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  • 851.
    André, Alann
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Johnsson, H.
    Luleå Univ. of Technology.
    Flax fiber-reinforced glued-laminated timber in tension perpendicular to the grain: Experimental study and probabilistic analysis2010In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 827-835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The weak mechanical properties of wood in tension perpendicular to the grain are often the origin of catastrophic brittle failure. In order to enhance the tension strength perpendicular to the grain and achieve a more ductile failure, flax fiber and glass fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites were used to strengthen glue-laminated (glulam) timber specimens. Three series of specimen of glulam timber (flax fiber reinforced, glass fiber reinforced, and unreinforced), with a grand total of 28 specimens, were tested in tension perpendicular to the grain. For an approximate amount of FRP reinforcement of 1.2% in volume (thickness of ∼0.7 mm), an increase of the tensile strength of up to 74% was shown, with a stiffness increase of up to 41%. For all reinforced specimens, semiductile failures were observed. A parametric study was carried out using both the Monte Carlo (MC) method and the first-order second moment (FOSM) method. It is shown that the mean values obtained during experiments are in agreement with those from the MC simulation. However, the standard deviations from the MC simulation are larger. From the FOSM analysis, it is demonstrated that the variation in glulam stiffness perpendicular to the grain is not the first parameter driving the variation for the reinforced system. The variation in mechanical properties of the flax fibers appeared to be the driving parameter for the strength of the system. © 2010 ASCE.

  • 852.
    André, Alann
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Kliger, R.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Asp, Leif
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Compression failure mechanism in small scale timber specimens2014In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 50, p. 130-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the failure mechanism of wood loaded in compression parallel to the grain has been shown to be an important parameter in the design of timber beams strengthened with fibre-reinforced plastics (FRP). In this paper, a constitutive relationship for wood under uniaxial compression load parallel to the grain was determined experimentally. Several parameters, such as silviculture, moisture content and radial position in the log in relation to the pith from where the specimen was sawn, were considered. Small clear-wood specimens were used. The strain localisation in the failure region (kinkband) was monitored using the digital image correlation method. The results show that silviculture and moisture content are two very important parameters which influence the compression failure mechanism. Furthermore, there is a significant difference in behaviour between specimens from the juvenile region of the log and specimens from mature wood. Based on experimental results, two numerical models were built, considering either a global or a local constitutive relationship. It was demonstrated that both numerical models yield accurate results and that, depending on the experimental equipment available, a constitutive relationship could be extracted and used as input in these numerical models. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 853.
    André, Alann
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Kliger, R.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Haghani, R.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Timber reinforced FRP: Compression failure mechanism2012In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering, CICE 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When it comes to strengthening, structural timber engineering has seen polymer composite materials becoming key materials over the last decades. A great number of studies have already shown that the majority of the results were promising. Several strengthening systems applied to structural timber or glued-laminated timber beams revealed that the ultimate failure mode remains in tension regardless of the reinforced system. However, the collapse can be controlled and postponed by optimising the strengthening system. It has been shown that strengthening timber on the tension and compression side simultaneously increases the stiffness and moment capacity more than if the reinforcement was only positioned on the tension side. This is mainly due to the ductility of wood in compression which is fully utilised when strengthening is located on both sides. The main objective behind this study is to develop an experimental method to determine the compressive behaviour of small clear timber specimens reinforced with CFRP.

