Change search
Refine search result
123 1 - 50 of 132
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    et al.
    Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Postia placenta decay of acetic anhydride modified wood – effect of leaching2014In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 162-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that acetylation of wood by the use of acetic anhydride is able to impart a significant degree of decay resistance. The aim of this work was to study how a standardized leaching procedure with water (EN 84) affected the degradation of acetic anhydride modified samples by the brown rot fungi Postia placenta compared to no leaching prior to incubation. Three different levels (low, medium, and high) of acetic anhydride modified Southern yellow pine (SYP; Pinus spp.) were tested. The samples were harvested after 4 and 28 weeks. Wecompared changes in mass loss, wood moisture content, fungal DNA, and gene expression from five genes. If leaching changes the acetylated samples and makes them more susceptible for fungal deterioration, the expected effect would be higher levels of these parameters. Generally, leaching resulted in few differences between leached and nonleached samples at low levels of acetylation, while no changes were found for the highest acetylation level. No differences were found in gene expressions after 28 weeks. The possible protection of acetylated wood against oxidative fungal degradation is suggested to be interpreted in combination with the lowered wood moisture content.

  • 2.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    et al.
    Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Fossdal, Carl Gunnar
    Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    New insight regarding mode of action of brown rot decay of modified wood based on DNA and gene expression studies: A review2015In: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 5-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modified wood shows resistance against wood deteriorating fungi, but the mechanisms are still not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to summarise the molecular studies performed on modified wood with regard to brown rot decay fungi. The DNA data showed that fungi are present inside the laboratory wood test samples already after two weeks of inoculation. Generally the fungal DNA content reflects mass loss and wood moisture content. The oxidative gene expression seems to be higher in modified wood than in untreated wood and it tend to increase during incubation. Based on the gene expression data we suggest that the hypothesis of lack of substrate recognition by the fungus should be rejected. In the reviewed studies, total wood moisture content in the samples was generally not low enough to inhibit fungal colonisation. Hence, moisture distribution within the wood should be studied more closely.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Jan-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Optimering och segmentering av tryckluftssystem2016Report (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Samuelson, Ingemar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Nordling, Bengt
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Jansson, Anna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Demker, Ingvar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Funktionsprovning av tätskiktsystem för våtutrymmen 20162016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är andra gången ett forskningsprojekt av denna typ genomförs och syftet och målet är att kunna visa på tätskiktssystem som har god prognos att uppfylla kravet på vattentäthet och därmed vara vattenskadesäkrande. Ett annat syfte har varit att se om tillverkarna har tagit till sig av resultaten från den tidigare utförda undersökningen som rapporterades 2014 i SP Rapport 2014:45.

  • 5.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Lund University, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Aeration system modelling - case studies from three full-scale wastewater treatment plants2015In: 9th IWA Symposium on Systems Analysis and Integrated Assessment (Watermatex 2015), 2015, article id 10.4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The water train of three WWTPs have been modelled following the procedures of the Benchmark Simulation Model (BSM) platform (Gernaey et al., 2014). Additionally the aeration system has been modelled to evaluate airflows and energy performance. The results for the airflow model are presented. The chosen airflow model is shown to be easy to apply and calibrate and robust for practical modelling cases. By simply adjusting the SOTE-polynomial, number of diffusors and airflow limitations the model replicates the real data at a level of detail suitable for most purposes where the evaluation is based on longer time averages. For peak demand evaluation the whole treatment model with influent characterization, model calibration and controllers need to be more detailed than done here. Modelling the airflow is important to allow for evaluation of air consumption, aeration energy performance and for communication of simulation results to plant staff and operators.

  • 6. Aspling, Jonas
    et al.
    Henriksson, Marielle
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Biobaserade material och produkter.
    EcoBuild Activity Report 20142015Report (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Axelson, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Biobaserade material och produkter.
    Förstudie av möjligheter att bygga på befintliga byggnader för att skapa gröna tak2015Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Bardage, Stig
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Westin, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Fogarty, Heather
    Kebony AS, Norway.
    Trey, Stacy
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    The effect of natural product treatment of southern yellow pine on fungi causing blue stain and mold2014In: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 86, no B, p. 54-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blue stain and mold growth on wood can be aesthetically unappealing, but mold growth can also potentially trigger health related issues. In this study, a screening of the effect of selected natural products and derivatives of natural products including essential oils, plant based monomers, and shellfish exoskeleton compounds on the inhibition of blue stain fungi and mold fungi in southern yellow pine veneers and cellulose filter paper. The treatment of the substrates, the weight percent gain of the natural products, and the inhibition effect is presented. The natural products have been investigated previously, but most have not been applied to wood or investigated with regards to blue stain or mold growth. The specimens were treated by dipping, wrapping in foil, and then heating at 105°C for 24h in order to encourage reaction or grafting of the natural products to the wood. A selection of seven additives each exhibited significant protection against blue stain colonization in Petri dish tests and these were studied more in-depth. These included tea tree oil, propyl gallate, hydrogenated gum oil, salicylic acid, cinnamon bark oil, butylene oxide, and furfural. The salicylic acid, tea tree oil, and cinnamon bark oil had the least amount of mold growth after four weeks in the mold chamber test, and have been previously reported to have a mechanism of antifungal activity resulting from their ability to disrupt the fungal cell wall. Propyl gallate veneer was the only specimen that had a lower pH and that would be considered unfavorable to mold growth. While furfural, salicylic acid, and cinnamon bark oil treated veneers all had more hydrophobic surfaces when compared to untreated wood.

