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  • 1.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ekman, Anna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment. Lund University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Hanna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Systemanalys.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Janssen, Matty
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Strid, Ingrid
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Review of methodological choices in LCA of biorefinery systems - key issues and recommendations2015In: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, ISSN 1932-104X, E-ISSN 1932-1031, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 606-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current trend in biomass conversion technologies is toward more efficient utilization of biomass feedstock in multiproduct biorefineries. Many life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies of biorefinery systems have been performed but differ in how they use the LCA methodology. Based on a review of existing LCA standards and guidelines, this paper provides recommendations on how to handle key methodological issues when performing LCA studies of biorefinery systems. Six key issues were identified: (i) goal definition, (ii) functional unit, (iii) allocation of biorefinery outputs, (iv) allocation of biomass feedstock, (v) land use, and (vi) biogenic carbon and timing of emissions. Many of the standards and guidelines reviewed here provide only general methodological recommendations. Some make more specific methodological recommendations, but these often differ between standards. In this paper we present some clarifications (e.g. examples of research questions and suitable functional units) and methodological recommendations (e.g. on allocation).

  • 2.
    Almeida, Cheila
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Altintzoglou, Themistoklis
    Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, Norway.
    Cabral, Henrique
    University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Vaz, Sofia Guedes
    University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Does seafood knowledge relate to more sustainable consumption?2015In: British Food Journal, ISSN 0007-070X, E-ISSN 1758-4108, Vol. 117, no 2, p. 894-914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Portugal is a country with one of the highest seafood consumption per capita in the world. The purpose of this paper is to understand the Portuguese knowledge and attitudes towards seafood and relate it to consumers’ environmental conscious. Design/methodology/approach – Using an internet-based survey the authors investigated the relation of socio-demographic variables to consumption frequency and how knowledge about seafood is associated with interest in different information when purchasing seafood products. Findings – Results demonstrate consumption of a high diversity of species. Tuna and cod are the top species related to convenience and food traditions. There is a preference to consume seafood mostly at home and prepared grilled. Differences between higher and lower knowledgeable consumers’ related to seafood, show that the first ones have a more diversified use of species and high prevalence of small pelagic fish. Research limitations/implications – The findings are influenced by the sample obtained, which overrepresents well-educated and higher income people. Moreover the self-reported consumption can be biased by individuals own perceptions and different seafood products. Better estimations of consumption frequency could result from asking more detailed information, as such as by species or meal occasions. Practical implications – Portuguese consumers have high knowledge about seafood but it is not necessarily related to sustainable choices. To help in sustainable seafood choices it might be more effective to promote existing habits based on Portuguese traditions that still are good alternatives for the marine environment. Originality/value – A higher consumer’s knowledge does not necessarily mean more sustainability

  • 3.
    Almeida, Cheila
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. University of Lisbon, Portugal; New University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Karadzic, Vanja
    New University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Vaz, Sofia
    New University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    The seafood market in Portugal: Driving forces and consequences2015In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 61, p. 87-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Portugal has the third highest seafood consumption per capita in the world and current patterns of seafood consumption are linked to how seafood products were embodied in the Portuguese society. The objective of this research is to understand Portuguese seafood consumption's main drivers and its consequences. For that official statistics were analyzed and a literature review on seafood consumption was undertaken. Portuguese seafood consumption is characterized by a wide diversity of species and preparing modes, when compared to other countries in Europe. Cod (salted and dried), does not exist in Portuguese waters but due to several factors, such as politics, religion and tradition, became the main species in Portuguese seafood consumption, representing around 38% of the national seafood demand. Five drivers are suggested to explain why Portuguese eat so much seafood: geography, marine resources, fisheries, social forces and politics; and consequences for the environment, economy and health are discussed. Hence while most dietary recommendations advise an increase in fish consumption is not applicable to Portugal and a more sustainable seafood consumption for the future is advocated.

  • 4.
    Almeida, Cheila
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment. New University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Vaz, Sofia Guedes
    Portuguese Government, Portugal.
    Sevilla Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of a Canned Sardine Product from Portugal2015In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 607-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to assess the environmental impacts of canned sardines in olive oil, by considering fishing, processing, and packaging, using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The case study concerns a product of a canning factory based in Portugal and packed in aluminum cans. It is the first LCA of a processed seafood product made with the traditional canning method. The production of both cans and olive oil are the most important process in the considered impact categories. The production of olives contributes to the high environmental load of olive oil, related to cultivation and harvesting phases. The production of aluminum cans is the most significant process for all impact categories, except ozone depletion potential and eutrophication potential, resulting from the high energy demand and the extraction of raw materials. To compare to other sardine products consumed in Portugal, such as frozen and fresh sardines, transport to the wholesaler and store was added. The environmental cost of canned sardines is almost seven times higher per kilogram of edible product. The main action to optimize the environmental performance of canned sardines is therefore to replace the packaging and diminish the olive oil losses as much as possible. Greenhouse gas emissions are reduced by half when plastic packaging is considered rather than aluminum. Frozen and fresh sardines represent much lower environmental impacts than canned sardines. Nevertheless, when other sardine products are not possible, it becomes feasible to use sardines for human consumption, preventing them from being wasted or used suboptimally as feed.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Helene
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Häbel, Henrike
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Olsson, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandhagen, Sofie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    von Corswant, Christian
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Hjärtstam, Johan
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Persson, Michael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; AkzoNobel, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anette
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    The influence of the molecular weight of the water-soluble polymer on phase-separated films for controlled release2016In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 511, no 1, p. 223-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and ethyl cellulose (EC) can be used for extended release coatings, where the water-soluble HPC may act as a pore former. The aim was to investigate the effect of the molecular weight of HPC on the microstructure and mass transport in phase-separated freestanding EC/HPC films with 30% w/w HPC. Four different HPC grades were used, with weight averaged molecular weights (Mw) of 30.0 (SSL), 55.0 (SL), 83.5 (L) and 365 (M) kg/mol. Results showed that the phase-separated structure changed from HPC-discontinuous to bicontinuous with increasing Mw of HPC. The film with the lowest Mw HPC (SSL) had unconnected oval-shaped HPC-rich domains, leaked almost no HPC and had the lowest water permeability. The remaining higher Mw films had connected complex-shaped pores, which resulted in higher permeabilities. The highest Mw film (M) had the smallest pores and very slow HPC leakage, which led to a slow increase in permeability. Films with grade L and SL released most of their HPC, yet the permeability of the L film was three times higher due to greater pore connectivity. It was concluded that the phase-separated microstructure, the level of pore percolation and the leakage rate of HPC will be affected by the choice of HPC Mw grade used in the film and this will in turn have strong impact on the film permeability.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Malin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Protein enriched foods and healthy ageing: Effects of almond flour, soy flour and whey protein fortification on muffin characteristics2016Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Arinder, Pernilla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Microbiology.
    Matematisk modellering av hur bakterier kontaminerar, överlever och tillväxer i produktionsmiljö vid hantering av livsmedel.2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Two alternatives of computational models to simulate the contamination has been produced in the Mat Lab. The models are based on the transfer of bacteria between the hands, chicken, knife, cutting board, salad, and tap and also reduction of bacteria by washing the cutting board, and growth on cutting board. The input of the transmission, reduction and growth have been adopted on the basis of support from the literature data. In the simpler contamination model the contamination is only calculated in one direction. In the more complex model the transfer of bacteria that occurs from both sides at a touch has been taken into account, ie, if a person touch a cutting board, bacteria is transferred from the hand to the cutting board and also from the cutting board to the hand. Calculations were performed with matrix calculation. The results from the two models differ in the simulations. The more repeated contacts taken with the more bacteria spread from a contaminated hand at the start of the scenario to the final product. Models provide a guide to the factors in the spread of bacteria that are most important.

