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  • 851.
    Anderzén, Christina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Hellström, Hanna
    Göteborgsregionens kommunalförbund.
    Blom, Angelika
    NSR.
    Matavfallets väg från bord till jord – en översiktlig kartläggning av olika insamlingssystem för källsorterat matavfall från hushåll2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid förbehandling av matavfall uppstår ofta en balansgång mellan att ta bort föroreningar och att minimera förluster av insamlat matavfall. Fler separeringssteg innebär större förluster. Mer kunskap behövs dock kring vilka faktiska förluster av matavfall som görs vid olika typer av förbehandling samt koppling till olika insamlingssystem. Ett väl sorterat matavfall med så lite ovidkommande material som möjligt underlättar fortsatt behandling och möjligheter till avsättning av biogödsel samtidigt som det skapar förutsättningar för mindre förluster. 

    Syftet med insamling av källsorterat matavfall är i första hand att återvinna växtnäring, vilket även kommer att säkerställa produktionen av biogas. I denna rapport följer vi påsen med matavfall från hushållet hela vägen till åkermarken. Projektet har gjort en ansats att försöka beskriva vad som händer längs vägen och utifrån detta bedöma hur det påverkar kvalitén samt vilka förluster som görs i olika steg. Resonemang förs även avseende skillnader mellan de i Sverige vanligaste insamlingssystemen för källsorterat matavfall; fyrfackskärl, separata kärl och olikfärgade påsar för optisk sortering.

    Målet är att kommunerna efter genomläsning ska få en bättre förståelse för hela kedjan ”från bord till jord”. Därmed också att utformningen av egna mål och val av insamlingssystem, i större utsträckning än idag, baseras på en helhetssyn avseende biologisk återvinning där även kvalitetssäkring och förutsättningar för återföring av växtnäring vägs in. Förhoppningen är även att kommuner som redan är igång med insamling av matavfall, ska finna stöd i arbetet med att säkra kvaliteten och mängder då ”från bord till jord” ger en överblick över de olika stegen. 

    Det är så klart önskvärt att så stor andel matavfall som möjligt samlas in och att det är rätt sorterat. Rapporten konstaterar att andra faktorer än typ av insamlingssystem, bl.a. hur man arbetar med information, är viktiga för vilket insamlingsresultat som uppnås. Därmed föreslås att informationsmodeller beaktas vid jämförande studier avseende utsorteringsgrad, mängd och kvalitet. Även resultat vid källsortering av matavfall i större mekaniska system såsom sopsug och underjordsbehållare anpassade för flerbostadshus/tätbebyggda områden bör utvärderas. Detta eftersom dessa system blir allt vanligare särskilt i storstadsregionerna. Förlust av biogaspotential då matavfall mellanlagras har inte utretts vidare i denna rapport och bör också studeras närmare. Vilken påverkan har exempelvis hämtningsintervall och transportsträcka mellan insamling och behandling?

    Sammanfattningsvis kan sägas att det behövs mer kunskap och konkreta siffror längs hela kedjan för biologisk återvinning - från insamling till återföring av växtnäring – för att kunna sätta resultat och kostnader i ett systemperspektiv.

  • 852.
    Anderzén, Christina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Ljung, Emelie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Verktyg för att säkerställa lågt kadmiuminnehåll i biogödsel2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Innehåll av kadmium och fosfor varierar mellan biogödsel från olika samrötningsanläggningar. De substrat som används för biogas- och biogödselproduktion har generellt ett visst innehåll av kadmium. Vidare konstateras att innehållet av kadmium varierar mycket mellan olika substrat. Det är några av slutsatserna från studien som gjorts av SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut och JTI – Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik på uppdrag av Avfall Sverige.

    Vilka substrat som används för produktion av biogödsel och biogas är avgörande för biogödselns kvalitet. En av de viktigaste parametrarna är biogödselns innehåll av kadmium. Eftersom kadmium är en giftig tungmetall vars förekomst och spridning ska minska, ett så kallat utfasningsämne, är minimering av dess förekomst i biogödsel av högsta vikt. En annan avgörande kvalitetsaspekt är biogödselns nytta, det vill säga innehållet av näringsämnen. Innehållet av fosfor är särskilt intressant eftersom det är en ändlig resurs.