  • 9.
    Barnekow, Sigrid
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Biobaserade material och produkter.
    Mistra Future Fashion Update December 20152015Report (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Barnekow, Sigrid
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Biobaserade material och produkter.
    Mistra Future Fashion Update June 20152015Report (Refereed)
  • 11. Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Johansson, Erik
    Förädling och processer (TRf).
    Skog, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Value optimized log rotation for strength graded boards using computed tomography2014In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 72, no 5, p. 635-642Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Bergstrand, Sten
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Saracoglu, Erhan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Continuous monitoring of a long-span cable-stayed timber bridge2014In: Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring, ISSN 2190-5452, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 183-194Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    The effect of veneer modification on the bond-line strength in laminated veneer products2015In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 43-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major problem in the manufacture of three-dimensional laminated veneer products (LVP) is damage due to stretching and/or buckling of the veneer. To reduce or eliminate this problem, veneer densification or adding a strengthening layer to the veneer can be an alternative. To study how veneer modification influences the veneer-to-adhesive bond strength, three methods of modification were studied in relation to an unmodified reference veneer: (1) densified veneer, (2) veneer pre-bonded with paper and hot melt adhesive (HMA), (3) veneer pre-bonded with non-woven polypropylene (NW) fabric glued to the veneer (a) with a urea formaldehyde (UF) adhesive, (b) with a mixture of UF and polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) adhesive, and (c) with a PVAc adhesive. Densification, pre-bonding with paper, and NW with UF/PVAc adhesive mixture resulted in no or only a slight decrease in strength of the bond-line compared to the reference. NW glued with UF or PVAc adhesive showed a considerable reduction in the strength of the bond-line. The climatic cycling had no significant influence on the bond strength.

  • 14.
    Bok, Gunilla
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Mikroorganismer bakom keramiskaplattor i badrum2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Microorganisms behind ceramic tiles in bathrooms

    In this study the interface between the backside of ceramic tiles and the waterproof membrane was investigated for microbial growth in 13 bathrooms. This interface is made up of the backside of the ceramic tile, tile adhesive and the waterproof membrane. In every day used bathrooms water will accumulate in this particular environment. It is calculated that a tiled wall exposed to water in 15 minutes needs approximately six months to dry out since water is sucked, by capillary actions, through the grout joints between the ceramic tiles. The wall dries through diffusion forces and diffusion force is a weaker than capillary force and therefore the drying need longer time than the wetting of the wall with a water accumulation in the interface as a result.

    Samples were taken from areas where the wall and floor had been exposed to free water regularly, due to showering.

    Mould and/or bacterial growth was found on 69 % of the analysed specimens from the most water exposed places in the bathrooms. No such growth was found on the samples from the dryer areas. The results shows that although the environment behind the tiles may seem to disadvantaged for microbial growth, due to a limited amount of organic substances and due to pH values not favourable for microbial growth, such growth is possible when the moisture conditions are high.

    To our knowledge the microbial occurrence in this particular environment has not been investigated before.

  • 15.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Practical method to determine the contribution of structural timber to the rate of heat release and fire temperature of post-flashover compartment fires2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of a method to quantify the contribution of exposed timber to a fire was identified as one of the main gaps of knowledge concerning the challenges of building high-rise timber buildings, in a recent gap analysis performed by the NFPA. Recent experimental studies successfully quantified the contribution of large surfaces of exposed timber, in terms of rate of heat release. However, a method to predict these quantities has not been found in the literature.

    This report proposes a model that includes the contribution of exposed or protected timber to post-flashover fires in compartments with a floor area up to 100m2. The model consists of a one-zone model and a wood combustion model. Using the one-zone model, the temperatures in the room are estimated from the heat release rate. Using the wood combustion model, the heat release rate coming from exposed or protected timber is estimated. The influence of delamination of lamellas or fall-off of claddings can be estimated with some restrictions regarding accuracy.

    Comparative studies showed that predictions of the model correspond well with previous full scale compartment fire tests.

    Key words:

    Compartment fire, Timber, CLT, natural fire, charring rate, heat release rate, delamination, cladding failure

