infection-Inhibiting Coatings.2019In: Advanced Healthcare Materials, ISSN 2192-2640, E-ISSN 2192-2659, article id e1801619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A non-toxic hydrolytically fast-degradable antibacterial hydrogel is herein presented to preemptively treat surgical site infections during the first crucial 24 h period without relying on conventional antibiotics. The approach capitalizes on a two-component system that form antibacterial hydrogels within 1 min and consist of i) an amine functional linear-dendritic hybrid based on linear poly(ethylene glycol) and dendritic 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid, and ii) a di-N-hydroxysuccinimide functional poly(ethylene glycol) cross-linker. Broad spectrum antibacterial effect is achieved by multivalent representation of catatonically charged β-alanine on the dendritic periphery of the linear dendritic component. The hydrogels can be applied readily in an in vivo setting using a two-component syringe delivery system and the mechanical properties can accurately be tuned in the range equivalent to fat tissue and cartilage (G' = 0.5-8 kPa). The antibacterial effect is demonstrated both in vitro toward a range of relevant bacterial strains and in an in vivo mouse model of surgical site infection.

  • 13.
    Anheden, Marie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Uhlin, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Wolf, Jens
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Hedberg, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Berg, Robert
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Ankner, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Berglin, Niklas
    NiNa Innovation, Sweden; ÅF Industry, Sweden.
    von Schenck, Anna
    NiNa Innovation, Sweden; ÅF Industry, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anders L
    Valmet AB, Sweden.
    Guimaraes, Matheus
    Fibria, Sweden.
    Fiskerud, Maria
    Karlstad Airport, Sweden.
    Andersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Value chain for production of bio-oil from kraft lignin for use as bio-jet fuel2017In: The 7th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Stockholm, Sweden, 28-30 Mar. 2017: NWBC 2017, Stockholm: RISE Bioekonomi , 2017, p. 104-109Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The LignoJet project aimed to achieve an intermediate lignin-oil product miscible with fossil feedstock and with a significantly reduced oxygen content. A technical concept for production has been studied that involves combined catalysed depolymerisation and hydrodeoxygenation, so called hydrogenolytic depolymerisation, of kraft lignin. Kraft lignin was separated through membrane ultrafiltration from softwood and eucalyptus black liquor followed by precipitation through LignoBoost technology. A difference in lignin properties was observed between ultrafiltration of softwood and eucalyptus black liquor through 15 and 150kDa ceramic membranes. Lignin-oils with similar oxygen content were produced regardless of origin and fractionation technique. A lignin-oil with favourable properties as precursor for refinery integration for jet fuel production as produced in small-scale batch experiments using nickel-based catalyst. Stable pumpable oils with melting point of less than 25-50 deg C and with 20-30% lower oxygen content and aromatic content were obtained that would be suitable as jet fuel precursors. The estimated production cost was found to be competitive with that of other liquid biofuels, while additional revenues could potentially be achieved by also producing chemical and materials from suitable fractions of the lignin-oil.

  • 14.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Nordling, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Demker, Ingvar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Sjöqvist, Mia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Funktionsprovning av tätskiktsystem förvåtutrymmen 20192019Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional testing of waterproofing systems for use behind ceramic tiling based on flexible sheets 2019

    Functional testing

    The result is worse than before.

    Six (32%) of the nineteen tested waterproofing systems passed the function test without leakage. Thirteen (68%) tests resulted in leakage.

    This result is worse than that obtained in the previous project in 2016, (1) when eight (40%) of twenty tested waterproofing systems passed the functional test without leakage. There has therefore been some deterioration in the as constructed systems.

    The result, however, is better than in the project performed in 2014 (2) when only three (15%) of twenty tested waterproofing systems passed without leakage.

    In this project, several leakages are localised around the penetrations of large and small drainpipes. This is an increase compared to previous studies. We have seen on several occasions that pipe collars have had poor quality. This has been noticed by that the polymer material used for sealing around the tube has lost its water tightness ability during the test. It is most probable that the material has a residual deformation (from setting) that causes the material to lose its ability to seal around the tube. We have also noted that the pipe collars have delaminated i.e. the layers in the collars have been divided into their individual constituents during the test.

    Leakages have also been caused by connections to gullies, inside corners, outside corners and in joints of foils.

    Fortunately, none of the investigative systems showed leakage that was so extensive that one could describe it as total damage.

    Water vapour resistance and mass per unit area

    Thirteen tested waterproofing on flexible sheet systems show a result between 2,5 and 4,5 million s/m, which is a high or very-high water vapour resistance. Six flexible sheet systems have a result below 2,5 million s/m.

    In the determination of water vapour resistance and mass per unit area, we can clearly see that some manufacturers have made changes in or replaced their flexible sheet with a new one, compared with the previous investigation (1).

    We further note that 10 out of 14 flexible sheets have a lower water vapor resistance than in the previous investigation (1). It is also notable that the PVC sealing layer has a low water vapor resistance.

    Indication of long-term properties

    In order to obtain an indication of the amount added antioxidants that improves the long-term properties of the materials, the DSC analysis of flexible sheets have been performed. In the same way as in the previous project, 2016, (1) it seems that the flexible sheets to be more stabilized for long-term use compared to the previous study in 2014, (2). However, for all analysed materials, to make a reliable service life prediction of the material, an accelerated ageing at moderate temperature is recommended.

  • 15.
    Anyangwe Nwaboh, Javis
    et al.
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Persijn, Stefan
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, The Netherlands.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Bohlen, Haleh
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Werhahn, Olav
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Ebert, Volker
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Metrological quantification of CO in biogas using laser absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography2018In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 29, no 9, article id 095010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas has a vital role in the future market of renewable energy. When upgraded to biomethane, it can be injected into natural gas grids if the level of certain impurities complies with the specifications in EN16723. For some of these impurities, suitable measurement methods are lacking which hampers the quality control of biomethane to be injected into natural gas networks. Here, we report the evaluation of three detection methods suitable for carbon monoxide (CO) in biogas and biomethane applications for which EN16723 specifies an upper limit of 0.1% (1000 µmol/mol). Two of these methods are based on laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) and one on gas chromatography (GC). Both LAS spectrometers are employing direct absorption spectroscopy and operating at 4.6µm, probing a single CO absorption line in the fundamental CO band: One – called dTDLAS (direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy)- is based on a new Interband Cascade Laser specially designed for biogas and biomethane applications, while the other is based on Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (QCLAS). The GC is equipped with two packed columns (Hayesep Q and Molecular Sieve 5A) and a thermal conductivity detector. Carbon monoxide amount fraction results in biogas matrices derived using these three measurement methods are compared to amount fraction values of different, gravimetrically prepared reference gas standards of CO in biogas. These were used to validate the measurement capabilities. The measured CO amount fraction results from LAS and GC covered 10 µmol/mol to 30000 µmol/mol (system measurement ranges, LAS: 3 µmol/mol - 1000 µmol/mol, GC: 500 µmol/mol - 30000 µmol/mol) and were in excellent agreement with the gravimetric values of the gas standards. At 400 µmol/mol, the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) compliant relative standard uncertainties of our calibration-free dTDLAS and the gas-calibrated QCLAS systems are estimated to be 1.4 % vs 0.5 %, respectively. The relative standard uncertainty of the GC CO measurements at 5075 µmol/mol is 1.3 %. This work demonstrates that, by means of GC and LAS, relative standard uncertainties of 1.4 % and below can be reached for CO measurements in biogas and that cost-optimized calibration-free approaches not requiring frequent use of gas standards have become available.

