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  • 1.
    Balksten, Kristin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Tillståndsbedömningar.
    Two-hundred year old lime putty found in the ground explaining the character of fat historic lime mortars2016In: Proceedings of the 4th Historic Mortars Conference: HMC 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Eriksson, Jonny
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sölve
    BKSJAB, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Tillståndsbedömningar.
    Development of mortars in Sweden during the period 1800 to 19502016In: Proceedings of the 4th Historic Mortars Conference: HMC 2016, 2016, p. 204-210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective with the present project was to combine studies of textbooks and masonry constructions with laboratory analyses of historical mortars from the time period 1800 to 1950. The objective was to investigate the development of knowledge and craftsmanship of the mason during this period. The three different sources display the same trends from binder rich to binder poor and to mortars based on cement and lime mixes. There was a change from a complex and varying use of different mortars in the 19th century to a simplified and standardized use in the 20th century. This process also includes a change to a centralised and industrialized production of binders. A consequence of this was that a loss of the craftmans knowledge of how to handle different hydraulic binders and pozzolans. The later part of the period was characterised in a loss of knowledge in this aspect for all actors working with masonry and renders.

  • 3.
    Frogner-Kockum, Paul Christian
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Tillståndsbedömningar.
    Long-term performance of MSWI Bottom ash in a test road construction2016In: International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2180-3242, Vol. 7, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on long-term performances of MSWI bottom ash used as a reinforcement layer in a 8 years old road-construction. Long term properties may change under the combined effects of loading, climate- and chemical conditions. Characterization of the chemical changes in aged MSWI bottom ash is thus of prime interest as secondary alteration is a key process for the ageing of these kind of materials. The MSWI bottom ash in this study comprises a 60 meter-long segment of a test road, which was sampled eight years after construction. The objective of the sampling was to obtain a very low degree of disturbance to the application’s in-situ properties. Access to the sub-base was achieved by removing the surface course and unbound base course, leaving the top surface of the unbound sub-base reachable.  Epoxy impregnated slabs were also used for a micro textural and chemical characterization by SEM/EDS of the bottom ash sub-base layer. No cracks that imply movements or rotation of particles in the road construction or other disturbances as due to the sampling process were found. This undisturbed material made it possible to study chemical processes and structural changes that have been ongoing in the test road since it was constructed. The SEM/EDS analysis showed that most particles had reacted to some extent and that reaction-products surrounding aluminum particles were undisturbed. Partly decomposed particles indicate that the reaction (that has been ongoing since the road was constructed) has been slow and incomplete because of the coexistence of metallic aluminum and aluminum hydroxide. It also shows that the material not has been subjected to any physical influence during these 8 years that otherwise would have moved the reaction products from the particles that originally have reacted. Clay mineralization that indicates long-term ageing of the ash material was also detected by XRPD. The pH of the material was lower than 8.5, indicating a mature degree of carbonization. It is also concluded from the study that chemical reactions consistent with this maturity have been taking place in the road construction as indicated by textural relationships.

  • 4.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Tillståndsbedömningar.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Hansson, Erik
    Inspecta.
    Analysis of irradiated concrete: Microscopic and mechanical tests on concrete from a nuclear power plant containment structure2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Drilled concrete cores from the centralpart of the containment structure of reactor 2 in Oskarshamn weretested in the present study. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy wereapplied.The microscopy analyses performed have not documented any changes in the properties of the concrete that can be interpreted as beingdue to the specific environment to which the samples havebeen exposed. The parameters that havebeen studied includecrack patterns that could indicate volume changes inthe aggregate or cement pasteand indications of alkali silica reaction. The observed differences in the concrete surface compared to the inner part of the concrete are such that they couldoccur in concrete exposed to a normal indoor environment. There are no crack patterns to indicatethat the radiation has caused a volume increase inthe aggregate or drying shrinkage in the cement paste. Thereareno changesin the crack patterns, porosity or polarization properties that may indicate reduced mechanical strength. The damage seen in the surface of sample 5 is likely to have beencaused by a local mechanical impact and thisdamage is superficial andlocal. The mechanical properties of the concrete were evaluated by uniaxial compression tests on cylinders machined from drilled cores. Full-field strain measurement was performed on the surface of the cylinders during the compression test. Optical full-field deformation measurement was conducted usinga measurement technique based on Digital Image Correlation (DIC) with a stereoscopic camera set-up, consisting of two CCDcameras. The basic idea behind DIC is to measure the deformation of the specimen duringtesting by tracking the deformation of a surface speckle pattern in a series of digital images acquired during loading. That there is some variation in strain between the various segments is natural, since the local stiffness depends on aggregate sizeand location. The general picture is that the strain distribution is relatively uniform along the length of the cylinder,which indicates that the tested cylinders do not exhibit any degradation of mechanical properties. There is also no significant difference between the cylinders taken towards the insideof the structure, compared with thosetaken towards the outside.The overall conclusion is that the tests carried out do not indicate any degradation of the mechanical properties, and that the properties in general are equivalent for the cores taken towards the inside and the outside of the structure.

  • 5.
    Miccoli, Lorenzo
    et al.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Fontana, Patrick
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Johansson, Gabriel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Tillståndsbedömningar.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Numerical modelling of UHPC and TRC sandwich elements for building envelopes2015In: IABSE Conference 2015: Structural Engineering: Providing Solutions to Global Challenges, IABSE , 2015, p. 195-203Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a modelling approach is presented to reproduce the mechanical behaviour of sandwich panels via finite element analysis. Two types of panels were investigated in this scope of work. The first sandwich element was a textile reinforced concrete (TRC) panel with cellular lightweight concrete insulation and the second configuration was an ultra-high performances concrete (UHPC) panel with aerated autoclaved concrete insulation. The goal was to obtain a reliable numerical strategy that represents a reasonable compromise in terms of sufficient accuracy of the element characteristics and the computational costs. The results show the possibility of describing the composite action in a full sandwich panel. The achieved modelling approach will later be used for the optimization of TRC and UHPC panels in terms of minimizing the thickness, identifying the number and location of connectors, as well as evaluating varying anchorage systems.

  • 6.
    Stripple, Håkan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ellison, Tommy
    BESAB, Sweden.
    Ewertson, Cathrine
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Produkt & Kontroll.
    Lund, Peter
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Melander, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Tillståndsbedömningar.
    Evaluation of two different drainage systems for rock tunnels2016In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 58, p. 40-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water penetration and dripping in tunnels is almost always a significant problem which is usually solved with the help of a tunnel waterproofing drainage system mounted where drips and leaks are detected. Today's drainage systems are made of foamed polyethene (PE) mats which are covered with shotcrete. These are relatively expensive, complex to install, sensitive to mechanical impact, and often have a much shorter expected lifetime than the tunnel. In this study, a new type of drainage, Rockdrain, was studied and compared with the present drainage system. The systems were evaluated with respect to technical, environmental, and economic aspects. A field test was performed with the Rockdrain system and compared with installation of a traditional system. Laboratory tests were performed on especially the different shotcrete layers used in the Rockdrain system. The environmental evaluation was performed by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and the economic evaluation was performed by Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis. The results indicate that the Rockdrain system has a good drainage function, is significantly cheaper than the current system, has a longer expected lifetime, is easier to install, and is less sensitive to mechanical impact.

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