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  • 1. Albers, Eva
    et al.
    Johansson, Emma
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Larsson, Christer
    Selective suppression of bacterial contaminants by process conditions during lignocellulose based yeast fermentations2011In: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 4, article id Art no 59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Contamination of bacteria in large-scale yeast fermentations is a serious problem and a threat to the development of successful biofuel production plants. Huge research efforts have been spent in order to solve this problem, but additional ways must still be found to keep bacterial contaminants from thriving in these environments. The aim of this project was to develop process conditions that would inhibit bacterial growth while giving yeast a competitive advantage. Results: Lactic acid bacteria are usually considered to be the most common contaminants in industrial yeast fermentations. Our observations support this view but also suggest that acetic acid bacteria, although not so numerous, could be a much more problematic obstacle to overcome. Acetic acid bacteria showed a capacity to drastically reduce the viability of yeast. In addition, they consumed the previously formed ethanol. Lactic acid bacteria did not show this detrimental effect on yeast viability. It was possible to combat both types of bacteria by a combined addition of NaCl and ethanol to the wood hydrolysate medium used. As a result of NaCl + ethanol additions the amount of viable bacteria decreased and yeast viability was enhanced concomitantly with an increase in ethanol concentration. The successful result obtained via addition of NaCl and ethanol was also confirmed in a real industrial ethanol production plant with its natural inherent yeast/bacterial community. Conclusions: It is possible to reduce the number of bacteria and offer a selective advantage to yeast by a combined addition of NaCl and ethanol when cultivated in lignocellulosic medium such as wood hydrolysate. However, for optimal results, the concentrations of NaCl + ethanol must be adjusted to suit the challenges offered by each hydrolysate. © 2011 Albers et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 2.
    Allgardsson, A
    et al.
    Department of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Berg, L
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Akfur, C
    Department of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Hörnberg, A
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Worek, F
    Department of Toxicological Enzymology, Bundeswehr Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich, Germany.
    Linusson, A
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Ekström, F.J.
    Department of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Structure of a prereaction complex between the nerve agent sarin, its biological target acetylcholinesterase, and the antidote HI-62016In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 113, no 20, p. 5514-5519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organophosphorus nerve agents interfere with cholinergic signaling by covalently binding to the active site of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). This inhibition causes an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, potentially leading to overstimulation of the nervous system and death. Current treatments include the use of antidotes that promote the release of functional AChE by an unknown reactivation mechanism. We have used diffusion trap cryocrystallography and density functional theory (DFT) calculations to determine and analyze prereaction conformers of the nerve agent antidote HI-6 in complex with Mus musculus AChE covalently inhibited by the nerve agent sarin. These analyses reveal previously unknown conformations of the system and suggest that the cleavage of the covalent enzyme-sarin bond is preceded by a conformational change in the sarin adduct itself. Together with data from the reactivation kinetics, this alternate conformation suggests a key interaction between Glu202 and the O-isopropyl moiety of sarin. Moreover, solvent kinetic isotope effect experiments using deuterium oxide reveal that the reactivation mechanism features an isotope-sensitive step. These findings provide insights into the reactivation mechanism and provide a starting point for the development of improved antidotes. The work also illustrates how DFT calculations can guide the interpretation, analysis, and validation of crystallographic data for challenging reactive systems with complex conformational dynamics.

  • 3.