  • 16.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Fischer, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Methods for sampling biogas and biomethane on adsorbent tubes after collection in gas bags2019In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, no 6, article id 1171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas is a renewable energy source with many different production pathways and numerous excellent opportunities for use; for example, as vehicle fuel after upgrading (biomethane). Reliable analytical methodologies for assessing the quality of the gas are critical for ensuring that the gas can be used technically and safely. An essential part of any procedure aimed at determining the quality is the sampling and transfer to the laboratory. Sampling bags and sorbent tubes are widely used for collecting biogas. In this study, we have combined these two methods, i.e., sampling in a gas bag before subsequent sampling onto tubes in order to demonstrate that this alternative can help eliminate the disadvantages associated with the two methods whilst combining their advantages; with expected longer storage stability as well as easier sampling and transport. The results of the study show that two parameters need to be taken into account when transferring gas from a bag on to an adsorbent; the water content of the gas and the flow rate used during transfer of the gas on to the adsorbent. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 17.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Karlsson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Hakonen, Aron
    Ohlson, Lars
    Fordonsgas Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Yaghooby, Haleh
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Variations of fuel composition during storage at Liquefied Natural Gas refuelling stations2018In: Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, ISSN 1875-5100, E-ISSN 2212-3865, Vol. 49, p. 317-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Liquefied Biogas (LBG) utilization within the heavy duty transport sector is today a sustainable alternative to the use of oil. However, in spite of the high degree of insulation in the storage tank walls, it is impossible to fully avoid any net heat input from the surroundings. Due to some degree of vaporization this results in variation in gas composition during storage at refuelling stations, potentially leading to engine failures. Within this study, a vaporizer/sampler has been built and tested at a station delivering liquefied biomethane (LBG) and occasionally; such in this case, LNG to heavy and medium duty trucks. The vaporizer/sampler has then been used to study the variation of the LNG composition in the storage tank during a two weeks period. The results clearly underline a correlation between the gas phase and the liquid phase as the concentration changes follow the same trend in both phases. Two opposite effects are assumed to influence the concentration of methane, ethane and propane in the liquid and in the gas phase. On one hand, because of the probable presence of not fully mixed layers in the storage tank and due to vehicles being refuelled, both liquid and gas phases are enriched in methane at the expense of ethane and propane. On the other hand, due to boil-off effect towards the end of the storage period, both liquid and gas phases are enriched in ethane and propane at the expense of methane.

  • 18.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Yaghooby, Haleh
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Rosell, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Culleton, Lucy
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Bartlett, Sam
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Murugan, Arul
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Brewer, Paul
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Li, Jianrong
    VSL Van Swinden Laboratorium B.V., The Netherlands.
    van der Veen, Adriaan M. H.
    VSL Van Swinden Laboratorium B.V., The Netherlands.
    Krom, Iris
    VSL Van Swinden Laboratorium B.V., The Netherlands.
    Lestremau, Francoise
    INERIS Institut national de l'environnement industriel et des risques, France.
    Beranek, Jan
    ČMI Česky metrologicky institut, Czech Republic.
    Suitability of vessels and adsorbents for the short-term storage of biogas/biomethane for the determination of impurities – Siloxanes, sulfur compounds, halogenated hydrocarbons, BTEX2017In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 105, p. 127-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas is a renewable energy source with many different production pathways and various excellent opportunities to use, for example as vehicle fuel (biomethane). Reliable analytical methodologies for assessing the quality of the gas are critical to ensure that the gas can technically and safely be used. An essential part of any procedure aiming to determine the quality is the sampling and the transfer to the laboratory. One of the greatest challenges is then to ensure that the composition of the sample collected does not change between the time of sampling and the analysis. The choice of the sampling vessel to be used must be made only after fully assessing its short-term stability. In this paper, the results from short-term stability studies in different vessels (cylinders, bags and sorbents) are presented for siloxanes, BTEX, halogenated hydrocarbons and sulfur compounds. Storage of dry gas at high pressure (> 6 MPa) appears to be a good alternative however it is currently challenging to find an optimal treatment of the cylinders for all species to be assessed in biogas/biomethane. At lower pressure, adsorption effects on the inner surface of the cylinders have been observed. The use of bags and sorbent tubes also shows limitation. No existing sorbent tubes are sufficiently universal as to trap all possible impurities and high boiling compounds may adsorbed on the inner surface of the bags walls. Moreover, the presence of water when storing biogas most certainly impacts the storage stability of compounds in most vessels. Using at least two sampling methods for a given compound and comparing results will allow taking into account the eventual effects of water vapour, and adsorption on the inner surface of the vessels.

  • 19.
    Arvidsson, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Ringstad, Lovisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Skedung, Lisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Duvefelt, Kenneth
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Feeling fine - the effect of topography and friction on perceived roughness and slipperiness2017In: Biotribology, ISSN 2352-5738, Vol. 11, p. 92-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    (1) Background. To design materials with specific haptic qualities, it is important to understand both the contribution of physical attributes from the surfaces of the materials and the perceptions that are involved in the haptic interaction. (2) Methods. A series of 16 wrinkled surfaces consisting of two similar materials of different elastic modulus and 8 different wrinkle wavelengths were characterized in terms of surface roughness and tactile friction coefficient. Sixteen participants scaled the perceived Roughness and Slipperiness of the surfaces using free magnitude estimation. Friction experiments were performed both by participants and by a trained experimenter with higher control. (3) Results and discussion. The trends in friction properties were similar for the group of participants performing the friction measurements in an uncontrolled way and the experiments performed under well-defined conditions, showing that the latter type of measurements represent the general friction properties well. The results point to slipperiness as the key perception dimension for textures below 100. μm and roughness above 100. μm. Furthermore, it is apparent that roughness and slipperiness perception of these types of structures are not independent. The friction is related to contact area between finger and material. Somewhat surprising was that the material with the higher elastic modulus was perceived as more slippery. A concluding finding was that the flat (high friction) reference surfaces were scaled as rough, supporting the theory that perceived roughness itself is a multidimensional construct with both surface roughness and friction component.

  • 20.
    Ascard, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Board of Agriculture, Sweden.
    Löfkvist, Klara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Mie, Axel
    SLU Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden ; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Wivstad, Maria
    SLU Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden .
    Växtskyddsmedel i ekologisk produktion – användning och risker2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förebyggande åtgärder dominerar i växtskyddet i ekologisk produktion och användningen av växtskyddsmedel är begränsad. Främst biologiska växtskyddsmedel används och utöver det ett fåtal kemiska växtskyddsmedel, de flesta med låg risk för hälsa och miljö. Dessa används främst i produktion av frukt, bär och grönsaker.

  • 21.
    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    de Hooge, Ilona E.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Rohm, Harald
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Bossle, Marilia B.
    Unisinos Business School, Brazil.
    Grønhøj, Alice
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Oostindjer, Marije
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Key characteristics and success factors of supply chain initiatives tackling consumer-related food waste – A multiple case study2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 155, p. 33-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste accounts for a considerable share of the environmental impact of the food sector. Therefore, strategies that aim to reduce food waste have great potential to improve sustainability of the agricultural and food supply chains. Consumer-related food waste is a complex issue that needs collaboration between various supply chain actors and sector stakeholders. Although a range of initiatives from various actors already exists internationally, there is still a lack of knowledge on which lessons can be derived from such cases. The current multiple case study provides insights into how to successfully design future actions, by analysing common and distinct key success factors in 26 existing initiatives to reduce consumer-related food waste. The findings reveal that collaboration between stakeholders, timing and sequence of initiatives, competencies that the initiative is built on, and a large scale of operations are key success factors. Success factors are identified for the primary design, for the development and maintenance phase, and for reaching out to consumers. There are three general types of initiatives that differ in their aims and characteristics: information and capacity building, redistribution, and retail and supply chain alteration. The first type focuses most strongly on motivating consumer food waste avoidance behaviour and strengthening consumer abilities, while the second and third focus primarily on altering consumer food choice context, but combine this with aspects of raising awareness. Recommendations are derived for future initiatives which should take inspiration from existing initiatives, especially considering the right partners, competencies involved, timing the start of the initiative right, and aim to soon achieve a large scale.

