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  • 1.
    A. Hosseini, Vahid
    et al.
    University West, Sweden ; Innovatum AB, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Leif
    University West, Sweden.
    Örnek, Cem
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Reccagni, Pierfrance
    The University of Manchester, UK.
    Wessman, Sten
    University West, Sweden.
    Engelberg, Dirk
    The University of Manchester, UK.
    Microstructure and functionality of a uniquely graded super duplex stainless steel designed by a novel arc heat treatment method2018In: Materials Characterization, ISSN 1044-5803, E-ISSN 1873-4189, Vol. 139, p. 390-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel arc heat treatment technique was applied to design a uniquely graded super duplex stainless steel (SDSS), by subjecting a single sample to a steady state temperature gradient for 10 h. A new experimental approach was used to map precipitation in microstructure, covering aging temperatures of up to 1430 °C. The microstructure was characterized and functionality was evaluated via hardness mapping. Nitrogen depletion adjacent to the fusion boundary depressed the upper temperature limit for austenite formation and influenced the phase balance above 980 °C. Austenite/ferrite boundaries deviating from Kurdjumov–Sachs orientation relationship (OR) were preferred locations for precipitation of σ at 630–1000 °C, χ at 560–1000 °C, Cr2N at 600–900 °C and R between 550 °C and 700 °C. Precipitate morphology changed with decreasing temperature; from blocky to coral-shaped for σ, from discrete blocky to elongated particles for χ, and from polygonal to disc-shaped for R. Thermodynamic calculations of phase equilibria largely agreed with observations above 750 °C when considering nitrogen loss. Formation of intermetallic phases and 475 °C-embrittlement resulted in increased hardness. A schematic diagram, correlating information about phase contents, morphologies and hardness, as a function of exposure temperature, is introduced for evaluation of functionality of microstructures. 

  • 2.
    Achtel, Christian
    et al.
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Kosan, Birgit
    TITK Thuringian Institute of Textile and Plastics Research, Germany.
    Seoud, Omar. A.El
    University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Heinze, Thomas
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Dissolution capacity of novel cellulose solvents based on triethyloctylammonium chloride2017In: Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, ISSN 1022-1352, E-ISSN 1521-3935, Vol. 218, no 21, article id 1700208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolution of cellulose from various sources (microcrystalline cellulose and different dissolving grade pulp fibers) is investigated in solvent systems based on triethyl(n-octyl)ammonium chloride (N2228Cl). Clear cellulose solutions are obtained with N2228Cl in a variety of solvents, e.g., dimethyl sulfoxide, N,N-dimethylacetamide, and acetone. It is possible to prepare clear cellulose solutions from pulp fibers with concentrations up to 15 wt%. However, it is found that the cellulose is degraded, especially when neat (i.e., molten) N2228Cl is used as a solvent. The present work includes comprehensive rheological characterization of the cellulose solutions, both with shear and extensional rheology. In most cases, the viscosity values are low (complex viscosities below 100 Pa s for 5–10 wt% dissolved cellulose), and the solutions show more Newtonian than viscoelastic behavior. 

  • 3.
    Achtel, Christian
    et al.
    Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Kostag, Marc
    University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    El Seoud, Omar A.
    University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Heinze, Thomas
    Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany.
    Surprising Insensitivity of Homogeneous Acetylation of Cellulose Dissolved in Triethyl(n-octyl)ammonium Chloride/Molecular Solvent on the Solvent Polarity2018In: Macromolecular materials and engineering (Print), ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054, Vol. 303, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The homogeneous acetylation of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) by acetyl chloride and acetic anhydride in triethyl(n-octyl)ammonium chloride (N2228Cl)/molecular solvents (MSs) is investigated. The reaction with both acylating agents shows the expected increase of the degree of substitution (DS) on reaction temperature and time. Under comparable reaction conditions, however, DS is surprisingly little dependent on the MS employed, although the MSs differ in empirical polarity by 7 kcal mol−1 as calculated by use of solvatochromic probes. The empirical polarities of (MCC + N2228Cl + MS) differ only by 0.8 kcal mol−1. The formation a polar electrolyte sheath around cellulose chains presumably contributes to this “leveling-off” of the dependence DS on the polarity of the parent MS employed. N2228Cl recovery and recycling is feasible. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  • 4.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Keramer.
    Zirconia in applications with bone contact2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Lyckfeldt, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Johansson, Emil
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Visible-Light Curable Ceramic Suspensions for Additive Manufacturing of Dense Ceramic Parts2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Shen, J.Z.
    Stockholm University.
    Defect Minimization in Prosthetic Ceramics2014In: Advanced Ceramics for Dentistry, Elsevier Inc. , 2014, p. 359-373Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical reliability and aesthetic appearance of ceramic dental prostheses are strongly influenced by the presence of defects. When several processes are used during fabrication of ceramic dental prostheses, additional defects are unavoidably introduced in each process step; these are in addition to the ones that already exist in raw materials. To avoid the degeneration of material performance by the accumulated defect population, process optimization is needed to minimize the defects introduced. Standardized mechanical evaluations are usually performed on samples with carefully prepared surfaces in order to minimize the influence from the defects usually induced by fabrication processes. The results from such mechanical evaluation indicate the strength level that is achievable by the material with the given population of bulk defects. In order to avoid a reduction in the performance of the ceramic material by the additional defects normally induced by the fabrication process, it must be understood how these defects are introduced, and solutions must be found to reduce their size and frequency through modifications of the material and processes. The aim of this chapter is to elucidate the sources of defects that are common for ceramic dental prostheses and to determine how to minimize them. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Shen, Z.
    Stockholm University.
    Effects of granule density on strength and granule related defects in zirconia2012In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 32, no 11, p. 2653-2659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A suspension of zirconia powder (TZ3YSE) with a solids loading of 50. vol% was prepared by ball milling. Binders were added and some of the suspension was diluted to 40, 30 and 20. vol% before freeze granulation was performed. A spray dried material (TZ3YSEB) was used as a reference. The pore size distribution of the different granules was evaluated and from the microstructure it was shown that inhomogeneities were present in both the freeze granulated as well as in the spray dried granules. In addition, the density, microstructure as well as the strength of sintered materials prepared from the granules were studied. The results showed that a high green density or sintered density was not sufficient in order to achieve a high strength material. It was further shown that the strength was significantly influenced by the granule density and not by the inhomogeneities found in the granules. © 2012.

  • 8.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Tönnäng, Lenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    The effect of softmachining parameters on the mechanical strength of zirconia2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Venturini, Francesca
    ZHAW School of Engineering, Switzerland.
    Schönherr, Veit
    ZHAW School of Engineering, Switzerland .
    Rey, Julien
    ZHAW School of Engineering, Switzerland .
    Characterization oflight-gas interaction in strongly-scattering nanoporous materials and itsimplications for tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy2016In: Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics, 2016, Vol. 123, p. 123-136Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Through the confinement of gas in nanoporous materials, it is possible to significantly increase the path length for light–gas interaction. This enables the observation of much stronger absorption features for the confined gas molecules. In this work, we systematically characterized a variety of disordered strongly scattering ZrO2 and Al2O3 nanoporous ceramic materials to exploit the potential of gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy. As a result, we identified a material with an unprecedented performance in terms of optical path length enhancement. In ZrO2 with thicknesses above 6 mm, the path enhancement exceeds 1000. The results obtained with near-infrared absorption spectroscopy on oxygen were validated by time-of-flight measurements at 700 nm, thus demonstrating their robustness. Finally, we report quantitative oxygen concentration measurement using nanoporous materials as miniaturized random-scattering multipass cell with an extremely simple and low-cost setup.