    Alriksson, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Production of cellulosic ethanol and enzyme from waste fiber sludge using SSF, recycling of hydrolytic enzymes and yeast, and recombinant cellulase-producing Aspergillus niger2015In: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 1367-5435, E-ISSN 1476-5535, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1191-1200Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Alriksson, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Cavka, Adnan
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Improving the fermentability of enzymatic hydrolysates of lignocellulose through chemical in-situ detoxification with reducing agents2011In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 102, no 2, p. 1254-1263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inhibitory lignocellulose hydrolysates were treated with the reducing agents dithionite and sulfite to achieve improved fermentability. Addition of these reducing agents (in the concentration range 5.0-17.5mM) to enzymatic hydrolysates of spruce wood or sugarcane bagasse improved processes based on both SHF (simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation) and SSF (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation). The approach was exemplified in ethanolic fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and by using hydrolysates with sugar concentrations >100g/L (for SHF) and with 10% dry-matter content (for SSF). In the SHF experiments, treatments with dithionite raised the ethanol productivities of the spruce hydrolysate from 0.2 to 2.5g×L -1×h -1 and of the bagasse hydrolysate from 0.9 to 3.9g×L -1×h -1, values even higher than those of fermentations with reference sugar solutions without inhibitors. Benefits of the approach include that the addition of the reducing agent can be made in-situ directly in the fermentation vessel, that the treatment can be performed at a temperature and pH suitable for fermentation, and that the treatment results in dramatically improved fermentability without degradation of fermentable sugars. The many benefits and the simplicity of the approach offer a new way to achieve more efficient manufacture of fermentation products from lignocellulose hydrolysates. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 5.
    Alriksson, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Hörnberg, Andreas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Fish feed from wood2014In: Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, ISSN 0576-9787, Vol. 48, no 9-10, p. 843-848Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Alriksson, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Hörnberg, Andreas
    Gudnason, Asgeir Eirikur
    Knobloch, Stephen
    Arnason, Jon
    Johannsson, Ragnar
    Fish feed from wood2014In: Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, ISSN 0576-9787, Vol. 48, p. 843-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased demand of fish in combination with overexploitation of the fish stocks of the oceans has led to an increased production of fish through aquaculture. Today, fishmeal is the main protein source in fish feed for most aquaculture species. However, fishmeal is soon expected to fall short of demand as its production is associated with environmental problems. This shortage must therefore be met by sustainable alternative protein sources. Protein-rich microorganisms (i.e. Single cell protein) is an interesting option as a fishmeal substitute in fish feed which, in addition, can be produced as an important co-product in wood-based biorefineries. In the current study, four different microorganisms were cultivated on five different residual streams from Swedish wood-based biorefineries. Screening experiments were carried out in shake flasks, optimization experiments in benchtop bioreactors, and scale-up experiments were performed in a 50-litre pilot bioreactor. In addition, a demo-scale experiment was carried out in the Swedish Biorefinery Demo Plant. Microbial biomass from the scale-up experiments was collected and used for production of different fish feed formulations which, in turn, were used in feeding trials of the freshwater fish Tilapia. Fishes fed with feed, in which part of the fishmeal had been substituted with Single cell protein, showed similar or better growth than fishes fed with a fishmeal-based control feed.

  • 7. Cavka, Adnan
    et al.
    Alriksson, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Ahnlund, Maria
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Effect of sulfur oxyanions on lignocellulose-derived fermentation inhibitors2011In: Biotechnology and Bioengineering, ISSN 0006-3592, E-ISSN 1097-0290, Vol. 108, no 11, p. 2592-2599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent results show that treatments with reducing agents, including the sulfur oxyanions dithionite and hydrogen sulfite, efficiently improve the fermentability of inhibitory lignocellulose hydrolysates, and that the treatments are effective when the reducing agents are added in situ into the fermentation vessel at low temperature. In the present investigation, dithionite was added to medium with model inhibitors (coniferyl aldehyde, furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, or acetic acid) and the effects on the fermentability with yeast were studied. Addition of 10mM dithionite to medium containing 2.5mM coniferyl aldehyde resulted in a nine-fold increase in the glucose consumption rate and a three-fold increase in the ethanol yield. To investigate the mechanism behind the positive effects of adding sulfur oxyanions, mixtures containing 2.5mM of a model inhibitor (an aromatic compound, a furan aldehyde, or an aliphatic acid) and 15mM dithionite or hydrogen sulfite were analyzed using mass spectrometry (MS). The results of the analyses, which were performed by using UHPLC-ESI-TOF-MS and UHPLC-LTQ/Orbitrap-MS/MS, indicate that the positive effects of sulfur oxyanions are primarily due to their capability to react with and sulfonate inhibitory aromatic compounds and furan aldehydes at low temperature and slightly acidic pH (such as 25°C and pH 5.5). © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 8. Cavka, Adnan
    et al.