  • 22.
    Avadí, Angel
    et al.
    UPR Recyclage et Risque, France ; University of Montpellier, France.
    Henriksson, Patrik J. G.
    Stockholm University, Sweden ; WorldFish, Malaysia.
    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian
    Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Peru.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Towards improved practices in Life Cycle Assessment of seafood and other aquatic products2018In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 979-981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: 

    Aquatic supply chains, based on e.g. fish, molluscs, crustaceans and algae, provide products aimed for direct or indirect human consumption and other uses. Global demand for these products is increasing, but the fact that wild-capture fisheries—supplying inputs for the food and feed industries—have stagnated (FAO 2016), or even declined, has raised questions about the environmental consequences of aquatic supply chains  Research applying LCA to seafood products has emerged since the early years of the century and, until today, dozens of case studies of fisheries and aquaculture systems from all around the world have been published. The body of literature in this field has grown to the extent of allowing systematic reviews to be undertaken on specific production sectors, such as for capture fisheries 

    The lifecycle of seafood commodities differs from that of terrestrial production systems in their diversity, in the case of fisheries, the reliance on extraction of a natural resource (fish stocks), their impacts on often unmapped ecosystems (e.g. seafloors and deep sea fish stocks) and the more complex trophic webs of aquatic ecosystems. To capture also these biotic and fisheries-specific impacts, an increasing number of fisheries and aquaculture LCAs apply novel impact categories such as biotic resource use and benthic ecosystems impacts. Aquaculture systems, in addition, often rely on feed resources from capture fisheries, agriculture and livestock, requiring extensive LCI models.

    Among the existing aquaculture seafood LCA studies, there is a strong focus on salmonids aquaculture in Europe and North America. The globally largest aquaculture sector, carp farming in China, has, however, been poorly covered. Peruvian anchoveta, the world’s largest fishery and the primary source of fishmeal and fish oil, was first modelled in 2014. Consequently, while the number of aquatic LCAs has steadily been increasing, the uniqueness of aquatic production chains and the diversity of species leave many inventories overlooked and some relevant impact categories unaddressed. In response, we initiated this Special Issue (SI), to supplement literature and highlight shortcomings. Thirteen articles were ultimately accepted in the SI

  • 23.
    Axelson, U.
    et al.
    The Rural Economy and Agricultural Society, Sweden;SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Söderström, M.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Risk assessment of high concentrations of molybdenum in forage2018In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, ISSN 0269-4042, E-ISSN 1573-2983, Vol. 4, no 6, p. 2685-2694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molybdenum is toxic to ruminants when present in high levels in forage, causing physiological copper deficiency. A critical level for ruminants is 3–10 mg Mo kg−1 dry matter. The average Mo level varies considerably between different arable soils, depending mainly on soil parent material. This study investigated the possibility of using various existing sources of geospatial information (geophysical, biogeochemical and soil chemical) to develop a geography-based risk assessment system. Forage samples (n = 173) were collected in 2006–2007. Three types of national geoscientific datasets were tested: (1) SEPA topsoil, comprising data from arable land within the Swedish environmental monitoring programme; (2) SGU biogeochemical, containing data from aquatic plant root material collected in small streams; and (3) SGU geophysical, consisting of data from airborne gamma-ray scanning. The digital postcode area map was used for geocoding, with Mo concentrations in forage assigned to arable parts of the corresponding postcode area. By combining this with the three national geoscientific databases, it was possible to construct a risk map using fuzzy classification depicting High-risk, Intermediate-risk, Low-risk and Very-low-risk areas. The map was validated using 42 randomly selected samples. All samples but one with Mo &gt; 3 mg kg−1 were found in postcode areas designated High risk. Thus, the risk map developed seems to be useful as a decision support system on where standard forage analyses need to be supplemented with Mo analyses.

  • 24.
    Badal Tejedor, Maria
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nordgren, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Schuleit, Michael
    Novartis Pharma AG, Switzerland.
    Millqvist-Fureby, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    AFM Colloidal Probe Measurements Implicate Capillary Condensation in Punch-Particle Surface Interactions during Tableting2017In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 33, no 46, p. 13180-13188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adhesion of the powders to the punches is a common issue during tableting. This phenomenon is known as sticking and affects the quality of the manufactured tablets. Defective tablets increase the cost of the manufacturing process. Thus, the ability to predict the tableting performance of the formulation blend before the process is scaled-up is important. The adhesive propensity of the powder to the tableting tools is mostly governed by the surface-surface adhesive interactions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) colloidal probe is a surface characterization technique that allows the measurement of the adhesive interactions between two materials of interest. In this study, AFM steel colloidal probe measurements were performed on ibuprofen, MCC (microcrystalline cellulose), α-lactose monohydrate, and spray-dried lactose particles as an approach to modeling the punch-particle surface interactions during tableting. The excipients (lactose and MCC) showed constant, small, attractive, and adhesive forces toward the steel surface after a repeated number of contacts. In comparison, ibuprofen displayed a much larger attractive and adhesive interaction increasing over time both in magnitude and in jump-in/jump-out separation distance. The type of interaction acting on the excipient-steel interface can be related to a van der Waals force, which is relatively weak and short-ranged. By contrast, the ibuprofen-steel interaction is described by a capillary force profile. Even though ibuprofen is not highly hydrophilic, the relatively smooth surfaces of the crystals allow "contact flooding" upon contact with the steel probe. Capillary forces increase because of the "harvesting" of moisture - due to the fast condensation kinetics - leaving a residual condensate that contributes to increase the interaction force after each consecutive contact. Local asperity contacts on the more hydrophilic surface of the excipients prevent the flooding of the contact zone, and there is no such adhesive effect under the same ambient conditions. The markedly different behavior detected by force measurements clearly shows the sticky and nonsticky propensity of the materials and allows a mechanistic description.

  • 25.
    Badal Tejedor, Maria
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nordgren, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Schuleit, Michael
    Novartis Pharma AG, Switzerland.
    Pazesh, Samaneh
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Alderborn, Göran
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Millqvist-Fureby, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Determination of interfacial amorphicity in functional powders2017In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 920-926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nature of the surfaces of particles of pharmaceutical ingredients, food powders, and polymers is a determining factor for their performance in for example tableting, powder handling, or mixing. Changes on the surface structure of the material will impact the flow properties, dissolution rate, and tabletability of the powder blend. For crystalline materials, surface amorphization is a phenomenon which is known to impact performance. Since it is important to measure and control the level of amorphicity, several characterization techniques are available to determine the bulk amorphous content of a processed material. The possibility of characterizing the degree of amorphicity at the surface, for example by studying the mechanical properties of the particles' surface at the nanoscale, is currently only offered by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM PeakForce QNM technique has been used to measure the variation in energy dissipation (eV) at the surface of the particles which sheds light on the mechanical changes occurring as a result of amorphization or recrystallization events. Two novel approaches for the characterization of amorphicity are presented here. First, since particles are heterogeneous, we present a methodology to present the results of extensive QNM analysis of multiple particles in a coherent and easily interpreted manner, by studying cumulative distributions of dissipation data with respect to a threshold value which can be used to distinguish the crystalline and amorphous states. To exemplify the approach, which is generally applicable to any material, reference materials of purely crystalline α-lactose monohydrate and completely amorphous spray dried lactose particles were compared to a partially amorphized α-lactose monohydrate sample. Dissipation data are compared to evaluations of the lactose samples with conventional AFM and SEM showing significant topographical differences. Finally, the recrystallization of the surface amorphous regions in response to humidity was followed by studying the dissipation response of a well-defined surface region over time, which confirms both that dissipation measurement is a useful measure of surface amorphicity and that significant recrystallization occurs at the surface in response to humidity.