  • 8.
    Arinder, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Johannessson, Pär
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik.
    Karlsson, Ingela
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Borch, Elisabeth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Transfer and Decontamination of S. aureus in Transmission Routes Regarding Hands and Contact Surfaces2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 6, article id e0156390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hand hygiene, cleaning and disinfection are pre-requirements for hygiene management in hospital settings and the food industry. In order to facilitate risk management, different contamination scenarios and interventions need to be evaluated. In the present study data on transfer rates and reductions of Staphylococcus aureus were provided in an experimental set-up using artificial skin. Using this methodology, test persons were not exposed with pathogenic bacteria. An exposure assessment model was developed and applied to evaluate different contamination routes and hygiene interventions. The transfer rates of Saureus from inoculated VITRO-SKIN® to fomites were calculated from blotting series. The VITRO-SKIN® was more prone to spread bacteria than fomites. When different surfaces were cleaned, the reduction of Saureus varied between <1 and 7 log CFU. It could not be concluded that a certain coupon material, cleaning agent, cleaning wipe, soiling or humidity consistently resulted in a high or low reduction of Saureus. The reduction of Saureus and Ecoli during hand washing was evaluated on artificial skin, VITRO-SKIN®. The reduction of Ecoli on VITRO-SKIN® was similar to the log reduction obtained when washing human hands. The Saureus count on a human hand was both calculated in different scenarios describing different contamination routes starting from a contaminated hand using the exposure assessment model, and measured on an experimental setup using VITRO-SKIN® for validation. A linear relationship was obtained between the analysed level of Saureus and the calculated level. However, the calculated levels of Saureus on the VITRO-SKIN® in the scenarios were 1–1.5 log lower than the analysed level. One of the scenarios was used to study the effect of interventions like hand washing and cleaning of surfaces.

  • 9.
    Arinder, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Microbiology.
    Karlsson, Richard
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Microbiology.
    Mikrobiologiska risker vid odling av kryddor på friland och hantering till färdig produkt2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under primärproduktionen och vidareförädling via torkning av kryddor kan kontamination ske med sjukdomsframkallande mikroorganismer, vilket kan orsaka att personer som konsumerar produkter blir sjuka. Det är inte säkert att vidare behandling av kryddorna såsom värme sker innan konsumtion och därmed sker ingen reduktion av mikroorganismer. Kryddorna kan, om de är råvara i andra produkter och om de är kontaminerade med sjukdomsframkallande mikroorganismer, kontaminera de nya produkterna. För att minska sannolikheten att detta sker måste smittkällor och spridningsvägar kontrolleras och styras i möjligaste mån. Detta innebär att det måste finnas effektiva grundförutsättningar, det vill säga rutiner för hur odling, bevattning, gödsling, skörd, torkning, lagring med mera utförs för att minimera den mikrobiologiska kontamineringen och tillväxten av mikroorganismer på kryddorna. Om man med dessa grundförutsättningar som bas i processen utför en faroanalys och implementerar åtgärder för att styra farorna enligt HACCP-metodiken får man säkra kryddor som inte medför någon fara för slutkonsumenten oavsett användning.

  • 10.
    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    de Hooge, Ilona
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Amani, Pegah
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Bech-Larsen, Tino
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Oostindjer, Marije
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action2015In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 6457-6477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers are one of the biggest sources of food waste. To successfully reduce consumer-related food waste, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the factors influencing food waste-related consumer perceptions and behaviors. The present paper presents the results of a literature review and expert interviews on factors causing consumer-related food waste in households and supply chains. Results show that consumers’ motivation to avoid food waste, their management skills of food provisioning and food handling and their trade-offs between priorities have an extensive influence on their food waste behaviors. We identify actions that governments, societal stakeholders and retailers can undertake to reduce consumer-related food waste, highlighting that synergistic actions between all parties are most promising. Further research should focus on exploring specific food waste contexts and interactions more in-depth. Experiments and interventions in particular can contribute to a shift from analysis to solutions.

  • 11.
    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    de Hooge, Iona
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Flavour.
    Consumer-Related Food Waste: Role of Food Marketing and Retailers and Potential for Action2016In: Journal of International Food & Agribusiness Marketing, ISSN 0897-4438, E-ISSN 1528-6983, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 271-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste has received increasing attention in recent years. As part of their corporate social responsibility strategies, food supply chain actors have started to act towards avoiding and reducing food waste. Based on a literature review, an expert interview study, and example cases, we discuss food marketing and the role and responsibility of retail. Food marketing and retailing contribute to consumer-related food waste via decisions on date labeling, packaging sizes and design elements, and pricing strategies encouraging overpurchase, as well as communication shifting consumer priorities to the disadvantage of food waste avoidance. Potential actions to tackle food waste relate to improved packaging and information, altering pricing strategies, and cooperation with other actors across the supply chain. Three cases highlight the extent to which moral and strategic motives are interlinked and that there are opportunities for competitive advantage through corporate social responsibility and a business case for sustainability in the area of food waste.