    Alriksson, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Rose, Shaunita H.
    Van Zyl, Willem H.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Biorefining of wood: Combined production of ethanol and xylanase from waste fiber sludge2011In: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 1367-5435, E-ISSN 1476-5535, Vol. 38, no 8, p. 891-899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility to utilize fiber sludge, waste fibers from pulp mills and lignocellulose-based biorefineries, for combined production of liquid biofuel and biocatalysts was investigated. Without pretreatment, fiber sludge was hydrolyzed enzymatically to monosaccharides, mainly glucose and xylose. In the first of two sequential fermentation steps, the fiber sludge hydrolysate was fermented to cellulosic ethanol with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although the final ethanol yields were similar, the ethanol productivity after 9.5 h was 3.3 g/l/h for the fiber sludge hydrolysate compared with only 2.2 g/l/h for a reference fermentation with similar sugar content. In the second fermentation step, the spent fiber sludge hydrolysate (the stillage obtained after distillation) was used as growth medium for recombinant Aspergillus niger expressing the xylanase-encoding Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) xyn2 gene. The xylanase activity obtained with the spent fiber sludge hydrolysate (8,500 nkat/ml) was higher than that obtained in a standard medium with similar monosaccharide content (1,400 nkat/ml). Analyses based on deglycosylation with N-glycosidase F suggest that the main part of the recombinant xylanase was unglycosylated and had molecular mass of 20.7 kDa, while a minor part had N-linked glycosylation and molecular mass of 23.6 kDa. Chemical analyses of the growth medium showed that important carbon sources in the spent fiber sludge hydrolysate included xylose, small aliphatic acids, and oligosaccharides. The results show the potential of converting waste fiber sludge to liquid biofuel and enzymes as coproducts in lignocellulose-based biorefineries. © 2010 Society for Industrial Microbiology.

  • 9. Cavka, Adnan
    et al.
    Alriksson, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Rose, Shaunita H.
    Van Zyl, Willem H.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Production of cellulosic ethanol and enzyme from waste fiber sludge using SSF, recycling of hydrolytic enzymes and yeast, and recombinant cellulase-producing Aspergillus niger2014In: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 1367-5435, E-ISSN 1476-5535, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1191-1200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioethanol and enzymes were produced from fiber sludges through sequential microbial cultivations. After a first simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with yeast, the bioethanol concentrations of sulfate and sulfite fiber sludges were 45.6 and 64.7 g/L, respectively. The second SSF, which included fresh fiber sludges and recycled yeast and enzymes from the first SSF, resulted in ethanol concentrations of 38.3 g/L for sulfate fiber sludge and 24.4 g/L for sulfite fiber sludge. Aspergillus niger carrying the endoglucanase-encoding Cel7B gene of Trichoderma reesei was grown in the spent fiber sludge hydrolysates. The cellulase activities obtained with spent hydrolysates of sulfate and sulfite fiber sludges were 2,700 and 2,900 nkat/mL, respectively. The high cellulase activities produced by using stillage and the significant ethanol concentrations produced in the second SSF suggest that onsite enzyme production and recycling of enzyme are realistic concepts that warrant further attention. © 2014 Society for Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology.

  • 10. Golets, Mikhail
    et al.
    Ajaikumar, Samikannu
    Blomberg, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Grundberg, Hans
    Wärnå, Johan
    Salmi, Tapio
    Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka
    Liquid phase acetoxylation of α-pinene over Amberlyst-70 ion-exchange resin2012In: Applied Catalysis A: General, ISSN 0926860X, Vol. 435-436, p. 43-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterogeneously-catalyzed and solvent-catalyzed liquid phase acetoxylation of α-pinene with acetic acid acting as both a solvent and a reagent was studied. Both solvent-catalyzed and catalytic experiments were carried out and various reaction conditions were studied. The influence of temperature, pressure, solvent and gas milieu were taken into account. Bornyl, fenchyl, verbenyl as well as α-terpinyl acetates, limonene, camphene and γ-terpinene were found among reaction products. The addition of the catalyst allowed for maximization of the yield of bornyl acetate. The predominant products obtained were α-terpinyl, verbenyl and bornyl acetates. The reaction pathways were identified and evaluated. The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of batch acetoxylation of α-pinene. The analysis of the complex product distribution is not trivial and, consequently, resolving the reaction network was important. The optimized reaction conditions were searched for aiming at an efficient conversion of α-pinene to a mixture of valuable products. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  • 11. Golets, Mikhail
    et al.