  • 854.
    André, Alann
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Kliger, R.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Olsson, Robin
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Compression failure mechanism in small-scale wood specimens reinforced with CFRP: An experimental study2013In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 41, p. 790-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optimal use of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) when strengthening timber beams loaded in bending involves considering placing the reinforcement on both the tension and the compression side, in order to utilise the ductile compression failure of the wood to the full. In this respect, a knowledge and understanding of the compression failure mechanism of the timber/CFRP system becomes a point of paramount importance. However, no testing method specific to the compression loading of small wood specimens reinforced with CFRP is currently available. This investigation focuses on the experimental developments of the geometry and test set-up necessary in order to determine the compression failure mechanism of small wood block specimens reinforced with CFRP loaded in compression parallel to the grain. The method is based on an existing testing method for unreinforced wood specimens. The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method is used to monitor deformation during experiments. The experimental results of reinforced specimens are compared with those of paired unreinforced specimens tested in a previous study. The experimental method presented in this study shows that specific geometry and test considerations must be implemented when compared with the existing method for unreinforced specimens. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 855.
    André, Alann
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Nilsson, Sören
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Asp, Leif
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Finite element delamination study of a notched composite plate under flexural loads2009In: ICCM International Conferences on Composite MaterialsConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The delamination process in notched composite plates under flexural loading has been investigated using finite element analysis. Cohesive elements implemented in the commercial finite element package ABAQUS have been used in the region around the drilled-hole, and positioned between layers where delamination was observed during experiments presented in an accompanying paper. The delamination initiation and subsequent propagation was studied between the layers at the tension side separately and simultaneously. For all FE models, the load displacement curve was in good agreement with the one from experiments. However, the amount of damage reported from the fractography study was more extensive than that predicted by the models. Finally, it was shown that the models with only one cohesive layer show significantly different results to that of the model with four cohesive layers in terms of size of the degradation area.

  • 856. Andrén, B
    et al.
    Brunnstrom, Kjell
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Wang, K
    Readability of displays in bright outdoor surroundings SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers2014In: SID Display Week 2014, 2014, p. 1100-1103Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 857. Andrén, B
    et al.
    Wang, K
    Brunnstrom, Kjell
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Characterizations of 3D TV: Active vs passive2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 858.
    Andrén, B
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo, Broadband Technology.
    Wang, K
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo, Broadband Technology.
    Brunnström, K
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo, Broadband Technology.
    Rydell, N
    Fuller, S
    A comparison of visual ergonomic measurements between active and passive 3DTV2011In: EURODISPLAY 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 859.
    Angervall, T
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Förenklad metod för klimat-/GWP-beräkningar av livsmedel : slutrapport, ver 12011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att genomföra livscykelanalyser enligt gängse standarder och metoder är ofta mycket resurskrävande. För företag med många och sammansatta produkter är det inte realistiskt att ta fram LCA-baserade resultat för alla deras olika produkter, inte ens om de är inriktade mot enbart klimatpåverkan. För att livsmedelsföretagen ändå ska kunna ta fram LCA-baserade underlag och resultat om deras produkters klimatpåverkan finns det därför behov av en förenklad modell för GWP-beräkningar. SIK’s projekt om att ta fram en ny och enklare metod för att beräkna livsmedelsprodukters klimatpåverkan/ GWP i ett livscykelperspektiv som ett alternativ till fullständiga livscykelanalyser enligt ISO 14040-43 och PAS 2050. Det huvudsakliga målet har varit att livsmedelsföretagen på ett enklare, snabbare och billigare sätt skall kunna få trovärdiga underlag och fakta med god kvalitet om sina produkters klimatpåverkan. Övriga mål i projektet har varit att öka kunskapen om olika livsmedels klimatpåverkan i ett livscykelperspektiv genom att studera livsmedels-produkter som tidigare inte har analyserats ur ett LCA-perspektiv.

  • 860.
    Angervall, T
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Mat och klimat : en sammanfattning om matens klimatpåverkan i ett livscykelperspektiv2008Report (Other academic)
  • 861.
    Angervall, T
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Utveckling av förbättringsarbetet i befintliga miljöledningssystem inom livsmedelsindustrin2004Report (Other academic)
  • 862.
    Angré, Alexander
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Ahlfors, Magnus
    QuintusTechnologies AB, Sweden.
    Chasoglou, Dimitri
    Höganäs AB, Sweden.
    Larsson, Linn
    AB Sandvik Technologies Material, Sweden.
    Claesson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Karlsson, Oskar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Phase transformation under isostatic pressure in HIP2017In: Powder Metallurgy, ISSN 0032-5899, E-ISSN 1743-2901, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 167-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new HIP cooling systems enable very fast cooling rates under isostatic pressure. This does not only enable shorter HIP cycles but also allows complete heat treatment cycles to be performed in one HIP cycle. It has been shown in previous studies that extreme pressures of several thousand bar can push phase transformation towards longer times. The new URQ HIP cooling systems give the opportunity to investigate the impact of pressures up to 2000 bar on phase transformation time dependency. For each of the two materials in this study, a comparison of austenite phase transformation time at 100 and 1700 bar was performed. The study was performed by isothermal heat treatment of specimens for a specific time followed by quenching. To evaluate the influence of pressure on hardenability, the phase fractions were evaluated using grid method on SEM images. The study found significant influence of HIP pressure on hardenability.