  • 16.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Jansson McNamee, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Behaviour of cavity barriers in modular houses: A revised test methodology2016In: Interflam 2016: Conference Proceedings, 2016, p. 623-628Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Schmid, Joachim
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Eurocode 5 design in comparison with fire resistance tests of unprotected timber beams2016In: Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Performance-Based Codes and Fire Safety Design Methods (SFPE 2016), 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Winberg, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Nordic standardisation of fire safety engineering methods for innovative building solutions2015In: Proceedings of the 1st European Workshop Fire Safety of Green Buildings, Shaker , 2015, , p. 119-122Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Buck, Dietrich
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå; University of Mosul, Iraq.
    Wang, Xiaodong Alice
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå.
    Hagman, Olle
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå.
    Gustafsson, Aanders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Further development of cross laminated timber (CLT) – mechanical tests on 45° alternating layers2016In: WCTE 2016: World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2016, p. 1107-1114Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a series of experimental bending and compression tests were performed on cross-laminated timber (CLT) products with ±45° alternating layers, to evaluate their performance against conventional panels of 90° orientation. Engineered wood products, such as CLT with ±45° alternating layers can provide opportunities for greater use in larger and more sustainable timber constructions. A total of 40 panels, manufactured in an industrial CLT production line with either of these two configurations, were tested and compared. Panels were evaluated in bending tests n=20 and the remaining ones in compression tests. Results showed that 35% increased the strength in the fourpoint bending tests for panels containing ±45° alternating layers compared with the 90° alternating layers. Compression strength was increased by 15%. Stiffness increased by 15% in the four-point bending and 30% in the compression. The results indicate that CLT containing ±45° alternating layers has increased strength and stiffness compared to 90° alternating layers. These findings suggest that further developments in CLT are feasible in advanced building applications.

  • 20.
    Buck, Dietrich
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wang, Xiaodong
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hagman, Olle
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Bending Properties of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) with a 45° Alternating Layer Configuration2016In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 4633-4644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bending tests were conducted with cross laminated timber (CLT) panels made using an alternating layer arrangement. Boards of Norway spruce were used to manufacture five-layer panels on an industrial CLT production line. In total, 20 samples were tested, consisting of two CLT configurations with 10 samples of each type: transverse layers at 45° and the conventional 90° arrangement. Sample dimensions were 95 mm × 590 mm × 2000 mm. The CLT panels were tested by four point bending in the main load-carrying direction in a flatwise panel layup. The results indicated that bending strength increased by 35% for elements assembled with 45° layers in comparison with 90° layers. Improved mechanical load bearing panel properties could lead to a larger span length with less material.

  • 21.
    Buck, Dietrich
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wang, Xiaodong
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hagman, Olle
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Comparison of different assembling techniques regarding cost, durability, and ecology - A survey of multi-layer wooden panel assembly load-bearing construction elements2015In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 8378-8396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood is a pure, sustainable, renewable material. The increasing use of wood for construction can improve its sustainability. There are various techniques to assemble multi-layer wooden panels into prefabricated, load-bearing construction elements. However, comparative market and economy studies are still scarce. In this study, the following assembling techniques were compared: laminating, nailing, stapling, screwing, stress laminating, doweling, dovetailing, and wood welding. The production costs, durability, and ecological considerations were presented. This study was based on reviews of published works and information gathered from 27 leading wood product manufacturing companies in six European countries. The study shows that the various techniques of assembling multi-layer wooden construction panel elements are very different. Cross laminated timber (CLT) exhibited the best results in terms of cost and durability. With regard to ecological concerns, dovetailing is the best. Taking into account both durability and ecological considerations, wooden screw-doweling is the best. These alternatives give manufacturers some freedom of choice regarding the visibility of surfaces and the efficient use of lower-quality timber. CLT is the most cost-effective, is not patented, and is a well-established option on the market today.

  • 22.
    Couceiro, Jose
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Vikberg, Tommy
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Hansson, Lars
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Moren, Tom
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    In Situ CT-Scanning of Checking and Collapse Behaviour of Eucalyptus nitens During Drying2016In: Proceedings of the 59th International Convention of Society of Wood Science and Technology, 2016, p. 8-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eucalyptus nitens has become a commercially important species in Chile and it isrepresenting one of the fastest growing wood-stock in the country. Today, it is widelyused for pulp and paper production, but the interest in using the solid wood has increasedin recent years. Before the sawn timber can be utilized, its moisture content must bereduced. Often during drying, hydrostatic tension forces within the cell exceed thecompressive strength of the thin cell wall of Eucalyptus nitens and the cell collapses. Thisphenomenon usually leads to severe surface deformation and both surface and internalcracks (honeycombing). Yield and quality of the final product, and thereby sawmills’profitability, are decreased by these cracks and deformations. The aim of this study wasto investigate, by CT-scanning samples throughout the drying process, if it is possible todetect when and how cracking and deformation occurs and develops in specimens ofEucalyptus nitens from Chile. Based on this knowledge, better drying schedules canhopefully be developed to improve the yield and provide a higher end-quality of the sawntimber.

  • 23.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Lycken, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Virkestorkar – Översikt samt Inventering av betongskador vid åtta sågverk i Sverige och Norge2014Book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Lycken, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Virkestorkar – Översikt samt Inventering av betongskador vid åtta sågverk i Sverige och Norge2014Book (Other academic)
  • 25. Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Nord, Tomas
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Kartläggning av brandincidenter i flervåningshus med trästomme – erfarenheter från 20 års brukande2016Report (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Fortino, Stefania
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Finland.
    Hradil, Petr
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Finland.
    Genoese, Andrea
    University of Calabria, Italy.
    Genoese, Alessandra
    University of Roma Tre, Italy.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Fjellström, Per-Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    A multi-Fickian hygro-thermal model for timber bridge elements under Northern Europe climates2016In: WCTE 2016: World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2016, p. 2068-2075Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work proposes a multi-Fickian method to analyse the hygro-thermal behaviour of timber bridge elements under Northern Europe climates. A temperature-dependent wood hysteresis is included in the model and the thermal effects due to temperatures above and below zero are taken into account. As a case study, the model is used for the hygro-thermal simulation of a glulam beam of Älsvbacka bridge in North of Sweden that was monitored by using wireless sensors in a previous study. The model, implemented in Abaqus FEM code, is able to predict the states of moisture and temperature in protected parts of the beam by using as external loads the relative humidity and temperature of the air provided by in-situ measurements. Furthermore a simplified model using a wood hysteresis independent of temperature is found to provide similar results and appears easier to implement in finite element codes.