    Larsson, William
    Ajaikumar, Samikannu
    Blomberg, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Grundberg, Hans
    Wärnå, Johan
    Salmi, Tapio
    Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka
    A kinetic study of the liquid phase acetoxylation of α-pinene2012In: Topics in catalysis, ISSN 1022-5528, E-ISSN 1572-9028, Vol. 55, p. 649-656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study introduces kinetic modeling of liquid phase α-pinene acetoxylation with acetic acid over an ion-exchange resin catalyst. The reaction was carried out in a laboratory scale high-pressure autoclave. α-terpinyl (35 wt%) and bornyl (40 wt%) acetates were the primary products. The predominant reaction pathways were identified and evaluated. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

  • 12. Holmgren, K. H.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, T.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Östin, A.
    Screening of nerve agent markers with hollow fiber-chemosorption of phosphonic acids2016In: Journal of chromatography. B, ISSN 1570-0232, E-ISSN 1873-376X, Vol. 1033-1034, p. 97-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes a method developed for extracting nerve gas markers such as phosphonic acids from urine and other aqueous samples. It involves single-step microextraction with chemosorption to hollow fibers that have been pre-soaked in a solution containing a derivatization reagent (3,5 triflouro methyl benzene diazomethane). The derivatives it forms with phosphonic acids can be sensitively detected by mass spectrometric detectors operating in negative chemical ionization (NCI) mode. Limits of quantification obtained in analyses of water and urine extracts by GC/MS in negative chemical ionization and selected ion monitoring mode were 0.1–10 and 0.5–10 ng/mL, respectively. Pentaflourophenyl diazomethane can also be used as a derivatization reagent, and the micro-extracts (which generate low background signals) can be sensitively analyzed by GC–MS/MS in NCI selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, using two specific transitions for both reagents. Thus, this sensitive approach can be flexibly modified to obtain confirmatory information, or address potential problems caused by interferences in some samples. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  • 13.
    Johansson, Emma
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Brandberg, Tomas
    Larsson, Christer
    Influence of cultivation procedure for Saccharomyces cerevisiae used as pitching agent in industrial spent sulphite liquor fermentations2011In: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 1367-5435, E-ISSN 1476-5535, Vol. 38, no 11, p. 1787-1792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cell viability and fermentation performance often deteriorate in fermentations of spent sulphite liquor (SSL). This investigation therefore addresses the question of how different cultivation conditions for yeast cells influence their ability to survive and boost the ethanol production capacity in an SSL-based fermentation process. The strains used as pitching agents were an industrially harvested Saccharomyces cerevisiae and commercial dry baker's yeast. This study therefore suggests that exposure to SSL in combination with nutrients, prior to the fermentation step, is crucial for the performance of the yeast. Supplying 0.5 g/l fresh yeast cultivated under appropriate cultivation conditions may increase ethanol concentration more than 200%. © 2011 Society for Industrial Microbiology.

  • 14.
    Johansson, Emma
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Brandberg, Tomas
    Larsson, Christer
    Influence of cultivation procedure for Saccharomyces cerevisiae used as pitching agent in industrial spent sulphite liquor fermentations2011In: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 1367-5435, E-ISSN 1476-5535, Vol. 38, no 11, p. 1787-1792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cell viability and fermentation performance often deteriorate in fermentations of spent sulphite liquor (SSL). This investigation therefore addresses the question of how different cultivation conditions for yeast cells influence their ability to survive and boost the ethanol production capacity in an SSL-based fermentation process. The strains used as pitching agents were an industrially harvested Saccharomycescerevisiae and commercial dry baker's yeast. This study therefore suggests that exposure to SSL in combination with nutrients, prior to the fermentation step, is crucial for the performance of the yeast. Supplying 0.5 g/l fresh yeast cultivated under appropriate cultivation conditions may increase ethanol concentration more than 200%. © 2011 Society for Industrial Microbiology.