  • 863.
    Anheden, Marie
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ehn, Christian
    RISE, Innventia.
    The role of intermediate products in biorefinery development: Kraft lignin and pyrolysis oil as intermediates for production of naphtha cracker feed from forest-based raw materials2015In: NWBC 2015. Proceedings of the 6th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Helsinki, Finland, 20-22 Oct. 2015, 2015, p. 210-219Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has been undertaken to estimate key performance factors important for development of biomass value chains with intermediate products. In the case selected, the end-product had to be suitable as feed product to a naphtha cracker. Pyrolysis oil and kraft lignin were the investigated intermediates, while yield, cost and carbon dioxide footprint were compared with direct production of bio naphtha from forest residues at the petrochemical plant and fossil naphtha. Three bio-based value chains were evaluated: without intermediate; with pyrolysis oil as intermediate; and with kraft lignin separated from black liquor as intermediate. Innventia AB's simulation model in WinGEMS was used to simulate the hypothetical reference pulp mill and the effects of integration with the lignin removal (LignoBoost) and pyrolysis equipment. It has been concluded that the use of intermediates produced integrated with decentralised local industrial plants could reduce total cost and carbon dioxide emissions of transporting forest based biomass to a centrally located conversion plant. However, the economic benefit was not very large compared with the overall value chain cost to produce the final product. Kraft lignin from pulp production was a very interesting intermediate, particularly in the case of the economic benefit

  • 864.
    Anheden, Marie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Kulander, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Wallinder, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Vamling, Lennart
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hjerpe, Carl Johan
    F Industri, Sweden.
    Fugelsang, Malin
    F Industri, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Åsa
    Preem, Sweden.
    Evaluation of alternative routes for production of bio-oil from forest residues and kraft lignin2018In: The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference: NWBC 2018 : proceedings / [ed] Hytönen Eemeli, Vepsäläinen Jessica, Espoo: VTT , 2018, p. 85-89Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 865.
    Anheden, Marie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Uhlin, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Wolf, Jens
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Hedberg, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Berg, Robert
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Ankner, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Berglin, Niklas
    NiNa Innovation, Sweden; ÅF Industry, Sweden.
    von Schenck, Anna
    NiNa Innovation, Sweden; ÅF Industry, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anders L
    Valmet AB, Sweden.
    Guimaraes, Matheus
    Fibria, Sweden.
    Fiskerud, Maria
    Karlstad Airport, Sweden.
    Andersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Value chain for production of bio-oil from kraft lignin for use as bio-jet fuel2017In: The 7th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Stockholm, Sweden, 28-30 Mar. 2017: NWBC 2017, Stockholm: RISE Bioekonomi , 2017, p. 104-109Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The LignoJet project aimed to achieve an intermediate lignin-oil product miscible with fossil feedstock and with a significantly reduced oxygen content. A technical concept for production has been studied that involves combined catalysed depolymerisation and hydrodeoxygenation, so called hydrogenolytic depolymerisation, of kraft lignin. Kraft lignin was separated through membrane ultrafiltration from softwood and eucalyptus black liquor followed by precipitation through LignoBoost technology. A difference in lignin properties was observed between ultrafiltration of softwood and eucalyptus black liquor through 15 and 150kDa ceramic membranes. Lignin-oils with similar oxygen content were produced regardless of origin and fractionation technique. A lignin-oil with favourable properties as precursor for refinery integration for jet fuel production as produced in small-scale batch experiments using nickel-based catalyst. Stable pumpable oils with melting point of less than 25-50 deg C and with 20-30% lower oxygen content and aromatic content were obtained that would be suitable as jet fuel precursors. The estimated production cost was found to be competitive with that of other liquid biofuels, while additional revenues could potentially be achieved by also producing chemical and materials from suitable fractions of the lignin-oil.

