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  • 1.
    Aadland, Reidun C.
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Dziuba, Carter J.
    University of Calgary, Canada.
    Heggset, Ellinor B
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Torsæter, Ole
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Holt, Thorleif
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Gates, Ian D.
    University of Calgary, Canada.
    Bryant, Steven L.
    University of Calgary, Canada.
    Identification of nanocellulose retention characteristics in porous media2018In: Nanomaterials, ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 8, no 7, article id 547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of nanotechnology to the petroleum industry has sparked recent interest in increasing oil recovery, while reducing environmental impact. Nanocellulose is an emerging nanoparticle that is derived from trees or waste stream from wood and fiber industries. Thus, it is taken from a renewable and sustainable source, and could therefore serve as a good alternative to current Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technologies. However, before nanocellulose can be applied as an EOR technique, further understanding of its transport behavior and retention in porous media is required. The research documented in this paper examines retention mechanisms that occur during nanocellulose transport. In a series of experiments, nanocellulose particles dispersed in brine were injected into sandpacks and Berea sandstone cores. The resulting retention and permeability reduction were measured. The experimental parameters that were varied include sand grain size, nanocellulose type, salinity, and flow rate. Under low salinity conditions, the dominant retention mechanism was adsorption and when salinity was increased, the dominant retention mechanism shifted towards log-jamming. Retention and permeability reduction increased as grain size decreased, which results from increased straining of nanocellulose aggregates. In addition, each type of nanocellulose was found to have significantly different transport properties. Experiments with Berea sandstone cores indicate that some pore volume was inaccessible to the nanocellulose. As a general trend, the larger the size of aggregates in bulk solution, the greater the observed retention and permeability reduction. Salinity was found to be the most important parameter affecting transport. Increased salinity caused additional aggregation, which led to increased straining and filter cake formation. Higher flow rates were found to reduce retention and permeability reduction. Increased velocity was accompanied by an increase in shear, which is believed to promote breakdown of nanocellulose aggregates. © 2018 by the authors.

  • 2.
    Aadland, Reidun
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Jakobsen, Trygve
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Heggset, Ellinor B
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Long-Sanouiller, Haili
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Simon, Sebastien
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Paso, Kristofer
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Torsæter, Ole
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    High-temperature core flood investigation of nanocellulose as a green additive for enhanced oil recovery2019In: Nanomaterials, ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 9, no 5, article id 665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have discovered a substantial viscosity increase of aqueous cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) dispersions upon heat aging at temperatures above 90 °C. This distinct change in material properties at very low concentrations in water has been proposed as an active mechanism for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), as highly viscous fluid may improve macroscopic sweep efficiencies and mitigate viscous fingering. A high-temperature (120 °C) core flood experiment was carried out with 1 wt.% CNC in low salinity brine on a 60 cm-long sandstone core outcrop initially saturated with crude oil. A flow rate corresponding to 24 h per pore volume was applied to ensure sufficient viscosification time within the porous media. The total oil recovery was 62.2%, including 1.2% oil being produced during CNC flooding. Creation of local log-jams inside the porous media appears to be the dominant mechanism for additional oil recovery during nano flooding. The permeability was reduced by 89.5% during the core flood, and a thin layer of nanocellulose film was observed at the inlet of the core plug. CNC fluid and core flood effluent was analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), particle size analysis, and shear rheology. The effluent was largely unchanged after passing through the core over a time period of 24 h. After the core outcrop was rinsed, a micro computed tomography (micro-CT) was used to examine heterogeneity of the core. The core was found to be homogeneous. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 3.
    Aaen, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Brodin, Fredrik Wernersson
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Simon, Sébastien
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Heggset, Ellinor B
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Oil-in-Water Emulsions Stabilized by Cellulose Nanofibrils-The Effects of Ionic Strength and pH.2019In: Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 9, no 2, article id E259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pickering o/w emulsions prepared with 40 wt % rapeseed oil were stabilized with the use of low charged enzymatically treated cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and highly charged 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-oxidized CNFs. The emulsion-forming abilities and storage stability of the two qualities were tested in the presence of NaCl and acetic acid, at concentrations relevant to food applications. Food emulsions may be an important future application area for CNFs due to their availability and excellent viscosifying abilities. The emulsion characterization was carried out by visual inspection, light microscopy, viscosity measurements, dynamic light scattering and mild centrifugation, which showed that stable emulsions could be obtained for both CNF qualities in the absence of salt and acid. In addition, the enzymatically stabilized CNFs were able to stabilize emulsions in the presence of acid and NaCl, with little change in the appearance or droplet size distribution over one month of storage at room temperature. The work showed that enzymatically treated CNFs could be suitable for use in food systems where NaCl and acid are present, while the more highly charged TEMPO-CNFs might be more suited for other applications, where they can contribute to a high emulsion viscosity even at low concentrations.

  • 4.
    Aaen, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Simon, Sebastien
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Wernersson Brodin, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    The potential of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils as rheology modifiers in food systems2019In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 5483-5496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) have been proposed for use in low-fat food products due to their availability and excellent viscosifying and gel forming abilities. As the CNFs are negatively charged, the presence of other components in foods, such as electrolytes and food additives such as xanthan gum is likely to affect their rheological properties. Hence, the study of these interactions can contribute valuable information of the suitability of CNFs as rheology modifiers and fat replacers. Rheological measurements on aqueous dispersions of TEMPO-oxidized CNFs were performed with variations in concentration of CNFs, concentration of electrolytes and with varying CNF/xanthan ratios. UV–Vis Spectroscopy was used to evaluate the onset of CNF flocculation/aggregation in the presence of electrolytes. The CNF dispersions followed a power-law dependency for viscosity and moduli on CNF concentration. Low electrolyte additions strengthened the CNF network by allowing for stronger interactions, while higher additions led to fibril aggregation, and loss of viscosity, especially under shear. The CNF/xanthan ratio, as well as the presence of electrolytes were shown to be key factors in determining whether the viscosity and storage modulus of CNF dispersions increased or decreased when xanthan was added. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

  • 5.
    Aarstad, Olav
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Heggset, Ellinor B
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Pedersen, Ina Sander
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Björnöy, Sindre H.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Strand, Berit L.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Mechanical properties of composite hydrogels of alginate and cellulose nanofibrils2017In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 9, no 8, article id 378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alginate and cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) are attractive materials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. CNF gels are generally weaker and more brittle than alginate gels, while alginate gels are elastic and have high rupture strength. Alginate properties depend on their guluronan and mannuronan content and their sequence pattern and molecular weight. Likewise, CNF exists in various qualities with properties depending on, e.g., morphology and charge density. In this study combinations of three types of alginate with different composition and two types of CNF with different charge and degree of fibrillation have been studied. Assessments of the composite gels revealed that attractive properties like high rupture strength, high compressibility, high gel rigidity at small deformations (Young’s modulus), and low syneresis was obtained compared to the pure gels. The effects varied with relative amounts of CNF and alginate, alginate type, and CNF quality. The largest effects were obtained by combining oxidized CNF with the alginates. Hence, by combining the two biopolymers in composite gels, it is possible to tune the rupture strength, Young’s modulus, syneresis, as well as stability in physiological saline solution, which are all important properties for the use as scaffolds in tissue engineering.