  • 10.
    Ahlström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Aluminium i betong - Litteraturstudie och experimentella försök2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens byggprojekt används en mängd olika material för att bygga konstruktioner. Det förekommer att komponenter av aluminium gjuts in i betong vilket medför en risk att täckskiktet spricker p.g.a. korrosionsprodukternas stora volym. Därför är det viktigt att klargöra vilka korrosionsegenskaper aluminium har ingjuten i betong.

  • 11.
    Ahlström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Atmosfäriska korrosionsegenskaper för rostfritt stål med olika ytstruktur2011Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Generellt sett så har rostfria stål en hög korrosionsresistens i atmosfärisk miljö p.g.a. den mycket tunna oxidfilmen på ytan, en film som fungerar som en barriär och försvårar initieringen av en korrosionsprocess på stålets yta. Dock så kan rostfria stål få svåra gropfrätningsangrepp i vissa aggressiva atmosfärer där t.ex. klorider och SO2 finns närvarande. Olika ytstrukturer kan ge ytan olika egenskaper som vätbarhet, ytråhet och ytsammansättning. En yta som har hög vätbarhet har en tjockare fuktfilm på ytan jämfört med en yta som har låg vätbarhet. Det är i fuktfilmen på ytan som korrosionsprocesserna sker, aggressiva partiklar och gaser kan tas upp i fuktfilmen från atmosfären och öka korrosionshastigheten. Ytråheten påverkar både vätbarhet och hur mycket partiklar som fastnar på en yta, därmed påverkar ytråheten korrosionshastigheten. Ytsammansättning anger vilka och hur mycket det finns av ett ämne i den skyddande oxidfilmen, ämnen som kan ha betydelse för hur lätt korrosion uppstår, t.ex. så kan olika sulfider fungera som initieringsyta för korrosionsangrepp. I litteraturen har det dragits olika slutsatser om vilken ytegenskap som har störst betydelse för korrosionens omfattning. Vissa studier säger att ytråheten har störst betydelse medan andra säger att ytsammansättningen har störst betydelse. Särskilt låglegerade ferritiska rostfria stål kan få svår gropfrätning i aggressiva miljöer och då har typen av ytstruktur liten betydelse för hur stora korrosionsangreppen blir. För de mer legerade austenitiska stålen kan typen av ytstruktur ha stor betydelse för storleken på korrosionsangrepp. Höglegerade stål som innehåller molybden har generellt sett små korrosionsangrepp och typen av ytstruktur har liten betydelse för korrosionsangreppens omfattning. Sammantaget tycks det dock vara så att ytråheten ändå har relativt stor inverkan på korrosionsresistensen, dock har relativt få studier genomförts där ytråheten verkligen mätts.

  • 12.
    Ahlström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Rostfritt stål i betong med hög fukt och kloridhalt - Provningsmetod för rostfritt stål i betong: Delrapport IV2011Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    För betongkonstruktioner som är exponerade i aggressiva miljöer kan korrosionsskador uppstå som kräver kostsamma reparationer. Aggressiva miljöer kan t.ex. vara konstruktioner i kontakt med havsvatten där klorider kan transporteras genom betongskiktet fram till armeringen och där orsakar korrosionsskador. För att förhindra vissa korrosionsskador kan armering av kolstål (som är det vanligaste armeringsmaterialet) bytas ut mot armering i rostfritt stål. Idag finns en mängd olika rostfria stål, med olika korrosionsegenskaper, tillgängliga på marknaden och det är därför viktigt att kunna klassificera korrosionshärdigheten för dessa stål. I en tidigare litteraturstudie ”Elektrokemiska metoder för utvärdering av armeringskorrosion samt kritisk kloridjonkoncentration för rostfritt stål i betong” [1] så undersöktes vad som har rapporterats i litteraturen om provningsmetoder för att undersöka korrosionshärdigheten för rostfritt stål i betong. Det framgick av litteraturstudien att en potentiostatisk metod med polarisering till +200 mV kan vara lämplig. I denna studie har en liknande potentiostatisk metod tillämpats och utvärderats. Provkropparna placerades i ett vattenbad där temperaturen ökade med 5°C per 14 dagar från lägst 20°C till maximalt 40°C. Två austenitiska och tre duplexa stål har undersökts och resultaten visar att stålen EN 1.4301 (304), EN 1.4162 (2101), EN 1.4436 (316) fick korrosionsangrepp vid 4 vikt-% Cl per cementvikt när temperaturen på vattenbadet var mellan 20 och 30°C. Det mer legerade duplexa stålet EN 1.4362 (2304) fick korrosionsangrepp vid 6 vikt-% Cl per cementvikt vid en temperatur på 35°C. Det högst legerade stålet EN 1.4462 (2205) fick inga korrosionsangrepp vid10 vikt-% Cl per cementvikt som var den högsta kloridkoncentrationen.

  • 13.
    Ahlström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Sandberg, Bertil
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Wadsö, Lars
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Galvanic corrosion properties of steel in water saturated concrete2015In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 67-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aluminum-based sacrificial anodes were installed to reinforced concrete to stop ongoing corrosion in cooling water tunnels in a Swedish nuclear power plant. The steel rebars were also unintentionally connected to stainless steel water pumps. Therefore, the consumption rate of the sacrificial anodes was higher than predicted. An experimental and a field study were performed to assess if the steel rebar suffer from galvanic corrosion and if the stainless steel pumps are responsible alone for the high consumption rate. It was found from the experimental study that there is an increased risk of galvanic corrosion for steel rebar when the corrosion potential is raised to -200mV (SCE) for samples with 1% CL- by mass of cement and -500mV (SCE) for samples with 2% Cl- by mass of cement. The experimental results were compared with the corrosion potential measured in the cooling water tunnel where sacri ficial anodes were in use and not mounted at all. The cooling water tunnel without sacrificial anodes had generally more anodic corrosion potentials compared to the tunnel with anodes. The tunnel with anodes had also more anodic potentials closer to the stainless steel pumps than further away which means that the rebar is affected by the stainless steel pumps. However, the measured corrosion potentials in the tunnels were not as anodic as the potentials needed for high galvanic current measured in the experimental study.

  • 14.
    Ahlström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Tang, Luping
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sederholm, Bror
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Electrochemical properties of oxide scale on steel exposed in saturated calcium hydroxide solutions with or without chlorides2018In: International Journal of Corrosion, ISSN 1687-9325, E-ISSN 1687-9333, Vol. 2018, article id 5623504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrochemical properties of various iron oxide scales on steel exposed in saturated calcium hydroxide solutions were investigated. The iron oxide scales were manufactured by different heat treatments and grinding processes and characterized using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The electrochemical properties of the scales were assessed by measuring the corrosion potential and using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization curves. It was found that wustite and magnetite are less noble compared to hematite but are more effective as cathodic surfaces. The results show that the electrochemical properties of the mill scale can be an important contributing factor in the corrosion of steel in concrete.