    Grundat på dessa förutsättningar ligger fokus i detta projekt främst på innehållet av kadmium och fosfor i biogödsel samt i de substrat och råvaror som används för biogas- och biogödselproduktion. Eftersom kadmium frigörs vid brytning av fosfor har kvoten för innehållet av dessa två ämnen traditionellt använts för beskrivning av handelsgödselns kvalitet. Därför används kadmiumfosforkvoten även i detta projekt.

    Projektets syfte har varit att ta fram underlag och verktyg för att värdera substrat med avseende på deras innehåll av kadmium. Ett beräkningsverktyg för beräkningar av kadmiuminnehåll i substrat och biogödsel har tagits fram. Med hjälp av verktyget beräknas kadmiumfosforkvoten i biogödseln utifrån användarens inmatade värden för ingående substrat alternativt hur tillägg/borttag av ett substrat påverkar biogödselns kvalité. Därutöver har innehållet av kadmium, fosfor och kadmiumfosforkvoten i producerad biogödsel samt i ett urval substrat kartlagts. För biogödsel och för vissa substratkategorier redovisas medel-, maximum- och minimivärden för innehåll av kadmium och fosfor samt kadmium-fosforkvoten. För visa substratkategorier redovisas även medianvärden.

    Följande slutsatser kan dras av studien:

    • Innehåll av kadmium och fosfor samt kadmiumfosforkvoten varierar mellan biogödsel från olika samrötningsanläggningar.
    • De substrat som används för biogas- och biogödselproduktion har generellt ett visst innehåll av kadmium.
    • Innehållet av kadmium varierar mycket mellan olika substrat samtidigt som en variation finns inom olika substratkategorier.
    • Egna analyser eller analyser utförda av leverantören är att föredra vid beräkningar framför medel-, median- maximum och minimivärden eller typvärden för ett visst substrat.

    För att förebygga risken för förhöjda värden av kadmium i biogödseln är det viktigt att arbeta förebyggande och även bedöma substrat utifrån dess innehålla av kadmium och inte enbart biogaspotential. Ensidigt tryck på ökad gasproduktion kan äventyra en hög kvalitet på biogödseln samt möjligheten att återföra växtnäringsämnen.

    Biogödseln uppvisar i flera fall lägre kadmiumfosforkvot än stallgödsel. Ett kraftigt sänkt nationellt gränsvärde för kadmiumfosforkvoten (nu 100 mg Cd/kg P) skulle kunna minska möjligheten att använda organiska gödselmedel med dagens kvalitet.

    Det långsiktiga målet är att kunskapen om olika substrats innehåll av kadmium och dess påverkan på biogödselkvalitén ska öka samt att biogödselns innehåll av kadmium på sikt ska minska.

  • 853. Andon, F T
    et al.
    Kapralov, A A
    Yanamala, N
    Feng, W
    Baygan, A
    Chambers, B J
    Brandner, B. D.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Biodegradation of single-walled carbon nanotubes by eosinophil peroxidase2013In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 9, no 16, p. 2721-2729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) is one of the major oxidant-producing enzymes during inflammatory states in the human lung. The degradation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) upon incubation with human EPO and H2O 2 is reported. Biodegradation of SWCNTs is higher in the presence of NaBr, but neither EPO alone nor H2O2 alone caused the degradation of nanotubes. Molecular modeling reveals two binding sites for SWCNTs on EPO, one located at the proximal side (same side as the catalytic site) and the other on the distal side of EPO. The oxidized groups on SWCNTs in both cases are stabilized by electrostatic interactions with positively charged residues. Biodegradation of SWCNTs can also be executed in an ex vivo culture system using primary murine eosinophils stimulated to undergo degranulation. Biodegradation is proven by a range of methods including transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible-NIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and confocal Raman imaging. Thus, human EPO (in vitro) and ex vivo activated eosinophils mediate biodegradation of SWCNTs: an observation that is relevant to pulmonary responses to these materials. Human eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) is able to degrade SWCNTs in vitro in the presence of H2O2. EPO is one of the major oxidant-generating enzymes present in human lungs during inflammatory states. The biodegradation of SWCNTs is evidenced also in an ex vivo culture system using primary murine eosinophils stimulated to undergo degranulation. These results are relevant to potential respiratory exposure to carbon nanotubes.