  • 6.
    Abitbol, Tiffany
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Impact of surface charge on CNC phase separation and rheology2017In: International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials 2017, TAPPI Press , 2017, p. 64-71Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Abitbol, Tiffany
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    UV-blocking hybrid nanocellulose films containing ceria and silica nanoparticles2018In: International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials 2018, 2018, p. 503-515Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Ahlroth, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Bialik, Marta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Jansson, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. Andritz, Sweden.
    Rosenqvist, Kristian
    ÅF, Sweden.
    Bark and wood powder firing in the recovery boiler for maximum power generation2017In: International chemical recovery conference, May 24-26, 2017, Halifax, Canada, PAPTAC , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of co-firing bark or wood powder in a recovery boiler is studied. The effect of increased NPEs in the liquor and lime cycles, the FMT and sticky dust and the smelt composition is assessed by using simulation tools. The results indicate that generating an additional 22-39% HP steam for power production by firing wood powder in the recovery boiler is a viable option, if Cl and K are purged from the ESP dust by a treatment unit. The smelt is enriched with the same proportion of NPEs as the as-fired liquor.

  • 9.
    Ahlroth, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Bialik, Marta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Jensen, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Hydrothermal carbonisation of effluent sludge2017In: The 7th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Stockholm, Sweden, 28-30 Mar. 2017: NWBC 2017, Stockholm: RISE Bioekonomi , 2017, p. 156-158Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research was carried out to investigate hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) treatment of different effluent sludges from the pulp and paper industry in a Parr-reactor. Sludge samples were evaluated from a thermomechanical paper (TMP) mill and a kraft market pulp mill (NSWBK). The issues studied included HTC treatment time; addition of acid and alkali; dewatering properties of the resulting slurry; and non-process element (NPE) concentration in the original sludge, the filtrate and the filter cake. It was found that HTC improved the fuel quality. Alkali metals were depleted in TMP and NSWBK sludge and in both cases, the sludge was easier to dewater. The yield was better for TMP than NSWBK sludge and the yield losses had a negative impact on the NSWBK sludge. TMP sludge was already a viable boiler fuel and the treatment improved the fuel qualities even more. The HTC treatment of the NSWBK sludge resulted in lower chlorine and potassium, with lower fuel-nitrogen resulting in lower nitrous oxide. Although HTC treatment improved the low heating value of the sludge, this was counteracted by yield loss. Compared with untreated NSWBK, the overall energy impact was negative. HTC treatment offered mixed opportunities from the viewpoint of the recovery cycle.

  • 10.
    Ail, Ujwala
    et al.
    Linköpings Universitet, Sweden.
    Khan, Zia Ullah
    Linköpings Universitet, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Berthold, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Parasuraman, Rajasekar
    Indian Institute of Science, India.
    Umarji, Arun M.
    Indian Institute of Science, India.
    Slettengren, Kerstin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Pettersson, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings Universitet, Sweden.
    Room temperature synthesis of transition metal silicide-conducting polymer micro-composites for thermoelectric applications2017In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 225, p. 55-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic polymer thermoelectrics (TE) as well as transition metal (TM) silicides are two thermoelectric class of materials of interest because they are composed of atomic elements of high abundance; which is a prerequisite for mass implementation of thermoelectric (TE) solutions for solar and waste heat recovery. But both materials have drawbacks when it comes to finding low-cost manufacturing. The metal silicide needs high temperature (>1000 °C) for creating TE legs in a device from solid powder, but it is easy to achieve long TE legs in this case. On the contrary, organic TEs are synthesized at low temperature from solution. However, it is difficult to form long legs or thick films because of their low solubility. In this work, we propose a novel method for the room temperature synthesis of TE composite containing the microparticles of chromium disilicide; CrSi2 (inorganic filler) in an organic matrix of nanofibrillated cellulose- poly(3,4-ethyelenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (NFC-PEDOT:PSS). With this method, it is easy to create long TE legs in a room temperature process. The originality of the approach is the use of conducting polymer aerogel microparticles mixed with CrSi2 microparticles to obtain a composite solid at room temperature under pressure. We foresee that the method can be scaled up to fabricate and pattern TE modules. The composite has an electrical conductivity (σ) of 5.4 ± 0.5 S/cm and the Seebeck coefficient (α) of 88 ± 9 ΌV/K, power factor (α2σ) of 4 ± 1 ΌWm−1K−2 at room temperature. At a temperature difference of 32 °C, the output power/unit area drawn across the load, with the resistance same as the internal resistance of the device is 0.6 ± 0.1 ΌW/cm2.

  • 11.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    The Bioeconomy Research Programme 2018-20202018In: The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference: NWBC 2018: proceedings / [ed] Hytönen Eemeli, Vepsäläinen Jessica, Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland , 2018, p. 83-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Dedic, Dina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Karpenja, Tatjana
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Magnusson, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Rosén, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Sundin, Konstantin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Lindström, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Lucisano, Marco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Modorato-Rosta, Caroline
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Towards a cellulose-based society: current market and consumer trends2017In: The 7th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Stockholm, Sweden, 28-30 Mar. 2017: NWBC 2017, Stockholm: RISE Bioekonomi , 2017, p. 1-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been proposed that the future of the forest industry will involve the traditional value chains combined with the needs and demands of a bio-based economy. A global consumer survey was undertaken, together with interviews and workshops with various representatives through the bio-economy. Sources also included in-depth literature studies and research reviews. Based on this input, several current trends have been identified that will affect the route towards a cellulose-based society. These trends describe the effects of urbanization, consumer behaviour, new business models, material recycling, open innovation and the necessity for early demonstration of new research. Four different but equally plausible scenarios have been identified describing the society and the role of cellulose in 2030, highlighting the role of the wood-based biorefinery.

  • 13.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Olsson, Anne-Mari
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Stevanic Srndovic, Jasna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Miniaturized determination of ash content in kraft lignin samples using oxidative thermogravimetric analysis2017In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 280-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study has been made of several aspects of determination of ash content in kraft lignin samples using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Three different methods were used; with the main differences between the methods being that two have a temperature hold at 250 deg C to remove volatiles and that the three methods use different maximum temperatures, namely 525, 550 and 575 deg C, respectively. The three kraft lignins used were produced using the LignoBoost lignin isolation process. It has been demonstrated that the results obtained by the different temperature programmes showed no significant difference. The results were comparable with those from using oven ignition. Moreover, the limit of quantification was several orders of magnitude lower than when using oven ignition. It has been recommended that if TGA is used for determination of ash content, a temperature programme from a standard method should be used, which should be mentioned together with the results. The temperature programme in method one (corresponding to ISO 1762) was the shortest and the preferable method. A well as requiring less labour due to fewer movements in the analytical protocol, the TGA methods enabled a high sample throughput due to autosampling possibilities.