  • 866.
    Anjou, K
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Aromen hos kött : en litteraturstudie1966Report (Refereed)
  • 867.
    Anjou, K
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Aromen hos några vacciniumarters bär : [The aroma of the berries from som Vaccinium species]1974Report (Refereed)
  • 868.
    Anjou, K
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Industriell saftframställning : en litteraturstudie1966Report (Refereed)
  • 869.
    Anjou, K
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Naturliga variationer i den kemiska sammansättningen hos råsafter av frukt och bär : en litteraturstudie1966Report (Refereed)
  • 870. Anjou, K
    et al.
    von Sydow, E
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Variation in the composition of fruit juices: a study of the literature1966Report (Refereed)
  • 871. Anjou, K.
    et al.
    von Sydow, Erik
    SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    The aroma of cranberries.: 1. Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.1967In: Acta Chemica Scandinavica, ISSN 0904-213X, E-ISSN 1902-3103, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 945-952Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 872. Anjou, K.
    et al.
    von Sydow, Erik
    SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    The aroma of cranberries.: 2. Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.1967In: Acta Chemica Scandinavica, ISSN 0904-213X, E-ISSN 1902-3103, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 2076-2082Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 873. Anjou, K.
    et al.
    von Sydow, Erik
    SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    The aroma of cranberries.: 3. Juice of vaccinium vitis idaea L.1969In: Acta Chemica Scandinavica, ISSN 0904-213X, E-ISSN 1902-3103, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 109-114Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 874. Anjou, K.
    et al.
    von Sydow, Erik
    SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    The aroma of cranberries.: 4. Juice of Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait1968In: Arkiv för Kemi, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 9-14Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 875.
    Ankarling, Olle
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek..
    Ett svenskt sågverks leveransservice. Identifiering och kvantifiering av leveransserviceelement och utveckling av mätmetoder för leveransservice vid sågverk1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fler företag inom träbranschen intresserar sig idag för materialadministration och har som målsättning att minska lager- och transportkostnader samt öka intäkterna genom förbättrad och anpassad leveransservice. Detta arbete handlar om leveransservice vid distribution av sågade trävaror och om hur kraven på den fysiska distributionen varierar och därför bör anpassas för produkt, kund och marknad. Arbetet består av dels en litteraturstudie och dels en fallstudie.