  • 26.
    Badal Tejedor, Maria
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pazesh, Samaneh
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Nordgren, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Schuleit, Micheal
    Novartis Pharma AG, Switzerland.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Alderborn, Göran
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Millqvist-Fureby, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Milling induced amorphisation and recrystallization of α-lactose monohydrate2018In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 537, no 1-2, p. 140-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preprocessing of pharmaceutical powders is a common procedure to condition the materials for a better manufacturing performance. However, such operations may induce undesired material properties modifications when conditioning particle size through milling, for example. Modification of both surface and bulk material structure will change the material properties, thus affecting the processability of the powder. Hence it is essential to control the material transformations that occur during milling. Topographical and mechanical changes in surface properties can be a preliminary indication of further material transformations. Therefore a surface evaluation of the α-lactose monohydrate after short and prolonged milling times has been performed. Unprocessed α-lactose monohydrate and spray dried lactose were evaluated in parallel to the milled samples as reference examples of the crystalline and amorphous lactose structure. Morphological differences between unprocessed α-lactose, 1 h and 20 h milled lactose and spray dried lactose were detected from SEM and AFM images. Additionally, AFM was used to simultaneously characterize particle surface amorphicity by measuring energy dissipation. Extensive surface amorphicity was detected after 1 h of milling while prolonged milling times showed only a moderate particle surface amorphisation. Bulk material characterization performed with DSC indicated a partial amorphicity for the 1 h milled lactose and a fully amorphous thermal profile for the 20 h milled lactose. The temperature profiles however, were shifted somewhat in the comparison to the amorphous reference, particularly after extended milling, suggesting a different amorphous state compared to the spray-dried material. Water loss during milling was measured with TGA, showing lower water content for the lactose amorphized through milling compared to spray dried amorphous lactose. The combined results suggest a surface-bulk propagation of the amorphicity during milling in combination with a different amorphous structural conformation to that of the amorphous spray dried lactose. The hardened surface may be due to either surface crystallization of lactose or to formation of a low-water glass transition.

  • 27.
    Bannow, J.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Benjamins, Jan-Willem
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Wohlert, J.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Löbmann, K.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Svagan, A. J.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Solid nanofoams based on cellulose nanofibers and indomethacin—the effect of processing parameters and drug content on material structure2017In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 526, no 1-2, p. 291-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unique colloidal properties of cellulose nanofibers (CNF), makes CNF a very interesting new excipient in pharmaceutical formulations, as CNF in combination with some poorly-soluble drugs can create nanofoams with closed cells. Previous nanofoams, created with the model drug indomethacin, demonstrated a prolonged release compared to films, owing to the tortuous diffusion path that the drug needs to take around the intact air-bubbles. However, the nanofoam was only obtained at a relatively low drug content of 21 wt% using fixed processing parameters. Herein, the effect of indomethacin content and processing parameters on the foaming properties was analysed. Results demonstrate that a certain amount of dissolved drug is needed to stabilize air-bubbles. At the same time, larger fractions of dissolved drug promote coarsening/collapse of the wet foam. The pendant drop/bubble profile tensiometry was used to verify the wet-foam stability at different pHs. The pH influenced the amount of solubilized drug and the processing-window was very narrow at high drug loadings. The results were compared to real foaming-experiments and solid state analysis of the final cellular solids. The parameters were assembled into a processing chart, highlighting the importance of the right combination of processing parameters (pH and time-point of pH adjustment) in order to successfully prepare cellular solid materials with up to 46 wt% drug loading.

  • 28.
    Barba, Francisco
    et al.
    University of Alcala, Spain.
    Ahrne, Lilia
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Xanthakis, Epaneinondas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Landerslev, Martin
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Orlien, Vibeke
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Innovative technologies for food preservation: Chapter 22018In: Innovative technologies for food preservation: Inactivation of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, 2018, p. 25-51Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several techniques have been developed during the 20th century in order to preserve foods. These innovative technologies vary considerably and embrace physical technologies (e.g., high hydrostatic pressure and high-pressure homogenization), electromagnetic technologies (e.g., pulsed electric fields, ohmic heating, microwaves, radio-frequency, and UV-light), acoustic technologies (e.g., ultrasound and shockwaves), and others such as membrane filtration and dense phase CO2. In this chapter, the theoretical background and definition of the technologies are explained together with a description of the equipment, main technological/processing parameters, and some advantages and limitations from a technological point of view.

  • 29.
    Barba, Francisco
    et al.
    University of Valencia, Spain.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Landerslev, Martin G.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Orlien, Vibeke
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Chapter 2. Innovative technologies2017In: Innovative Technologies for Food Preservation: Inactivation of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms / [ed] Francisco J. Barba; Mohamed Koubaa; Vibeke Orlien; Anderson Sant´Ana, Elsevier, 2017, p. 25-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Barreto-Henriksson, H.
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Hospital, Sweden.
    Llorente, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, A.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Brisby, H.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gold, J.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Schuster, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ström, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Determination of mechanical and rheological properties of a cell-loaded peptide gel during ECM production2019In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 563, p. 437-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of an injectable biomaterial that supports cell survival and maintains or promotes nucleus pulposus (NP) phenotype could aid delivery of cells to degenerated NPs causing low back pain. Mesenchymal cells were loaded and grown in a synthetic peptide gel, PuraMatrix ® . Cells were observed within the gels over 0–28 days, and accumulation of glycosaminoglycans were detected by histological staining. The mechanical properties of the cell-loaded constructs, and the change of the mechanical properties were studied using stress relaxation of the gels under compression and confinement. The PuraMatrix ® gel was shown to relax fast on compression indicating that the fluid could easily flow out of the gel, and thus indicating the presence of large pores/voids. The presence of these pores/voids was further supported by high mobility of dextran molecules, determined using fluorescence recovery after photo bleaching. The stress required to deform the cell-loaded constructs to a specific strain increases at day 21, at which point the presence of glycosaminoglycans within the cell-loaded constructs was also observed. The results provide evidence of changes in mechanical properties of the PuraMatrix ® matrix upon excretion of the extracellular matrix by the

  • 31.
    Barwick, Vicki
    et al.
    LGC Ltd, UK.
    Ellison, Stephen L. R.
    LGC Ltd, UK.
    Gjengedal, Elin
    NTNU Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Magnusson, Bertil
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Molinier, Olivier
    Aglae, France.
    Patriarca, Marina
    Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Italy.
    Sibbesen, Lorens
    LAB Quality International, Denmark.
    Vanlaethem, Nicole
    Classes Moyennes et Energie, Belgium.
    Vercruysse, Isabelle
    Belab, Belgium.
    Method validation in analytical sciences: discussions on current practice and future challenges2017In: Accreditation and Quality Assurance, ISSN 0949-1775, E-ISSN 1432-0517, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 253-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eurachem held a workshop on method validation in analytical sciences in Gent, Belgium, on 9–10 May 2016. A summary of the working group discussions is provided here. The discussions covered a range of issues concerned with current practice and future challenges in method validation, i.e. setting requirements for a method to be validated; planning validation studies; validation of qualitative and semi-quantitative methods; validation of multi-parameter methods; determination of trueness/bias; assessment of working range; validation in microbiology; and method validation under flexible scope of accreditation. Delegates (129) from 24 different countries and from different backgrounds, e.g. from both public and private laboratories, laboratory associations, accreditation bodies and universities, attended the working groups, thus providing opportunities to collect a variety of views and experiences as well as to identify potential gaps in current guidance and regulations. While the practicalities of assessing method performance characteristics are generally well understood, the issue of setting requirements for those characteristics beforehand is less straightforward. Although a number of documents addressing the principles of method validation are available, guidance on dealing with more complex and ‘non-ideal’ situations, as well as examples of good practice, would be welcomed and greater harmonisation of approaches was deemed necessary. There remains a need for guidance on both the concepts that apply to ‘qualitative’ or ‘nominal’ test methods and on the practical implementation of validation studies in such cases.