  • 14.
    Almhöjd, Ulrika S.
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden.
    Lingström, Peter
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Åke
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden.
    Noren, Jörgen G.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden.
    Siljeström, Silje
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    ֖stlund, Å.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Bernin, D.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Molecular Insights into Covalently Stained Carious Dentine Using Solid-State NMR and ToF-SIMS2017In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 255-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dyes currently used to stain carious dentine have a limited capacity to discriminate normal dentine from carious dentine, which may result in overexcavation. Consequently, finding a selective dye is still a challenge. However, there is evidence that hydrazine-based dyes, via covalent bonds to functional groups, bind specifically to carious dentine. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible formation of covalent bonds between carious dentine and 15N2-hydrazine and the hydrazine-based dye, 15N2-labelled Lucifer Yellow, respectively. Powdered dentine from extracted carious and normal teeth was exposed to the dyes, and the staining reactions were analysed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), solid-state 13C-labelled nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 15N-NMR spectroscopy. The results showed that 15N2-hydrazine and 15N2-labelled Lucifer Yellow both bind to carious dentine but not to normal dentine. It can thus be concluded that hydrazine-based dyes can be used to stain carious dentine and leave normal dentine unstained.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Multiscale Reactor Network Simulation of an Entrained Flow Biomass Gasifier: Model Description and Validation2017In: Energy Technology, ISSN 2194-4288, Vol. 5, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the development of a multiscale equivalent reactor network model for pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification to quantify the effect of operational parameters on the gasification process, including carbon conversion, cold gas efficiency, and syngas methane content. The model, implemented in the commercial software Aspen Plus, includes chemical kinetics as well as heat and mass transfer. Characteristic aspects of the model are the multiscale effect caused by the combination of transport phenomena at particle scale during heating, pyrolysis, and char burnout, as well as the effect of macroscopic gas flow, including gas recirculation. A validation using experimental data from a pilot-scale process shows that the model can provide accurate estimations of carbon conversion, concentrations of main syngas components, and cold gas efficiency over a wide range of oxygen-to-biomass ratios and reactor loads. The syngas methane content was most difficult to estimate accurately owing to the unavailability of accurate kinetic parameters for steam methane reforming.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nordberg, Åke
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Westin, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Processum.
    Askfilter för rening av svavelväte i deponigas2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill gas is formed under anaerobic conditions in landfills by microbial degradation of organic material. The gas composition can vary, but at Swedish landfills the gas generally consists of 40-60% methane, 30-40% carbon dioxide and 5-20% nitrogen. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a highly toxic and corrosive gas, which occur in landfill gas in varying concentrations, from 10 to 30,000 ppm (equivalent to 0.001 to 3.0%). It is desirable that the landfill gas is used for electricity and/or heat production, but to do that there is a need to clean the gas to reach <200 ppm H2S. High levels of H2S increases wear on the engine/boiler and thus the frequency of servicing. This leads to expensive maintenance costs, and ultimately shortens the economic life of the plant. To reduce corrosion, it is common to adjust the flue gas temperature, but this also leads to a lower efficiency and thus reduces the energy utilization of the gas. In some cases the gas concentration of H2S is judged to be too high to be used for energy production at all. In 2015, approximately 53 GWh of landfill gas was flared in Sweden, which in many cases is due to problems with high levels of H2S.

     

    Cleaning of landfill gas from H2S leads to several values; the gas energy is used efficiently, maintenance and service costs of the engines/boiler are reduced, and emissions of acidifying sulphur dioxide from combustion of landfill gas decreases. There are commercial cleaning technologies for H2S but they are expensive, both in terms of capital cost and operating cost. Thus, there is a need to develop new cost efficient cleaning technologies that improve the economic outcome at landfills and that enables landfill gas with high H2S concentrations to be utilized for valuable energy transformation.

     

    RISE (formerly JTI – Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering) together with SLU develops new, potentially cost-efficient methods for upgrading biogas to fuel quality. One of the methods is based on the gas passing through a bed of moist ash (a so-called ash filter), where carbon dioxide and H2S are fixed. The hypothesis of this project was that ashes originating from the incineration of waste, recycled waste wood etc., can be used to clean the high levels of H2S in landfill gas. This type of ashes will usually be disposed of in landfills anyway and if the treatment effect is good, it would generate synergy effects in the form of the ash first being used to clean landfill gas from sulphur before it is used as a construction material at landfills.

     

    This project performed two trials in pilot scale at a Swedish landfill with very high concentration of H2S, approximately 15,000 ppm. Different gas flow rates were studied (0.7 to 7.6 m3 / h), while the volume of ash used were similar in the two trials, 0,37 m3. The concentration of H2S in the cleaned gas was consistently very low during treatment, < 10 ppm at low gas flow rates and < 200 ppm at high gas flow rates. Two types of ash were investigated and both proved to have very good capacity to fix H2S, 44-61 g H2S/kg dry ash. In comparison with literature values, there is only one study showing an uptake capacity in the same order. Other studies report an order of magnitude lower uptake capacity.

    Based on the experimental results, the technical and economic potential for an ash filter as the cleaning method was assessed. The calculations were made for various typical landfills to cover the different range of landfills. For normal sized landfills with gas flow rates of 100-1 000 m3/h and H2S concentrations between 100 and 1 000 ppm, the amount of ash needed is 10-130 tons of dry ash per year. For the special case where the H2S concentration is extremely high, the amount of ash increases and a plant with 15 000 ppm H2S and a gas flow rate of 200 m3/h requires approximately 800 tons of dry ash per year. However, overall modest amounts of ash is required and considering all Swedish landfills the requirement of ash would be only 0.2-0.3% of the annual production of ash in Sweden.

     

    The economic calculations show that the ash filter is a competitive method for removal of H2S. For the special case of extremely high levels of H2S, it turned out that the cost of the ash filter is approximately 20% lower in comparison with the cheapest feasible conventional cleaning technology on the market. Also for the cleaning of landfill gas at more normal levels of H2S, the ash filter is competitive. At low gas flow rates (100 m3/h), the ash filter is clearly competitive compared to literature values for conventional cleaning technologies. The economy of scale seems to be higher for the conventional cleaning technologies, and consequently the difference between the cost of ash filter cleaning and other technologies is less at higher gas flow rates.

     

    The low treatment cost of the ash filter reveals opportunities for landfills that currently do not clean the gas from H2S. During the project 15 Swedish landfills was contacted and none of these reported any form of H2S cleaning. When using cleaning, the landfill gas can be used effectively, i.e. reduced flaring, increased efficiency of electricity and heat production with reduced wear on boilers and combustion equipment as well as reduced emissions of sulphur into the atmosphere, which also reduces the potential odour problems around the landfill.

     

    For further development, the design of an ash filter module prototype at full-scale is important. Furthermore, the treated ashes should be analysed for leaching characteristics, storability and usability as construction materials or as cover landfills along with an assessment of the overall environmental impact. Further tests at full scale should be made at other landfills with various gas flow rates and H2S concentrations to verify the performance of the conducted pilot tests.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Sofia
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Bengtsson, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy. KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    Åkerström, Mårten
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Sedin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    The impact of inorganic elements on lignin‐based carbon fibre quality2018In: 15th European workshop on lignocelllulosics and pulp: Proceedings for poster presentations, 2018, p. 119-122Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of inorganic elements on lignin ‐based carbon fibre (CF) quality was studied using sulphates of Na +, K+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Al3+. The metal sulphates were added to wet spun prefibres made from softwood kraft lignin (SKL):cellulose (70:30) and melt spun prefibres made from low molecular mass SKL. An increase in concentration from 0.1 w% to about 0.4 w% did neither affect the mechanical properties nor the morphology as observed by SEM. In contrast, metal sulphates added to the initial 0.45 w% to a total range 1.5 to 5.0 w%, was found detrimental to the melt spinning and to the final CF quality. Thus, the recommendation of <0.1 w% ash in kraft lignin may be exceeded, but more research is needed to establish the upper concentration limit.