  • 876.
    Ankarson, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    Carlsson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    EMC simulation on component and system level2005Report (Refereed)
  • 877.
    Ankarson, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    Carlsson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    Greencom - WP3 Antenna Studies2010Report (Refereed)
  • 878.
    Ankarson, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    Carlsson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    The safe communication platform2009Report (Refereed)
  • 879.
    Ankarson, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    Carlsson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    Ohlsson, Stefan
    Susceptibility analysis of a wireless car safety related system2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 880. Ankarson, Peter
    et al.
    Liu, Yueqiang
    Carlsson, Jan
    Numerical Study of a PIFA Mounted on a Car Compared to Measurements2005In: 2005 IEEE EMC International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibilit, 2005, , p. 878-882Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 881.
    Anker, M
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Edible and biodegradable films and coatings for food packaging : a literature review1996Report (Refereed)
  • 882.
    Anker, M
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Edible and biodegradable whey protein films as barriers in foods and food packaging2000Report (Refereed)
  • 883. Anker, M.
    et al.
    Berntsen, J.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Improved water vapor barrier of whey protein films by addition of an acetylated monoglyceride2002In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 81-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to determine to what extent the water-vapor barrier of whey protein isolate (WPI) films could be improved by adding a lipid and make laminate and emulsion films. The laminate whey protein-lipid film decreased the water vapor permeability (WVP) 70 times compared with the WPI film. The WVP of the emulsion films was half the value of the WPI film and was not affected by changes in lipid concentration, whereas an increased homogenization led to a slight reduction in WVP. The mechanical properties showed that the lipid functioned as an apparent plasticizer by enhancing the fracture properties of the emulsion films. This effect increased with homogenization. The maximum strain at break was 117% compared with 50% for the less-homogenized emulsion films and 20% for the pure WPI films. Phase-separated emulsion films were produced with a concentration gradient of fat through the films, but pure bilayer films were not formed. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 884. Anker, M.
    et al.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Aging of whey protein films and the effect on mechanical and barrier properties2001In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 989-995Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work focuses on the aging of whey protein isolate (WPI) films plasticized with glycerol (G) and sorbitol (S). The films were cast from heated aqueous solutions at pH 7 and dried at 23 °C and 50% relative humidity (RH) for 16 h. They were stored in a climate room (23 °C, 50% RH) for 120 days, and the film properties were measured at regular intervals. The moisture content (MC) of the WPI/G films decreased from 22% (2 days) to 15% (45 days) and was thereafter constant at 15% (up to 120 days). This affected the mechanical properties and caused an increased stress at break (from 2.7 to 8.3 MPa), a decreased strain at break (from 33 to 4%), and an increased glass transition temperature (T g) (from -56 to -45 °C). The barrier properties were, however, unaffected, with constant water vapor permeability and a uniform film thickness. The MC of the WPI/S films was constant at ?9%, which gave no change in film properties.

  • 885. Anker, M.
    et al.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Effects of pH and the gel state on the mechanical properties, moisture contents, and glass transition temperatures of whey protein films1999In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 1878-1886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical properties, moisture contents (MC), and glass transition temperature (T(g)) of whey protein isolate (WPI) films were studied at various pH values using sorbitol (S) as a plasticizer. The films were cast from heated aqueous solutions and dried in a climate chamber at 23 °C and 50% relative humidity (RH) for 16 h. The critical gel concentrations (c(g)) for the cooled aqueous solutions were found to be 11.7, 12.1, and 11.3% (w/w) WPI for pH 7, 8, and 9, respectively. The cooling rate influenced the c(g), in that a lower amount of WPI was needed for gelation when a slower cooling rate was applied. Both cooling rates used in this study showed a maximum in the c(g) at pH 8. The influence of the polymer network on the film properties was elucidated by varying the concentration of WPI over and under the c(g). Strain at break (?(b)) showed a maximum at the c(g) for all pH values, thus implying that the most favorable structure regarding the ability of the films to stretch is formed at this concentration. Young's modulus (E) and stress at break (?(b)) showed a maximum at c(g) for pH 7 and 8. The MC and ?(b) increased when pH increased from 7 to 9, whereas T(g) decreased. Hence, T(g) values were -17, -18, and -21 °C for pH 7, 8, and 9, respectively. E and ?(b) decreased and ?(b) and thickness increased when the surrounding RH increased. The thickness of the WPI films also increased with the concentration of WPI.

  • 886. Anker, M.
    et al.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Mechanical Properties, Water Vapor Permeability, and Moisture Contents of ?-Lactoglobulin and Whey Protein Films Using Multivariate Analysis1998In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 1820-1829Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical and barrier properties of ?-lactoglobulin (?-Lg) and whey protein isolate (WPI) films were studied using sorbitol (S) as a plasticizer. The films were cast from heated aqueous solutions and dried in a climate chamber at 23 °C and 50% relative humidity for 16 h. The multivariate analysis used has proved to be a valuable tool for evaluating and quantifying the influences of the variables in the specified experimental domain. Two identical factorial designs were applied to evaluate the influence of the concentration of ?-Lg and WPI, the concentration of S, and the pH. The two materials, ?-Lg and WPI, show similar results, which can be attributed to the dominating protein ?-lactoglobulin. At pH 9, Young's modulus and stress at break are not affected when the concentration of ?-Lg, WPI, or S varies. At pH 7 and 8, Young's modulus and stress at break increase when the concentration of ?-Lg and WPI increases, and they decrease when the concentration of S increases. Strain at break increases when pH increases from 7 to 9, a more pronounced effect being observed for the WPI films. Water vapor permeability (WVP) decreases and increases for pH 7 and 9, respectively, as the concentration of ?-Lg and WPI increases. This contrast in behavior at different pH values is probably due to a structural difference that occurs above pH 8. Moisture content and WVP increase when S increases. Here a clear distinction can be observed between the two film materials: the ?-Lg films show higher values for both moisture content and WVP measurements.

