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  • 1.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Brown, Andrew S.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    van der Veen, Adriaan M. H.
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Suitability of different containers for the sampling and storage of biogas and biomethane for the determination of the trace-level impurities - A review2016In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 902, p. 22-32Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The traceable and accurate measurement of biogas impurities is essential in order to robustly assess compliance with the specifications for biomethane being developed by CEN/TC408. An essential part of any procedure aiming to determinate the content of impurities is the sampling and the transfer of the sample to the laboratory. Key issues are the suitability of the sample container and minimising the losses of impurities during the sampling and analysis process. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art in biogas sampling with the focus on trace impurities. Most of the vessel suitability studies reviewed focused on raw biogas. Many parameters need to be studied when assessing the suitability of vessels for sampling and storage, among them, permeation through the walls, leaks through the valves or physical leaks, sorption losses and adsorption effects to the vessel walls, chemical reactions and the expected initial concentration level. The majority of these studies looked at siloxanes, for which sampling bags, canisters, impingers and sorbents have been reported to be fit-for-purpose in most cases, albeit with some limitations. We conclude that the optimum method requires a combination of different vessels to cover the wide range of impurities commonly found in biogas, which have a wide range of boiling points, polarities, water solubilities, and reactivities. The effects from all the parts of the sampling line must be considered and precautions must be undertaken to minimize these effects. More practical suitability tests, preferably using traceable reference gas mixtures, are needed to understand the influence of the containers and the sampling line on sample properties and to reduce the uncertainty of the measurement.

  • 2.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Kühnemuth, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Traceable reference gas mixtures for sulfur-free natural gas odorants2014In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 6695-6702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first reference gas mixtures of sulfur-free natural gas odorants that are traceable to the International System of Units (SI) have been produced and their compositions validated. These mixtures, which contain methyl acrylate and ethyl acrylate at amount fractions between 1.1 and 2.1 μmol mol-1, can be used to underpin measurements of sulfur-free odorants, which are increasingly being used to odorize natural gas in transmission networks as they have less harmful properties than traditional sulfur-containing odorants. The reference gas mixtures produced have been shown to be stable in passivated aluminum cylinders for at least 8 months and have been validated (to within 6% or less) by interlaboratory measurements at three National Measurement Institutes. The stability of methyl acrylate and ethyl acrylate in gas sampling bags has been investigated, and the challenges of analyzing 2-ethyl-3- methylpyrazine, which is used as a stabilizer in sulfur-free odorants, are also briefly discussed.

  • 3.
    Buker, O.
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Rasmussen, K.
    FORCE Technology, Denmark.
    Kondrup, J. B.
    FORCE Technology, Denmark.
    Lucas, P.
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, The Netherlands.
    Pelevic, N.
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, The Netherlands.
    Stolt, K.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    van der Beek, M.
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, The Netherlands.
    Arrhenius, K.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Li, J.
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, The Netherlands.
    Lucassen, A.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Klare, L.
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Eilts, P.
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Giuliano Albo, P. A.
    INRIM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    Richter, M.
    RUB Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany.
    Gieseking, B.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Nieuwenkamp, G.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Rauch, J.
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, The Netherlands.
    Mortensen, T.
    Justervesenet, Norway.
    Metrological support for LNG custody transfer and transport2016In: Proceedings of the 17th International Flow Measurement Conference (FLOMEKO 2016), 2016, article id E943220FConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the framework of the ongoing EMRP Joint Research Project (JRP) ENG 60 “Metrology for LNG” (2014-2017), co-funded by the European Union, a number of metrological challenges associated with custody transfer and transport of LNG will be faced. The project consists of four technical work packages (WP), whereby the main objective is to reduce the measurement uncertainty of LNG custody transfer by a factor two. The focus in WP1 is the design and development of a traceable mid-scale calibration standard for LNG mass and volume flow. The goal is to provide traceable mass and volume flow calibrations up to 400 m3/h (180000 kg/h). In WP2, the emphasis is on the development and validation of a LNG sampling and composition measurement reference standard, consisting of sampler, vaporizer, gas standards, and gas chromatography (GC), which will be used to  test and calibrate commercially available LNG sampling and composition measurement systems. The priority in WP3 is given to the development and validation of a method for the determination of the methane number, including correlations based on the LNG composition and corrections for traces of nitrogen and higher hydrocarbons. Since physical properties and quantities play an important role in LNG custody transfer, WP4 comprises reference quality density measurements of LNG to validate and improve models for LNG density predictions, the uncertainty evaluation of enthalpy and calorific value calculations and the development of a novel cryogenic sensor for the simultaneous measurement of speed-of-sound and density. The present paper gives an overview of recently achieved objectives within the project and provides an outlook to future activities.