  • 18.
    Anheden, Marie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Kulander, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Wallinder, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Vamling, Lennart
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hjerpe, Carl Johan
    F Industri, Sweden.
    Fugelsang, Malin
    F Industri, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Åsa
    Preem, Sweden.
    Evaluation of alternative routes for production of bio-oil from forest residues and kraft lignin2018In: The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference: NWBC 2018 : proceedings / [ed] Hytönen Eemeli, Vepsäläinen Jessica, Espoo: VTT , 2018, p. 85-89Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Anheden, Marie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Uhlin, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Wolf, Jens
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Hedberg, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Berg, Robert
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Ankner, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Berglin, Niklas
    NiNa Innovation, Sweden; ÅF Industry, Sweden.
    von Schenck, Anna
    NiNa Innovation, Sweden; ÅF Industry, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anders L
    Valmet AB, Sweden.
    Guimaraes, Matheus
    Fibria, Sweden.
    Fiskerud, Maria
    Karlstad Airport, Sweden.
    Andersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Value chain for production of bio-oil from kraft lignin for use as bio-jet fuel2017In: The 7th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Stockholm, Sweden, 28-30 Mar. 2017: NWBC 2017, Stockholm: RISE Bioekonomi , 2017, p. 104-109Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The LignoJet project aimed to achieve an intermediate lignin-oil product miscible with fossil feedstock and with a significantly reduced oxygen content. A technical concept for production has been studied that involves combined catalysed depolymerisation and hydrodeoxygenation, so called hydrogenolytic depolymerisation, of kraft lignin. Kraft lignin was separated through membrane ultrafiltration from softwood and eucalyptus black liquor followed by precipitation through LignoBoost technology. A difference in lignin properties was observed between ultrafiltration of softwood and eucalyptus black liquor through 15 and 150kDa ceramic membranes. Lignin-oils with similar oxygen content were produced regardless of origin and fractionation technique. A lignin-oil with favourable properties as precursor for refinery integration for jet fuel production as produced in small-scale batch experiments using nickel-based catalyst. Stable pumpable oils with melting point of less than 25-50 deg C and with 20-30% lower oxygen content and aromatic content were obtained that would be suitable as jet fuel precursors. The estimated production cost was found to be competitive with that of other liquid biofuels, while additional revenues could potentially be achieved by also producing chemical and materials from suitable fractions of the lignin-oil.

  • 20.
    Ankerfors, Caroline
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Gimåker, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Östlund, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Polyelectrolyte Multilayers and Other Dosage Strategies: Effects on Properties of Paper Sheets Produced in Pilot Scale Using MillProcess Waters2018In: Paper Conference and Trade Show, PaperCon 2018: Shaping the future through innovation, TAPPI , 2018, Vol. 2, p. 658-669, article id PA3.3Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Ankerfors, Mikael
    et al.
    ÅF Industry, Sweden.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Glad Nordmark, Gunborg
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    The effects of different types of wet-end added microfibrillated celluloses on the properties of paper made from bleached kraft pulp2017In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 336-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has been undertaken to compare the effects of different types of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) on the mechanical properties of paper. Three types of MFC were produced: Enzyme MFC (low anionic charge density), Carboxymethylated MFC (high anionic charge density) and cationic MFC (high cationic charge density). The different MFCs required different retention aid strategies. The simplest retention strategy was selected to secure a high retention of MFC. Some experiments also focused on dewatering and pressability of wet webs with carboxymethylated MFC. Conventional isotropic laboratory handsheets were made using a never-dried unrefined elemental chlorine free (ECF)-bleached softwood kraft pulp. It has been shown that the evolution of the mechanical properties and scattering coefficients when plotted versus MFC content was very similar for the three types. However, Enzyme MFC gave a significantly better reinforcement effect. All three types of MFC had a similar effect on the sheet consolidation, reflected in sheet density. Evaluation of the dewatering and pressability of the wet sheets showed that if the MFC was aggregated by an appropriate retention strategy, the dewatering and pressability were not detrimental to the practical applicability of MFC.

  • 22.
    Axegård, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    The biorefinery pulp mill2017In: Biofor International, February 13-17, 2017, Montreal, Canada, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Bach-Oller, Albert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Furusjö, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of potassium impregnation on the emission of tar and soot from biomass gasification2019In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 1458, p. 619-624Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrained flow gasification of biomass has the potential to generate synthesis gas as a source of renewable chemicals, electricity, and heat. Nonetheless, formation of tar and soot is a major challenge for continuous operation due to the problems they cause at downstream of the gasifier. Our previous studies showed the addition of alkali in the fuel can bring significant suppression of such undesirable products.

    The present work investigated, in a drop tube furnace, the effect of potassium on tar and soot formation (as well as on its intermediates) for three different types of fuels: an ash lean stemwood, a calcium rich bark and a silicon rich straw. The study focused on an optimal method for impregnating the biomass with potassium. Experiments were conducted for different impregnation methods; wet impregnation, spray impregnation, and solid mixing to investigate different levels of contact between the fuel and the potassium.

    Potassium was shown to catalyze both homogenous and heterogeneous reactions. Wet and spray impregnation had similar effects on heterogeneous reactions (in char conversion) indicating that there was an efficient molecular contact between the potassium and the organic matrix even if potassium was in the form of precipitated salts at a micrometer scale. On the other hand, potassium in the gas phase led to much lower yields of C2 hydrocarbons, heavy tars and soot. These results revealed that potassium shifted the pathways related to tar and soot formation, reducing the likelihood of carbon to end up as soot and heavy tars by favouring the formation of lighter compounds such as benzene. A moderate interaction between the added potassium and the inherent ash forming elements were also observed: Potassium had a smaller effect when the fuel was naturally rich in silicon.

    The combined results open the door to a gasification process that incorporates recirculation of naturally occurring potassium to improve entrained flow gasification of biomass.

  • 24.
    Baison, John
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Vidalis, Amaryllis
    Technische Universität München, Germany.
    Zhou, Linghua
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Chen, Zhi-Qiang
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Li, Zitong
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Sillanpää, Mikko J
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Bernhardsson, Carolina
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Scofield, Douglas
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Nils
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Grahn, Thomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Olsson, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Karlsson, Bo
    Skogforsk, Sweden.
    Wu, Harry
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Ingvarsson, Pär K
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging. IIC, Sweden.
    Niittylä, Totte
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    García-Gil, M Rosario
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) identified novel candidate loci affecting wood formation in Norway spruce2019In: The Plant Journal, ISSN 0960-7412, E-ISSN 1365-313XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Norway spruce is a boreal forest tree species of significant ecological and economic importance. Hence there is a strong imperative to dissect the genetics underlying important wood quality traits in the species. We performed a functional Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) of 17 wood traits in Norway spruce using 178101 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) generated from exome genotyping of 517 mother trees. The wood traits were defined using functional modelling of wood properties across annual growth rings.We applied a LASSO based association mapping method using a functional multi-locus mapping approach that utilizes latent traits, with a stability selection probability method as the hypothesis testing approach to determine significant Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs). The analysis provided 52 significant SNPs from 39 candidate genes, including genes previously implicated in wood formation and tree growth in spruce and other species. Our study represents a multi-locus GWAS for complex wood traits in Norway spruce. The results advance our understanding of the genetics influencing wood traits and identifies candidate genes for future functional studies.