  • 887. Anker, M.
    et al.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Relationship between the microstructure and the mechanical and barrier properties of whey protein films2000In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 48, no 9, p. 3806-3816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work was focused on the relationship between the microstructure and the mechanical and barrier properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) films. Sorbitol (S) and glycerol (G) were used as plasticizers and the pH was varied between 7 and 9. The films were cast from heated aqueous solutions and dried in a climate room at 23 °C and 50% relative humidity for 16 h. The microstructure of the films was found to be dependent on the concentration, the plasticizers, and the pH. When the concentration increased, a more aggregated structure was formed, with a denser protein network and larger pores. This resulted in increased water vapor permeability (WVP) and decreased oxygen permeability (OP). When G was used as a plasticizer instead of S, the microstructure was different, and the moisture content and WVP approximately doubled. When the pH increased from 7 to 9, a denser protein structure was formed, the strain at break increased, and the OP decreased.

  • 888.
    Ankerfors, Caroline
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Gimåker, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Östlund, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Polyelectrolyte Multilayers and Other Dosage Strategies: Effects on Properties of Paper Sheets Produced in Pilot Scale Using MillProcess Waters2018In: PaperCon 2018: Shaping the future through innovation, TAPPI , 2018, article id PA3.3Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 889.
    Ankerfors, Caroline
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Wågberg, L.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Polyelectrolyte complexes for tailoring of wood fibre surfaces2014In: Advances in Polymer Science, ISSN 0065-3195, E-ISSN 1436-5030, Vol. 256, p. s.1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) provides new opportunities for surface engineering of solid particles in aqueous environments to functionalize the solids either for use in interactive products or to tailor their adhesive interactions in the dry and/or wet state. This chapter describes the use of PECs in paper-making applications where the PECs are used for tailoring the surfaces of wood-based fibres. Initially a detailed description of the adsorption process is given, in more general terms, and in this respect both in situ formed and pre-formed complexes are considered. When using in situ formed complexes, which were intentionally formed by the addition of oppositely charged polymers, it was established that the order of addition of the two polyelectrolytes was important, and by adding the polycation first a more extensive fibre flocculation was found. PECs can also form in situ by the interaction between polyelectrolytes added and polyelectrolytes already present in the fibre suspension originating from the wood material, e.g. lignosulphonates or hemicelluloses. In this respect the complexation can be detrimental for process efficiency and/or product quality depending on the charge balance between the components, and when using the PECs for fibre engineering it is not recommended to rely on in situ PEC formation. Instead the PECs should be pre-formed before addition to the fibres. The use of pre-formed PECs in the paper-making process is described as three sub-processes: PEC formation, adsorption onto surfaces, and the effect on the adhesion between surfaces. The addition of PECs, and adsorption to the fibres, prior to formation of the paper network structure has shown to result in a significant increase in joint strength between the fibres and to an increased strength of the paper made from the fibres. The increased joint strength between the fibres is due to both an increased molecular contact area between the fibres and an increased molecular adhesion. The increased paper strength is also a result of an increased number of fibre/fibre contacts/unit volume of the paper network. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

