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  • 1.
    Glebe, Dag
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Ljud och vibration.
    Vad betyder det nya regelverket runt buller och bostadsbyggande för ljudmiljön inomhus?2016In: Bo i Ro: Texter från ett tvärvetenskapligt symposium om bostäder, buller och hälsa / [ed] Frans Mossberg, Lund: Ljudmiljöcentrum vid Lunds universitet , 2016, p. 29-42Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The new Swedish regulations for outdoor sound levels at facades in housing construction in new areas will also affect indoor levels, especially low-frequency noise levels. However, the perception of indoor noise is even more affected. The disturbance or annoyance of noise is generally stronger in the low frequency range, and this is accentuated by the fact that facades are generally performing worse in this region, in combination with the dynamics of hearing in the low frequency region .

  • 2.
    Jonasson, Hans G.
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Ljud och vibration.
    Storeheier, Svein
    SINTEF.
    Nord 2000. New Nordic prediction method for rail traffic noise2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new Nordic method to predict rail traffic noise is proposed. It is based on a complete

    separation of source emission and sound propagation. Each train is modelled as a number

    of point sources each with a certain sound power with or without directivity. The source

    model is connected to point source sound propagation theory to yield the sound pressure

    level in an arbitrary receiver position. The propagation model is based on accurate

    analytical models and it is capable of predicting propagation effects both with and

    without the influence of meteorological parameters. In this first version the prediction

    method has to rely on old data for the noise emission of trains.

  • 3.
    Larsson, Krister
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Ljud och vibration.
    Updated road traffic noise emission models in Sweden2016In: Proceedings of the INTER-NOISE 2016 - 45th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Towards a Quieter Future, 2016, p. 1329-1340Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic prediction model from 1996 is still used for road traffic noise predictions and noise mapping purposes in many cases in Sweden. The model is restricted to A-weighted levels and the vehicle categories only take light and heavy vehicles into account. Weather conditions and ground effects are simplified. The subsequent Nord2000Road model can be used for noise predictions in more complex situations. Nord2000Road uses third octave bands, an advanced outdoor propagation model and more categories for vehicles and ground. Recently the CNOSSOS-EU model has been developed in Europe and can be used for noise mapping purposes according to the European Noise Directive in the future. CNOSSOS-EU uses octave bands and similar vehicle categories as Nord2000Road. The source model as well as the propagation model differs from Nord2000Road. In 2015, a measurement campaign of noise emission in real traffic was conducted in Sweden. This paper presents updated input data for the Nord2000Road source model as well as national Swedish correction terms for rolling noise in the CNOSSOS-EU model to better represent the recent measurement results.

  • 4.
    Larsson, Krister
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Ljud och vibration.
    Holmes, Maria
    Göteborgs Stad, Sweden.
    Nyttoberäkningar av minskat buller från elbusstrafik i Göteborg2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social benefit calculations of reduced noise from electric bus transport in Gothenburg

    In this study we examine noise from different types of buses. The aim is to calculate the economic benefits of electric buses over other bus types used in Gothenburg in terms of noise reduction. Since there is no established method to investigate the economic effects of noise from buses a large part of this study focuses on if methods currently available to quantify the health effects and economic costs of noise are sufficient to assess the effects of noise from buses. DALYs is a measure that has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to quantify the health effects by counting the number of healthy life years lost every year because of the noise. ASEK is a Swedish method used to calculate the costs caused by the transport sector to society every year.

    In order to calculate noise from buses in a sufficiently correct way, it is necessary to have knowledge on how the different bus types operating in Gothenburg today sound. In Gothenburg there are diesel, gas, hybrid and electric buses. The method we used to calculate the bus noise was Nord2000, which is a more advanced method of calculation than the one usually used for calculations in Sweden, i.e. the Nordic Prediction method from 1996 (RTN: 96). The advantage with Nord2000 is that you can use specific input data for each bus type, something that is impossible with RTN where in-data for light and heavy vehicles are based on measurements carried out in the early 1990s. Nord2000 has been implemented in different noise calculation software, of which SoundPLAN is the computational tool used in this project. The drawback with SoundPLAN however, is that it is not possible to calculate maximum sound levels with the Nord2000 model as this has not been implemented in the software. For calculations with Nord2000 new input data has been collected based on measurements of gas, electrically charged hybrid buses driving in diesel mode, and electrically charged hybrid buses driving in electric mode on a test track in the autumn of 2016. For diesel buses existing input data for Nord2000 was used based on measurements in real traffic in 2015. The results of these measurements are used not only to do outdoor calculations of bus noise, but also for calculations of indoor noise.

    Another disadvantage of Nord2000 is that the calculations are more time consuming, which meant that we had to limit the geographic calculation area to 32 km2 in central Gothenburg. It is the most densely populated area in Gothenburg is where the bus traffic is most intense. In this area, bus traffic along with car traffic and other heavy vehicles was calculated within 100 meters from the road center, as well as within 30 meters of all bus stops to see the effect of starting and stopping on noise levels.We have also calculated a small residential area in the center of town where buses dominate namely the area around Bäckegatan, to analyze the impact of bus traffic noise in more detail.