  • 15.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Långström, R.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Fernberg, P.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Novel reactive bicomponent fibres: Material in composite manufacturing2012In: Journal of Nanostructured Polymers and Nanocomposites, ISSN 17904439, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 11-majArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypotheses that reactive uncured, thermoset bicomponent fibres can be prepared and mixed with reinforcing fibres and ultimately used in preparation of a composite was tested and is described. It is thought that such fibres have the two potential advantages: (1) to enable manufacturing with particle doped resins e.g. nanocomposites which add functionality to composites and (2) increased efficiency of structural composite manufacturing by increasing the level of automation. The structure of the thermoset fibres comprises of a sheath of thermoplastic and a core of uncured thermoset resin. Once manufactured, the fibres were wound with a reinforced fibre onto a plate, consolidated and cured. The resulting composite was examined and compared to other composites made with the same manufacturing method from commercially available materials. The results show that a laminate can be produced using these reactive bicomponent fibres. The resin system successfully impregnates the reinforcing carbon fibres and that the thermoplastic separates from the epoxy resin system during consolidation. In comparison to reference material, the bicomponent laminate shows promising characteristics. However, the processes developed are currently on a lab-scale and considerable improvement of various bicomponent fibre properties, such as the strength, are required before the technology can be used on a larger scale.

  • 16.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Långström, Runar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Novel reactive bicomponent fibres: Material in composite manufacturing2012In: Journal of Nanostructured Polymers and Nanocomposites, ISSN 17904439, Vol. 8, no 1, p. s.5-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypotheses that reactive uncured, thermoset bicomponent fibres can be prepared and mixed with reinforcing fibres and ultimately used in preparation of a composite was tested and is described. It is thought that such fibres have the two potential advantages: (1) to enable manufacturing with particle doped resins e.g. nanocomposites which add functionality to composites and (2) increased efficiency of structural composite manufacturing by increasing the level of automation. The structure of the thermoset fibres comprises of a sheath of thermoplastic and a core of uncured thermoset resin. Once manufactured, the fibres were wound with a reinforced fibre onto a plate, consolidated and cured. The resulting composite was examined and compared to other composites made with the same manufacturing method from commercially available materials. The results show that a laminate can be produced using these reactive bicomponent fibres. The resin system successfully impregnates the reinforcing carbon fibres and that the thermoplastic separates from the epoxy resin system during consolidation. In comparison to reference material, the bicomponent laminate shows promising characteristics. However, the processes developed are currently on a lab-scale and considerable improvement of various bicomponent fibre properties, such as the strength, are required before the technology can be used on a larger scale.

  • 17.
    Akbari, Saaed
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Lövberg, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Tegehall, Per-Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Effect of PCB cracks on thermal cycling reliability of passive microelectronic components with single-grained solder joints2019In: Microelectronics and reliability, ISSN 0026-2714, E-ISSN 1872-941X, Vol. 93, p. 61-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lead-free tin-based solder joints often have a single-grained structure with random orientation and highly anisotropic properties. These alloys are typically stiffer than lead-based solders, hence transfer more stress to printed circuit boards (PCBs) during thermal cycling. This may lead to cracking of the PCB laminate close to the solder joints, which could increase the PCB flexibility, alleviate strain on the solder joints, and thereby enhance the solder fatigue life. If this happens during accelerated thermal cycling it may result in overestimating the lifetime of solder joints in field conditions. In this study, the grain structure of SAC305 solder joints connecting ceramic resistors to PCBs was studied using polarized light microscopy and was found to be mostly single-grained. After thermal cycling, cracks were observed in the PCB under the solder joints. These cracks were likely formed at the early stages of thermal cycling prior to damage initiation in the solder. A finite element model incorporating temperature-dependant anisotropic thermal and mechanical properties of single-grained solder joints is developed to study these observations in detail. The model is able to predict the location of damage initiation in the PCB and the solder joints of ceramic resistors with reasonable accuracy. It also shows that the PCB cracks of even very small lengths may significantly reduce accumulated creep strain and creep work in the solder joints. The proposed model is also able to evaluate the influence of solder anisotropy on damage evolution in the neighbouring (opposite) solder joints of a ceramic resistor.

  • 18.
    Akbari, Saeed
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Sakhaei, A. H.
    Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore; University of Exeter, UK.
    Panjwani, S.
    Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore.
    Kowsari, K.
    Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore.
    Serjourei, A.
    Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore.
    Ge, Q.
    Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore.
    Multimaterial 3D Printed Soft Actuators Powered by Shape Memory Alloy Wires2019In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 290, p. 177-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been widely used to fabricate soft actuators by embedding SMA wires into various soft matrices manufactured by conventional moulding methods or novel three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques. However, soft matrices of SMA based actuators are typically fabricated from only one or two different materials. Here, we exploit the great manufacturing flexibility of multimaterial 3D printing to fabricate various bending, twisting and extensional actuators by precisely controlling the spatial arrangements of different printing materials with different stiffnesses. In order to achieve a broad range of deformations, ten different printing materials were characterized and used in the actuators design. In addition, we developed a finite element model to simulate complex deformations of the printed actuators and facilitate the design process. The model incorporates a user defined material subroutine that describes the nonlinear temperature dependant behavior of SMAs. The results show the efficiency and flexibility of multimaterial 3D printing in tailoring the deformed shape of the SMA based soft actuators, which cannot be accomplished using conventional manufacturing methods such as moulding.

