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  • 1.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Isaksson, Sven
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Lövenklev, Maria
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Microbiology.
    A comparative study of infrared and microwave heating for microbial decontamination of paprika powder2015In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 6, article id 1071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently a need in developing new decontamination technologies for spices due to limitations of existing technologies, mainly regarding their effects on spices’ sensory quality. In the search of new decontamination solutions, it is of interest to compare different technologies, to provide the industry with knowledge for taking decisions concerning appropriate decontamination technologies for spices. The present study compares infrared (IR) and microwave decontamination of naturally contaminated paprika powder after adjustment of water activity to 0.88. IR respectively microwave heating was applied to quickly heat up paprika powder to 98°C, after which the paprika sample was transferred to a conventional oven set at 98°C to keep the temperature constant during a holding time up to 20 min. In the present experimental set-up microwave treatment at 98°C for 20 min resulted in a reduction of 4.8 log units of the total number of mesophilic bacteria, while the IR treatment showed a 1 log unit lower reduction for the corresponding temperature and treatment time. Microwave and IR heating created different temperature profiles and moisture distribution within the paprika sample during the heating up part of the process, which is likely to have influenced the decontamination efficiency. The results of this study are used to discuss the difficulties in comparing two thermal technologies on equal conditions due to differences in their heating mechanisms

  • 2.
    Erdogdu, S. Belgin
    et al.
    University of Mersin, Turkey.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Erdogdu, Ferruh
    Ankara University, Turkey.
    Isaksson, Sven
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Experimental determination of penetration depths of various spice commodities (black pepper seeds, paprika powder and oregano leaves) under infrared radiation2015In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 161, p. 75-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During infrared processing, transmitted energy is attenuated exponentially with penetration distance, and its intensity is gradually lost while passing through absorbing or scattering media. Penetration depth is a complex function of chemical composition of a food product, its physico-chemical state and physical properties and wavelength spectrum of energy source. Knowing penetration depth leads to better designing commercial sterilization processes for food products like spices. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine penetration depth of various spices (paprika powder, black pepper and oregano) as a function of water activity under infrared processing conditions. For this purpose, spice samples were prepared at various water activity (aw) levels, and heat flux measurements were carried out to determine the penetration depth. Penetration depth was determined to increase with increasing aw for black pepper seeds and paprika powder while there was no significant change for oregano leaves as a function of aw. Knowing penetration depth is important to design an effective infra-red processing system and an important issue for surface pasteurization processes since infrared radiation effects on microbial inactivation decrease with sample thickness

  • 3.
    Guiamba, Isabel R. F.
    et al.
    Eduardo Mondlane University, Moçambique; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanberg, Ulf
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of Infrared Blanching on Enzyme Activity and Retention of β-Carotene and Vitamin C in Dried Mango2015In: Journal of Food Science, ISSN 0022-1147, E-ISSN 1750-3841, Vol. 80, no 6, p. E1235-E1242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate infrared (IR) dry blanching in comparison with conventional water blanching prior to hot air drying of mango to inactivate polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) enzymes, and to study its effect on color change and retention of vitamin C and β‐carotene. Mango cylinders were blanched under similar temperature–time conditions either by IR heating or by immersion in a water bath during 2 min at 90 °C (high‐temperature‐short‐time—HTST) or for 10 min at 65 °C (low‐temperature‐long‐time—LTLT). After blanching mango was hot air dried at 70 °C. PPO was completely inactivated during the blanching treatments, but AAO had a moderate remaining activity after LTLT treatment (∼30%) and a low remaining activity after HTST treatment (9% to 15%). A higher retention of vitamin C was observed in mango subjected to IR dry blanching, 88.3 ± 1.0% (HTST) and 69.2 ± 2.9% (LTLT), compared with water blanching, 61.4 ± 5.3% (HTST) and 50.7 ± 9.6% (LTLT). All‐trans‐β‐carotene retention was significantly higher in water blanched dried mango, 93.2 ± 5.2% (LTLT) and 91.4 ± 5.1% (HTST), compared with IR dry blanched, 73.6 ± 3.6% (LTLT) and 76.9 ± 2.9% (HTST). Increased levels of 13‐cis‐β‐carotene isomer were detected only in IR dry blanched mango, and the corresponding dried mango also had a slightly darker color. IR blanching of mango prior to drying can improve the retention of vitamin C, but not the retention of carotenoids, which showed to be more dependent on the temperature than the blanching process. A reduction of drying time was observed in LTLT IR‐blanching mango.