  • 854.
    Andrea, Anders
    et al.
    Huawei Technologies Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Manzetti, Sergio
    Fjordforsk AS, Norway.
    A theoretical hypothesis of beverage cooling by reverse heating inconsumer microwave ovens by using fullerenol (polyhydroxylatedfullerenes) dissolved in acetone2018In: International Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 2367-9034, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooling of beverages is of large interest. Here a theoretical idea of how microwave ovens can be usedfor cooling beverages is presented. The proposed theoretical idea based on heat transfer features a microwavesafe (isoprene rubber) torus shaped rubber ring (MWSR) holding a liquid (L) at room temperature. Fullerenoldissolved in acetone (L) inside MWSR (L) will absorb energy directly from the microwave radiation and therebyincrease its temperature. The liquid to be cooled (B) will also absorb energy from the microwave radiation, butthe net effect is the cooling of B as the heat transfer is faster in L than in B due to L’s lower boiling point andheat of vaporization. The cooling fan of the microwave oven facilitates the heat transfer mechanism. Thebeverage B is theoretically cooled from room temperature (20 °C) to around 4 °C in around 58 seconds. Basedon heat absorption of fullerenol—which could be transformed from liquid phase to vapour phase—a beverageliquid (300 g water) in a glass put inside the microwave oven could be cooled (reversely heated) by the heatgenerated by the microwave oven. The user of the proposed method would be able cool 300 ml of beverage toless than 4 °C in just a minute using consumer microwave ovens.

  • 855.
    Andreas, Skälegård
    SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    Kvalitetssäkrad energianvändning Lösningsförslag för P-märkning av byggnaders energieffektivitet2004Report (Refereed)
  • 856.
    Andreasson, L
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Henfridsson, O
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    DIGITAL DIFFERENTIATION, SOFTWARE PRODUCT LINES, AND THE CHALLENGE OF ISOMORPHISM IN INNOVATION: A CASE STUDY2009In: 17th European Conference on Information Systems, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the adoption of software product line engineering to implement digital differentiation of physical products. The introduction of such software-based variety can typically be challenging for firms innovating within the realm of a manufacturing paradigm. In particular, the mutual dependency between the organization design and product design of new product developing firms may counteract attempts to induce change through software product line engineering. On the basis of innovation theory and the notion of isomorphism, the paper presents a case study of digital differentiation at one of the world’s largest automakers, GlobalCarCorp. Relating to the literatures of software product lines and product families, the contribution of the paper is a lens through which to understand the role of isomorphism in implementing digital differentiation in new product development. In addition, practical implications are derived from this in-depth study.

  • 857.
    Andreasson, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Johansson, Lars
    Skador i virkestorkar i betong. Byggnader och utrustning, råd vid reparation och nybyggnad1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Torkningen av virke är kanske den mest kritiska operationen i ett sågverk; kvalitetsmässigt, kostnadsmässigt och kapacitetsmässigt. Själva torkhuset är därför en ytterst angelägen del i ett sågverks anläggningar och produktionsutrustning. Merparten av dessa torkhus är idag byggda i betong. Den miljö - det klimat - som uppstår i torkhuset under torkningsoperationen är ingen sinekur varken för betongen eller för maskin- och elutrustningen. Som en följd av detta, i kombination med ökade torktemperaturer, är många av landets virkestorkar behäftade med grava skador såväl i betongkonstruktioner som på maskin- och elutrustning. Rapporten har delats upp i distinkta kapitel beroende på att de i viss mån vänder sig till olika läsarkategorier. Sist i rapporten finns en bildbilaga.