  • 12.
    Baky, Andras
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Widerberg, Anna
    Landquist, Birgit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Norberg, Ida
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Engström, Jonas
    Svanäng, Karin
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Cronholm, Lars-Åke
    Pettersson, Ola
    Sveriges primärproduktion och försörjning av livsmedel: möjliga konsekvenser vid en brist på fossil energi2013Report (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Barr, Ulla-Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Minska överproduktionen i storkök: Laga mat till gästen- inte till komposten eller fjärrvärmeverket (SJV projekt - Dnr 19-698/11/ SX20103)2015Report (Refereed)
  • 14. Bengtsson, Kenneth
    et al.
    Kristoffer, Gunnartz
    Bergman, Annika
    Domeij, Åsa
    Eksvärd, Jan
    Larshans, Per
    Lindroth, Erik
    Lindvall, Kerstin
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Throne Holst, Alexander
    Nilsson, Björn O
    Ankarcrona, Carolina
    Ökad hållbarhet i hela livsmedelskedjan, Debattartikel SvD2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Benser, Jasmin
    et al.
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain; University of Bonn, Germany.
    Valtuena, Jara
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    University of Granada, Spain.
    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Breidenassel, Christina
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Vicente-Rodriguez, German
    University of Zaragoza, Spain.
    Ferrari, Marika
    INRAN Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e la Nutrizione, Italy.
    Widhalm, Kurt
    Private Medical University, Austria.
    Manios, Yannis
    Harokopio University, Greece.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Molnar, Denes
    University of Pécs, Hungary.
    Gómez-Martínez, Sonia
    CSIC Spanish National Research Council, Spain.
    Kafatos, Antony
    University of Crete, Greece.
    Palacios, Gonzalo
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain; Carlos III Health Institute, Spain.
    Moreno, Luis A.
    University of Zaragoza, Spain.
    Castillo, Manuel J.
    University of Granada, Spain.
    Stehle, Peter
    University of Bonn, Germany.
    González-Gross, Marcela
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain; University of Bonn, Germany; Carlos III Health Institute, Spain.
    Hall, Gunnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Flavour.
    Broberg, Agneta
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Flavour.
    Åström, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Flavour.
    Impact of physical activity and cardiovascular fitness on total homocysteine concentrations in European adolescents: The HELENA study2015In: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, ISSN 0301-4800, E-ISSN 1881-7742, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 45-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the association of physical activity (PA), cardiovascular fitness (CVF) and fatness with total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in European adolescents. The present study comprised 713 European adolescents aged 14.8±1.2 y (females 55.3%) from the multicenter HELENA cross-sectional study. PA was assessed through accelerometry, CVF by the 20-m shuttle run test, and body fat by skinfold thicknesses with the Slaughter equation. Plasma folate, cobalamin, and tHcy concentrations were measured. To examine the association of tHcy with PA, CVF, and fatness after controlling for a set of confounders including age, maturity, folate, cobalamin, creatinine, smoking, supplement use, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 genotype (CC 47%, CT 43%, TT 10%), bivariate correlations followed by multiple regression models were performed. In the bivariate correlation analysis, tHcy concentrations were slightly negatively correlated (p<0.0 5) with CVF in females (measured both by stages: r=-0.118 and by VO 2 max: r=-0.10 2) and positively with body mass index (r=0.10 0). However, daily time spent with moderate and vigorous PA showed a weak positive association with tHcy in females (p<0.0 5). tHcy concentrations showed a tendency to decrease with increasing CVF and increase with increasing BMI in female European adolescents. However, tHcy concentrations were positively associated with moderate and vigorous PA in female European adolescents.

  • 16.
    Berta, Marco
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Gmoser, Rebecca
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Krona, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of viscoelasticity on foam development in zein-starch dough2015In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 1229-1235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Above the zein glass transition temperature (~40°C), the viscoelasticity of zein-starch dough is similar to that of gluten. This is of interest because this dough might be used to develop gluten-free products, although it has certain limitations such as workability and aging at room temperature. The most effective way to decrease the dough glass transition temperature is to use a plasticizer, which also influences the viscosity. In this study, viscoelastic zein-starch dough samples were prepared with several concentrations of citric acid as the plasticizer, and the effect of viscoelasticity on crumb structure formation during baking was investigated. Extensional viscosity was correlated with the average bubble size after baking. We found that viscosity could be predicted for this system by measuring the shear viscosity, whereby the Trouton ratio was near-constant for the range of plasticizer concentrations investigated. In addition, our dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) revealed that bubble growth occurs mainly when the dough reaches 100°C, due to a combination of steam formation and thermal softening of the matrix. At higher temperatures, hardening occurs due to drying and zein crosslinking.

  • 17.
    Berta, Marco
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Muskens, Erwin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. HAS University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Schuster, Erich
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rheology of natural and imitation mozzarella cheese at conditions relevant to pizza baking2016In: International Dairy Journal, ISSN 0958-6946, E-ISSN 1879-0143, Vol. 57, p. 34-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rheology of mozzarella and imitation cheese was studied at 60 °C, with small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS), shear and extensional flow measurement at low strain rates in the range 0.01-1 s-1. These conditions were chosen to replicate those experienced by the cheese during pizza baking and consumption. The extensional viscosity measurements were carried out by means of hyperbolic contraction flow, an alternative method to traditional extensional measurements. The extensional viscosity measured by hyperbolic contraction flow was related to the cheese elasticity and consequently to its stretchability, a major quality characteristic when this is consumed on pizza pies. The rheology of the two cheese materials could be explained by the structural observations made by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM).

  • 18.
    Berta, Marco
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Martín-Alfonso, J.E.
    Valencia, C.
    Shear and extensional rheology of xanthan and guar gum solutions2015In: IBEREO 2015, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Berta, Marco
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Wiklund, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Kotzé, Reinhardt
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Correlation between in-line measurements of tomato ketchup shear viscosity and extensional viscosity2016In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 173, p. 8-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The viscosity and shear thinning behavior are essential characteristics of tomato ketchup. A real-time monitoring of those characteristics during processing is important to obtain a good quality of the final product and to reduce production waste. This work investigates the measurement of rheological in-line flow properties of tomato ketchup, using a real-time technique that combines ultrasound velocity profiling (UVP) and pressure difference (PD) assessment. In-line data were compared to those obtained off-line using a rotational viscometer. There was a poor correlation with the Bostwick measurement, whereas the flow curves calculated from flow velocimetry data were very similar to those measured off-line. The extensional viscosity of ketchup was determined through the measurement of Hyperbolic Contraction Flow; the curve followed a trend similar to that for the shear viscosity over the deformation rate investigated.

  • 20.
    Cashion, Tim
    et al.
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Skontorp Hognes, Erik
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Review and advancement of the marine biotic resource use metric in seafood LCAs: a case study of Norwegian salmon feed2016In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 1106-1120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Seafood life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have adopted the primary production required (PPR) indicator to account for the impact of these production systems (e.g., capture fisheries or aquaculture) on the ecosystems they harvest wild inputs from. However, there exists a large diversity in the application of methods to calculate PPR, and current practice often does not consider species- and ecosystem-specific factors. Here, we critically examine current practice and propose a refined method for applying the PPR metric in seafood LCAs. Methods: We surveyed seafood LCAs that quantify PPR, or its derivatives, to examine the diversity of practice. We then defined and applied a refined method to a case study of the average Norwegian salmon feed in 2012. This refined method incorporates species-specific fishmeal and oil yields, source ecosystem-specific transfer efficiencies and expresses results as a percentage of total ecosystem production that PPR represents. Results were compared to those using previously applied methods based on the literature review, and the impact of uncertainty and natural variability of key input parameters was also assessed using Monte Carlo simulation. Results and discussion: From the literature review, most studies do not incorporate species-specific fishmeal and oil yields or ecosystem-specific transfer efficiencies when calculating PPR. Our proposed method, which incorporated source species- and ecosystem-specific values for these parameters, provides far greater resolution of PPR than when employing global average values. When alternative methods to calculate PPR were applied to marine inputs to Norwegian salmon feeds, resulting PPR values were similar for some sources of fishmeal and oil. For other species, such as Atlantic herring from ecosystems with low transfer efficiencies, there was a large divergence in resulting PPR values. For combined inputs to Norwegian salmon feeds in 2012, the refined method resulted in a total PPR value that is three times higher than would result using the currently standard method signaling that previous LCA research may have substantially underestimated the marine biotic impacts of fishery products. Conclusions: While there exists a great diversity of practice in the application of the PPR indicator in seafood LCA, the refined method should be adopted for future LCA studies to be more specific to the context of the study.