  • 15.
    Johansson, Emma
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Charilaos, Xiros
    Larsson, Christer
    Fermentation performance and physiology of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during growth in high gravity spruce hydrolysate and spent sulphite liquor2014In: BMC Biotechnology, ISSN 1472-6750, E-ISSN 1472-6750, Vol. 14, article id Art no 47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Lignocellulosic materials are a diverse group of substrates that are generally scarce in nutrients, which compromises the tolerance and fermentation performance of the fermenting organism. The problem is exacerbated by harsh pre-treatment, which introduces sugars and substances inhibitory to yeast metabolism. This study compares the fermentation behaviours of two yeast strains using different types of lignocellulosic substrates; high gravity dilute acid spruce hydrolysate (SH) and spent sulphite liquor (SSL), in the absence and presence of yeast extract. To this end, the fermentation performance, energy status and fermentation capacity of the strains were measured under different growth conditions.Results: Nutrient supplementation with yeast extract increased sugar uptake, cell growth and ethanol production in all tested fermentation conditions, but had little or no effect on the energy status, irrespective of media. Nutrient-supplemented medium enhanced the fermentation capacity of harvested cells, indicating that cell viability and reusability was increased by nutrient addition.Conclusions: Although both substrates belong to the lignocellulosic spruce hydrolysates, their differences offer specific challenges and the overall yields and productivities largely depend on choice of fermenting strain. © 2014 Johansson et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 16.
    Johansson, Emma
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Lundström, Lisa
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Wågberg, Lars
    Adsorption behavior and adhesive properties of biopolyelectrolyte multilayers formed from cationic and anionic starch2009In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 10, no 7, p. 1768-1776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cationic starch (D.S. 0.065) and anionic starch (D.S. 0.037) were used to form biopolyelectrolyte multilayers. The influence of the solution concentration of NaCl on the adsorption of starch onto silicon oxide substrates and on the formation of multilayers was investigated using stagnation point adsorption reflectometry (SPAR) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The wet adhesive properties of the starch multilayers were examined by measuring pull-off forces with the AFM colloidal probe technique. It was shown that polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) can be successfully constructed from cationic starch and anionic starch at electrolyte concentrations of 1 mM NaCl and 10 mM NaCl. The water content of the PEMs was approximately 80% at both electrolyte concentrations. However, the thickness of the PEMs formed at 10 mM NaCl was approximately twice the thickness formed at 1 mM NaCl. The viscoelastic properties of the starch PEMs, modeled as Voigt elements, were dependent on the polyelectrolyte that was adsorbed in the outermost layer. The PEMs appeared to be more rigid when capped by anionic starch than when capped by cationic starch. The wet adhesive pull-off forces increased with layer number and were also dependent on the polyelectrolyte adsorbed in the outermost layer. Thus, starch PEM treatment has a large potential for increasing the adhesive interaction between solid substrates to levels higher than can be reached by a single layer of cationic starch. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  • 17. Jönsson, Leif J.
    et al.
    Alriksson, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof
    Bioconversion of lignocellulose: Inhibitors and detoxification2013In: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 6, no 1, article id Art no 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioconversion of lignocellulose by microbial fermentation is typically preceded by an acidic thermochemical pretreatment step designed to facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Substances formed during the pretreatment of the lignocellulosic feedstock inhibit enzymatic hydrolysis as well as microbial fermentation steps. This review focuses on inhibitors from lignocellulosic feedstocks and how conditioning of slurries and hydrolysates can be used to alleviate inhibition problems. Novel developments in the area include chemical in-situ detoxification by using reducing agents, and methods that improve the performance of both enzymatic and microbial biocatalysts. © 2013 Jonsson et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 18.