  • 19.
    Akesson, D.
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Skrifvars, M.
    University of Borås.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Preparation of thermoset composites from natural fibres and acrylate modified soybean oil resins2009In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 114, no 4, p. 2502-2508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural composites with a high content of renewable material were produced from natural fibres and an acrylated epoxidized soybean oil resin. Composites were prepared by spray impregnation followed by compression moulding at elevated temperature. The resulting composites had good mechanical properties in terms of tensile strength and flexural strength. Tensile testing as well as dynamical mechanical thermal analysis showed that increasing the fibre content, increased the mechanical properties. The resin can be reinforced with up to 70 wt % fibre without sacrifice in processability. The tensile modulus ranged between 5.8 and 9.7 GPa depending on the type of fibre mat. The study of the adhesion by low vacuum scanning electron microscopy shows that the fibres are well impregnated in the matrix. The aging properties were finally evaluated. This study shows that composites with a very high content of renewable constituents can be produced from soy bean oil resins and natural fibres. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 20.
    Alberts, D.
    et al.
    University of Oviedo.
    Vega, V.
    University of Oviedo.
    Pereiro, R.
    University of Oviedo.
    Bordel, N.
    University of Oviedo.
    Prida, V.M.
    University of Oviedo.
    Bengtson, Arne
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Sanz-Medel, A.
    University of Oviedo.
    In-depth profile analysis of filled alumina and titania nanostructured templates by radiofrequency glow discharge coupled to optical emission spectrometry2010In: Analusis, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 396, no 8, p. 2833-2840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of highly ordered and self-assembled magnetic nanostructures such as arrays of Fe or Ni nanowires and their alloys is arousing increasing interest due to the peculiar magnetic properties of such materials at the nanoscale. These nanostructures can be fabricated using nanoporous anodic alumina membranes or self-assembled nanotubular titanium dioxide as templates. The chemical characterization of the nanostructured layers is of great importance to assist the optimization of the filling procedure or to determine their manufacturing quality. Radiofrequency glow discharge (RF-GD) coupled to optical emission spectrometry (OES) is a powerful tool for the direct analysis of either conducting or insulating materials and to carry out depth profile analysis of thin layers by multi-matrix calibration procedures. Thus, the capability of RF-GD-OES is investigated here for the in-depth quantitative analysis of self-aligned titania nanotubes and self-ordered nanoporous alumina filled with arrays of metallic and magnetic nanowires obtained using the template-assisted filling method. The samples analysed in this work consisted of arrays of Ni nanowires with different lengths (from 1.2 up to 5 μm) and multilayer nanowires of alternating layers with different thicknesses (of 1-2 μm) of Ni and Au, or Au and FeNi alloy, deposited inside the alumina and titania membranes. Results, compared with other techniques such as scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, show that the RF-GD-OES surface analysis technique proves to be adequate and promising for this challenging application. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  • 21.
    Albinsson, Ola
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Lundevall, Åsa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Sehati, Parisa
    Linköpings universitet.
    Stålhanske, Christina
    RISE.
    Sundberg, P
    Mattsson, Lards-Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology .
    Sjövall, Peter
    Rise.
    The influence of surface composition and plasma treatment on adhesion2015In: Proceedings of GPD Glass Performance Days 2015, 2015, p. 11-14Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Alexis, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Björkvall, Johan.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Mathematical modeling of stirring for an optimized ladle furnace process2011In: AISTech - Iron and Steel Technology Conference Proceedings, 2011, p. 1389-1399Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 23.
    Alipour, Y.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Viklund, Peter
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Henderson, P.
    Vattenfall Research and Development.
    The analysis of furnace wall deposits in a low-NOx waste wood-fired bubbling fluidised bed boiler2012In: VGB PowerTech, ISSN 14353199, Vol. 92, no 12, p. 96-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing use is being made of biomass as fuel for electricity production as the price of natural wood continues to rise. Therefore, more use is being made of waste wood (recycled wood). However, waste wood contains more chlorine, zinc and lead, which are believed to increase corrosion rates. Corrosion problems have occurred on the furnace walls of a fluidised bed boiler firing 100 % waste wood under low-NOx conditions. The deposits have been collected and analysed in order to understand the impact of the fuel.

  • 24.
    Alipour, Yousef
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Talus, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Henderson, Pamela
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Vattenfall AB, Sweden.
    Norling, Rikard
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    The effect of co-firing sewage sludge with used wood on the corrosion of an FeCrAl alloy and a nickel-based alloy in the furnace region2015In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 138, p. 805-813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of digested sewage sludge as a fuel additive to reduce corrosion of furnace walls has been studied. The nickel base alloy Alloy 625 and the iron-chromium-aluminium alloy Kanthal APMT™ were exposed for 14.25. h at the furnace wall in a power boiler burning 100% used (also known as waste or recycled) wood. The test was then repeated with the addition of sewage sludge to the waste wood. The samples were chemically analysed and thermodynamically modelled and the corrosion mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that the co-firing of sewage sludge with recycled wood leads to a reduction in the corrosion. Attack by a potassium-lead combination appeared to be the main corrosion mechanism in Alloy 625 during waste wood combustion, while attack by alkali chloride was found to be dominant in APMT alloy.

  • 25.
    Allen, D.H.
    et al.
    Texas AandM University.
    Holmberg, Anders
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Ericson, M.
    Volvo Car Components Corporation.
    Lans, L.
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Svensson, N.
    Xdin AB.
    Holmberg, S.
    Volvo Car Components Corporation.
    Modeling the viscoelastic response of GMT structural components2001In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 503-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A glass-mat-reinforced thermoplastic (GMT) composite material has been fabricated from randomly oriented continuous glass fibers embedded in a polypropylene matrix. The mechanical constitution of this composite has been characterized by using a linear viscoelastic micromechanically based material model. This material model has subsequently been implemented to several finite-element computer codes for analysis of structural components fabricated from polypropylene GMT. In this paper several example problems have been studied in order to determine the applicability of this modeling approach to predicting time-dependent deformations due to creep in GMT components. These example problems have been solved by utilizing two commercially available codes: ABAQUS, and ANSYS. Furthermore, results obtained with the codes have been compared to both analytic and experimental results, with varying degrees of success. The paper details these results for each of the example problems considered herein. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 26.
    Allvar, Marie
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    MIG/MAG brazing with cold metal transfer2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the automotive industry a commonly used material is thin steel sheets coated with a thin layer of zinc for corrosion resistance purposes. Welding of this material, with the high temperatures involved, causes problems with zinc burn-off leading to reduced corrosion resistance. The zinc evaporation also causes arc disturbances leading to spatter formation, pores and difficulties achieving good visual weld quality. The joints are in many cases visible or semi-visible (e.g. visible after opening a door) and “A-grade” quality is demanded, meaning no visible discontinuities are allowed. It also implies a smooth and generally appealing appearance of the joint. An alternative to welding is brazing, and laser brazing meets the requirements but the process is associated with high costs. In the national project “LEX-B”, funded by Vinnova, the possibilities of using arc brazing, in particular one MIG/MAG brazing and two TIG brazing processes, for some automotive applications are investigated. This master thesis is connected to the first part of the project and aims at compiling data for making a selection of the most promising process to investigate and optimise further. LEX-B is conducted in cooperation between Swerea KIMAB AB, Volvo Trucks, Scania CV and University West. The joint of interest is a lap joint between bottom and upper sheets of 1.2 mm and 0.8 mm respectively that represents a joint on the side of a truck cabin. The requirements are visual A-grade quality and tensile shear strength of 300 MPa. In the project the MIG/MAG process Cold Metal Transfer (CMT) was compared to the TIG processes forceTIG and Plasmatron. CMT was experimentally investigated while the results for the other two processes were obtained partly from a previous study and partly from Volvo Trucks where tests were performed simultaneously. A system for measuring data for the process was developed, test specimens were brazed and examined visually and mechanical destructive testing was performed to ensure the tensile shear strength. Parameter studies were done for further process optimisation.