  • 4.
    Engelbrektsson, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    A potential tool for high-resolution monitoring of ocean acidification2013In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 786, no Jul, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Gustafsson, Hans
    et al.
    Rosell, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Kemisk emission från golvmaterial. Undersökning av i vilken utsträckning golvmaterial avger kemiska ämnen på plats i byggnader och under laboratorieförhållanden1995Report (Refereed)
  • 6. Johansson, Johan HP
    et al.
    Rosell, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Ger smutsiga luftfilter försämrad tilluft? En studie av emissioner med ursprung i filter.1998Report (Refereed)
  • 7. Månsson, Margret
    et al.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Isaksson, Ingrid
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Certifiering.
    Rosell, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Sampling and chemical analysis of smoke gas components from the SP industry calorimeter.1994Report (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Nilsson Påledal, Sören
    et al.
    Tekniska verken i Linköping AB, Sweden.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Moestedt, Jan
    Tekniska verken i Linköping AB, Sweden.
    Engelbrektsson, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Stensen, Katarina
    Tekniska verken i Linköping AB, Sweden.
    Characterisation and treatment of VOCs in process water from upgrading facilities for compressed biogas (CBG)2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 145, p. 424-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compression and upgrading of biogas to vehicle fuel generates process water, which to varying degrees contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from the biogas. The compostion of this process water has not yet been studied and scientifically published and there is currently an uncertainty regarding content of VOCs and how the process water should be managed to minimise the impact on health and the environment. The aim of the study was to give an overview about general levels of VOCs in the process water. Characterisation of process water from amine and water scrubbers at plants digesting waste, sewage sludge or agricultural residues showed that both the average concentration and composition of particular VOCs varied depending on the substrate used at the biogas plant, but the divergence was high and the differences for total concentrations from the different substrate groups were only significant for samples from plants using waste compared to residues from agriculture. The characterisation also showed that the content of VOCs varied greatly between different sampling points for same main substrate and between sampling occasions at the same sampling point, indicating that site-specific conditions are important for the results which also indicates that a number of analyses at different times are required in order to make an more exact characterisation with low uncertainty.Inhibition of VOCs in the anaerobic digestion (AD) process was studied in biomethane potential tests, but no inhibition was observed during addition of synthetic process water at concentrations of 11.6 mg and 238 mg VOC/L.

  • 9.
    Näykki, Teemu
    et al.
    Finnish Environment Institute, Finland.
    Virtanen, Atte
    Finnish Environment Institute, Finland.
    Kaukonen, Lari
    Finnish Environment Institute, Finland.
    Magnusson, Bertil
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Väisänen, Tero
    Finnish Environment Institute, Finland.
    Leito, Ivo
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Application of the Nordtest method for “real-time” uncertainty estimation of on-line field measurement2015In: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 187, no 10, article id 630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Field sensor measurements are becoming more common for environmental monitoring. Solutions for enhancing reliability, i.e. knowledge of the measurement uncertainty of field measurements, are urgently needed. Real-time estimations of measurement uncertainty for field measurement have not previously been published, and in this paper, a novel approach to the automated turbidity measuring system with an application for “real-time” uncertainty estimation is outlined based on the Nordtest handbook’s measurement uncertainty estimation principles. The term real-time is written in quotation marks, since the calculation of the uncertainty is carried out using a set of past measurement results. There are two main requirements for the estimation of real-time measurement uncertainty of online field measurement described in this paper: (1) setting up an automated measuring system that can be (preferably remotely) controlled which measures the samples (water to be investigated as well as synthetic control samples) the way the user has programmed it and stores the results in a database, (2) setting up automated data processing (software) where the measurement uncertainty is calculated from the data produced by the automated measuring system. When control samples with a known value or concentration are measured regularly, any instrumental drift can be detected. An additional benefit is that small drift can be taken into account (in real-time) as a bias value in the measurement uncertainty calculation, and if the drift is high, the measurement results of the control samples can be used for real-time recalibration of the measuring device. The procedure described in this paper is not restricted to turbidity measurements, but it will enable measurement uncertainty estimation for any kind of automated measuring system that performs sequential measurements of routine samples and control samples/reference materials in a similar way as described in this paper.