    Lundström-Hämälä, Lisa
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Johansson, Erik
    Wågberg, Lars
    Polyelectrolyte multilayers from cationic and anionic starch2010In: Starch/Staerke, ISSN 0038-9056, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 102-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present work was for identify limits for the formation of stable polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) from cationic and anionic starches (with degrees of substitution of 0.04-0.09) on SiO2 surfaces, taking account of the effect of the charge density of the starches and the salt concentration in the surrounding water phase. The experiments were performed at a pH of 6.3 using stagnation point adsorption reflectometry (SPAR) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). From these experiments it was concluded that it is possible to form PEMs by the adsorption of oppositely charged starches on SiO2 surfaces; it was also found that adsorption of the first layer is controlled both by electrostatic, non-ionic interactions and by pure steric restrictions, i.e. geometrical restrictions, at the surface. The results also indicate that the charge density of the starch must exceed a certain value to allow multilayer formation and that this critical charge density increases with increasing salt concentration. The combination of charge densities of the cationic/anionic starches was also found to influence the adsorption behaviour, and the formed polyelectrolyte multilayers had a high water content of 69-92%. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.KGaA, Weinheim.

  • 19.
    Lundström-Hämälä, Lisa
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Lindgren, Johan
    Svensson-Rundlöf, Eva
    Sennerfors, Therese
    Wågberg, Lars
    The adsorption of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) of starch on mechanical pulps for improved mechanical paper properties2009In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 459-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, the long fibre and middle fibre fraction of a thermomechanical pulp (TMP) was treated with polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) of cationic and anionic starch and sheets were made from both the treated and untreated fractions. In separate experiments, different amounts of untreated fines were added to the PEM-treated fraction before sheets were prepared, and the results were also compared with PEM treatment of the entire pulp containing 17% fines before sheet preparation. The PEMs were made of two different combinations of starch, two cationic potato starches with DS values of 0.06 and 0.09, both in combination with an anionic potato starch with a DS of 0.04, at 0.010 M NaCl and pH 6.3. Sheets were formed using the Rapid Köthen sheet former and the resulting mechanical and optical sheet properties were evaluated. Four-layer PEM treatment of the long fibre and middle fraction resulted in significant improvements in in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical properties. However, a subsequent fines addition reduced the effect of the PEMs, and this is explained by a blocking of the necessary PEM interaction with the treated TMP long fibre and middle fraction by the subsequently added fines. PEM treatment of the entire pulp increased the amount of starch needed for PEM treatment, but improved the in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical properties compared with those of sheets prepared from a PEM-treated long fibre and middle fraction with a subsequent addition of fine material. The increase in the tensile index for sheets made from a PEMtreated long fibre and the middle fraction without a subsequent fines addition, however, was much larger.

  • 20. Soudham, Venkata Prabhakar
    et al.
    Alriksson, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Reducing agents improve enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates in the presence of pretreatment liquid2011In: Journal of Biotechnology, ISSN 0168-1656, E-ISSN 1873-4863, Vol. 155, no 2, p. 244-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic substrates has emerged as an interesting option to produce sugars that can be converted to liquid biofuels and other commodities using microbial biocatalysts. Lignocellulosic substrates are pretreated to make them more accessible to cellulolytic enzymes, but the pretreatment liquid partially inhibits subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. The presence of pretreatment liquid from Norway spruce resulted in a 63% decrease in the enzymatic saccharification of Avicel compared to when the reaction was performed in a buffered aqueous solution. The addition of 15. mM of a reducing agent (hydrogen sulfite, dithionite, or dithiothreitol) to reaction mixtures with the pretreatment liquid resulted in up to 54% improvement of the saccharification efficiency. When the reducing agents were added to reaction mixtures without pretreatment liquid, there was a 13-39% decrease in saccharification efficiency. In the presence of pretreatment liquid, the addition of 15. mM dithionite to Avicel, α-cellulose or filter cake of pretreated spruce wood resulted in improvements between 25 and 33%. Positive effects (6-17%) of reducing agents were also observed in experiments with carboxymethyl cellulose and 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose. The approach to add reducing agents appears useful for facilitating the utilization of enzymes to convert cellulosic substrates in industrial processes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  • 21. Soudham, Venkata Prabhakar
    et al.