  • 27.
    Glebe, Dag
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Ljud och vibration.
    Vad betyder det nya regelverket runt buller och bostadsbyggande för ljudmiljön inomhus?2016In: Bo i Ro: Texter från ett tvärvetenskapligt symposium om bostäder, buller och hälsa / [ed] Frans Mossberg, Lund: Ljudmiljöcentrum vid Lunds universitet , 2016, p. 29-42Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The new Swedish regulations for outdoor sound levels at facades in housing construction in new areas will also affect indoor levels, especially low-frequency noise levels. However, the perception of indoor noise is even more affected. The disturbance or annoyance of noise is generally stronger in the low frequency range, and this is accentuated by the fact that facades are generally performing worse in this region, in combination with the dynamics of hearing in the low frequency region .

  • 28.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Certifiering av träbyggsystem för export till Norge,: Slutrapport TräCentrum Norr, augusti 2016.2016Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Henriksson, Marielle
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Biobaserade material och produkter.
    Aspling, Jonas
    EcoBuild Newsletter June 20152015Report (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Hu, Min
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Enquist, Bertil
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Local variation of modulus of elasticity in timber determined on the basis of non-contact deformation measurement and scanned fibre orientation2015In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 17-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, the utilization of non-contact deformation measurement systems based on digital image correlation (DIC) has increased in wood related research. By measuring deformations with DIC systems, surface strain fields can be calculated. The first aim of this study concerns the possibility to detect detailed strain fields along the entire length of a wooden board subjected to pure bending and the potential of using such strain fields to determine a bending modulus of elasticity (MOE) profile along a board. Displacements were measured over 12 subareas along a flat surface of the board. For each such area, a separate local coordinate system was defined. After the transformation of locally measured coordinates to a global system, high resolution strain fields and a corresponding bending MOE profile were calculated. A second method in establishing bending MOE profiles is to use fibre angle information obtained from laser scanning and a calculation model based on integration of bending stiffness over board cross sections. Such profiles have recently been utilized for accurate strength grading. A second aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the bending MOE profiles determined using the latter method involving fibre angle information. Bending MOE profiles determined using the two described methods agree rather well. However, for some patterns of knot clusters, the local bending MOE, calculated on the basis of fibre angles and integration of bending stiffness, is overestimated. Hence, this research adds knowledge that may be utilized to improve the newly suggested strength grading method.

  • 31.
    Humar, Miha
    et al.
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Brischke, Christian
    Leibniz University Hannover, Germany.
    Meyer, Linda
    Leibniz University Hannover, Germany.
    Lesar, Boštjan
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Thaler, Nejc
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Jones, Dennis
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm). Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bardage, Stig
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Belloncle, Christophe
    Ecole Supérieure du Bois, France.
    Van den Bulcke, Jan
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Abascal, José Miguel
    Tecnalia R&I, Spain.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    Baisch, Daniela
    Robert OTT, Germany.
    Brunnhuber, Barbara
    Holzforschung Austria, Austria.
    Cofta, Grzegorz
    Institute of Chemical Wood Technology, Poland.
    Grodås, Eva
    Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    Frühwald Hansson, Eva
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Irle, Mark
    Ecole Supérieure du Bois, France.
    Kallakas, Heikko
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Kers, Jaan
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Klamer, Morten
    Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Larsson Brelid, Pia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Maider, A.
    Tecnalia R&I, Spain.
    Mahnert, Karl-Christian
    Norwegian Institute of Wood Technology, Norway.
    Melcher, Eckhard
    Thünen-Institut für Holzforschung, Germany.
    Möller, Ralf
    BASF Wolman GmbH, Germany.
    Noel, Marion
    Bern University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland.
    Nunes, Lina
    LNEC Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Portugal.
    Ormondroyd, Graham Alan
    Bangor University, UK.
    Palanti, Sabrina
    CNR IVALSA, Italy.
    Pfabigan, Notburga
    Holzforschung Austria, Austria.
    Pilgård, Annica
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Rapp, Andreas O.
    Gutachtenbüro Rapp, Germany.
    Schumacher, Peter
    MPA Eberswalde, Germany.
    Suttie, Ed
    Building Research Establishment, UK.
    Teppand, Tõnis
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Touza, Manuel
    CIS-Madera, Spain.
    Van Acker, Joris
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Introduction of the COST FP 1303 Cooperative Performance Test2015In: Proceedings of the 46th IRG Annual Meeting, 2015, no 20567, article id IRG/WP 15-20567Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    COST Action FP 1303 “Performance of bio-based building materials” successfully started in October 2013 and an ambitious program was set up for the four year programme. COST Actions provide an excellent opportunity for collaborative research, e.g. in the frame of Round Robin tests.