  • 21.
    Cederberg, Christel
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Landquist, Birgit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Molander, Sverker
    Tidåker, Pernilla
    SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Energiteknik (ET).
    Jordbrukets ekosystemtjänster: från koncept till gårdsbaserade indikatorer2016Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Craig, Marina
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Mölnlycke Health Care, Sweden.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nordstierna, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Krister
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bacteria-triggered degradation of nanofilm shells for release of antimicrobial agents2016In: Journal of materials chemistry. B, ISSN 2050-750X, E-ISSN 2050-7518, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 672-682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to an increase in lifestyle diseases in the developed world, the number of chronic wounds is increasing at a fast pace. Chronic wound infections are common and systemic antibiotics are usually used as a treatment. In this paper we describe an approach to encapsulate antimicrobial agents in hollow microcapsules covered with a nanofilm shell that degrades through the action of a virulence factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The shell was assembled using the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique with poly-l-lysine and hyaluronic acid. The microcapsules were loaded with a model substrate or a drug. By crosslinking the components in the nanofilm, the film remained intact when exposed to human wound proteases. However, the film was degraded and the drug exposed when in contact with Pseudomonas aeruginosa's Lys-X specific protease IV. The antimicrobial efficacy of the drug-loaded microcapsules was confirmed by exposure to virulent Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The current study contributes to the establishment of a release platform for targeted treatment of topical infections with the aim of minimizing both overexposure to drugs and development of bacterial resistance.

  • 23.
    Craig, Marina
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Mölnlycke Health Care, Sweden.
    Schuster, Erich
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Holmberg, Krister
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Biodegradable Nanofilms on Microcapsules for Controlled Release of Drugs to Infected Chronic Wounds2015In: Materials Today: Proceedings, E-ISSN 2214-7853, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 118-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systemic antibiotic and topical antimicrobial overexposure strongly contributes to the development of bacterial resistance. We have assembled nanofilms as a lid for drugs, which respond to the Staphylococcus aureusprotease V8, while remaining intact when exposed to a human wound protease. Hollow microcapsules, loaded with a model drug and with the nanofilm as shell were assembled by template assisted assembly. With a poly-L-glutamic acid-based film, the Glu-X specific V8 caused the film to degrade, leading to release of the model drug, while the human wound protease did not affect the microcapsules. This is an example of triggered release of an active with the wound infection being the trigger.

  • 24.
    Dalvi-Isfahan, Mohsen
    et al.
    Isfahan University of Technology, Iran.
    Hamdami, Nasser
    Isfahan University of Technology, Iran.
    Le-Bail, Alain
    CNRS, France; University of Nantes, France.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    The principles of high voltage electric field and its application in food processing: A review2016In: Food Research International, ISSN 0963-9969, E-ISSN 1873-7145, Vol. 89, p. 48-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food processing is a major part of the modern global industry and it will certainly be an important sector of the industry in the future. Several processes for different purposes are involved in food processing aiming at the development of new products by combining and/or transforming raw materials, to the extension of food shelf-life, recovery, exploitation and further use of valuable compounds and many others. During the last century several new food processes have arisen and most of the traditional ones have evolved. The future food factory will require innovative approaches food processing which can combine increased sustainability, efficiency and quality. Herein, the objective of this review is to explore the multiple applications of high voltage electric field (HVEF) and its potentials within the food industry. These applications include processes such as drying, refrigeration, freezing, thawing, extending food shelf- life, and extraction of biocompounds. In addition, the principles, mechanism of action and influence of specific parameters have been discussed comprehensively.

  • 25.
    de Knegt, Leonardo V.
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Pires, Sara M.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Löfström, Charlotta
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Microbiology. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Sörensen, Gitte
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Pedersen, Karl
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Torpdahl, Mia
    Statens Serum Institut, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Eva M.
    Statens Serum Institut, Denmark.
    Hald, Tine
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Application of Molecular Typing Results in Source Attribution Models: The Case of Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) of Salmonella Isolates Obtained from Integrated Surveillance in Denmark2016In: Risk Analysis, ISSN 0272-4332, E-ISSN 1539-6924, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 571-588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Salmonella is an important cause of bacterial foodborne infections in Denmark. To identify the main animal-food sources of human salmonellosis, risk managers have relied on a routine application of a microbial subtyping-based source attribution model since 1995. In 2013, multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) substituted phage typing as the subtyping method for surveillance of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium isolated from animals, food, and humans in Denmark. The purpose of this study was to develop a modeling approach applying a combination of serovars, MLVA types, and antibiotic resistance profiles for the Salmonella source attribution, and assess the utility of the results for the food safety decisionmakers. Full and simplified MLVA schemes from surveillance data were tested, and model fit and consistency of results were assessed using statistical measures. We conclude that loci schemes STTR5/STTR10/STTR3 for S. Typhimurium and SE9/SE5/SE2/SE1/SE3 for S. Enteritidis can be used in microbial subtyping-based source attribution models. Based on the results, we discuss that an adjustment of the discriminatory level of the subtyping method applied often will be required to fit the purpose of the study and the available data. The issues discussed are also considered highly relevant when applying, e.g., extended multi-locus sequence typing or next-generation sequencing techniques.

  • 26.
    Eduardo, Maria
    et al.
    Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanberg, Ulf
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat bread after storage2016In: Food Science & Nutrition, E-ISSN 2048-7177, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 636-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat (ratio 40:10:50) reference bread during storage. Added hydrocolloids were carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and high methoxyl pectin (HM pectin) at a 3% level (w/w) and/or the emulsifiers diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides (DATEM), lecithin (LC), and monoglycerides (MG) at a 0.3% level (w/w). After 4 days of storage, composite breads with MG had comparatively lower crumb moisture while crumb density was similar in all breads. The reference bread crumb firmness was 33.4 N, which was reduced with an addition of DATEM (23.0 N), MG (29.8 N), CMC (24.6 N) or HM pectin (22.4 N). However, the CMC/DATEM, CMC/LC, and HM pectin/DATEM combinations further reduced crumb firmness to <20.0 N. The melting peak temperature was increased from 52 C to between 53.0 C and 57.0 C with added hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers. The melting enthalpy of the retrograded amylopectin was lower in composite bread with hydrocolloids and emulsifiers, 6.7–11.0 J/g compared to 20.0 J/g for the reference bread. These results show that emulsifiers in combination with hydrocolloids can improve the quality and extend the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat breads.