  • 27. Almström, Peter
    et al.
    Andersson, Carin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ericsson Öberg, Anna
    Hammersberg, Peter
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Landström, Anna
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Windmark, Christina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Winroth, Mats
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Sustainable and Resource Efficient Business Performance Measurement Systems: - The Handbook2017Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Al-Ramahi, Nawres
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden ; Middle Technical University, Iraq.
    Joffe, Roberts
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden .
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden .
    Investigation of end and edge effects on results of numerical simulation of single lap adhesive joint with non-linear materials2018In: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, ISSN 0143-7496, E-ISSN 1879-0127, Vol. 87, p. 191-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents systematic numerical study of stresses in the adhesive of a single-lap joint with the objective to improve understanding of the main material and geometrical parameters determining performance of adhesive joints. For this purpose a 3D model as well as 2D model, optimized with respect to the computational efficiency by use of novel displacement coupling conditions able to correctly represent monoclinic materials (off-axis layers of composite laminates), are employed. The model accounts for non-linearity of materials (adherend and adhesive) as well as geometrical non-linearity. The parameters of geometry of the joint are normalized with respect to the dimensions of adhesive (e.g. thickness) thus making analysis of results more general and applicable to wide range of different joints. Optimal geometry of the single-lap joint allowing to separate edge effect from end effects is selected based on results of the parametric analysis by using peel and shear stress distributions in the adhesive layer as a criterion. Three different types of single lap joint with similar and dissimilar (hybrid) materials are considered in this study: a) metal-metal; b) composite-composite; c) composite-metal. In case of composite laminates, four lay-ups are evaluated: uni-directional ([08]T and [908]T) and quasi-isotropic laminates ([0/45/90/-45]S and [90/45/0/-45]S). The influence of the abovementioned parameters on peel and shear stress distributions in the adhesive layer is examined carefully and mechanical parameters governing the stress concentrations in the joint have been identified, this dependence can be described by simple but accurate fitting function. The effect of the used material model (linear vs non-linear) on results is also demonstrated.

  • 29.
    Al-Ramahi, Nawres
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Middle Technical University, Iraq.
    Joffe, Roberts
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Numerical stress analysis in adhesive joints under thermo-mechanical load using model with special boundary conditions2019In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 518, Mechanical and Materials Engineering: Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Physics Publishing , 2019, no 3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A numerical study of the adhesivejoint made of similar and dissimilar adherends subjected to thermo-mechanical loading is presented. A comprehensive numerical model was used for this purpose with the novel displacement coupling conditions which are able to correctly represent monoclinic materials (off-axis layers of composite laminates). The geometrical nonlinearity as well as nonlinear material model are also taken into account. Three different types of single-lap and double-lap adhesive joints are considered in this study: a) metal-metal; b) composite-composite; c) composite-metal. In case of composite laminates, four lay-ups are evaluated: uni-directional ([08]T and [908]T) and quasi-isotropic laminates ([0/45/90/-45]S and [90/45/0/-45]S). This paper focuses on the parameters which have the majoreffect on the peel and shear stress distribution within adhesive layer at the overlap ends. The comparison of behaviour of single-and double-lap joints in relation to these parameters is made. The master curves for maximum stress (peel and shear) at the ends of the overlap with respect to the bending stiffness and axial modulus of the adherends are constructed by analysing stress distributions in the middle of the adhesive.The main conclusions of this paper are: the maximum peel stress value for SLJ is reduced with increase of the adherend bending stiffness and for DLJ,similar behaviour was observed at the end next to the inner plate corner, while, at the end next to the outer plate corner peel stress is reduced with increase of adherend axial modulus.

  • 30.
    Alt Murphy, Margit
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergquist, Filip
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hernández, Niina
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Johansson, Dongni
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wipenmyr, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Malmgren, Kristina
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    An upper body garment with integrated sensors for people with neurological disorders – early development and evaluation2019In: BMC Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 1, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In neurology and rehabilitation the primary interest for using wearables is to supplement traditional patient assessment and monitoring in hospital settings with continuous data collection at home and in community settings. The aim of this project was to develop a novel wearable garment with integrated sensors designed for continuous monitoring of physiological and movement related variables to evaluate progression, tailor treatments and improve diagnosis in epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease and stroke.

    Methods

    In this paper the early development and evaluation of a prototype designed to monitor movements and heart rate is described. An iterative development process and evaluation of an upper body garment with integrated sensors included: identification of user needs, specification of technical and garment requirements, garment development and production as well as evaluation of garment design, functionality and usability. The project is a multidisciplinary collaboration with experts from medical, engineering, textile, and material science within the wearITmed consortium. The work was organized in regular meetings, task groups and hands-on workshops. User needs were identified using results from a mixed-methods systematic review, a focus group study and expert groups. Usability was evaluated in 19 individuals (13 controls, 6 patients with Parkinson’s disease) using semi-structured interviews and qualitative content analysis.

    Results

    The garment was well accepted by the users regarding design and comfort, although the users were cautious about the technology and suggested improvements. All electronic components passed a washability test. The most robust data was obtained from accelerometer and gyroscope sensors while the electrodes for heart rate registration were sensitive to motion artefacts. The algorithm development within the wearITmed consortium has shown promising results.

    Conclusions

    The prototype was accepted by the users. Technical improvements are needed, but preliminary data indicate that the garment has potential to be used as a tool for diagnosis and treatment selection and could provide added value for monitoring seizures in epilepsy, fluctuations in PD and activity levels in stroke. Future work aims to improve the prototype further, develop algorithms, and evaluate the functionality and usability in targeted patient groups. The potential of incorporating blood pressure and heart-rate variability monitoring will also be explored.

  • 31.
    Altmann, Brigitte
    et al.
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Karygianni, Lamprini
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Al-Ahmad, Ali
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Butz, Frank
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Bächle, Maria
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Fürderer, Tobias
    Courtois, Nicolas
    Palmero, Paola
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Follo, Marie
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Chevalier, Jérôme
    Université de Lyon, France.
    Steinberg, Thorsten
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Kohal, Ralf Joachim
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Assessment of Novel Long-Lasting Ceria-Stabilized Zirconia-Based Ceramics with Different Surface Topographies as Implant Materials2017In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 27, no 40, article id 1702512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of long-lasting zirconia-based ceramics for implants, which are not prone to hydrothermal aging, is not satisfactorily solved. Therefore, this study is conceived as an overall evaluation screening of novel ceria-stabilized zirconia-alumina-aluminate composite ceramics (ZA8Sr8-Ce11) with different surface topographies for use in clinical applications. Ceria-stabilized zirconia is chosen as the matrix for the composite material, due to its lower susceptibility to aging than yttria-stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP). This assessment is carried out on three preclinical investigation levels, indicating an overall biocompatibility of ceria-stabilized zirconia-based ceramics, both in vitro and in vivo. Long-term attachment and mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition of primary osteoblasts are the most distinct on porous ZA8Sr8-Ce11p surfaces, while ECM attachment on 3Y-TZP and ZA8Sr8-Ce11 with compact surface texture is poor. In this regard, the animal study confirms the porous ZA8Sr8-Ce11p to be the most favorable material, showing the highest bone-to-implant contact values and implant stability post implantation in comparison with control groups. Moreover, the microbiological evaluation reveals no favoritism of biofilm formation on the porous ZA8Sr8-Ce11p when compared to a smooth control surface. Hence, together with the in vitro in vivo assessment analogy, the promising clinical potential of this novel ZA8Sr8-Ce11 as an implant material is demonstrated. 