  • 10.
    Pereira, Paulo
    et al.
    Portuguese Institute of Blood and Transplantation, Portugal.
    Magnusson, Bertil
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Westgard, James O.
    University of Wisconsin, US.
    Encarnação, Pedro
    Catholic University of Portugal, Portugal.
    Measurement uncertainty as a tool for evaluating the ‘grey zone’ to reduce the false negatives in immunochemical screening of blood donors for infectious diseases2016In: Accreditation and Quality Assurance, ISSN 0949-1775, E-ISSN 1432-0517, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 25-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk of misclassifying infected individuals as healthy constitutes a crucial challenge when screening blood donors by means of immunoassays. This risk is especially challenging when the numerical results are close to the clinical decision level, i.e. in the ‘grey zone’. The concept of using measurement uncertainty for evaluating the ‘grey zone’ has previously not been systematically applied in this context. This article explains methods, models and empirical (top-down) approaches for the calculation of measurement uncertainty using results from a blood bank according to the internationally accepted GUM principles, focusing on uncertainty sources in the analytical phase. Of the different approaches available, the intralaboratory empirical approaches are emphasised since modelling (bottom-up) approaches are impracticable due to the lack of reliable model equations for immunoassays. Different methods are applied to estimate the measurement uncertainty for the Abbott Prism® HCV immunoassay. The expanded uncertainty obtained at the clinical decision level from the intralaboratory empirical approach was 36 %. The estimated uncertainty was used to set acceptance and rejection zones following the procedure set in the Eurachem guideline, emphasising the need to minimise the occurrence of false negatives.

  • 11.
    Rosell, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Kemiska mätningar i problemhus i Uppsala1989Report (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Rosell, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Luftkvalitet och kemiska emissioner från byggmaterial i ett allergikeranpassat småhus. Teknikutvärdering i Bo92-området, Örebro. Delprojekt 4.4.2.1995Report (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Rosell, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Optimering av provtagningsvariabler vid VOC-mätning med 35 mg Tenaxadsorbent1992Report (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Bertil
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Allowable bias when monitoring reference change values2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0036-5513, E-ISSN 1502-7686, Vol. 75, no 7, p. 537-538Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Van Der Veen, Adriaan M. H.
    et al.
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Brown, Andrew S.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Li, Jianrong
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Murugan, Arul
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Heinonen, Martti
    MIKES Centre for Metrology and Accreditation, Finland.
    Haloua, Frédérique
    LNE Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais, France.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Measurement requirements for biogas specifications2015In: 17th International Congress of Metrology, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of biogas and biomethane urgently requires that these non-conventional energy gases can be transmitted through natural gas grids and refuelling stations. The European Standardization Organisation CEN is developing specifications for green gas which supplement the specifications for natural gas. The specifications for green gas address a range of parameters not commonly covered in natural gas, such as the contents of impurities (e.g., siloxanes, ammonia, halogenated hydrocarbons, and hydrogen chloride), dust content and particles. In a collaboration between 12 European metrology institutes and 3 university groups, robust and reliable methods are developed to support these draft specifications and to enable conformity assessment. The project also deals with issues related to density, calorific value, moisture content, and the sampling of biogas. This paper gives an overview of the state-ofthe-art in green gas testing, as well as an outlook what methods need be developed.

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