  • 27.
    Ekman, Susanne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Flavour.
    Aktivt åldrande - test av acceptans och koncept av färdigrätter anpassade för äldre2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige, liksom i övriga Europa och större delen av världen, ökar andelen äldre stort. Mellan 2010 och 2030 beräknas antalet européer över 65 år att öka med nästan 40%. Vidare beräknas alltfler att uppnå en ålder av minst 100 år. Men gruppen äldre är stor och heterogen, den omfattar allt från nyblivna pensionärer till mycket gamla personer. Oberoende av ålder är de individuella variationerna stora. Det är av stor vikt att beakta den heterogenitet som präglar gruppen och se den äldre delen av befolkningen som bestående av många olika undergrupper med differentierade krav, önskemål och behov. Aktivt Åldrande – individuellt anpassade måltidslösningar för hälsa och livskvalitet hos äldre är ett treårigt projekt som startades i januari 2014 för att finna nya vägar för måltider och måltidsdistribution för äldre. En av projektets sex ”work packages” har syftat till att utveckla mat- och måltidskoncept där stor vikt har lagts vid matens och måltidens sensoriska egenskaper, dess textur och näringsinnehåll. Med utgångspunkt i tre olika varianter av kommersiella färdigrätter (A-kosträtter), togs tre närings- och proteinberikade E-kosträtter (energität kost) fram i projektet. Dessa sex rätter utvärderades av en grupp äldre respondenter (rp) med syfte att jämföra A-kosträtten med motsvarande E-kosträtt avseende; om det förelåg en objektiv skillnad på såserna i smak- och/eller konsistens samt utvärdera acceptansen av rätterna och måltidskonceptet ”en liten varmrätt med dessert”. Resultatet visade att rp kunde skilja de tre såserna åt när det gällde smak och/eller konsistens. Två E-kostsåser uppfattades generellt sett som mildare i smaken samt tjockare/gräddigare i konsistensen än motsvarande A-kostsås. De testade A-kosträtterna fick generellt sett högre medelvärden än motsvarande E-kost i acceptanstestet men de statistiska skillnaderna var få. Parametrarna som skilde sig åt statistiskt var olika för de testade rätterna, men främst skilde utseendet och konsistensen på sås och mos sig åt för A-kost och E-kost. I fokusgruppen framkom dels att måltidskonceptet ”en liten varmrätt med dessert” uppfattades som något positiv och dels framkom flera förslag på förbättringar av E-kosträtterna. Generellt sett skulle utseendet vara färgrikt och aptitligt utan en alltför täckande sås, och såsen vara god och välkryddad. Det innebär att efter en optimering av både varm- och efterrätt skulle de testade färdigrätterna inte bara kunna bidra till ett behov av näring och energi, utan också glädje och njutning.

  • 28.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Isaksson, Sven
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Lövenklev, Maria
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Microbiology.
    A comparative study of infrared and microwave heating for microbial decontamination of paprika powder2015In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 6, article id 1071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently a need in developing new decontamination technologies for spices due to limitations of existing technologies, mainly regarding their effects on spices’ sensory quality. In the search of new decontamination solutions, it is of interest to compare different technologies, to provide the industry with knowledge for taking decisions concerning appropriate decontamination technologies for spices. The present study compares infrared (IR) and microwave decontamination of naturally contaminated paprika powder after adjustment of water activity to 0.88. IR respectively microwave heating was applied to quickly heat up paprika powder to 98°C, after which the paprika sample was transferred to a conventional oven set at 98°C to keep the temperature constant during a holding time up to 20 min. In the present experimental set-up microwave treatment at 98°C for 20 min resulted in a reduction of 4.8 log units of the total number of mesophilic bacteria, while the IR treatment showed a 1 log unit lower reduction for the corresponding temperature and treatment time. Microwave and IR heating created different temperature profiles and moisture distribution within the paprika sample during the heating up part of the process, which is likely to have influenced the decontamination efficiency. The results of this study are used to discuss the difficulties in comparing two thermal technologies on equal conditions due to differences in their heating mechanisms

  • 29.
    Erdogdu, S. Belgin
    et al.
    University of Mersin, Turkey.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Erdogdu, Ferruh
    Ankara University, Turkey.
    Isaksson, Sven
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Experimental determination of penetration depths of various spice commodities (black pepper seeds, paprika powder and oregano leaves) under infrared radiation2015In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 161, p. 75-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During infrared processing, transmitted energy is attenuated exponentially with penetration distance, and its intensity is gradually lost while passing through absorbing or scattering media. Penetration depth is a complex function of chemical composition of a food product, its physico-chemical state and physical properties and wavelength spectrum of energy source. Knowing penetration depth leads to better designing commercial sterilization processes for food products like spices. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine penetration depth of various spices (paprika powder, black pepper and oregano) as a function of water activity under infrared processing conditions. For this purpose, spice samples were prepared at various water activity (aw) levels, and heat flux measurements were carried out to determine the penetration depth. Penetration depth was determined to increase with increasing aw for black pepper seeds and paprika powder while there was no significant change for oregano leaves as a function of aw. Knowing penetration depth is important to design an effective infra-red processing system and an important issue for surface pasteurization processes since infrared radiation effects on microbial inactivation decrease with sample thickness

  • 30.
    Ferrentino, Giovanna
    et al.
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Tamburini, Sabrina
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Båth, Klara
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Microbiology.
    Foladori, Paola
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Spilimbergo, Sara
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Jousson, Olivier
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Application of culture-independent methods for monitoring Listeria monocytogenes inactivation on food products2015In: Process Biochemistry, ISSN 1359-5113, E-ISSN 1873-3298, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 188-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When new food processing technologies are investigated as alternative to traditional thermal pasteurization processes, conventional cultivation-based methods are usually applied to evaluate microbial concentration before and after the treatment to determine the process efficiency. However, these standard methods lead to a typical underestimation of the microbes present in the sample, which may represent an issue when pathogenic strains have to be detected. Here, the efficiency of SC-CO2 pasteurization treatment in the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes spiked on cured ham skin surface was evaluated using plate counts, flow cytometry (FCM) coupled with SYBR-Green I (SYBR-I) and propidium iodide (PI), and propidium monoazide quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR), at different process conditions. SC-CO2 best performed at 12 MPa, 45 and 50 °C, resulting in a 7.5 log reduction of cultivable cells quantified by plate counts after 15 min of treatment, while FCM and PMA-qPCR revealed a 4 log and 2 log reduction of intact cells, respectively. This striking difference between culture-based and culture-independent quantification methods was independent from treatment time and indicated that a large fraction of the cells lost cultivability after treatment but maintained an intact membrane, likely entering in a so-called Viable But Not Culturable (VBNC) state. Our study highlights the usefulness of FCM and PMA-qPCR to assess the viability status of microbial populations and support their application in microbiological quality control in the food industry, in particular when mild pasteurization technologies are used.

  • 31.
    Filli, Kalep
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Nigeria.
    Nkama, Iro
    University of Nigeria, Nigeria.
    Rheological Properties of Extruded Fura from blends of Millet and Cowpea2016In: Annual Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, 2016, Vol. 24, p. 209-216Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rheological properties of fura extrudates with different pearl millet and cowpea ratios (80:20, 70:30 and 100% pearl millet flours) were studied. Extrusion cooking was performed in a single screw extruder. Gelatinization temperatures (Tg) were 72 oC for Millet: Cowpea (70:30) and 71 oC for 100% pearl millet flour indicating that the Tg increased with inclusion of cowpea flour. The time taken to reach gelatinization temperature (Mg) was 27 minutes for 100% pearl millet flour higher than Millet: Cowpea 80:20 and 70:30 flour blends which recorded 25.3 minutes. Gelatinization temperatures for fura extrudates were 62, 64.7, 65 and 66.8 oC for millet: Cowpea 80:20, 100% traditional fura, millet: Cowpea 70:30 and 100% extruded fura respectively. There was general decrease in gelatinization temperature of all products, which can be attributed to previous gelatinization of their starches. There were significant differences in the viscosities of samples at each of the temperature considered from (30o - 90oC). At 30oC the viscosities ranged from (4.2-17.6 Nsm-2). Traditional fura indicated the highest viscosity at all temperatures. The k values increased as the temperature of fura samples decreased generally. Flow behaviour for all fura samples exhibited non-Newtonian types of fluids at the test conditions since flow behaviour index (n) for each fura sample were found to be different from one. Traditional fura recorded the highest value for yield stress 18.67 Nm-2, with millet: cowpea 80:20 fura recording 8.6 Nm-2 as the least value.