  • 32.
    Altmann, Brigitte
    et al.
    University Medical Center Freiburg, Germany.
    Rabel, Kerstin
    University Medical Center Freiburg, Germany.
    Kohal, Ralf J.
    University Medical Center Freiburg, Germany.
    Proksch, Susanne
    University Medical Center Freiburg, Germany.
    Tomakidi, Pascal
    University Medical Center Freiburg, Germany.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Bernsmann, Falk
    NTTF Coatings GmbH, Germany.
    Palmero, Paola
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Fürderer, Tobias
    MOESCHTER GROUP Holding GmbH, Germany.
    Steinberg, Thorsten
    University Medical Center Freiburg, Germany.
    Cellular transcriptional response to zirconia-based implant materials2017In: Dental Materials, ISSN 0109-5641, E-ISSN 1879-0097, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 241-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To adequately address clinically important issues such as osseointegration and soft tissue integration, we screened for the direct biological cell response by culturing human osteoblasts and gingival fibroblasts on novel zirconia-based dental implant biomaterials and subjecting them to transcriptional analysis. Methods Biomaterials used for osteoblasts involved micro-roughened surfaces made of a new type of ceria-stabilized zirconia composite with two different topographies, zirconium dioxide, and yttria-stabilized zirconia (control). For fibroblasts smooth ceria- and yttria-stabilized zirconia surface were used. The expression of 90 issue-relevant genes was determined on mRNA transcription level by real-time PCR Array technology after growth periods of 1 and 7 days. Results Generally, modulation of gene transcription exhibited a dual dependence, first by time and second by the biomaterial, whereas biomaterial-triggered changes were predominantly caused by the biomaterials’ chemistry rather than surface topography. Per se, modulated genes assigned to regenerative tissue processes such as fracture healing and wound healing and in detail included colony stimulating factors (CSF2 and CSF3), growth factors, which regulate bone matrix properties (e.g. BMP3 and TGFB1), osteogenic BMPs (BMP2/4/6/7) and transcription factors (RUNX2 and SP7), matrix collagens and osteocalcin, laminins as well as integrin ß1 and MMP-2. Significance With respect to the biomaterials under study, the screening showed that a new zirconia-based composite stabilized with ceria may be promising to provide clinically desired periodontal tissue integration. Moreover, by detecting biomarkers modulated in a time- and/or biomaterial-dependent manner, we identified candidate genes for the targeted analysis of cell-implant bioresponse during biomaterial research and development.

  • 33.
    Andersons, J.
    et al.
    University of Latvia.
    Sparniņš, E.
    University of Latvia.
    Nyström, Birgitha
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Joffe, Roberts
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Scale effect of the tensile strength of flax-fabric-reinforced polymer composites2011In: Journal of reinforced plastics and composites (Print), ISSN 0731-6844, E-ISSN 1530-7964, Vol. 30, no 23, p. 1969-1974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of UD natural fiber composites, considered for application as structural materials, necessitates evaluation of the scale effect of their strength. Alignment of the fibers in flax bast fiber composites can be achieved by employing textile reinforcement, such as yarns and fabrics. Cutting specimens for mechanical tests out of such textile-reinforced composite plates results in a complex non-uniform reinforcement structure at their edges, which may affect the strength of specimens. Scale effect of the tensile strength in the fiber direction of flax-fabric-reinforced composites is studied in the current work. A model accounting for both volume and edge effect of the specimens on their tensile strength is proposed. © The Author(s) 2011.

  • 34.
    Andersson, Anton
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gullberg, Amanda
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Kullerstedt, Adeline
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Sandberg, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Andersson, Mats
    SSAB Europe, Sweden.
    Ahmed, Hasham
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden ; Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, Egypt.
    Sundqvist-ökvist, Lena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    A holistic and experimentally-based view on recycling of off-gas dust within the integrated steel plant2018In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 8, no 10, article id 760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ore-based ironmaking generates a variety of residues, including slags and fines such as dust and sludges. Recycling of these residues within the integrated steel plant or in other applications is essential from a raw-material efficiency perspective. The main recycling route of off-gas dust is to the blast furnace (BF) via sinter, cold-bonded briquettes and tuyere injection. However, solely relying on the BF for recycling implicates that certain residues cannot be recycled in order to avoid build-up of unwanted elements, such as zinc. By introducing a holistic view on recycling where recycling via other process routes, such as the desulfurization (deS) station and the basic oxygen furnace (BOF), landfilling can be avoided. In the present study, process integration analyses were utilized to determine the most efficient recycling routes for off-gas dust that are currently not recycled within the integrated steel plants of Sweden. The feasibility of recycling was studied in experiments conducted in laboratory, pilot, and full-scale trials in the BF, deS station, and BOF. The process integration analyses suggested that recycling to the BF should be maximized before considering the deS station and BOF. The experiments indicated that the amount of residue that are not recycled could be minimized.

  • 35.
    Andersson, Anton
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gullberg, Amanda
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Kullerstedt, Adoline
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, Egypt.
    Sundqvist-Ökvist, Lena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Upgrading of Blast Furnace Sludge and Recycling of the Low-Zinc Fraction via Cold-bonded Briquettes2019In: Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, ISSN 2199-3823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Depending on the operation of the blast furnace (BF), the main outlet of zinc from the furnace is more or less via the BF dust and sludge. As the dust is recycled to the BF, the sludge has to be de-zinced prior to recycling to prevent the accumulation of zinc in the BF. De-zincing and recycling of the low-zinc fraction via sinter have been reported. However, no research concerning recycling of upgraded BF sludge via cold-bonded briquettes has been performed. In the present study, a fine-grained BF sludge with low zinc content, generated by a BF operating on a ferrous burden of 100% pellets, was upgraded using the tornado process. The process simultaneously dried and separated the BF sludge into a high-zinc and a low-zinc fraction. The feasibility of recycling the low-zinc fraction to the BF using cold-bonded briquettes was studied on a laboratory-scale BF shaft simulator. On comparison with a reference briquette, the experiments indicated that 10 wt% of the upgraded BF sludge can be added to the briquette without negatively affecting the reducibility. Higher additions were found to render the briquette less reduced compared to the reference under test conditions corresponding to the central part of the BF. The strength of the briquettes was not compromised with the addition of the upgraded BF sludge, and a decision to study the briquettes in the LKAB experimental blast furnace was made in order to evaluate the behavior under actual BF conditions.

  • 36.
    Andersson, B.
    et al.
    Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Sjögren, Anders
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Berglund, L.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Micro- and meso-level residual stresses in glass-fiber/vinyl-ester composites2000In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 60, no 10, p. 2011-2028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residual stresses in glass-fiber composites were studied on the micro and meso scales by computational and experimental methods. Transmitted polarized light images of thin sections were compared with 3D finite-element solutions of a sample containing 1410 fibers. Calculated point-wise stresses were derived from a linear thermoelastic model with negligibly small numerical errors. Regions with calculated maximum compressive stresses showed good agreement with experimentally observed optical bands. A material with poor interfacial adhesion showed weaker optical effects indicating fiber/matrix debonding. On the basis of these results it seems likely that irreversible matrix deformation and debonding can take place in the curing phase. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.Residual stresses in glass-fiber composites were studied on the micro and meso scales by computational and experimental methods. Transmitted polarized light images of thin sections were compared with 3D finite-element solutions of a sample containing 1410 fibers. Calculated point-wise stresses were derived from a linear thermoelastic model with negligibly small numerical errors. Regions with calculated maximum compressive stresses showed good agreement with experimentally observed optical bands. A material with poor interfacial adhesion showed weaker optical effects indicating fiber/matrix debonding. On the basis of these results it seems likely that irreversible matrix deformation and debonding can take place in the curing phase.