  • 4.
    Kerbstadt, Sebastian
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing. University of Applied Science, Germany.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Mustafa, Arwa
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing. NutraGreen – Research & Technical Solutions, Sweden.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Effect of novel drying techniques on the extraction of anthocyanins from bilberry press cake using supercritical carbon dioxide2015In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 29, p. 209-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of novel drying techniques on the total anthocyanin content of extracts from bilberry press cake using supercritical carbon dioxide with ethanol as co-solvent. Prior to extraction, bilberry press cake was dried at 40 °C and 70 °C to moisture contents of 6% and 20% (w/w) by infrared drying, infrared impingement drying, and microwave-assisted hot-air drying and compared to freeze drying. The total anthocyanin content of extracts varied in the range of 13.67 ± 0.25 mg/g dry weight to 43.66 ± 0.79 mg/g dry weight, dependent on the choice of drying technique, temperature, and moisture content. Bilberry press cake treated with infrared impingement drying at 70 °C to 20% (w/w) moisture content resulted in the highest total anthocyanin content of extracts. The findings of this study show the importance in combining supercritical carbon dioxide extraction with an appropriate drying technique.

    Industrial relevance

    Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction is a green technology that offers mild extraction conditions for sensitive compounds. Drying prior to the extraction is usually necessary and may limit the extraction efficiency by degrading sensitive compounds or influencing the matrix and thereby the release of solute in the subsequent extraction step. More knowledge about the effect of different drying techniques on the extraction efficiency is of industrial interest to optimize both the yield and quality of extracts.

  • 5.
    Malafronte, Loredana
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Kaunisto, Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Innings, Fredrik
    Tetra Pak Processing Systems, Sweden.
    Rasmuson, Anders
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Estimation of the effective diffusion coefficient of water in skim milk during single-drop drying2015In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 147, p. 111-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new approach combining experimental methodology and modelling, developed to evaluate the effective diffusivity of water in skim milk during drying over a full range of water contents and temperatures. This parameter is important to support modelling of spray-drying processes and designing of equipment. The effective diffusion coefficient is evaluated using a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and parameter estimation. NMR is used to determine the temperature dependence and parameter estimation is used to estimate the water concentration dependence of the effective diffusivity of water in skim milk (0.90 on total weight basis) during drying by comparing the experimental data obtained using a suspended-drop method, which allows the recording of weight and temperature changes during drying, with the results of a distributed heat and mass transport model. The results indicate that the free-volume theory best predicts the dependence of the effective diffusion coefficient of water in skim milk. A mathematical correlation of effective diffusivity over a full range of water contents and temperatures (from 50 to 90°C) was obtained and experimentally successfully validated for concentrated skim milk (0.70 on total weight basis).

  • 6.
    Malafronte, Loredana
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Robertiello, V.
    University of Salerno, Italy.
    Innings, Fredrik
    Tetra Pak Processing Systems, Sweden.
    Rasmuson, Anders
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Coalescence and agglomeration of individual particles of skim milk during convective drying2016In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 175, p. 15-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a methodology, which combines experiments and modelling, for investigating the coalescence and agglomeration ability of a product and to support the modelling of product properties during spray drying. Two particles were dried simultaneously and contact tests were performed along the drying time. A validated mathematical model describing the drying kinetics of milk particles was used to predict surface conditions during contact tests. Three major mechanisms were observed, coalescence, stickiness, and non-stickiness, which were related to adhesion and cohesion forces. The simulation model allowed evaluation of the surface Ohnesorge dimensionless number and surface glass transition temperature, which showed to be good parameters for predicting contact mechanisms. The model was also used to predict shell formation in drying particles. Wet and dry shell formation was simulated over the drying time, to improve understanding of observed contact behaviour.

  • 7.
    Malafronte, Loredana
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Schuster, Erich
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Innings, Fredrik
    Tetra Pak Processing Systems, Sweden.
    Rasmuson, Anders
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Exploring drying kinetics and morphology of commercial dairy powders2015In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 158, p. 58-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the effect of the initial composition of a liquid feed on the spray drying process and morphology of powders is important in order to reduce the time and costs for process design, and ensure the desired properties of the final product. In this work, seven commercial dairy products with different fat content were selected. The effect of initial composition on drying time during single drop experiments was studied. The morphology of powder particles and the influence of morphology changes on the drying rate were investigated in order to assess the effect of fat content on the effective diffusivity of water in dairy products. Results show that fat content influences drying time and morphology of powder particles. The higher the fat content the longer the drying time and particles appear to be less shrivelled. Changes in morphology and the drying rate seem to be related. Two falling drying periods were observed for most of the products. During the first period the drops shrink spherically, while during the second period shrivelling occurs. The effective diffusivity of water shows that high fat contents lead to a lower diffusivity of water in the products.