  • 890.
    Ankerfors, M.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Duker, E.
    Lindström, T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Topo-chemical modification of fibres by grafting of carboxymethyl cellulose in pilot scale2013In: Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631 , no 1, p. 6-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 891.
    Ankerfors, M.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lindstrom, T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Soderberg, D.
    RISE, Innventia.
    The use of microfibrillated cellulose in high filler fine papers2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 892.
    Ankerfors, M.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lindström, T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Soderberg, D.
    RISE, Innventia.
    The use of microfibrillated cellulose in fine paper manufacturing: Results from a pilot scale papermaking trial2014In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 476-483Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 893.
    Ankerfors, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Aulin, Christian
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE, Innventia.
    Nanocellulose research and developments at Innventia2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 894.
    Ankerfors, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE, Innventia.
    Energy efficient manufacture of microfibrillated cellulose by attachment of carboxymethyl cellulose2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 895. Ankerfors, Mikael
    et al.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE, Innventia.
    Glad Nordmark, Gunborg
    RISE, Innventia.
    Multilayer assembly onto pulp fibres using oppositely charged microfibrillated celluloses, starches, and wetstrength resins’ Effect on mechanical properties of CTMP-sheets2016In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 135-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of multilayering of microfibrillar cellulose (MFC) onto a chemi-thermomechanical pulp (CTMP), from which the fines material had been removed, were investigated with regard to the mechanical properties of hand-sheets. In one series of experiments, the CTMP was multilayered with cationic MFC/anionic MFC (C-MFC/A-MFC) at various addition levels and sheets made in a conventional sheet former, pressed, and dried at room temperature. This experimental series was complemented with a second series, where sheets were made in a Rapid Köthen sheet former. In a third series of experiments, the CTMP was multilayered using a cationic polyamideamine epichlorohydrine resin (PAE) and an AMFC. Sheets were formed using the Rapid Köthen sheet former. Finally, in a fourth series of experiments, the MFC multilayering experiments were compared with multilayering experiments using cationic starch/anionic starch (C-starch/A-Starch). MFC-multilayering (C-MFC/A-MFC) gave inferior strength gain at a low addition level compared to starch multilayering, but (compared on a weight basis) the strength seemed to level off using starches at high addition levels, whereas there were a continuous increase in strength using MFC multilayering. Multilayering using PAE/A-MFC was found to give a higher strength gain than both C-MFC/A-MFC and C-starch/A-starch multilayering. Sheet density was slightly affected (<14%) by the multilayering techniques used in these experiments.

  • 896.
    Ankerfors, Mikael
    et al.
    ÅF Industry, Sweden.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Glad Nordmark, Gunborg
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    The effects of different types of wet-end added microfibrillated celluloses on the properties of paper made from bleached kraft pulp2017In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 336-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has been undertaken to compare the effects of different types of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) on the mechanical properties of paper. Three types of MFC were produced: Enzyme MFC (low anionic charge density), Carboxymethylated MFC (high anionic charge density) and cationic MFC (high cationic charge density). The different MFCs required different retention aid strategies. The simplest retention strategy was selected to secure a high retention of MFC. Some experiments also focused on dewatering and pressability of wet webs with carboxymethylated MFC. Conventional isotropic laboratory handsheets were made using a never-dried unrefined elemental chlorine free (ECF)-bleached softwood kraft pulp. It has been shown that the evolution of the mechanical properties and scattering coefficients when plotted versus MFC content was very similar for the three types. However, Enzyme MFC gave a significantly better reinforcement effect. All three types of MFC had a similar effect on the sheet consolidation, reflected in sheet density. Evaluation of the dewatering and pressability of the wet sheets showed that if the MFC was aggregated by an appropriate retention strategy, the dewatering and pressability were not detrimental to the practical applicability of MFC.

  • 897. Ankersson, Peter
    et al.
    Carlsson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    FDTD-simulation of the electrical environment for vehicles by using CAD-data compared to measurements2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 898.
    Anneling, R
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi.
    Duwe, H
    Factors affecting the anchorage capacity of punched nail plates in Nordic spruce timber1999In: Proceedings of the 1st International RILEM Symposium on Timber engineering, Cachan Cedex : RILEM , 1999, , p. 89-98Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 899.
    Anneling, Roger
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Bärförmåga hos spikförband: Inverkan av virkeskvalitet och fuktkvot1987Report (Refereed)
  • 900.
    Anneling, Roger
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Krypning hos lättbalkar av trä1987Report (Refereed)
15161718192021 851 - 900 of 20511
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