  • 37.
    Andersson, Dag
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Simulations and Fabrication of a SiC-Based Power Module with Double SidedCooling: in Proceedings of the IMAPS Nordic Annual Conference 20152015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Andersson, Dag
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Nord, Stefan
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Sweden.
    Ottosson, Jonas
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Sweden.
    Lampic, Gorazd
    Elaphe Propulsion Technologies Ltd, Slovenia.
    Gotovac, Gorazd
    Elaphe Propulsion Technologies Ltd, Slovenia.
    Zschieschang, Olaf
    Fairchild Semiconductor GmbH, Germany.
    Baumgartel, Hauke
    Hella Fahrzeugkomponenten GmbH, Germany.
    Brusius, Matthias
    Sensitec GmbH, Germany.
    Kaulfersch, Eberhard
    Berliner Nanotest und Design GmbH, Germany.
    Hilpert, Florian
    Fraunhofer IISB, Germany.
    Otto, Alexander
    Fraunhofer ENAS, Germany.
    Frankeser, Sophia
    Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany.
    COSIVU - Compact, smart and reliable drive unit for fully electric vehicles2016In: 2016 Pan Pacific Microelectronics Symposium (Pan Pacific), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2016, article id 7428413Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    COSIVU is a three year collaborative research project that ended in September 2015 and which has been funded within the European Green Car Initiative (now the European Green Vehicle Initiative). COSIVU addresses one of the most critical technical parts in fully electrical vehicles (FEV) besides the energy storage system: the mechatronic drive-train unit. The COSIVU project has delivered a new system architecture for multiple wheel drive-trains by a smart, compact and durable single-wheel drive unit with integrated electric motor, full silicon carbide (SiC) power electronics (switches and diodes), a novel control and health monitoring module with wireless communication, and an advanced ultra-compact cooling solution. DfR utilizing FEM simulations ensures first time right solutions. This paper presents the main results including the architecture of the drive train solution as well as the modular design of the inverter based on Inverter Building Blocks, one per phase. Performance tests are presented here for the first time for both the heavy duty commercial vehicle solution performed in a test rig by Volvo, and the tests of the COSIVU solution adapted to a passenger car done by Elaphe.

  • 39.
    Andersson, Dag
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Carlström, Elis
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Orlenius, Jessica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Avellán, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    LCA as a Strategic Tool for Technology Development – Li Ion Battery Case2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Andersson, Dag
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Grönqvist, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Mayora, Kipa
    Arrasate-Mondragón, Spain.
    Tijero, Maria
    Arrasate-Mondragón, Spain.
    Voirin, Guy
    CSEM SA, Switzerland.
    Steinke, Arndt
    CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik GmbH, Germany.
    Albrecht, Andreas
    CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik GmbH, Germany.
    Wunscher, Heike
    CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik GmbH, Germany.
    Frank, Thomas
    CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik GmbH, Germany.
    Moore, Eric
    Tyndall Institute, Ireland.
    Wang, Yineng
    Tyndall Institute, Ireland.
    Cao, Xi
    Tyndall Institute, Ireland.
    Vazquez, Patricia
    Tyndall Institute, Ireland.
    Hogan, Anna
    Tyndall Institute, Ireland.
    Belcastro, Marco
    Tyndall Institute, Ireland.
    Billat, Sophie
    Hahn Schickard Villingen, Germany.
    Karmann, Stephan
    Hahn Schickard Villingen, Germany.
    Gunzler, Rainer
    Hahn Schickard Villingen, Germany.
    Weiler, Petra
    VDI/VDE Innovation + Technik GmbH, Germany.
    Smart access to small lot manufacturing for systems integration2018In: 2018 Pan Pacific Microelectronics Symposium, Pan Pacific 2018, 2018, p. 1-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The three year EU project SMARTER-SI that ends in January 2018 has tested a new concept for small lot manufacturing for SMEs which we call the Cooperative Foundry Model (CFM). During previous research, all RTOs have completed building blocks, i.e. components or parts of systems which are readily available and characterized by their high Technology Readiness Level (TRL). These building blocks are combined and integrated in so-called Application Experiments (AEs), thereby creating innovative Smart Systems that serve the SMEs' needs. Four pre defined AEs have been presented before [1] and in this paper, six additional AEs will be presented: i) a smart sensor for pneumatic combined clutch and brakes, ii) smart well plates for tissue engineering integrating continuous, non-invasive TEER iii) microclimate sensor for moisture applications, iv) LTCC-Si-Pressure Sensor, v) miniaturized capillary electrophoresis system for bio analysis, and vi) a MEMS sensor module for respiratory applications. Finally, a brief description of ongoing standardization efforts is presented.

  • 41.
    Andersson, Dag
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Nilsson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Wetter, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Interconnection of electrically conductive fibersfor application in smart textiles2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Andersson, Dag
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Tegehall, Per-Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Wetter, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    The impact of conformal coatings on the environmental protection of PCBassemblies and the reliability of solder joints2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Andersson, Dag
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Weiler, Petra
    VDI/VDE Innovation + Technik GmbH, Germany.
    Mayora, Kepa
    IK4-Ikerlan, Spain.
    Kunze, Michael
    Hahn Schickard, Germany.
    Günzler, Rainer
    Hahn Schickard, Germany.
    Karmann, Stephan
    Hahn Schickard, Germany.
    Steinke, Arndt
    CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik GmbH, Germany.
    Winzer, Andreas
    CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik GmbH, Germany.
    Thronicke, Nicole
    CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik GmbH, Germany.
    Vazquez, Patricia
    Tyndall Institute, Ireland.
    Felemban, Shifa
    Tyndall Institute, Ireland.
    Moore, Eric
    Tyndall Institute, Ireland.
    Voirin, Guy
    CSEM SA, Switzerland.
    Scolan, Emmanuel
    CSEM SA, Switzerland.
    Smadja, Rita
    CSEM SA, Switzerland.
    SMARTER-SI - Smart access to manufacturing for Systems Integration2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The three year EU project SMARTER-SI that started in February 2015 has developed and tested a new production platform for smart systems that offer SMEs and “mid-cap” companies help to manufacture small and medium volumes. The ultimate goal of this project is to test a new concept for small lot production, which we call the Cooperative Foundry Model (CFM). The CFM is tested by combining components or parts of systems (building blocks) already developed by the RTOs involved in the project in so-called Application Experiments (AEs), thereby creating innovative Smart Systems which serve SMEs' product needs. During the first two years, four predefined AEs have been developed that consist of i) a multi-parametric point of care testing (POCT) device, ii) a dew-point measurement system, iii) a CO2 measurement system, and iv) a portable device that can be used to screen water quality.