  • 32.
    Florén, Britta
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Amani, Pegah
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Climate Database Facilitating Climate Smart Meal Planning for the Public Sector in Sweden2016In: Proceedings in System Dynamics and Innovation in Food Networks 2016, 2016, p. 122-128Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate impact of food consumption corresponds to about 2 tons of CO2eq. per capita, representing around 25 % of the total consumption-driven climate change impact in Sweden. There are several diverse ongoing trends of food consumption in Sweden, and their primary drivers are environmental and health considerations. The results of a market research carried out by YouGov (2010) indicated that nearly 75 percent of respondents would buy climate-labeled food, and nearly 50 percent of the respondents would be willing to pay a higher price for such a product.The climate impact from meals could be significantly decreased through small changes in recipes by reducing the amount of ingredients with high carbon footprints or substituting them with other ingredients with the same function but lower carbon footprints. By making more climate-conscious choices, e.g. eating more vegetables as well as poultry, egg and seafood instead of red meat, the climate impact per person and year could be reduced by half.Several recent studies suggest that dietary changes can reduce food-related environmental impacts significantly (e.g. Tilman and Clark, 2014; Hallström et al., 2015; Stehfest, 2014; Röös et al., 2015; Bryngelsson et al., 2016). These studies have mainly explored theoretical dietary scenarios, and not what people actually eat; for example, in one study a model-based theoretical diet, which reduced GHGs by 90%, included unrealistic amounts of only seven food items (Macdiarmid, 2012). Still, this information is important when aiming to guide food producers, public authorities and consumers towards more sustainable and healthy options. The national food agency Sweden updated their dietary advice in 2015, which now also takes environmental consideration into account, besides health impact (SLV, 2015).To combat climate change, recommendations need to be realized and incorporated into applications in daily practices. There has been an optimistic belief that the availability of information could boost environmentally sound behavior among the general public, but there is a rather weak link between knowing and doing. Feedback directly tied to people's own behavior has been shown to be more effective than general information (Lundgren, 2000), for example by making the information available directly in the decision making moment e.g. when shopping food or planning a meal. If such information is timely communicated, it can have considerable contribution to more sustainable consumption. In a field experiment conducted by Matsdotter et al. (2014) in 17 food stores in Sweden, the results show that climate labeling increased demand for climate-labeled milk by 7%. In another recent research project (Kamb et al, 2015), households in Uppsala were able to reduce their climate footprint by 31% by having access to climate friendly information and inspiration, e.g. the participants could get direct feedback on GHGs for certain products and services via a mobile application. This project was conducted at a very small scale, but still proves the potential of influencing behavioral change by using interactive applications at the point of decision making.

  • 33.
    Florén, Britta
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Sund, Veronica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Krewer, Christoffer
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Berglund, Maria
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Lätt att välja rätt – Klimatdata för medvetna val av livsmedelsråvaror i storkök2015Report (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Frank, Damian
    et al.
    CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia.
    Eyres, Graham T.
    CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia.
    Piyasiri, Udayasika
    CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia.
    Cochet-Broch, Maeva
    CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia.
    Delahunty, Conor M.
    CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia.
    Lundin, Leif
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia.
    Appelqvist, Ingrid M.
    CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia.
    Effects of Agar Gel Strength and Fat on Oral Breakdown, Volatile Release, and Sensory Perception Using in Vivo and in Vitro Systems2015In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 63, no 41, p. 9093-9102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The density and composition of a food matrix affect the rates of oral breakdown and in-mouth flavor release as well as the overall sensory experience. Agar gels of increasing concentration (1.0, 1.7, 2.9, and 5% agarose) with and without added fat (0, 2, 5, and 10%) were spiked with seven aroma volatiles. Differences in oral processing and sensory perception were systematically measured by a trained panel using a discrete interval time intensity method. Volatile release was measured in vivo and in vitro by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Greater oral processing was required as agar gel strength increased, and the intensity of flavor-related sensory attributes decreased. Volatile release was inversely related to gel strength, showing that physicochemical phenomena were the main mechanisms underlying the perceived sensory changes. Fat addition reduced the amount of oral processing and had differential effects on release, depending on the fat solubility or lipophilicity of the volatiles.

  • 35.
    Gadde, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Amani, Pegah
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Food supply in a network context: An alternative framing and managerial consequences in efforts to prevent food waste2016In: British Food Journal, ISSN 0007-070X, E-ISSN 1758-4108, Vol. 118, no 6, p. 1407-1421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a “network” framing of food supply arrangements. Such frameworks have been asked for in previous research as supplements to prevailing supply chain conceptualizations.

    Design/methodology/approach – The framework builds on industrial network theory. According to this approach, business reality is analyzed in three inter-related dimensions: the activities undertaken, the resources used for this undertaking, and the actors controlling resources and activities. For each dimension, relevant concepts are derived for analysis of the features of food supply and food waste.

    Findings – The network framing was useful for analyzing the prerequisites and consequences for two approaches to reduce food waste: one based on extension of shelf-life, the other relying on enhanced responsiveness in the supply arrangement. The framework was then used for suggesting managerial actions to reduce food waste through increasing activity coordination, resource combining, and actor interaction with consideration of potential consequences of such actions.

    Practical implications – Managerial issues in food supply are discussed with regard to the role of activity coordination, the role of resource combining, and the role of actor interaction in efforts to prevent food waste.

    Originality/value – The paper suggests a novel approach for analyzing food supply networks with particular focus on food waste reduction. Such framings are applied in other supply systems, and requested by food supply researchers.