    Measurements of the various bus types demonstrates that there are differences between the bus types and that diesel buses cause more noise than the other bus types. A frequency analysis of the sound also shows that the sound from diesel buses contains much more low frequency sound than electric buses. Gas and hybrid buses lie somewhere in between when it comes to the content of low-frequency sound.

    The estimates of the health effects and economic costs of bus noise show that diesel buses cause the highest costs of the various bus types included. But despite electric buses being perceived as much quieter it is in general difficult to show any significant difference between the bus types, even if hybrid buses in diesel mode and gas-powered buses contain more low frequency sound than electric buses. There is however a greater difference between bus types at bus stops because diesel, hybrid bus in diesel mode and gas-powered buses make a lot more noise than electric buses during acceleration. When the buses are calculated together with other road traffic, the other road traffic tends to dominate due to the fact that the volume of other traffic tends to be much greater than the volume of buses.

    However if you only have bus services near homes (without other traffic), the differences in exposure, especially from 55 dBA and above, is large between bus types and the electric bus is by far the quietest option. For exposure at night, calculated both with buses only and with buses and other traffic included, the differences in exposure to sound levels that can cause sleep disturbances are greater between bus types, and electric bus clearly contribute least to increased sleep disturbance.

    Research shows that the link between annoyance to and loudness of noise from heavy traffic, measured or calculated as a daily equivalent noise level in decibel A, is not particularly good. Low-frequency sounds are perceived as more disturbing and are perceived as louder than sound sources that are dominated by sounds in the higher frequencies, such as car traffic. The methods for quantifying the health impact and economic costs of traffic noise need to be developed or supplemented by other methods which more accurately include annoyance and sleep disturbance from heavy traffic in order to be able to make more accurate cost-benefit calculations.

  • 5.
    Larsson, Krister
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Ljud och vibration.
    Jonasson, Hans
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Ljud och vibration.
    Uppdaterade beräkningsmodeller för vägtrafikbuller2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's models for road traffic noise are based on the Nordic prediction model from 1996. Since then, several projects have been carried out to develop prediction models, both in Scandinavia and in Europe. In other Nordic countries for example the calculation model Nord2000 Road is used and within Europe the model CNOSSOS-EU will be used for noise mapping. Nord2000 Road has the advantage that the model has a broader scope and can provide more detailed results compared with 1996 model, and there is a willingness to move to that model in Sweden. The model gives slightly higher estimated levels compared to the old model. Input data for the prediction model Nord2000 Road are based on measurements carried out in the Nordic countries and the latest measurements in Sweden are 10 years old. In 2015 new measurements of noise emissions from vehicles in real traffic on Swedish roads were carried out. The results show that the source data to Nord2000 Road needs to be updated to represent current Swedish conditions. The results indicate that Nord2000 Road overestimate levels and suggested adjusted input data are presented. Spectrum adaptation to Swedish conditions are revised. The measurements confirm, however, speed coefficients for Swedish conditions.

    Spectrum adaptation terms for other road surfaces than SMA 0/16 (stone mastic asphalt with 16 mm maximum aggregate size, ABS 0/16), which is the most common pavement for high traffic roads in Sweden require more extensive measurement data, but some data for a Swedish drainage asphalt road surface are presented in the report.

    Updated input is proposed for Category 1, 2 and 3 for Nord2000 Road. For motorcycles input data can be based on data from previous Harmonoise- and Imagine projects, even if they are designed for Southern European conditions. Some data from the measurement series 2015 are presented in the report, but additional measurements needed when the spread in the results are great. Also for vehicles with alternative powertrains such as electric or hybrid vehicles sufficient information is lacking today to determine reliable input data for the prediction models for Swedish conditions.

    CNOSSOS-EU underestimates clearly the emission levels for Swedish conditions, and also have different speed-dependency, so a speed-dependent correction is proposed in the report. Maximum levels are proposed to be calculated in basically the same way in CNOSSOS-EU as is made in Nord2000 Road.

    To calculate the traffic noise at different driving conditions such as in urban areas with accelerations or decelerations associated with intersections or roundabouts it is proposed that the methods of CNOSSOS-EU and Nord2000 Road for heavy vehicles (category 2 and 3) is applied. CNOSSOS-EU gives corrections for the total sound power depending on distance from the crossing or roundabout, while Nord2000 Road gives a general increase of the rolling noise with 3 dB for heavy vehicles in urban traffic.

    The Nord2000 Road source model allows for separation of rolling and propulsion noise from measurements in real traffic. For the CNOSSOS-EU model this is more difficult because of the co-localization of the two model sources. Separation of rolling and propulsion noise could be beneficial for separation of tire/road noise and vehicle noise for evaluation of the tire noise and vehicle noise regulations.

  • 6.
    Lundén, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Ljud och vibration.
    Aircraft noise and speech intelligibility in an outdoor living space2014In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 135, no 6, p. 3455-3462Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 6 of 6
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