    The idea of this respective test was to distribute a fairly simple test set up to as many places in Europe as possible in order to collect performance data reflecting the range of climatic exposure conditions. Furthermore we wanted to consider performance in its manifold meaning, i.e. optical, aesthetical, moisture and functional performance and durability. In contrast to traditional Round Robin tests aiming on comparative evaluation and validation of results from different test laboratories, this initiative aims on collecting performance data under climatically different exposure conditions. Therefore it was required to provide weather data from the respective test sites to allow establishing relationships between climate conditions and the following measured, which shall be evaluated regularly: decay, discolouration, development of mould and other staining fungi, corrosion, formation of cracks and moisture performance (if data logging device is included). Further details about the test and the first outcomes are presented in this paper.

  • 32.
    Hägerhed Engman, Linda
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Knutz, M.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Shu, H.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Bornehag, C-G.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Early life exposure of self-reported mold odor is associated with asthma in children 10 years later2014In: Indoor Air 2014 - 13th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, 2014, , p. 612-614p. 612-614Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Jarnerö, Kirsi
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Linnéuniversitet / Linnaeus University.
    Vibrations in timber floors: Dynamic properties and human perception2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Jarnerö, Kirsi
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Brandt, Anders
    University of Southern Denmark, Denamark.
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Vibration properties of a timber floor assessed in laboratory and during construction2015In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 82, p. 44-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes of a prefabricated timber floor element have been assessed experimentally in laboratory with different boundary conditions and in situ (in field) at different stages of construction. In laboratory the change in modal parameters was studied with free-free boundary conditions and simply supported on two sides. Three different simply supported tests with changes in boundary conditions were carried out; the floor placed on the support without any fastening or interlayer between support and floor, the floor screwed to the supports and the floor placed on an elastic interlayer between support and floor. The in situ tests were carried out first on the single floor element and then on the entire floor of the room into which the floor element was built in. The damping ratio of the floor increased from 1% to 3% when simply supported in laboratory to approximately 5% when placed upon a polyurethane interlayer (Sylodyn®) in situ, and to approximately 6% when fully integrated in the building. Thus the in situconditions have considerable influence on the damping and the values assessed are very high in comparison with damping values suggested in design codes. Regarding natural frequencies it was concluded that the major change in these occur as the floor element is coupled to the adjacent elements and when partitions are built in the studied room, the largest effect is on those modes of vibration that are largely constrained in their movement.

  • 35.
    Johansson, Dennis
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Persson, Fredrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Hägg, Linus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Hedberg, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Rekommendationer för reducerad fläkthastighet vid virkestorkning II Slutrapport2012Report (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Johansson, Erik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berglund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Skog, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Comparing predictability of board strength between computed tomography, discrete X-ray, and 3D scanning of Norway spruce logs2016In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 116-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strength graded boards of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) are important products for many Scandinavian sawmills. If the bending strength of the produced boards can be predicted before sawing the logs, the raw material can be used more efficiently. In previous studies it is shown that the bending strength can be predicted to some extent using discrete X-ray scanning of logs. In this study, we have evaluated if it is possible to predict bending strength of Norway spruce boards with higher accuracy using computed tomography (CT) scanning of logs compared to a combination of discrete X-ray and 3D scanning. The method was to construct multivariate models of bending strength for three different board dimensions. Our results showed that CT scanning of logs produces better models of bending strength compared to a combination of discrete X-ray and 3D scanning. The main reason for this difference was the benefit of knowing the position of where the boards were cut from the logs and therefore detailed knot information could be used in the prediction models. Due to the small number of observations in this study, care should be taken when comparing the resulting prediction models to results from other studies.

  • 37.
    Jonasson, Hans G.
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Ljud och vibration.
    Storeheier, Svein
    SINTEF.
    Nord 2000. New Nordic prediction method for rail traffic noise2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new Nordic method to predict rail traffic noise is proposed. It is based on a complete

    separation of source emission and sound propagation. Each train is modelled as a number

    of point sources each with a certain sound power with or without directivity. The source

    model is connected to point source sound propagation theory to yield the sound pressure

    level in an arbitrary receiver position. The propagation model is based on accurate

    analytical models and it is capable of predicting propagation effects both with and

    without the influence of meteorological parameters. In this first version the prediction

    method has to rely on old data for the noise emission of trains.

  • 38.
    Jones, Dennis
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Biobaserade material och produkter.
    Brischke, Christian
    Kers, Jaan
    Poltimäe, Triinu
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Book of Abstracts of the Joint Technical Workshop of COST Action FP1303 and COST Action FP1404 – Performance Testing and Testing Methodologies of Non-Wood Biobased MaterialsReport (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Improvement of the fire design models of timber frame assemblies in Eurocode 52016In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Wood and Fire Safety 2016, 2016, p. 123-127Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Noren, Joakim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Execution of timber structures and fire safety2016In: WCTE 2016: World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2016, p. 5555-5562Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire safety is one of the six essential performance requirements to consider when building timber structures. Fire safety has to be proven for the whole building process and the end use of the building. On the building site during the execution there might be an increased risk for fire spread because of large amounts of unprotected timber and relatively open structures. Work processes dealing with high temperatures, smoking, vandalism or other reasons can lead to ignition of timber and end up with serious damages. Fire safety on the building site should be handled from the very beginning to the final stage of execution. During the execution the designed solutions have to be checked and followed. This paper gives the background and principles that should be considered in a new Nordic standard for execution of timber structures in terms of fire safety.