  • 25.
    Baker, Darren A
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Sedin, Maria
    Södra skogsägarna ekonomisk förening, Sweden.
    Landmer, Alice
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Friman, Linda
    Södra skogsägarna ekonomisk förening, Sweden.
    Echardt, Linda
    Södra skogsägarna ekonomisk förening, Sweden.
    Structural carbon fibre from kraft lignin2017In: The 7th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Stockholm, Sweden, 28-30 Mar. 2017: NWBC 2017, Stockholm: RISE Bioekonomi , 2017, p. 65-67Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The GreenLight consortium is working to demonstrate a biobased, renewable and economically viable carbon fibre from lignin. The aim is to provide a basis for commercial production of lignin, lignin filaments, carbon fibre and carbon fibre composites. The most difficult boundary to success in the developing lignin as a precursor for continuous filament carbon fibre has been identified as melt extrusion of lignin. The consortium is working to develop a robust melt spinning platform for use up to the 1,000 filament scale. Methodical studies have been performed to examine lignin separation from differing black liquors derived from both softwood and hardwood and assess their viability in terms of thermal, compositional and structural properties. The move will then be made to pilot scale melt spinning at the 100 filament scale. The characteristics of some kraft lignin fractions obtained from the same Sodra Monsteras softwood kraft black liquor have been studied. The lignins were manufactured in quantities of approximately 10-20kg. Several variations of the LignoBoost process were used to provide lignins with improved melt spinning properties. The lignins were of high purity, each having low carbohydrate, extractives and inorganic contents. All four lignins could be melt spun and converted to carbon fibre.

  • 26.
    Balakshin, Mikhail
    et al.
    BOKU, Austria.
    Capanema, Ewellyn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    New opportunities in the valorization of technical lignins2017In: 19th International symposium on wood, fibre and pulping chemistry, August 28 - September 1, 2017, Porto Seguro, Brazil, 2017, p. 178-182Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercialization of lignins for high-value products should dramatically improve the biorefinery economy and help the growing industry to overcome current economical challenges. However, this requires lignin engineering to obtain products with optimized characteristics for specific applications. This paper reviews important issues of lignin engineering, such as developments in lignin structural analysis, application of small-scale high throughput methods to evaluate lignin performance as well as new achievements in valorization of biorefinery lignins (lignin-cellulose synergism, green and cost efficient methods to upgrade crude biorefinery lignins). These recent developments allow a reconsideration of biorefinery lignins as highvalue products for different applications.

  • 27.
    Balakshin, Mikhail
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Capanema, Ewellyn A
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Huang, Zeen
    FP Innovations, Cananda.
    Sulaeva, Irina
    BOKU, Austria.
    Rojas, Orlando
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Feng, Martin
    FP Innovations, Canada.
    Rosenau, Thomas
    BOKU, Austria.
    Potthast, Antje
    BOKU, Austria.
    Recent achievement in the valorization of technical lignins2018In: The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference: NWBC 2018 : proceedings / [ed] Hytönen Eemeli, Vepsäläinen Jessica, Espoo, 2018, p. 151-156Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Barbero-López, Aitor
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Chibily, Soumay
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Scheepers, Gerhard
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Grahn, Thomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Venäläinen, Martti
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, Finland.
    Haapala, Antti
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Analysis of Green Wood Preservation Chemicals2018In: World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology: An International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2010-376X, E-ISSN 2070-3740, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 175-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood decay is addressed continuously within thewood industry through use and development of wood preservatives.The increasing awareness on the negative effects of many chemicalstowards the environment is causing political restrictions in their useand creating more urgent need for research on green alternatives.This paper discusses some of the possible natural extracts for woodpreserving applications and compares the analytical methodsavailable for testing their behavior and efficiency against decayfungi. The results indicate that natural extracts have interestingchemical constituents that delay fungal growth but vary in efficiencydepending on the chemical concentration and substrate used. Resultsalso suggest that presence and redistribution of preservatives in woodduring exposure trials can be assessed by spectral imaging methodsalthough standardized methods are not available. This studyconcludes that, in addition to the many standard methods available,there is a need to develop new faster methods for screening potentialpreservative formulation while maintaining the comparability andrelevance of results.

  • 29.
    Bardage, Stig
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Performance of buildings2017In: Performance of Bio-based Building Materials, Elsevier Inc. , 2017, p. 335-383Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter deals with different aspects on the use and performance of bio-based building materials in constructions and buildings.

  • 30.
    Basu, Alex
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindh, Jonas
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Ålander, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Strömme, Maria
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Ferraz, Natalia
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    On the use of ion-crosslinked nanocellulose hydrogels for wound healing solutions: Physicochemical properties and application-oriented biocompatibility studies2017In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 174, p. 299-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calcium ion-crosslinked nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) hydrogels were investigated as potential materials for wound healing dressings. The physicochemical properties of the hydrogels were examined by rheology and water retention tests. Skin cells and monocytes were selected for application-oriented biocompatibility studies. The NFC hydrogels presented entangled fibrous networks and solid-like behavior. Water retention tests showed the materialÂŽs potential to maintain a suitable moist environment for different type of wounds. The hydrogels did not affect dermal fibroblasts monolayer cultures upon direct contact, as cell monolayers remained intact after application, incubation and removal of the materials. Inflammatory response studies with blood-derived mononuclear cells revealed the inert nature of the hydrogels in terms of cytokine secretion and reactive oxygen species production. Results highlight the great potential of ion-crosslinked NFC hydrogels for the development of advanced wound dressings, where further functionalization of the material could lead to improved properties towards the healing of specific wound types.

  • 31.
    Bengtsson, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Olsson, Carina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Sedin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Theliander, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Improved yield of carbon fibres from cellulose and kraft lignin2018In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 72, no 12, p. 1007-1016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To meet the demand for carbon-fibre-reinforced composites in lightweight applications, cost-efficient processing and new raw materials are sought for. Cellulose and kraft lignin are each interesting renewables for this purpose due to their high availability. The molecular order of cellulose is an excellent property, as is the high carbon content of lignin. By co-processing cellulose and lignin, the advantages of these macromolecules are synergistic for producing carbon fibre (CF) of commercial grade in high yields. CFs were prepared from precursor fibres (PFs) made from 70:30 blends of softwood kraft lignin (SW-KL) and cellulose by dry-jet wet spinning with the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIm][OAc]) as a solvent. In focus was the impact of the molecular mass of lignin and the type of cellulose source on the CF yield and properties, while membrane-filtrated kraft lignin and cellulose from dissolving kraft pulp and fully bleached paper-grade SW-KP (kraft pulp) served as sources. Under the investigated conditions, the yield increased from around 22% for CF from neat cellulose to about 40% in the presence of lignin, irrespective of the type of SW-KL. The yield increment was also higher relative to the theoretical one for CF made from blends (69%) compared to those made from neat celluloses (48-51%). No difference in the mechanical properties of the produced CF was observed.