  • 32.
    Beaty, D. W.
    et al.
    California Institute of Technology, US.
    Grady, M. M.
    Open University, UK.
    McSween, H. Y.
    University of Tennessee, US.
    Carrier, B. L.
    California Institute of Technology, US.
    Amelin, Y.
    Australian National University, Australia.
    Anand, M.
    Open University, UK.
    Bishop, J. L.
    SETI Institute, US.
    Boucher, D.
    Deltion Innovations, Canada.
    Busemann, H.
    Campbell, K. A.
    Czaja, A. D.
    Debaille, V.
    Des Marais, D. J.
    Dixon, M.
    Ehlmann, B. L.
    Farmer, J. D.
    Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.
    Filiberto, J.
    Fogarty, J.
    Glavin, D. P.
    Goreva, Y. S.
    Hallis, L. J.
    Harrington, A. D.
    M. Hausrath, E.
    Herd, C. D. K.
    Horgan, B.
    Humanyun, M.
    Kleine, T.
    Kleinhenz, J.
    Mackelprang, R.
    Mangold, N.
    Mayhew, L. E.
    McCoy, J. T.
    McCubbin, F. M.
    McLennan, S. M.
    Moser, D. E.
    Moynier, F.
    Mustard, J. F.
    Niles, P. B.
    Ori, G. G.
    Raulin, F.
    Rettberg, P.
    Rucker, M. A.
    Schmitz, N.
    Schwenzer, S. P.
    Sephton, M. A.
    Shaheen, R.
    Sharp, Z. D.
    Schuster, D. L.
    Siljestrom, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Smith, C. L.
    Spry, J. A.
    Steele, A.
    Swindle, T. D.
    ten Kate, I. L.
    Tosca, N. J.
    Usui, T.
    Van Kranendonk, M. J.
    Wadhwa, M.
    Weiss, B. P.
    Werner, S. C.
    Westall, F.
    Wheeler, R. M.
    Zipfel, J.
    Zorzano, M. P.
    The potential science and engineering value of samples delivered to Earth by Mars sample return2019In: Meteoritics and Planetary Science, ISSN 1086-9379, E-ISSN 1945-5100, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 667-671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Executive summary provided in lieu of abstract. © 2019 The Authors.

  • 33.
    Bender, P.
    et al.
    University of Cantabria, Spain .
    Bogart, L. K.
    University College London, UK .
    Posth, O.
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany .
    Szczerba, W.
    BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung Und-prüfung, Germany ; AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland .
    Rogers, S. E.
    ISIS-STFC Neutron Scattering Facility, UK.
    Castro, A.
    SOLVE Research and Consultancy AB, Sweden .
    Nilsson, L.
    SOLVE Research and Consultancy AB, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Zeng, L. J.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Sommertune, Jens
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Fornara, A.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    González-Alonso, D.
    University of Cantabria, Spain .
    Fernández Barquín, L.
    University of Cantabria, Spain.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Structural and magnetic properties of multi-core nanoparticles analysed using a generalised numerical inversion method2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 45990Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structural and magnetic properties of magnetic multi-core particles were determined by numerical inversion of small angle scattering and isothermal magnetisation data. The investigated particles consist of iron oxide nanoparticle cores (9 nm) embedded in poly(styrene) spheres (160 nm). A thorough physical characterisation of the particles included transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation. Their structure was ultimately disclosed by an indirect Fourier transform of static light scattering, small angle X-ray scattering and small angle neutron scattering data of the colloidal dispersion. The extracted pair distance distribution functions clearly indicated that the cores were mostly accumulated in the outer surface layers of the poly(styrene) spheres. To investigate the magnetic properties, the isothermal magnetisation curves of the multi-core particles (immobilised and dispersed in water) were analysed. The study stands out by applying the same numerical approach to extract the apparent moment distributions of the particles as for the indirect Fourier transform. It could be shown that the main peak of the apparent moment distributions correlated to the expected intrinsic moment distribution of the cores. Additional peaks were observed which signaled deviations of the isothermal magnetisation behavior from the non-interacting case, indicating weak dipolar interactions.

  • 34.
    Berg, Robert
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Process och Pharmaceuticals Development.
    Bergman, Jan
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Synthesis of thieno[2,3-b]indole-2,3-diones and their ring expansions induced by diazomethane2017In: Tetrahedron, ISSN 0040-4020, E-ISSN 1464-5416, Vol. 73, no 38, p. 5654-5658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indole-2-thione 3 reacted quickly with oxalyl chloride to yield thieno[2,3-b]indole-2,3-dione 4 together with the isomer thiazolo[3,2-a]indole-2,3-dione 5. These thieno[2,3-b]indole-2,3diones underwent ring expansions when treated with diazomethane and e.g. thieno[2,3-b]indole-2,3-dione 4 gave the thiopyrano derivative 16, after two insertions.

  • 35.
    Bergjord Olsen, A. K.
    et al.
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), Norway.
    Persson, T.
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), Norway.
    de Wit, A.
    Alterra - Wageningen UR, The Netherlands.
    Nkurunziza, L.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sindhøj, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Eckersten, H.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Estimating winter survival of winter wheat by simulations of plant frost tolerance2018In: Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, ISSN 0931-2250, E-ISSN 1439-037X, Vol. 204, no 1, p. 62-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on soil temperature, snow depth and the grown cultivar's maximum attainable level of frost tolerance (LT50c), the FROSTOL model simulates development of frost tolerance (LT50) and winter damage, thereby enabling risk calculations for winter wheat survival. To explore the accuracy of this model, four winter wheat cultivars were sown in a field experiment in Uppsala, Sweden in 2013 and 2014. The LT50 was determined by tests of frost tolerance in November, and the cultivars’ LT50c was estimated. Further, recorded winter survival from 20 winter wheat field variety trials in Sweden and Norway was collected from two winter seasons with substantial winter damages. FROSTOL simulations were run for selected cultivars at each location. According to percentage of winter damage, the cultivar survival was classified as “survived,” “intermediate” or “killed.” Mean correspondence between recorded and simulated class of winter survival was 75% and 37% for the locations in Sweden and Norway, respectively. Stress factors that were not accounted for in FROSTOL might explain the poorer accuracy at the Norwegian locations. The accuracy was poorest for cultivars with intermediate LT50c levels. When low temperature was the main cause of damage, as at the Swedish locations, the model accuracy was satisfying.