  • 41.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Brandstopp i byggnadskonstruktioner: Resultat från SBUF projekt 129932016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bristande brandteknisk funktion hos byggnadstekniska detaljlösningar är ofta en starkt

    bidragande orsak till brandspridning. Flera incidenter de senaste åren visar tydligt att byggsystem

    med hålrum kan ha stor inverkan på brandförloppet och medföra stora egendomsskador i alla

    typer av byggnader. Befintliga rekommendationer om att brandstopp måste installeras i hålrum

    för att hindra att dolda bränder uppstår och sprids mellan brandceller följs tyvärr ofta inte inom

    praktiskt byggande.

    Syftet med projektet är att utveckla en lämplig metodik för att verifiera funktionen hos olika

    typer av brandstopp i byggnader, att dokumentera funktionen hos några typer av brandstopp

    enligt relevant metodik samt att ge underlag för riktlinjer om hur brandstopp ska utformas och

    användas. Resultaten ska även kunna användas för att bedöma befintliga detaljlösningar.

    Arbetet har inriktats främst på brandstopp för hålrum i modulhus. Olika typer av brandstopp för

    sådana hålrum har studerats bland annat genom provningar i modellskala. Befintlig

    provningsteknik har vidareutvecklats och en reviderad metodik har föreslagits.

    Som ett första resultat för praktisk användning har riktlinjer tagits fram för hur brandstopp ska

    utformas och användas i modulkonstruktioner. De främsta målgrupperna är bygg- och

    byggmaterialindustrin samt brandkonsulter

  • 42.
    Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Neisari Tabrizi, Azar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö.
    Nordén, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö.
    Energiuppföljning Limnologen och Portvakten2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetets syfte är att följa upp energianvändningen i Portvakten och Limnologen samt jämföra utfallet mot tidigare uppföljningar och projekterat värde. Resultaten används för att utreda anledningen till eventuella skillnader samt ge rekommendationer för framtida projekteringar av liknande byggsystem.

  • 43.
    Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö.
    Noren, Joakim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    During, Otto
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Energi och klimateffektiva byggsystem: Miljövärdering av olika stomalternativ2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the collaborative forum Positive footprint housing® Riksbyggen is building the Viva residential quarter, which is a sustainability project at the very forefront of what is possible with contemporary construction. The idea is that this residential quarter should be fully sustainable in ecological, economic and social terms. Since 2013, a number of pilot studies have been completed under the auspices of the Viva project framework thanks to financing from the Swedish Energy Agency.

    The various building frame alternatives that have been evaluated are precast concrete, cast in-situ concrete and solid wood, all proposed by leading commercial suppliers. The report includes a specific requirement for equivalent functions during the use phase of the building, B. An interpretation has been provided that investigates the building engineering aspects in detail, as well as an account of the results based on the social community requirements specified in Viva, durability, fire, noise and energy consumption in the Swedish National Board of Building, Planning and Housing building regulations (BBR), plus Riksbyggen’s own requirements, Sweden Green Building Council’s Environmental Building Gold (Miljöbyggnad Guld) and 100-year life cycle. Given that the alternatives have different long-term characteristics (and also that our knowledge of these characteristics itself varies), these functional requirements have been addressed by setting up different scenarios in accordance with the EPD standard EN 15978.

    Because Riksbyggen has specified a requirement for a 100-year life cycle, we have also opted for an analysis period of 100 years.

    The results show no significant differences between concrete and timber structures for the same functions during the life cycle, either for climate or for primary energy. The minor differences reported are accordingly less than the degree of uncertainty involved in the study.

    The available documentation on the composition of the relevant intumescent paint coating on solid wood frames differs from source to source, so it was not possible to fully allow for the significance of this.

    The LCA has not included functional changes in the building linked to load-bearing characteristics, noise, moisture, health or other problems that may result in increased maintenance and replacement. The concrete houses have been dimensioned for 100 years, for instance, in accordance with tried and tested standards and experience. The solid wood house is not dimensioned in the same way, and this has led to us having to assume various scenarios.

    The results also show the following:

     

    • The uncertainties involved in comparing different structures and alternative solutions are very significant. The results are affected by factors such as life cycle, the functional requirements taken into consideration, transportation, design and structural details, etc.

     

    • Variations in the built items and a considerable degree of uncertainty in the assumptions make it difficult to obtain significant results on comparisons. Only actual construction projects with known specific data, declared from a life cycle perspective that takes into account actual building developer

    requirements and involving different scenarios (best, documented and worst-case) for the user stage can currently be compared.

     

    • In the other hand, comparisons restricted to different concrete structures only, or to different timber structures only, ought to involve a lower degree of uncertainty, These would then provide results that are significant as well as improvement requirements that are relevant.

     

    • There is potential for improving concrete by imposing requirements on the material

     

    • There is potential for improving solid wood frames by developing and guaranteeing well-documented long-term characteristics for all functional requirements.

     

    The LCAs were performed as an iterative process where all parties were given the opportunity to submit their viewpoints and suggestions for changes during the course of the work. This helped ensure that all alternatives have been properly thought through.