  • 32.
    Bengtsson, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Sedin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Carbon Fibers from Lignin-Cellulose Precursors: Effect of Stabilization Conditions2019In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 7, no 9, p. 8440-8448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing demand for lightweight composites reinforced with carbon fibers (CFs). Due to its high availability and carbon content, kraft lignin has gained attention as a potential low-cost CF precursor. CFs with promising properties can be made from flexible dry-jet wet spun precursor fibers (PFs) from blends (70:30) of softwood kraft lignin and fully bleached softwood kraft pulp. This study focused on reducing the stabilization time, which is critical in CF manufacturing. The impact of stabilization conditions on chemical structure, yield, and mechanical properties was investigated. It was possible to reduce the oxidative stabilization time of the PFs from about 16 h to less than 2 h, or even omitting the stabilization step, without fusion of fibers. The main reactions involved in the stabilization stage were dehydration and oxidation. The results suggest that the isothermal stabilization at 250 °C override the importance of having a slow heating rate. For CFs with a commercial diameter, stabilization of less than 2 h rendered in tensile modulus 76 GPa and tensile strength 1070 MPa. Impregnation with ammonium dihydrogen phosphate significantly increased the CF yield, from 31-38 to 46-50 wt %, but at the expense of the mechanical properties.

  • 33.
    Bengtsson, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy. KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Conditions for the stabilisation of lignin-cellulose prefibres for carbon fibre production2018In: 15th European workshop on lignocellulosics and pulp: Proceedings for poster presentations, 2018, p. 111-114Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stabilisation of the prefibre is a time-consuming step in carbon fibre (CF) production. In this paper the stabilisation condition of dry-jet wet-spun lignin-cellulose (LC) prefibres (70:30  t%) are reported. The impact of prefibre-impregnation by ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADHP) and various thermal conditions were evaluated by measuring the yield and mechanical properties of the final CFs. The addition of ADHP improved the CF yields from 32-40 wt% to 45-47 wt% but had a slight negative impact on the tensile modulus (TM) whereas no significant difference in tensile strength (TS) was observed. The absence of fibre fusion and glass transition temperature (Tg) indicate successful stabilisation of all prefibres. This implies possibilities of using short stabilisation times of LC prefibres in CF production.

  • 34.
    Bengtsson, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Hedlund, Artur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Theliander, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mass transport and yield during spinning oflignin-cellulose carbon fiber precursors2019In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 73, no 5, p. 509-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin, a substance considered as a residue in biomass and ethanol production, has been identified as a renewable resource suitable for making inexpensive carbon fibers (CFs), which would widen the range of possible applications for light-weight CFs reinforced composites. Wet spinning of lignin-cellulose ionic liquid solutions is a promising method for producing lignin-based CFs precursors. However, wet-spinning solutions containing lignin pose technical challenges that have to be solved to enable industrialization. One of these issues is that a part of the lignin leaches into the coagulation liquid, which reduces yield and might complicate solvent recovery. In this work, the mass transport during coagulation is studied in depth using a model system and trends are confirmed with spinning trials. It was discovered that during coagulation, efflux of ionic liquid is not hindered by lignin concentration in solution and the formed cellulose network will enclose soluble lignin. Consequently, a high total concentration of lignin and cellulose in solution is advantageous to maximize yield. This work provides a fundamental understanding on mass transport during coagulation of lignin-cellulose solutions, crucial information when designing new solution-based fiber forming processes.

  • 35.
    Bernstad Saraiva, Anna
    et al.
    COPPE UFRJ, Brazil.
    Valle, Rogerio A. B.
    COPPE UFRJ, Brazil.
    Bosque, A.E.S., Jr.
    Fibria CElulose SA, Brazil.
    Berglin, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    von Schenck, A.
    ÅF AB, Sweden.
    Provision of pulpwood and short rotation eucalyptus in Bahia, Brazil: Environmental impacts based on lifecycle assessment methodology2017In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 105, p. 41-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental impacts from cultivation of eucalyptus pulpwood and short rotation eucalyptus in northeast Brazil were investigated using lifecycle assessment methodology. The assessment considers all relevant inputs and outputs, as well as direct land use changes, assuming conversion of grassland (pasture) to areas for eucalyptus plantation. Results show that production of pulpwood eucalyptus is beneficial compared to short rotation eucalyptus in relation to all assessed impact categories, except for climate change (greenhouse gas emissions = 47 kg CO2-eq. t DM−1 pulpwood eucalyptus and 35 kg CO2-eq. t DM−1 short rotation eucalyptus). Excluding emissions from direct land use changes would increase overall GWP from investigated systems with around 5–6%, and changing the assumed land-use prior to land conversion is of decisive character for overall GWP-results from the assessed eucalyptus production systems. Modeling of nutrient balances in the short rotation production system shows a potential need to increase the input of mineral fertilizer in order to compensate for nutrient losses. This would increase environmental impacts from the short rotation system, making pulpwood eucalyptus preferable in relation to all assessed impact categories.

  • 36.
    Bialik, Marta
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Jensen, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Rahman, Haribur
    Chalmers university of technology, Sweden.
    Langer, Vratislav
    Chalmers university of technology, Sweden.
    Na2CO3-Na2SO4-double salt scaling in black liquor evaporators: solubility experiments in model solutions2017In: International chemical recovery conference, May 24-26, 2017, Halifax, Canada, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scaling by Na2CO3-Na2SO4-type solids counts among the most common problems in black liquor evaporation. Previous studies have identified two double salts precipitating from Na-CO3-SO4 solutions: burkeite, Na2CO3·2Na2SO4 and (sodium sulphate) dicarbonate, Na2SO4·2Na2CO3. The latter is believed to be more prone to cause scaling. However, it has long been suspected that other double salts, with largely unknown properties, may form in this system. This work summarizes the results of precipitation studies in the Na2CO3-Na2SO4-(additive) system targeting the transition zone between burkeite and dicarbonate formation. At least one additional double salt has been identified by X-ray diffraction in both bulk crystals and in the scale. The solubility data and the equilibrium liquor compositions have been compared with earlier models

  • 37.
    Björk, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Bouveng, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    Holmen AB, Sweden.
    Fines-enriched pulp as a strength agent in a CTMP middle ply2018In: PaperCon 2018: Shaping the future through innovation, TAPPI , 2018, p. 741-760, article id PA5.2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this pilot scale trial, was to evaluate fines-enriched pulp (FE-pulp) as a strength agent in amiddle ply of a board product.A typical CTMP-based middle ply was produced on the FEX pilot paper machine. The stock consisted of CTMP,refined hardwood and softwood pulp, and filler. FE-pulp as strength agent was compared with glue pulp, ahighly refined chemical pulp. FEX sheets and hand sheets made of pulp mixtures were evaluated. Also, thedewatering and pressing conditions on the paper machine were compared.The results confirmed the results of earlier experiments with handsheets; FE-pulp used as strength agent showedto be twice as efficient as glue pulp regarding strength properties without impairing the bulk. Further, thedewatering conditions and press dryness's on the paper machine was comparable at these additions. Thus, allthese results imply that addition of FE-pulp can replace the double amount of glue pulp as a strength agent.