  • 36.
    Gerstädt, Adrian
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Säkerhet och Funktion. Högskolan i Borås.
    Morgen, Emil
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Säkerhet och Funktion. Högskolan i Borås.
    Mekaniska egenskaper hos mjuka heterogena biomaterial: tillämpning på polyuretanskum2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 37.
    Giacalone, Davide
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Flavour. University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Kremer, Stefanie
    Wageningen University and Research Centre, Netherlands.
    Frøst, Michael Bom
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bredie, Wender L. P.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Otto, Marie H.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Skjoldborg, Signe
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Risvik, Einar
    Nofima AS, Norway; University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Health and quality of life in an aging population - Food and beyond2016In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 47, p. 166-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe the percentage of citizens aged 65 and over is increasing at an unprecedented rate, and is expected to account for over 30% of the population by 2050. Coupled with an increase in life expectancy, this massive demographic change calls for a major effort to ensure quality of life in our older population. A thorough understanding of the elderly as food consumers, their nutritional needs, their food perception and preferences is increasingly needed. The role of food in healthy aging was a prominent theme at the 6th European Conference on Sensory and Consumer Research, which had quality of life across the life span as a focal point. This short paper is based on a workshop held at the EuroSense meeting, focusing on research from sensory and consumer scientists. The workshop featured contributions focusing on food-related perception, needs and behavior of the elderly, and aimed at demonstrating the relevance of sensory and consumer scientists in promoting food-related well-being in an aging population. The workshop contributions are here reviewed and summarized three main themes: nutritional needs, food perception and aging, and behavioral drivers of food consumption.

  • 38.
    Guiamba, Isabel R. F.
    et al.
    Eduardo Mondlane University, Moçambique; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanberg, Ulf
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of Infrared Blanching on Enzyme Activity and Retention of β-Carotene and Vitamin C in Dried Mango2015In: Journal of Food Science, ISSN 0022-1147, E-ISSN 1750-3841, Vol. 80, no 6, p. E1235-E1242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate infrared (IR) dry blanching in comparison with conventional water blanching prior to hot air drying of mango to inactivate polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) enzymes, and to study its effect on color change and retention of vitamin C and β‐carotene. Mango cylinders were blanched under similar temperature–time conditions either by IR heating or by immersion in a water bath during 2 min at 90 °C (high‐temperature‐short‐time—HTST) or for 10 min at 65 °C (low‐temperature‐long‐time—LTLT). After blanching mango was hot air dried at 70 °C. PPO was completely inactivated during the blanching treatments, but AAO had a moderate remaining activity after LTLT treatment (∼30%) and a low remaining activity after HTST treatment (9% to 15%). A higher retention of vitamin C was observed in mango subjected to IR dry blanching, 88.3 ± 1.0% (HTST) and 69.2 ± 2.9% (LTLT), compared with water blanching, 61.4 ± 5.3% (HTST) and 50.7 ± 9.6% (LTLT). All‐trans‐β‐carotene retention was significantly higher in water blanched dried mango, 93.2 ± 5.2% (LTLT) and 91.4 ± 5.1% (HTST), compared with IR dry blanched, 73.6 ± 3.6% (LTLT) and 76.9 ± 2.9% (HTST). Increased levels of 13‐cis‐β‐carotene isomer were detected only in IR dry blanched mango, and the corresponding dried mango also had a slightly darker color. IR blanching of mango prior to drying can improve the retention of vitamin C, but not the retention of carotenoids, which showed to be more dependent on the temperature than the blanching process. A reduction of drying time was observed in LTLT IR‐blanching mango.

  • 39.
    Gustafsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Holmberg, Krister
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles with controllable morphology prepared from oil-in-water emulsions2016In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 467, p. 253-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles are an important class of materials with a wide range of applications. This paper presents a simple protocol for synthesis of particles as small as 40. nm and with a pore size that can be as large as 9. nm. Reaction conditions including type of surfactant, type of catalyst and presence of organic polymer were investigated in order to optimize the synthesis. An important aim of the work was to understand the mechanism behind the formation of these unusual structures and an explanation based on silica condensation in the small aqueous microemulsion droplets that are present inside the drops of an oil-in-water emulsion is put forward.

  • 40.
    Gårdebjer, Sophie
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gebäck, Tobias
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Tetra Pak AB, Sweden.
    Fratini, Enrico
    University of Florence, Italy.
    Baglioni, Pietro
    University of Florence, Italy.
    Bordes, Romain
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Viridén, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Nicholas, Mark
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anette
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    The impact of interfaces in laminated packaging on transport of carboxylic acids2016In: Journal of Membrane Science, ISSN 0376-7388, E-ISSN 1873-3123, Vol. 518, p. 305-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The permeability of oleic and acetic acid through low density polyethylene (LDPE) and ethylene acrylic acid (EAA) have been measured using diffusion cells. In addition, the permeability through combinations of LDPE and EAA in the form of laminates with different numbers of layers has been determined. Oleic acid shows an almost 30 times higher permeability compared to acetic acid, which was partly explained by the adsorption of oleic acid to the film surface during the permeability experiment. In addition, the permeability is lower for both oleic and acetic acid in the laminates compared to the pure films. The decreased permeability can be explained by the presence of crystalline domains close to the interface. This is supported by SAXS data which suggests an ordering of polymer chains in the EAA film close to the interface. In summary, the results show that it is possible to create barrier materials with decreased permeability, which is interesting for example in the packaging industry.

  • 41.
    Hagsten, Carin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. Lund University, Sweden.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Gustafsson, Stefan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Innings, Fredrik
    Tetra Pak Processing Systems, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Marie
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nylander, Tommy
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Composition and structure of high temperature dairy fouling2016In: Food Structure, ISSN 2213-3291, Vol. 7, p. 13-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fouling structure and composition is dependent on the product, but also on the heating process applied to it. The structure will have profound effect on the cleaning process and the down time in the production plant. Here, the structure of high temperature (137 °C) milk fouling has been investigated, which so far has not been sufficiently studied in a systematic way. This particular fouling has a high content of the mineral calcium phosphate and a relatively low concentration of protein. Wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) reveals a crystalline structure of calcium phosphate in agreement to the chemical analysis of the bulk layer. Microscopic investigations visualize the heterogeneous structure and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) shows a spatial variation of the elements through the radius of the sample.

  • 42.
    Hamngren Blomqvist, Charlotte
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Abrahamsson, Christoffer
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gebäck, Tobias
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Anne-Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nyden, Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of South Australia, Australia.
    Gustafsson, Stefan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Olsson, Eva
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pore size effects on convective flow and diffusion through nanoporous silica gels2015In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 484, p. 288-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Material structure has great impact on mass transport properties, a relationship that needs to be understood on several length scales. Describing and controlling the properties of flow through soft materials are both challenges concerning the industrial use of gel structures. This paper reports on how the porous structure in nanoporous materials affects the water transport through them. We used three different silica gels with large differences in the pore sizes but of equal silica concentration. Particle morphology and gel structure were studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and image analysis to estimate the pore size distribution and intrinsic surface area of each gel. The mass transport was studied using a flow measurement setup and nuclear magnetic resonance diffusometry. The average pore size ranged from approximately 500 nm down to approximately 40 nm. An acknowledged limit for convective flow to occur is in the pore size range between 100 and 200 nm. The results verified the existence of a non-linear relationship between pore size and liquid flow at length scales below 500 nm, experimentally. A factor of 4.3 in flow speed separated the coarser gel from the other two, which presented almost identical flow speed data despite a factor 3 in pore size difference. In the setup, the mass transport in the gel with the largest pores was flow dominated, while the mass transport in the finer gels was diffusion dominated. Besides providing new insights into mass transport as a function of pore sizes, we conclude that three-dimensional analysis of the structures is needed for a comprehensive understanding of the correlation between structure and mass transport properties.