  • 36.
    Bergman, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Environmental impacts of alternative antifouling methods and use patterns of leisure boat owners2019In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 725-734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Leisure boaters in the Baltic Sea apply more copper as antifoulant than needed and permitted. Initiatives have been started to identify efficient means making boat owners comply with regulations through changed consumer behavior. We compare the environmental impacts of conventional and alternative antifouling methods, using Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Methods: Two non-toxic methods were compared with biocide paint. To study the influence of boat owner use patterns, paint and brush washer scenarios (e.g., different paints, amounts, and maintenance) were created based on current use and recommendations. The functional unit was an average Swedish leisure boat kept fouling free for 1 year and impact categories studied were freshwater eco-toxicity and greenhouse gas emissions. Production of paints, fuel, electricity, and material used in the non-toxic methods was included. Sensitivity analysis was performed regarding the characterization method for toxicity, the fuel consumption data, and the copper release data. Results and discussion: The non-toxic methods, hull cover and brush washer, performed best, but a trade-off was identified when the brush washer was located further away from the home port, when additional transportation increased greenhouse gas emissions. The resources needed for the non-toxic methods (production of materials and electricity used) cause considerably lower toxic emissions than paint. In the paint scenarios, using less paint and cleaning the boat over a washing pad with water treatment reduces aquatic emissions significantly. Fuel-related emissions were consistently lower than paint-related emissions. In the best-performing paint scenario, fuel- and paint-related emissions represented 26 and 67% of total emissions, respectively. Conclusions: The non-toxic methods hull cover and brush washers lead to lower emissions, especially when brush washers were located close to the home port. Lacking such infrastructure, “painting less” is a way to reduce emissions, by using lower amounts of paint and painting less frequently. More widespread use of these antifouling strategies would considerably reduce copper emissions from leisure boating to the Baltic Sea. We suggest that support to marinas for investments in brush washers and washing pads should be further developed to enable boat owners to choose more sustainable antifouling methods and that information campaigns on the combined economic, health, and ecosystem impacts of antifouling are especially designed for boaters, marinas, market actors, and policy makers for a change to take place towards more sustainable practices.

  • 37.
    Bergstrand, Karl-Johan
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Löfkvist, Klara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Organisk gödsling i krukodlade kulturer2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns en ökande efterfrågan på ekologiska produkter. Producenter av ekologiskt producerade krukodlade produkter såsom kryddväxter, prydnadsväxter och grönsakplantor har stora odlingsutmaningar för att uppnå god kvalitet. Den stora utmaningen ligger i näringstillförseln och tidigare erfarenheter har varit blandade, ibland har produktkvalitén blivit dålig och man har misstänkt att obalanser i växtnäringstillförseln har varit orsak till detta. I ett pilotprojekt finansierat av Tillväxt Trädgård undersöktes kvävetillgängligheten från olika organiska gödselmedel i krukodlade kulturer.

  • 38.
    Bergstrand, Kjell
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Löfkvist, Klara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Asp, Håkan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Dynamics of nitrogen availability in pot grown crops with organic fertilization2019In: Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, ISSN 0144-8765, E-ISSN 2165-0616, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 143-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pot grown herbs are often cultivated as certified organic products, and there is an increasing demand for organically certified ornamental plants. Supplying the required nutrients using organic fertilizers is a challenge with respect to matching the mineralization and thus the availability of dissolved nutrients in the growing medium with plant demand. In experiments, sweet basil and Pelargonium × hortorum were cultivated using two different organic fertilizer strategies and controlled-release mineral nutrients as control treatment. The two organic strategies were, i) blood meal + Baralith® Enslow (a plant-based organic fertilizer), and ii) poultry manure. The availability of dissolved nitrogen was monitored during the crop cycle by under-pressure lysimeter sampling. Plant development parameters were measured along with chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll concentration of leaves. For both organic treatments, nitrate-N availability was low at the beginning of the experiment, whereas ammonium-N was high. During the experiment, ammonium availability decreased at the same time as nitrate availability increased after a few weeks and then declined again by the end of the experiment. The blood meal + Enslow treatment caused poor germination and slow growth in basil. Plant height and fresh weight was also affected by this treatment for basil but not for Pelargonium. Chlorophyll concentration was affected by treatment, with also visually detectable paler leaves in the treatment with poultry manure. There were no differences in chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) between treatments, indicating that plants were not stressed in any of the treatments.

  • 39.
    Berta, Marco
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Koelewijn, Ingrid
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. University of Applied Sciences HAS Den Bosch, Netherlands.
    Öhgren, Camilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of zein protein and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose on the texture of model gluten-free bread2019In: Journal of texture studies, ISSN 0022-4901, E-ISSN 1745-4603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of zein protein and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) on the texture and volume of gluten-free bread was investigated. The addition of HPMC to starch affected the dough viscoelasticity and it improved the bread volume during baking since it acts as an emulsifier. The addition of zein protein to gluten-free bread increased the crumb firmness and reduced the crust hardness within the range of concentrations investigated. No zein protein network could be observed in the bread crumb. The zein protein, cold mixed at low concentration, did not enhance the dough elasticity. Due to the lack of a protein network noncovalent interactions may stabilize the bubble structure stabilization within the crumb, rather than covalent links of the protein chain. With an optimized amount of zein protein and HPMC hydrocolloid, the gluten-free bread showed similar texture and staling behavior to that of model wheat bread. The optimized recipe, compiled into a spreadsheet, is available in the supporting information. The microstructural observations suggest that zein could be replaced with another protein for this recipe resulting in a similar bread texture.

  • 40.
    Besharat, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yazdi, Milad Ghadami
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wakeham, Deborah
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnson, Magnus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gothelid, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gronbeck, Henrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Se-C Cleavage of Hexane Selenol at Steps on Au(111)2018In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 34, no 8, p. 2630-2636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selenols are considered as an alternative to thiols in self-assembled monolayers, but the Se-C bond is one limiting factor for their usefulness. In this study, we address the stability of the Se-C bond by a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of gas phase-deposited hexane selenol (CH3(CH2)(5)SeH) on Au(111) using photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and density functional theory (DFT). Experimentally, we find that initial adsorption leaves atomic Se on the surface without any carbon left on the surface, whereas further adsorption generates a saturated selenolate layer. The Se 3d component from atomic Se appears at 0.85 eV lower binding energy than the selenolate-related component. DFT calculations show that the most stable structure of selenols on Au(111) is in the form of RSe-Au-SeR complexes adsorbed on the unreconstructed Au(111) surface. This is similar to thiols on Au(111). Calculated Se 3d core-level shifts between elemental Se and selenolate in this structure nicely reproduce the experimentally recorded shifts. Dissociation of RSeH and subsequent formation of RH are found to proceed with high barriers on defect-free Au(111) terraces, with the highest barrier for scissoring R-Se. However, at steps, these barriers are considerably lower, allowing for Se-C bond breaking and hexane desorption, leaving elemental Se at the surface. Hexane is the selenol to selenolate formed by replacing the Se-C bond with a H-C bond by using the hydrogen liberated from transformation.

  • 41.
    Bełdowski, Piotr
    et al.
    UTP University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Weber, Piotr
    Gdansk University of Technology, Poland.
    Dedinaite, Andra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gadomski, Adam
    UTP University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Physical crosslinking of hyaluronic acid in the presence of phospholipids in an aqueous nano-environment2018In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 14, no 44, p. 8997-9004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyaluronic acid and phospholipids are two components in the synovial joint cavity that contribute to joint lubrication synergistically. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed and hydrogen bonds in hyaluronic acid were analyzed to identify specific sites that are responsible for its physical cross-linking. Two molecular masses of hyaluronic acid, 10 kDa and 160 kDa, were considered. We use molecular dynamics simulations and the small world network approach to investigate dynamic couplings using a distance map applied to oxygen atoms in a chain of hyaluronic acid in the presence of phospholipids and water. The distance characterizing the coupling can be defined in various ways to bring out the most evident differences between various scenarios of the polymer chain conformation We show herein a physical distance understood as H-bond length and classes of these distances which are defined in a coarse-grained picture of the molecule. Simulation results indicate that addition of phospholipids has little influence on hyaluronic acid crosslinking. However, longer chains and addition of lipids promote appreciably long lasting (resilient) networks that may be of importance in biological systems. Specific sites for hydrogen bonding of phospholipids to hyaluronic acid have also been identified.