  • 8.
    Raaholt, Birgitta
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Applications of microwave heating of foods2015Report (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Shenoy, Pooja
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing. University College Cork, Ireland.
    Innings, Fredrik
    Tetra Pak Processing Systems, Sweden.
    Tammel, Kristel
    Santa Maria AB, Sweden.
    Fitzpatrick, John
    University College Cork, Ireland.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Evaluation of a digital colour imaging system for assessing the mixture quality of spice powder mixes by comparison with a salt conductivity method2015In: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 286, p. 48-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixture quality or homogeneity analysis is a crucial step in powder industries to evaluate if the final product meets the requisite standards and therefore industries prefer a method that is reliable and easy to use. In this study the mixture quality of food powder mixtures that differ in mixability and number of components is studied by using digital colour imaging method (DCI) and comparing it with a salt conductivity method. Two binary food and two quaternary food powder mixtures with different coloured particles were studied. Salt was one of the key ingredients commonly used in all the mixtures. Samples were taken at specific times during mixing. The digital colour imaging method was used to measure colour of each sample and salt conductivity analysis measured the corresponding concentration of salt in each sample. Coefficient of variation (CoV) was used to determine the homogeneity of the mixture. Results showed that both methods gave similar results for the well mixing paprika-salt mixture however the DCI method did not work for the oregano-salt mixture which was highly segregating in nature. When the colour difference between the powders was high the DCI method showed a good trend with the salt concentration method. When quaternary mixture consisting of similar coloured particles and segregating particles was used this trend was weaker as compared to the mixture that consisted of cohesive powders that mixed well with each other although they had some particles that were similarly coloured. Overall it showed that DCI method has potential for use by industries that can analyse powder mixtures with components that have differences in colour and that are not strongly segregating in nature

  • 10.
    Shenoy, Pooja
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing. University College Cork, Ireland.
    Viau, Maxime
    Tetra Pak Guerin Systems, France.
    Tammel, Kristel
    Santa Maria AB.
    Innings, Fredrik
    Tetra Pak Processing Systems, Sweden.
    Fitzpatrick, John
    University College Cork, Ireland.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Effect of powder densities, particle size and shape on mixture quality of binary food powder mixtures2015In: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 272, p. 165-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Particle size and density are two important parameters which affect the mixture homogeneity of powder mixtures. In this study several types of food powders with different particle sizes and poured bulk densities were chosen for the binary powder mixing trials. In each type of binary mixture salt was one of the main ingredients, hence conductivity analysis was performed on the mixtures and coefficient of variation was used to evaluate the mixture homogeneity. All binary powders were mixed at a ratio of 50:50 by weight in a 2. L prototype lab-scale paddle mixer. The experiments were conducted in such a way that the ingredients used either had a similar particle size and different bulk density or similar bulk density and different particle size. Different density and size ratios were investigated to observe the limit up to which good mixing takes place. Density differences between the binary powders were varied from 1.5 up to 16.4. The range of size ratio investigated was from 1.96 up to 15.73. Results indicate that powders mixed very well up to a particle size ratio of 4.45. For higher ratios mixture quality disimproved but no segregation was visually observed. The bulk density had a larger influence in affecting the mixture quality (MQ) as compared to particle size. At higher bulk density ratios almost complete segregation was observed and this was majorly influenced by the irregular shapes of thyme and oregano.

  • 11.
    Shenoy, Pooja
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing. University College Cork, Ireland.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Innings, Fredrik
    Tetra Pak Processing Systems, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Caroline
    Santa Maria AB, Sweden.
    Fitzpatrick, John
    University College Cork, Ireland.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Dry mixing of food powders: Effect of water content and composition on mixture quality of binary mixtures2015In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 149, p. 229-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work studied the effect of composition of powders and water content on mixture quality (MQ) of three binary powder mixtures with good (salt/paprika or salt/sugar) or poor mixing (salt/oregano) behaviour. The mixing behaviour was assessed using coefficient of variation. Results showed that mixture composition did not influence the MQ of sugar/salt and paprika/salt within 20-80% salt content range but it did influence the MQ of oregano/salt with a progressive dis-improvement in MQ with higher oregano content and also for low concentrations of 1% salt. Water content did have an effect on mixing behaviour. When paprika with high water activity (aw) was mixed with salt, the time required to reach good MQ was longer because of the increased cohesiveness and when oregano with high aw was mixed with salt it displayed improved MQ because salt particles were able to stick onto the larger oregano particles and reduced segregation.

  • 12.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    van Ommen, J. Ruud
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Flowability characterization of nanopowders2015In: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 286, p. 156-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The applications of nanopowders are increasing significantly over the last years. In most of these applications, the flow behavior of the nanopowders seems to be a complicated, multiparametric but critical issue for the proper design of the processes. We have investigated, classified and compared several different metal oxide nanoparticles with respect to their flow properties. The flow properties of titania, silica and alumina hydrophilic nanopowders as well as their corresponding hydrophobic counterparts were determined by means of an annular shear cell powder flow tester (PFT). All the tested powders showed difficulties in flow while the titania nanopowders showed the highest difficulty among them. The results acquired regarding the compressibility, the flow functions and the effective angle of internal friction revealed that in all the cases the hydrophobic nanopowder seemed to be more cohesive than its hydrophilic counterpart. Moreover, the nanoparticles, no matter their polarity, showed negligible hygroscopicity while in the case of the alumina nanopowders the flow properties can be significantly influenced by ca. 1% (w/w) of moisture content.

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