  • 43.
    Hellmér, Maria
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Hjelmsø, Mathis Hjort
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Fernandez-Cassi, Xavier
    University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Timoneda, Natalia
    University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Lukjancenko, Oksana
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Seidel, Michael
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Aarestrup, Frank Møller
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Löfström, Charlotta
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Girones, Rosina
    University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Schultz, Anna Charlotte
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Evaluation of methods for the concentration and extraction of viruses from sewage water in the context of metagenomic sequencing2016In: The Danish Microbiological Society Annual Congress 2016: Programme & Abstracts, Copenhagen, 2016, p. 76-76, article id P61Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Hermansson, Elin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Schuster, Erich
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Mölnlycke Health Care, Sweden.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ström, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Impact of solvent quality on the network strength and structure of alginate gels2016In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 144, p. 289-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the mixture of water and alcohols on the solubility and properties of alginate and its calcium-induced gels is of interest for the food, wound care and pharmaceutical industries. The solvent quality of water with increasing amounts of ethanol (0-20%) on alginate was studied using intrinsic viscosity. The effect of ethanol addition on the rheological and mechanical properties of calcium alginate gels was determined. Small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the network structure. It is shown that the addition of ethanol up to 15% (wt) increases the extension of the alginate chain, which correlates with increased moduli and stress being required to fracture the gels. The extension of the polymer chain is reduced at 20% (wt) ethanol, which is followed by reduced moduli and stress at breakage of the gels. The network structure of gels at high ethanol concentrations (24%) is characterized by thick and poorly connected network strands.

  • 45.
    Hintzmann, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Sørensen, Gitte
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Löfström, Charlotta
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baggesen, Dorte Lau
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Whole genome sequencing data confirm transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage type DT41 in the Danish poultry production chain2016In: Technical meeting on the Impact of Whole Genome Sequencing on food safety management: Poster abstracts, Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), 2016, p. 12-12, article id 11Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46. Holmer, Anna
    et al.
    Åström, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Capturing Consumer Food Choice in Action - An experience sampling study over mobile phone2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Homer, Stephen
    et al.
    CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia.
    Lundin, Leif
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Dunstan, Dave E.
    University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Modifying the microstructure and mechanical properties of whey protein isolate gels using large deformation oscillatory strain2016In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 61, p. 672-677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of oscillatory shear during heat-induced gelation of whey protein isolate has been investigated. For each gel sample, a single oscillating strain was applied during the gelation process from within the range of 0-1.0. A strain sweep was then used to evaluate the linear viscoelastic region as well as the fracturing properties of each gel. The application of strains lower than ∼0.01 during gelation did not affect the storage modulus while larger strains resulted in lower storage moduli in the linear viscoelastic region. Furthermore, gels produced under small (<0.01) strain amplitudes showed a single fracture point, while gels produced under high (>0.01) amplitude strain were characterised by a two-step fracture pattern. Between the fracture steps, strain hardening behaviour was observed. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to identify structural differences between the gels. Greater inhomogeneity was found in gels produced under large amplitude compared to small amplitude strain. It is suggested that localised redistribution of aggregates due to shear during gelation increases the average pore size and possibly creates two distinct types of aggregate structure with differing moduli. The combined effect of heating rate and oscillatory strain was also investigated. We postulate that the mechanism underlying our observations is generic to many gel systems.

  • 48.
    Hornborg, S
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Bergman, K
    Ziegler, F
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    The role of seafood in healthy and sustainable diets: drivers of European seafood production2016Report (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Hussein, J. B.
    et al.
    Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Nigeria.
    Sanusi, M. S.
    University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
    Filli, Kalep
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Nigeria.
    Evaluation of drying methods on the content of some bio-actives (lycopene, β-carotene and ascorbic acid) of tomato slices2016In: African Journal of Food Science, ISSN 1996-0794, E-ISSN 1996-0794, Vol. 10, no 12, p. 359-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersycum L.) is one of the most important vegetables worldwide. As it is a relatively short duration crop and gives a high yield, it is economically attractive. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of drying method on the quality of the dried tomatoes based on three parameters viz; lycopene, ß-carotene and ascorbic acid contents. Thirty-six kilograms of tomatoes were sorted, cleaned, blanched and divided into three equal portions of 12 kg each. The tomatoes were sliced into 4, 6 and 8 mm, then sun, solar and hybrid dried, respectively. The value of lycopene content obtained for sun dried tomatoes ranged from 23.89 to 18.77 mg/100 g, solar dried ranged from 24.51 to 22.56 mg/100 g and hybrid dried ranged from 25.12 to 24.65 mg/100 g. The average value of β-carotene content obtained for sun dried tomatoes ranged from 4.12 to 3.72 mg/100 g, solar dried ranged from 4.94 to 4.25 mg/100 g and hybrid dried ranged from 4.98 to 4.65 mg/100 g. The values of ascorbic acid obtained for sun dried tomatoes ranged from 17.04 to 5.60 mg/100 g, solar dried ranged from 23.73 to 13.37 mg/100 g and hybrid dried ranged from 29.20 to 24.82 mg/100 g. Hybrid dried tomatoes slice showed higher retention of lycopene, ß-Carotene and ascorbic acid than both the solar and open sun dried methods.

  • 50.
    Hussein,, Jelili Babatunde
    et al.
    Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Nigeria.
    Usman, Mohammed Awwalu
    Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Nigeria.
    Filli, Kalep Bulus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Nigeria.
    Effect of hybrid solar drying method on the Functional and sensory properties of tomato2016In: American Journal of Food Science and Technology, ISSN 2333-4827, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 141-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hybrid solar dryer, direct solar energy dryer and open sun drying under the climatic conditions of Yola, Nigeria was used to dry tomato slices. The effect of these drying methods on the functional and sensory quality of the dried tomatoes was examined. The functional properties of the dried tomatoes slices were significantly different (p<0.05). In open sun dried tomatoes, the bulk density ranged from 0.56 – 0.62 g/ml, water absorption index (WAI) 436.33 – 475.67 gH2O/sample, water solubility index (WSI) 6.00 – 14.00, specific volume 1.61 – 1.78 ml/g and wettability 10.33 – 13.33 s for 4 – 8 mm thick tomato samples. For solar dried tomatoes, the bulk density ranged from 0.52 – 0.57 g/ml, the WAI ranged from 412.00 – 454.00 gH2O/sample, the water solubility index (WSI) range was 12.33 – 16.67, specific volume range was 1.73 – 1.90 ml/g and wettability ranged from 5.85 – 10.63 s for 4 – 8 mm thick tomato samples. For the hybrid dried tomatoes, the bulk density ranged from 0.50 – 0.54 g/ml, the WAI values ranged from 386.00 – 436.00 gH2O/sample, the WSI 14.67 – 18.00, specific volume range was 1.84 – 1.99 ml/g and wettability 5.80 – 8.44 s for 4 – 8 mm thick tomato sample. The organoleptic properties showed that the tomatoes dried by hybrid drying method was superior in terms of acceptability test than those dried using direct solar energy and a photovoltaic (PV) solar panel tomato products. Conclusively, good quality shelf stable dried tomato slices could be produced using hybrid drying method.

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