  • 42.
    Bhattacharya, Kunal
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sacchetti, Cristiano
    La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, USA; University of California San Diego, USA.
    Costa, Pedro M.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sommertune, Jens
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Brandner, Birgit D.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Magrini, Andrea
    University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Rosato, Nicola
    University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Bottini, Nunzio
    La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, USA; University of California San Diego, USA.
    Bottini, Massimo
    University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy; Sanford Burnham Presbys Medical Discovery Institute, USA.
    Fadeel, Bengt
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nitric Oxide Dependent Degradation of Polyethylene Glycol-Modified Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Implications for Intra-Articular Delivery2018In: Advanced Healthcare Materials, ISSN 2192-2640, E-ISSN 2192-2659, Vol. 7, no 6, article id 1700916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified carbon nanotubes have been successfully employed for intra-articular delivery in mice without systemic or local toxicity. However, the fate of the delivery system itself remains to be understood. In this study 2 kDa PEG-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes (PNTs) are synthesized, and trafficking and degradation following intra-articular injection into the knee-joint of healthy mice are studied. Using confocal Raman microspectroscopy, PNTs can be imaged in the knee-joint and are found to either egress from the synovial cavity or undergo biodegradation over a period of 3 weeks. Raman analysis discloses that PNTs are oxidatively degraded mainly in the chondrocyte-rich cartilage and meniscus regions while PNTs can also be detected in the synovial membrane regions, where macrophages can be found. Furthermore, using murine chondrocyte (ATDC-5) and macrophage (RAW264.7) cell lines, biodegradation of PNTs in activated, nitric oxide (NO)-producing chondrocytes, which is blocked upon pharmacological inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), can be shown. Biodegradation of PNTs in macrophages is also noted, but after a longer period of incubation. Finally, cell-free degradation of PNTs upon incubation with the peroxynitrite-generating compound, SIN-1 is demonstrated. The present study paves the way for the use of PNTs as delivery systems in the treatment of diseases of the joint.

  • 43.
    Bienert, K.
    et al.
    DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige, Germany.
    Fischer, E.
    DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige, Germany.
    Schumacher, Britt
    DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige, Germany.
    Rogstrand, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ljung, Emelie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Zieliński, Marcin
    University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland.
    Debowski, Marcin
    University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland.
    Bigalke, D.
    Ventury, Germany.
    Wernecke, H.
    Ventury, Germany.
    The biomethane map - Research coordination for a low-cost biomethane production at small and medium scale applications2017In: European Biomass Conf. Exhib. Proc., ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2017, no 25thEUBCE, p. 1097-1104Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Horizon 2020 project “Research Coordination for a Low-Cost Biomethane Production at Small and Medium Scale Applications”, short Record Biomap, aims to build up a knowledge transfer platform to foster the use of research outcomes which are often insufficiently exploited after the end of a research project. In the focus are technology solutions for a cost efficient biomethane production at small to medium scale, which is not yet economically competitive compared to large scale applications. Technology developments along the biomethane supply chain, from substrate pre-treatment, digestion systems up to gas upgrading processes, especially for those technologies which are yet in the first phases of their development are monitored and supported during the project duration. The present paper will give an overview of the project´s focus. The current status of collected technology profiles is presented. The promising innovative technologies “ultra-sound and hydrodynamic cavitation” for substrate pre-treatment, the “high organic loading plug-flow digestion system” and the “in-situ methane enrichment in combination with a wood ash filter” to upgrade the biogas to biomethane are explained in detail. Furthermore, the first findings on R&D needs and framework conditions are highlighted. © 2017, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies. All rights reserved.

  • 44.
    Bienert, K.
    et al.
    DBFZ, Germany.
    Shakya, S.
    DBFZ, Germany.
    Fischer, E.
    DBFZ, Germany.
    Schumacher, B.
    DBFZ, Germany.
    Rojas, M.
    DBFZ, Germany.
    Rogstrand, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Zieliński, M.
    Universtiy of Warmia and Mazury, Poland.
    Dębowski, M.
    Universtiy of Warmia and Mazury, Poland.
    Technologies for biomethane production in small and medium scale applications – Assessment within the European project record biomap2018In: European Biomass Conf. Exhib. Proc., 2018, no 26thEUBCE, p. 586-591Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Horizon 2020 project “Research Coordination for a Low-Cost Biomethane Production at Small and Medium Scale Applications”, short Record Biomap aims to foster technology solutions for a cost efficient biomethane production at small to medium scale. This includes substrate pre-treatment, digestion systems and gas upgrading processes. The project collected technology descriptions of 46 technologies which are still in their development phase and presented them on the biomethane map (https://biomethane-map.eu). All technologies with a Technology Readiness Level between 3 and 7, which are in the focus of this project, were also evaluated through an impact assessment. The presentation gives an overview of the project´s results, concentrating on the first results of the assessment for innovative technology solutions along the biomethane supply chain and especially upgrading of biogas to biomethane. The assessment includes aspects such as energy efficiency, specific technical characteristics of the systems as well as economic parameters. Results are expected to characterise those new technologies and to highlight their special application areas. In addition, the paper presents a roadmap and an EU level biomethane structural analysis as the groundwork for a more detailed strategy for market implementation of innovative technologies for small- to medium scale upgrading of biogas to biomethane.

  • 45.
    Bienert, Kathrin
    et al.
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum Gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Schumacher, Britt
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum Gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Arboleda, Martin
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum Gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany; Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Billig, Eric
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Shakya, Semiksha
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum Gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Rogstrand, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Zielinski, Marcin
    University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland.
    Debowski, Marcin
    University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland.
    Multi-indicator assessment of innovative small-scale biomethane technologies in Europe2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 7, article id 1321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovative small-scale biogas plants, including upgrading solutions to affordable biomethane, are necessary to tap into the spatially distributed potentials of organic waste. This research identified and assessed novel small-scale technologies before market-entry maturity in the key process steps of the biomethane chain. We assessed technical, economic, and ecological indicators, and compared them to larger-scale references. The assessment included 7 pre-treatment, 13 digester, and 11 upgrading systems all at the small scale. We collected recently available data for Europe (2016–2018) for small-scale technologies (&lt;200 m 3 ; raw biogas per hour). In the literature we did not find such a comprehensive assessment of actual European small-scale innovative non-market-ready technologies for the production of biomethane. Several conclusions were drawn for each of the individual process steps in the biomethane chain, e.g., the economic indicator calculated for the upgrading technologies shows that the upgrading costs, for some of them, are already close to the larger-scale reference (about 1.5 €ct/kWh raw biogas). Furthermore, biomethane production is absolutely context-specific, which dramatically limits the traditional way to evaluate technologies. Hence, new ways of integration of the technologies plays a major role on their future

  • 46.
    Bjerketorp, Joakim
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Röling, Wilfred F. M.
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Feng, Xinmei
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Garcia, Armando Hernández
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Heipieper, Hermann J.
    UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Håkansson, Sebastian
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Formulation and stabilization of an Arthrobacter strain with good storage stability and 4-chlorophenol-degradation activity for bioremediation2018In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, ISSN 0175-7598, E-ISSN 1432-0614, Vol. 102, no 4, p. 2031-2040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorophenols are widespread and of environmental concern due to their toxic and carcinogenic properties. Development of less costly and less technically challenging remediation methods are needed; therefore, we developed a formulation based on micronized vermiculite that, when air-dried, resulted in a granular product containing the 4-chlorophenol (4-CP)-degrading Gram-positive bacterium Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6. This formulation and stabilization method yielded survival rates of about 60% that remained stable in storage for at least 3 months at 4 °C. The 4-CP degradation by the formulated and desiccated A. chlorophenolicus A6 cells was compared to that of freshly grown cells in controlled-environment soil microcosms. The stabilized cells degraded 4-CP equally efficient as freshly grown cells in two different set-ups using both hygienized and non-treated soils. The desiccated microbial product was successfully employed in an outdoor pot trial showing its effectiveness under more realistic environmental conditions. No significant phytoremediation effects on 4-CP degradation were observed in the outdoor pot experiment. The 4-CP degradation kinetics from both the microcosms and the outdoor pot trial were used to generate a predictive model of 4-CP biodegradation potentially useful for larger-scale operations, enabling better bioremediation set-ups and saving of resources. This study also opens up the possibility of formulating and stabilizing also other Arthrobacter strains possessing different desirable pollutant-degrading capabilities.