  • 38.
    Björk, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Bouveng, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    Holmen AB, Sweden.
    Production of pulps with an extremely high fines content for use as strength agent2018In: PaperCon 2018: Shaping the future through innovation, TAPPI , 2018, article id PA5.1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to optimize the production of fines-enriched pulp (FE-pulp) from chemical pulp.The first trial was a continuous production of FE-pulp with unbleached and bleached never-dried softwood. Thepulp was refined using a JC00 equipped with SF filling, and screened with a micro-perforated screen basket with250 μm diameter holes, but the produced FE-pulp got low concentration, below 3 g/l.The second trial aimed at optimised conditions, using dried bleached softwood. Three fillings, microbar, AA andFF were evaluated in a JC01 refiner, where microbar was most energy efficient. Microbar and AA reachedtargeted FE-pulp concentration, 10 g/l. The refined pulps were screened with different hole diameters, where, asexpected, larger hole diameters resulted in higher concentration but also lower fines content in the FE-pulps.The last trial, the microbar filling was evaluated for never-dried softwood pulp, unbleached and bleached. Now,the refining of unbleached softwood gave 3 times more fines per kWh/ton compared with first trial.These trials demonstrated the importance of the right refining conditions regarding effect of refiner and type offilling to achieve glue-pulp with high enough fines content. With the right conditions, it was possible to produceFE-pulp with high concentration at moderate energy consumption.

  • 39.
    Björk, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Bouveng, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Usage of Fines-enriched pulp to increase strength in CTMP2017In: Paper Conference and Trade Show, PaperCon 2017: Renew, Rethink, Redefine the Future, TAPPI Press, 2017, Vol. 3, p. 1607-1631Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fines-enriched pulp (FE-pulp) was benchmarked against glue pulp as strength agent in eucalypt CTMP. FE-pulp was produced by combining high intensity multiple-pass refining with a fractionation in a microperforated screen basket. The fraction passing through the holes of the screen is the FE-pulp. The FE-pulp comprises of secondary fines, created in the refiner, and flexible, fibrillated highly-refined fibres or fibre fragments. Glue pulp is highly refined kraft pulp, commonly added as a strength agent in middle plies of board products, or between plies to increase the plybond. Equal amounts of FE-pulp and glue pulp were added to the original CTMP as well as to washed CTMP, where most of the CTMP-fines had been removed. The effects of the strength agents were evaluated using laboratory sheets. Both glue pulp and FE-pulp increased the strength of the CTMP sheets. The bulk of the sheets decreased however. When 5 % FE-pulp was added, the tensile index increased by more than 50 %, and the tensile energy absorption and z-strength increased by more than 100 %. FE-pulp proved to be twice as effective as glue pulp. The addition of 5 % FE-pulp resulted in the same relative strength increase as an addition of 10 % glue pulp. The washed CTMP lost all strength when the CTMP-fines content was reduced from 17 % to 3% through washing. The addition of 5 % FE-pulp restored the strength values, and at a higher bulk. The drainability in terms of CSF of that stock was much higher when compared to the original pulp.

  • 40.
    Björk, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Lindgren, Margareta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Single-stage hydrocyclone fractionation of refined bleached softwood pulp2017In: PaperCon 2017, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Refined bleached chemical softwood was fractionated using a hydrocyclone in a fine and a coarse fraction. The trials were done at three inject concentrations, three coarse fraction volume ratios, and with pulps refined with two refining levels.

    A large difference in sheet properties between fine and coarse fraction was observed. Compared with the feed pulp, the relative change in the sheet properties increased more in the fine fractions than it decreased in the coarse fractions. Increased fines proportion had a positive effect on all properties up to a certain level when a further improvement could not be observed. Interestingly, the fine fractions of both refining levels reached the same absolute strength level, both for the tensile properties and z-strength. The fine fractions at the highest coarse fraction mass ratios contained more fines, and the mean fibre was shorter and narrower. This led to higher density but also a decrease of the stretch-at-break and z-strength values.

    When comparing these results with previous fractionation results for unrefined pulp, it was found that inject concentration did not have a large effect on thickening in the present study. As for the refined pulp, the tensile index increased with fines proportion for the unrefined pulp, however, only up to a certain fines proportion where a maximum values was reached. The increase was larger for the refined pulps which had higher fines proportion.

  • 41.
    Blell, Rebecca
    et al.
    CNRS Institut Charles Sadron, France.
    Lin, Xiaofeng
    CNRS Institut Charles Sadron, France.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Ankerfors, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Pauly, Matthias
    CNRS Institut Charles Sadron, France; Université de Strasbourg, France.
    Felix, Olivier
    CNRS Institut Charles Sadron, France.
    Decher, Gero
    CNRS Institut Charles Sadron, France; Université de Strasbourg, France; International Center for Frontier Research in Chemistry, France.
    Generating in-Plane Orientational Order in Multilayer Films Prepared by Spray-Assisted Layer-by-Layer Assembly2017In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 84-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a simple yet efficient method for orienting cellulose nanofibrils in layer-by-layer assembled films through spray-assisted alignment. While spraying at 90° against a receiving surface produces films with homogeneous in-plane orientation, spraying at smaller angles causes a macroscopic directional surface flow of liquid on the receiving surface and leads to films with substantial in-plane anisotropy when nanoscale objects with anisotropic shapes are used as components. First results with cellulose nanofibrils demonstrate that such fibrils are easily aligned by grazing incidence spraying to yield optically birefringent films over large surface areas. We show that the cellulosic nanofibrils are oriented parallel to the spraying direction and that the orientational order depends for example on the distance of the receiving surface from the spray nozzle. The alignment of the nanofibrils and the in-plane anisotropy of the films were independently confirmed by atomic force microscopy, optical microscopy between crossed polarizers, and the ellipsometric determination of the apparent refractive index of the film as a function of the in-plane rotation of the sample with respect to the plane of incidence of the ellipsometer.

  • 42.
    Borrega, Marc
    et al.
    Aalto university, Finland ; VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Finland.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Ahvenainen, Patrik
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Ceccherini, Sara
    Aalto university, Finland.
    Maloney, Thaddeus
    Aalto university, Finland.
    Rautkari, Lauri
    Aalto university, Finland.
    Sixta, Herbert
    Aalto university, Finland.
    Birch wood pre-hydrolysis vs pulp post-hydrolysis for the production of xylan-based compounds and cellulose for viscose application2018In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 190, p. 212-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrothermal treatments of birch wood and kraft pulp were compared for their ability to extract the xylan and produce viscose-grade pulp. Water post-hydrolysis of kraft pulp produced a high-purity cellulosic pulp with lower viscosity but higher cellulose yield than traditional pre-hydrolysis kraft pulping of wood. Post-hydrolysis of pulp also increased the crystallite dimensions and degree of crystallinity in cellulose, and promoted a higher extent of fibril aggregation. The lower specific surface area in post-hydrolyzed pulps, derived from their larger fibril aggregates, decreased the accessibility of –OH groups. However, this lower accessibility did not seem to decrease the pulp reactivity to derivatizing chemicals. In the aqueous side-stream, the xylose yield was similar in both pre- and post-hydrolysates, although conducting post-hydrolysis of pulp in a flow-through system enabled the recovery of high purity and molar mass (∌10 kDa) xylan for high-value applications.