    Gräsvik, John
    Alriksson, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Enzymatic hydrolysis of Norway spruce and sugarcane bagasse after treatment with 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium formate2013In: Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology (1986), ISSN 0268-2575, E-ISSN 1097-4660, Vol. 88, no 12, p. 2209-2215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in lignocellulosic materials suffers from slow reaction rates due to limited access to enzyme adsorption sites and to the high crystallinity of the cellulose. In this study, an attempt was made to facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis by pretreatment of cellulosic materials using the ionic liquid (IL) 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium formate ([Amim][HCO2]) under mild reaction conditions. The effect of the IL was compared with that of thermochemical pretreatment under acidic conditions. RESULTS: The lignocellulosic substrates investigated were native and thermochemically pretreated Norway spruce and sugarcane bagasse. Microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) was included for comparison. The IL treatments were performed in the temperature range 45-120°C and, after regeneration and washing of the cellulosic substrates, enzymatic saccharification was carried out at 45°C for 72h. After 12h of hydrolysis, the glucose yields from regenerated native spruce and sugarcane bagasse were up to nine times higher than for the corresponding untreated substrates. The results also show positive effects of pretreatment using [Amim][HCO2] on the hydrolysis of xylan and mannan. Conclusion: The present work demonstrates that both native wood and agricultural residues are readily soluble in [Amim][HCO2] under gentle conditions, and that pretreatment with ionic liquids such as [Amim][HCO2] warrants further attention as a potential alternative to conventional pretreatment techniques. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  • 22.
    Svedberg, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Lindström, Tom
    Improvement of the retention-formation relationship using three-component retention aid systems2012In: Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 86-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of retention on formation and drainage by using three-component retention aid systems were examined using a pilot web former. The purpose was to examine whether the relationship between retention and formation could be improved by using systems based on cationic Polyacrylamide, structurally different high molecular weight anionic polymers and montmorillonite clay. The structure of the anionic polymer was varied from linear to fully crosslinked and added from a small amount up to such a level where papermaking fibres in suspension become dispersed. The pilot web former experiments were performed using an R-F (Retention and Formation)-machine employing a fine paper stock (90% hardwood and 10% softwood kraft pulp) with an addition of 25% precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) (based on total solids content). It was found that the paper formation could be significantly improved, at a given level of retention by using a micro-particulate retention aid system (cationic Polyacrylamide and montmorillonite clay) in combination with an anionic Polyacrylamide. Most important, it was found, that with such three-component systems, the impairment of the drainage could be avoided and, hence, that the improved formation was not provided by worsened drainage on the wire section.

  • 23.
    Svedberg, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Lindström, Tomas
    A pilot web former designed to study retentionformation relationships2010In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 185-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A pilot-scale fourdrinier former has been developed for the purpose of investigating the relationship between retention and paper formation (features, retention aids, dosage points, etc.). The main objective of this publication was to present the R-F (Retention and formation)-machine and demonstrate some of its fields of applications. For a fine paper stock (90% hardwood and 10% softwood) with addition of 25% filler (based on total solids content), the relationship between retention and formation was investigated for a microparticulate retention aid (cationic Polyacrylamide together with anionic montmorillonite clay). The retention-formation relationship of the retention aid system was investigated after choosing standardized machine operating conditions (e.g. the jet-to-wire speed ratio). As expected, the formation was impaired when the retention was increased. Since good reproducibility was attained, the R-F (Retention and formation)-machine was found to be a useful tool for studying the relationship between retention and paper formation.

  • 24.
    Svedberg, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Lindström, Tomas
    The effect of various retention aids on retention and formation2010In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 195-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interdependency between retention and paper formation was studied using a previously designed R-F (Retention and formation)-machine. The objective of the work was to investigate the retentionformation relationship for different types of retention aid systems. Both single-component cationic Polyacrylamides with varying molecular weights and polyacrylamide-based microparticulate retention aids were investigated on the R-F-machine, for-a fine paper stock with addition of 25% filler (based on total solids content). Results showed that the retention-formation relationship was not dependent on the retention aid systems used, since all systems provided similar relationships. In terms of the retention performance, significant differences were observed, depending on the choice of microparticle system and molecular weight of the used cationic Polyacrylamide.

1 - 24 of 24
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