  • 47.
    Boge, Lucas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Umerska, Anita
    INSERM U 1066, France ; Université Angers, France.
    Matougui, Nada
    INSERM U 1066, France ; Université Angers,France.
    Bysell, Helena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Ringstad, Lovisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Davoudi, Mina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Jonny
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Edwards, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Martin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Cubosomes post-loaded with antimicrobial peptides: Characterization, bactericidal effect and proteolytic stability2017In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 526, no 1-2, p. 400-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel antibiotics, such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), have recently attended more and more attraction. In this work, dispersed cubic liquid crystalline gel (cubosomes) was used as drug delivery vehicles for three AMPs (AP114, DPK-060 and LL-37). Association of peptides onto cubosomes was studied at two cubosome/peptide ratios using high performance liquid chromatography, ζ-potential and circular dichroism measurements. AMPs impact on the cubosome structure was investigated using small angle x-ray scattering and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. The antimicrobial effect of the AMP loaded cubosomes was studied in vitro by minimum inhibitory concentration and time-kill assays. Proteolytic protection was investigated by incubating the formulations with two elastases and the antimicrobial effect after proteolysis was studied using radial diffusion assay. Different association efficacy onto the cubosomes was observed among the AMPs, with LL-37 showing greatest association (>60%). AP114 loaded cubosomes displayed a preserved antimicrobial effect, whereas for LL-37 the broad spectrum bacterial killing was reduced to only comprise Gram-negative bacteria. Interestingly, DPK-060 loaded cubosomes showed a slight enhanced effect against S. aureus and E. coli strains. Moreover, the cubosomes were found to protect LL-37 from proteolytic degradation, resulting in a significantly better bactericidal effect after being subjected to elastase, compared to unformulated peptide.

  • 48.
    Boge, Lukas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Browning, Kathryn
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nordström, Randi
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Campana, Mario
    Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK.
    Damgaard, Liv
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Seth Caous, Josefin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Hellsing, Maja
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Ringstad, Lovisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Andersson, Martin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Peptide-Loaded Cubosomes Functioning as an Antimicrobial Unit against Escherichia coli2019In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 11, no 24, p. 21314-21322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dispersions of cubic liquid crystalline phases, also known as cubosomes, have shown great promise as delivery vehicles for a wide range of medicines. Due to their ordered structure, comprising alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains, cubosomes possess unique delivery properties and compatibility with both water-soluble and -insoluble drugs. However, the drug delivery mechanism and cubosome interaction with human cells and bacteria are still poorly understood. Herein, we reveal how cubosomes loaded with the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37, a system with high bacteria-killing effect, interact with the bacterial membrane and provide new insights into the eradication mechanism. Combining the advanced experimental techniques neutron reflectivity and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, a mechanistic drug delivery model for LL-37-loaded cubosomes on bacterial mimicking bilayers was constructed. Moreover, the cubosome interaction with Escherichia coli was directly visualized using super-resolution laser scanning microscopy and cryogenic electron tomography. We could conclude that cubosomes loaded with LL-37 adsorbed and distorted bacterial membranes, providing evidence that the peptide-loaded cubosomes function as an antimicrobial unit.

  • 49.
    Boge, Lukas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hallstensson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Ringstad, Lovisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Johansson, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Andersson, Therese
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Davoudi, Mina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Tomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Mahlapuu, Margit
    Promore Pharma AB, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Andersson, Martin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Cubosomes for topical delivery of the antimicrobial peptide LL-372019In: European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics, ISSN 0939-6411, E-ISSN 1873-3441, Vol. 134, p. 60-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the use of cubosomes for topical delivery of the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) LL-37 was investigated. Topical delivery of AMPs is of great interest for treatment of skin infections caused by bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus. AMP containing cubosomes were produced by three different preparation protocols and compared: (i) pre-loading, where LL-37 was incorporated into a liquid crystalline gel, which thereafter was dispersed into nanoparticles, (ii) post-loading, where LL-37 was let to adsorb onto pre-formed cubosomes, and (iii) hydrotrope-loading, where LL-37 was incorporated during the spontaneously formed cubosomes in an ethanol/glycerol monooleate mixture. Particle size and size distribution were analyzed using dynamic light scattering (DLS), liquid crystalline structure by small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and release of LL-37 by a fluorescamine assay. Proteolytic protection of LL-37 as well as bactericidal effect after enzyme exposure was investigated. The skin irritation potential of cubosomes was examined by an in vitro epidermis model. Finally, the bacterial killing property of the cubosomes was examined by an ex vivo pig skin wound infection model with Staphylococcus aureus. Data showed that a high loading of LL-37 induced formation of vesicles in case of cubosomes prepared by sonication (pre-loading). No release of LL-37 was observed from the cubosomes, indicating strong association of the peptide to the particles. Proteolysis studies showed that LL-37 was fully protected against enzymatic attacks while associated with the cubosomes, also denoting strong association of the peptide to the particles. As a consequence, bactericidal effect after enzyme exposure remained, compared to pure LL-37 which was subjected to proteolysis. No skin irritation potential of the cubosomes was found, thus enabling for topical administration. The ex vivo wound infection model showed that LL-37 in pre-loaded cubosomes killed bacteria most efficient.

  • 50.
    Boge, Lukas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Västberg, Amanda
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Umerska, Anita
    Université Bretagne Loire, France.
    Bysell, Helena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Eriksson, Jonny
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Edwards, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Millqvist-Fureby, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Andersson, Martin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Freeze-dried and re-hydrated liquid crystalline nanoparticles stabilized with disaccharides for drug-delivery of the plectasin derivative AP114 antimicrobial peptide2018In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 522, p. 126-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNPs), e.g. cubosomes and hexosomes, are receiving more and more attraction as drug delivery vehicles. Dry powder formulation that forms LCNPs upon hydration can be advantageous to make new routes of administration accessible. In this work, we investigate use of three disaccharides (lactose, trehalose and sucrose) as protective matrices for glycerol monooleate based LCNP forming powders produced by freeze-drying. Phase behavior, particle size and size distributions at the different preparation steps were monitored by small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Particle appearance was imaged by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). Moreover, the therapeutic relevant antimicrobial peptide AP114 (plectasin derivative) was incorporated in the formulations. Peptide encapsulation and release as well as in vitro antibacterial effect were investigated. Results showed that all freeze-dried powders did form particles with liquid crystalline structure upon hydration. However, a phase transition from the bicontinuous cubic Pn3m to the reversed hexagonal was observed, as a consequence of sugar addition and the freeze-drying procedure. Data indicates that trehalose is the preferred choice of lyo-protectant in order to maintain a mono-modal particle size distribution. In addition, antimicrobial activity of AP114-containing formulations was found to be highest for the formulation containing trehalose. The release kinetics of AP114 from the nanoparticles was strongly affected by the dimensions of the hexagonal phase. Larger dimension of the hexagonal phase, significantly improved the release of AP114 and antimicrobial activity of the formulation.

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