    Because, during the project, Riksbyggen opted to procure a concrete frame, in the final stage the researchers involved focused on ensuring the procurement process would result in the concrete frame as built meeting the requirements set out above. As things currently stand, the material requirements for the concrete are limited by the production options open to the suppliers, and this is therefore being investigated in the manufacture of precast concrete frames for the Viva cooperative housing association.

     

  • 44.
    Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    During, Otto
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Energy and climate-efficient construction systems: Environmental assessment of various frame options for buildings in Brf. Viva2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the collaborative forum Positive footprint housing® Riksbyggen is building the Viva residential quarter, which is a sustainability project at the very forefront of what is possible with contemporary construction. The idea is that this residential quarter should be fully sustainable in ecological, economic and social terms. Since 2013, a number of pilot studies have been completed under the auspices of the Viva project framework thanks to financing from the Swedish Energy Agency. The various building frame alternatives that have been evaluated are precast concrete, cast in-situ concrete and solid wood, all proposed by leading commercial suppliers. The report includes a specific requirement for equivalent functions during the use phase of the building, B. An interpretation has been provided that investigates the building engineering aspects in detail, as well as an account of the results based on the social community requirements specified in Viva, durability, fire, noise and energy consumption in the Swedish National Board of Building, Planning and Housing building regulations (BBR), plus Riksbyggen’s own requirements, Sweden Green Building Council’s Environmental Building Gold (Miljöbyggnad Guld) and 100-year life cycle. Given that the alternatives have different long-term characteristics (and also that our knowledge of these characteristics itself varies), these functional requirements have been addressed by setting up different scenarios in accordance with the EPD standard EN 15978. Because Riksbyggen has specified a requirement for a 100-year life cycle, we have also opted for an analysis period of 100 years. The results show no significant differences between concrete and timber structures for the same functions during the life cycle, either for climate or for primary energy. The minor differences reported are accordingly less than the degree of uncertainty involved in the study. The available documentation on the composition of the relevant intumescent paint coating on solid wood frames differs from source to source, so it was not possible to fully allow for the significance of this. The LCA has not included functional changes in the building linked to load-bearing characteristics, noise, moisture, health or other problems that may result in increased maintenance and replacement. The concrete houses have been dimensioned for 100 years, for instance, in accordance with tried and tested standards and experience. The solid wood house is not dimensioned in the same way, and this has led to us having to assume various scenarios.

    The results also show the following:

    • The uncertainties involved in comparing different structures and alternative solutions are very significant. The results are affected by factors such as life cycle, the functional requirements taken into consideration, transportation, design and structural details, etc.

    • Variations in the built items and a considerable degree of uncertainty in the assumptions make it difficult to obtain significant results on comparisons. Only actual construction projects with known specific data, declared from a life cycle perspective that takes into account actual building developer requirements and involving different scenarios (best, documented and worst-case) for the user stage can currently be compared.

    • In the other hand, comparisons restricted to different concrete structures only, or to different timber structures only, ought to involve a lower degree of uncertainty. These would then provide results that are significant as well as improvement requirements that are relevant.

    • There is potential for improving concrete by imposing requirements on the material

    • There is potential for improving solid wood frames by developing and guaranteeing well-documented long-term characteristics for all functional requirements.

    The LCAs were performed as an iterative process where all parties were given the opportunity to submit their viewpoints and suggestions for changes during the course of the work. This helped ensure that all alternatives have been properly thought through.

    Because, during the project, Riksbyggen opted to procure a concrete frame, in the final stage the researchers involved focused on ensuring the procurement process would result in the concrete frame as built meeting the requirements set out above. As things currently stand, the material requirements for the concrete are limited by the production options open to the suppliers, and this is therefore being investigated in the manufacture of precast concrete frames for the Viva cooperative housing association.

  • 45.
    Källbom, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Rautkari, Lauri
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Wålinder, Magnus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Leena-Sisko
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Campbell, Joseph
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jones, Dennis
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Laine, Kristiina
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Water vapour sorption characteristics and surface chemical composition of thermally modified spruce2016In: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 116-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this work was to study the hygroscopicity and surface chemical composition of thermally modified (TM) spruce. An effort was also made to study if those features were influenced by a previous exposure to a significant increase in relative humidity (RH). TM and unmodified Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst) samples, both in solid and ground form, were prepared. Water vapour sorption characteristics of the ground samples were obtained by measuring sorption isotherms using a dynamic vapour sorption (DVS). The surface chemical composition of the solid samples, both acetone extracted and non-extracted, were analysed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The DVS analysis indicated that the TM wood exposed to the 75% RH revealed a decrease in isotherm hysteresis. The XPS analysis indicated a decrease of acetone extractable or volatile organic components and a relative increase of non-extractable components for the samples exposed to the increased RH condition.