  • 44.
    Andersson, Mattias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Oxfall, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Nilsson, Camilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Mapping and Evaluation of some Restricted Chemical Substances in Recycled Plastics Originating from ELV and WEEE Collected in Europe2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling of plastics is a critical step toward the realisation of a sustainable society. Plastic is a fitting material to recycle, as it often can easily be melted and formed into new products. Plastic recycling is therefore an easy process with pure plastics, however, most of the plastics that are recycled today are not pure and contain additives and/or impurities. Some of these additives can be hazardous substances that could be harmful for both humans and the environment. It is therefore important that these hazardous substances are not recycled and transferred into new products. To ensure a safe use of plastics, these substances are today regulated in new products, but old products could still contain these substances (legacy chemicals). To comply with legislation it is therefore critical that these substances are removed during the recycling process. There are however many hazardous substances that are yet not regulated, which may also be present in products and therefore recycled material. 

    Waste Electronic and Electrical Equipment (WEEE) and End-of-Life Vehicles (ELV) are two of the materials streams that contains a high amount of legacy chemicals. These streams have been associated with spreading legacy chemicals after recycling. In several reports WEEE plastics have been identified as the source of brominated flame retardants (BRF) found in toys and everyday items. According to the EU regulation the use of certain BFRs is not permitted in new products or articles above a certain value. Recyclers and resellers of the recycled plastic often specified that the products should not be used in toys, medical equipment of food contact application, yet BFRs from WEEE can still be found in these products. This could mean that either producers that use recycled material in new products do not follow the recommendations from the recyclers, or that the recycled material does not fulfil the regulations. Another possibility for the findings of legacy chemicals in these items could be a meagre follow-up on imported plastics.

    In this study the Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE) has, on behalf of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (Naturvårdsverket), investigated the content of legacy chemicals in recycled plastics that have been processed in a recycling facility. The plastics originated from WEEE and ELV and have been gathered from recyclers across Europe. A number of different legacy chemicals were investigated, both inorganic (Cd, Pb, Hg) and organic substances (flame retardants and plasticisers). To simulate a real case scenario and to get better measurement accuracy, all samples were injection moulded. The analysis of the samples was performed using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and Gas chromatography with a Mass spectrometer (GC-MS). All the processing and analysis (except for SCCP/MCCP)) were done by RISE which gives good control over the analysis process, which are important when interpreting the results. In total 54 samples of PE, PP, ABS and PS, were gathered and tested. It was found that all but two samples contained legacy chemicals below the regulated values. The two samples that did not meet the legal limit had a HBCDD content above 100 ppm. All the tested materials contained detectable amounts of bromine, and 15 samples contained detectable amounts of regulated BFRs. None of the detected regulated BRFs were above 186 ppm.  Most of the materials also contained detectable amounts of cadmium and lead.

  • 45.
    Andersson, Michael
    et al.
    Höganäs AB, Sweden.
    Bergendahl, Magnus
    Volvo AB, Sweden.
    Bjarre, Ulf
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Eklund, Anders
    Quintus Technologies AB, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Staffan
    Uddeholm AB, Sweden.
    Haglund, Sven
    Swerim AB, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Swepart Transmission AB, Sweden.
    Heikkilä, Irma
    Swerim AB, Sweden.
    Khodaee, Alireza
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Melander, Arne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Nyberg, Harald
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Nyborg, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Strondl, Annika
    Swerim AB, Sweden.
    Vattur Sundaram, Maheswaran
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Manufacturing full density powder metallurgy gears through HIP:ing2019In: Metal Powder Report, ISSN 0026-0657, E-ISSN 1873-4065Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Andersson, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Budak, Nesrin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Melander, Arne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Palmquist, Niclas
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Experimental measurements and numerical simulations of distortions of overlap laser-welded thin sheet steel beam structures2017In: Welding in the World, ISSN 0043-2288, E-ISSN 1878-6669, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 927-934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distortions of mild steel structures caused by laser welding were analyzed. One thousand-millimeter U-beam structures were welded as overlap joints with different process parameters and thickness configurations. Final vertical and transverse distortions after cooling were measured along the U-beam. Significant factors, which affect distortions, were identified. Heat input per unit length, weld length, and sheet thickness showed a significant effect on welding distortions. Furthermore, the welding distortions were modeled using FE simulations. A simplified and computationally efficient simulation method was used. It describes the effect of shrinkage of the weld zone during cooling. The simulations show reasonable computation times and good agreement with experiments.

  • 47.
    Andersson, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fahlström, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB. University West, Sweden.
    Melander, Arne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Experiments and efficient simulations of distortions of laser beam–welded thin-sheet close beam steel structures2018In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part B, journal of engineering manufacture, ISSN 0954-4054, E-ISSN 2041-2975, Vol. 233, no 3, p. 787-796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, geometrical distortions of steel structures due to laser beam welding were analyzed. Two 700-mm-long U-beam structures were welded in overlap configurations: a double U-beam structure and a U-beam/flat structure. The structures were in different material combinations from mild steel to ultrahigh-strength steel welded with different process parameters. Different measures of distortions of the U-beam structures were evaluated after cooling. Significant factors of the welding process and the geometry of the structures were identified. Furthermore, welding distortions were modeled using two predictive finite element simulation models. The previously known shrinkage method and a newly developed time-efficient simulation method were evaluated. The new model describes the effects of expansion and shrinkage of the weld zone during welding and material plasticity at elevated temperatures. The new simulation method has reasonable computation times for industrial applications and improved agreement with experiments compared to the often used so-called shrinkage method.

  • 48.
    Andersson, P.
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Levén, Jan
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Hemming, B.
    Centre for Metrology and Accreditation, Finland.
    Hot rolling tests with steel bars and silicon nitride rolls2009In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 209, no 2, p. 884-893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the possibilities to use rolls made from Si3N4-TiN ceramic composite in hot rolling of steel. The results show that the wear of the ceramic material was lower than the wear of a reference cast iron. The results suggest that the Si3N4-TiN material is beneficial to use in a hot rolling process, on condition that the temperature of the work piece material is held sufficiently high. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 49.
    Andersson, Peter
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Thermal conductivity of thermosetting composite materials2012In: ECCM 2012 - Composites at Venice, Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Composite Materials, European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work the thermal conductivity, λ, of composite materials is investigated. The experimental results are from the experimental transient hot wire method and the experimental transient plate source method. The measurements are carried out on pure RTM6 epoxy resin and glass fibre and carbon fibre composites. The material is investigated both in its fully cured, pristine shape as well as during curing, consolidation and degradation. The λ-values for pure epoxy, glass fibre composite and material during degradation has been determined.

  • 50.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Gotte, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SWECAST.
    Värmeledningsförmåga hos formmaterial2011Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den första delen av studien tillverkades och bestämdes värmeledningsförmågan för samtliga provkroppar i olika kvarts/fältspatsander från Baskarpsand. Sanderna skiljer sig åt i medelkornstorlek och kornstorleksfördelning. Två olika självhärdande bindemedel, alfaset och furan, användes. I studiens senare del tillverkades och bestämdes värmeledningsförmågan för provkroppar också i sander baserade på andra mineraler. Dessutom undersöktes ytterligare ett bindemedel, nämligen Coldbox. Resultat för Coldbox redovisas i rapporten, då den inte kommer att ingå i någon publikation. Resultaten från de övriga försök kommer att publiceras i en vetenskaplig tidskrift inom något av områdena gjuteriteknik eller mineralogi. För att tillgodose de tilltänka tidskrifternas publiceringsregler, redovisas inte resultaten för dessa i denna rapport.

1234567 1 - 50 of 1530
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