  • 43.
    Brod, E
    et al.
    NIBIO Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Norway.
    Toven, Kai
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Haraldsen, TK
    NIBIO Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Norway.
    Krogstad, T
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Unbalanced nutrient ratios in pelleted compound recycling fertilizers2018In: Soil use and management, ISSN 0266-0032, E-ISSN 1475-2743, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 18-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to contribute to the development of pelleted compound recycling fertilizers with favourable handling and spreading characteristics and balanced nutrient ratios by combining nitrogen (N)- and phosphorus (P)-rich waste resources (meat bone meal, fish sludge or food waste) with potassium (K)-rich bottom wood ash. Pelleted compound recycling fertilizers with good durability and low dusting tendency were produced by roll-pelleting preheated waste resources at a suitable moisture content. However, the nutrient ratios in the final products were insufficiently balanced, with too low N concentrations relative to P and K to meet crop demands. In a bioassay using barley (Hordeum vulgare) and a nutrient-deficient sand/peat mixture, the relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE) of pelleted compound recycling fertilizers and reference recycling fertilizers was 22-42% of that of mineral compound fertilizer. Growth limitation was due to reduced N availability (mineral fertilizer equivalent - MFE=35-57%) or reduced P availability (MFE=20-115%), with the greatest P fertilizer value obtained for digestate based on dairy manure and fish sludge. Availability of K in bottom wood ash was masked by the experimental soil.

  • 44.
    Brodin, Fredrik W.
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Celaya Romeo, Javier
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Toven, K.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Dewatered pyrolysis oil as fuel component in marine fuel blends2016In: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings 2016, 2016, no 24thEUBCE, p. 1122-1124Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest-based fast pyrolysis liquids constitute a potential low-sulphur fuel alternative for the marine sector. However, it is a challenge to meet the marine fuel quality demands set by current infrastructure, engines and fuels standards. The aim of this work has been to explore the potential for producing a new and more sustainable marine fuel quality. This new fuel quality is based on upgraded pyrolysis oil which is used as a fuel component in three-component blends. Low-water containing pine pyrolysis oil samples were formed by vacuum-assisted dewatering and in the next step three-component blends were prepared by mixing pyrolysis oil with bio-diesel and nbutanol. The results showed that less amount of butanol is required to form homogenous and storage stable blends when using dewatered pyrolysis oil as a blend component as compared to using crude pyrolysis oil. Dewatering also reduced the corrosiveness dramatically indicating that fuel blends based on dewatered pyrolysis oils are more compatible with marine engines than fuel blend based on crude pyrolysis oil.

  • 45.
    Brodin, Malin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Vallejos, Maria
    Instituto de Materiales de Misiones (IMAM), Argentina.
    Opedal, Mihaela Tanase
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Area, Maria C.
    Instituto de Materiales de Misiones (IMAM), Argentina.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Lignocellulosics as sustainable resources for production of bioplastics: a review2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 162, p. 646-664Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bio-based economy requires a sustainable utilization of bioresources for production of a range of products, including pulp, paper, chemicals, biofuel and bioplastics. Currently, various types of bioplastics are produced industrially, competing in performance and price with the conventional fossil-oil based plastics. However, there is also a major interest in utilizing non-food crops, such as lignocellulosics, for production of drop-in polymers or new dedicated bioplastics. Lignocellulosic resources have a potential to replace plastics and materials, which have been traditionally based on fossil resources. This is important, as the development of high performance bio-based and renewable materials is one important factor for sustainable growth of the bio-based industry. However, production of bioplastics from forestry biomass requires a dedicated fractionation into the major components, i.e. cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin, effective purification processes and cost-effective routes for conversion into monomers and platform molecules, utilized as a basis for bioplastics production. These processes are now technologically demanding and not profitable. The intention of this work was thus to review the current advances that have been made during the years within fractionation and purification of lignocelluloses and the processes that may feasible for production of bioplastics, based on wood components.

  • 46.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Molnar, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Torén, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Choice of social indicators within technology development – the case of mobile biorefineries in Europe2018In: Social LCA: People and Places for Partnership, 2018, p. 162-166Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Bräck, Thomas
    et al.
    Meva Energy, Sweden.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Hedman, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Sepman, Alexeu
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Replace fossil gas in industrial burners with renewable biogas2018In: The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference: NWBC 2018: proceedings / [ed] Hytönen Eemeli, Vepsäläinen Jessica, Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland , 2018, p. 73-73Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Brännvall, Elisabet
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Increasing pulp yield in kraft cooking of softwoods by high initial effective alkali concentration (HIEAC) during impregnation leading to decreasing secondary peeling of cellulose2018In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 72, no 10, p. 819-827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulp yield can be improved by a more homogeneous delignification of the chips, achieved by improved impregnation prior to the cooking stage. Complete and efficient impregnation is obtained by increasing the diffusion rate by means of an impregnation liquor with a high initial effective alkali concentration (HIEAC). In the present study, the effect of HIEAC in the impregnation was evaluated and compared to a reference impregnation procedure and a prolonged impregnation. After the various impregnation scenarios, the alkali concentration was always adjusted to the same level in the beginning of the cooking stage. Impregnation with a HIEAC resulted in yield improvements by 1-1.5% units, due to a higher cellulose yield and possibly also to higher yield of glucomannan. The HIEAC with an even alkali distribution within the chips prior to the cooking stage resulted in a more uniform delignification carbohydrate degradation. Yield increase obtained by uniform delignification is due to both decreased shives content as well as less secondary peeling.

  • 49.
    Brännvall, Elisabet
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    The limits of delignification in kraft cooking2017In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 2081-2107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The perspective of the article is to explore kraft cooking at the limits of delignification, i.e. what degree of delignification is needed to obtain fibre liberation and what is the maximum degree of delignification possible in the kraft pulping stage. The reasons for the quite narrow boundaries for sufficient and maximum delignification are explained, and the differences between the behaviour of hardwood and softwood kraft pulping are clarified.

  • 50.
    Brännvall, Elisabet
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Kulander, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Consequences in a softwood kraft pulp mill of initial high alkali concentration in the impregnation stage2019In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 28-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impregnation with high initial concentration is fast and efficient, leading to a homogeneous delignification in the subsequent cook, resulting in improved screened pulp yield. To obtain high initial alkali concentration, the white liquor flow needs to be significantly increased. The moisture content of the wood chips and the alkali concentration of the white liquor limit the initial alkali concentration of the impregnation liquor that can be reached. It is therefore of interest to evaluate the possibility to implement high alkali impregnation (HAI) industrially and the consequences this would have on the mill system. The effect of HAI on mass and energy balances in a kraft pulp mill has been studied using mill model simulations. The sensitivity to disturbances in important parameters for process control has been compared to impregnation scenarios used industrially. It was shown that high initial alkali concentration can be achieved on industrial scale by increased white liquor flow. HAI has a positive effect on recovery flows and reduces the need for make-up chemicals. The HAI concept is less sensitive to variations in process parameters, such as chip moisture and white liquor concentration, thus diminishing the risk of alkali depletion in chip cores. © 2019 Brännvall and Kulander.

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