  • 46.
    Källbom, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wålinder, Magnus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jones, Dennis
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Surface energy characterization of thermally modified spruce using inverse gas chromatography under cyclic humidity conditions2015In: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 410-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface energy of unmodified and thermally modified spruce wood components was researched at dry and moist conditions using inverse gas chromatography. The results indicate a more pronounced heterogeneous nature of the thermally modified wood surfaces in terms of the dispersive (nonpolar) component of the surface energy, compared with that of the unmodified wood surfaces. The dispersive component of the surface energy of the thermally modified wood ranged between 44 and 38 mJ/m2 corresponding to an increase in surface coverage from a low level and up to about 10%. Suggested explanations for the more distinct heterogeneity of the thermally modified wood sample arerelated to chemical changes of the wood substance which seem to result in certain micromorphological features observed by scanning electron microscopy as alternated fracture surfaces created in the grinding process; and also possible changes or redistribution of the wood extractives. An increase of the MC, representing a change from a dry condition of approximately 0% RH to ca 75% RH, of both the unmodified and thermally modified samples seemed to have a marginal influence on the dispersive component of the surface energy. Possible implications of the results in this study can be found in the tailoring of new compatible and durable material combinations, for example, when using thermally modified wood residuals as a component in new types of biocomposites.

  • 47. König, Jürgen
    et al.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Forsén, Nils E
    Wood construction behavior in natural/parametric fires2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Laine, Kristiina
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Wålinder, Magnus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Rautkari, Lauri
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Ormondroyd, Graham
    Bangor University, UK.
    Hughes, Mark
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Jones, Dennis
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Micromorphological studies of surface densified wood2014In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 2027-2034Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood was surface densified in its radial direction in an open press with one heated plate to obtain a higher density on the wood surface whilst retaining the overall thickness of the sample. This study investigated the effect of temperature (100, 150 and 200 °C) and press closing speed (5, 10 and 30 mm/min, giving closing times of 60, 30 and 10 s, respectively) on the micromorphology of the cell-wall, as well as changes occurring during set-recovery of the densified wood. The micromorphology was analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with a sample preparation technique based on ultraviolet-excimer laser ablation. Furthermore, the density profiles of the samples were measured. Low press temperature (100 °C) and short closing time (10 s) resulted in more deformation through the whole thickness, whilst increasing the temperature (150 and 200 °C) and prolonging the closing time (30 and 60 s) enabled more targeted deformation closer to the heated plate. The deformation occurred in the earlywood regions as curling and twisting of the radial cell-walls, however, no apparent cell-wall disruption or internal fracture was observed, even at low temperatures and fast press closing speed, nor after soaking and drying of the samples. In the SEM-analysis after soaking and drying, it was noticed that the cells did not completely recover their original form. Thus, part of the deformation was considered permanent perhaps due to viscoelastic flow and plastic deformation of the cell-wall components.

  • 49. Lange, David
    et al.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Albrektsson, Joakim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    The reduced cross section method applied to glulam timber exposed to non-standard fire curves2015In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 1311-1340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Timber is an desired material for structural applications due to its green credentials and attractive external appearance. Fire safety design of timber structures is largely limited to considering the exposure of elements to the standard fire, to which timber demonstrates exceptional resilience. This paper reports on a series of tests which were carried out with the intention of exploring the impact of non-standard fires on timber elements. Because of the natural variation in timber elements, the tests and the resulting analysis of the test results were conceived and designed in such a way that as much information about the statistical distribution of the response of the elements as possible could be obtained. The resulting testing programme comprised four furnace fire tests, each of eight loaded timber beams, with three different temperature time curves: two standard fire tests, one long-cool parametric fire and one short-hot parametric fire. The reduced cross section method for structural calculations is extended in this paper to parametric fire exposures, and the results of the tests are compared with this method. It is shown that the thickness of the zero-strength layer is dependent on the temperature time curve to which the timber is exposed in the furnace and that the 7 mm zero-strength layer prescribed in EN 1995-1-2 may be un-conservative for members in bending. For the cases studied, the zero-strength layer thickness in bending is shown to be around about 15 mm under standard fire exposure and 16 mm under exposure to a long cool parametric fire. Conversely, the zero-strength layer is only 8 mm deep under exposure to a short hot parametric fire. This has implications for the design of timber elements not only for parametric fire exposure in enclosures, but also perhaps for the use of timber elements in large open structures such as halls or arenas where more localised fire exposure or travelling fire exposure may be expected.

  • 50.
    Larsson, Krister
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Ljud och vibration.
    Updated road traffic noise emission models in Sweden2016In: Proceedings of the INTER-NOISE 2016 - 45th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Towards a Quieter Future, 2016, p. 1329-1340Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic prediction model from 1996 is still used for road traffic noise predictions and noise mapping purposes in many cases in Sweden. The model is restricted to A-weighted levels and the vehicle categories only take light and heavy vehicles into account. Weather conditions and ground effects are simplified. The subsequent Nord2000Road model can be used for noise predictions in more complex situations. Nord2000Road uses third octave bands, an advanced outdoor propagation model and more categories for vehicles and ground. Recently the CNOSSOS-EU model has been developed in Europe and can be used for noise mapping purposes according to the European Noise Directive in the future. CNOSSOS-EU uses octave bands and similar vehicle categories as Nord2000Road. The source model as well as the propagation model differs from Nord2000Road. In 2015, a measurement campaign of noise emission in real traffic was conducted in Sweden. This paper presents updated input data for the Nord2000Road source model as well as national Swedish correction terms for rolling noise in the CNOSSOS-EU model to better represent the recent measurement results.

123 1 - 50 of 132
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
v. 2.35.8