  • 858.
    Andren, Oliver C J
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ingverud, Tobias
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hult, Daniel
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Bogestål, Yalda
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Caous, Josefin S
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Blom, Kristina
    Medibiome AB, Sweden.
    Zhang, Yuning
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Therese
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Pedersen, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Björn, Camilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Löwenhielm, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Antibiotic-Free Cationic Dendritic Hydrogels as Surgical-Site-Infection-Inhibiting Coatings.2019In: Advanced Healthcare Materials, ISSN 2192-2640, E-ISSN 2192-2659, article id e1801619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A non-toxic hydrolytically fast-degradable antibacterial hydrogel is herein presented to preemptively treat surgical site infections during the first crucial 24 h period without relying on conventional antibiotics. The approach capitalizes on a two-component system that form antibacterial hydrogels within 1 min and consist of i) an amine functional linear-dendritic hybrid based on linear poly(ethylene glycol) and dendritic 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid, and ii) a di-N-hydroxysuccinimide functional poly(ethylene glycol) cross-linker. Broad spectrum antibacterial effect is achieved by multivalent representation of catatonically charged β-alanine on the dendritic periphery of the linear dendritic component. The hydrogels can be applied readily in an in vivo setting using a two-component syringe delivery system and the mechanical properties can accurately be tuned in the range equivalent to fat tissue and cartilage (G' = 0.5-8 kPa). The antibacterial effect is demonstrated both in vitro toward a range of relevant bacterial strains and in an in vivo mouse model of surgical site infection.

  • 859.
    Andreou, Andreas S.
    et al.
    Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Automatic matching of software component requirements using semi-formal specifications and a CBSE ontology2015In: 2015 International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering (ENASE), 2015, p. 118-128Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most significant tasks of component-based software development is concerned with finding suitable components for integration. This paper introduces a novel development framework that promotes reusability and focuses on assessing the suitability level of candidate components. A specifications profile is first created using a semi-formal natural language that describes the desired functional and non-functional properties of the component(s) sought. A parser automatically recognizes parts of the profile and translates them into instance values of a dedicated CBSE ontology, the latter addressing issues of components' reusability. Available components on the market are also stored as instances of the CBSE ontology. Matching between required and offered component properties takes place automatically at the level of the ontology items and a suitability ratio is calculated that suggests which components to consider for integration.

  • 860.
    Andreou, Andreas S.
    et al.
    Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Towards a CBSE Framework for Enhancing Software Reuse: Matching Component Properties Using Semi-Formal Specifications and Ontologies2016In: Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering / [ed] Leszek A. Maciaszek, Joaquim Filipe, Springer-Verlag , 2016, 18, Vol. 599, p. 98-121Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel Component-based Software Engineering (CBSE) framework is proposed in this work that focuses on enhancing the reuse process by offering support for locating appropriate components. The architecture of the framework comprises of five interrelated layers, namely Description, Location, Analysis, Recommendation and Build. The scope of this work is to describe in detail the first and third layers, and provide the means to evaluate the suitability of candidate software components for reuse. The overall aim is to facilitate components’ profiling and offer efficient matching of system and software requirements to increase the reusability potential of components. A specifications profile is created for each component using a semi-formal natural language that describes certain properties. A dedicated parser recognizes parts of the profile and translates them into in-stance values of a dedicated CBSE ontology that encodes these properties. Matching is then performed at the level of ontology instances between the available components and the components required by the developer. The framework recommends components based on a suitability ratio that calculates their distances from the desired properties.

  • 861. Andresen, Geir
    et al.
    Jonasson, Hans
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Akustik (Eta).
    Determination of sound power levels of air terminal units according to ISO 5135 - Nordic interlaboratory test. Nordtest project 968-91. Nordtest technical report 214.1993Report (Refereed)
  • 862.
    André, Alann
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Utilization of National Instrument equipment for strain and load measurement recording2013Report (Refereed)
  • 863.
    André, Alann
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Haghani, R.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Biel, A.
    University of Skövde.
    Application of fracture mechanics to predict the failure load of adhesive joints used to bond CFRP laminates to steel members2012In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 331-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of bolted or welded elements to upgrade metallic structures has been a common practice for many years. Moreover, the use of adhesively bonded carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates, as an alternative method, has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. One important aspect of the design of adhesive joints used to bond CFRP laminates to steel substrates is the determination of the properties of the CFRP/adhesive/steel interfaces, which have not yet been established in codes or standards. The purpose of this paper is experimentally to determine the fracture properties of the adhesive material and to evaluate the accuracy of numerical methods using this information, in order to predict the strength of adhesive joints in steel members bonded with CFRP laminates. The results from four series of experimental tests are compared with numerical results and discussed in terms of load-bearing capacity and failure modes. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 864.
    André, Alann
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Johnsson, H.
    Luleå Univ. of Technology.
    Flax fiber-reinforced glued-laminated timber in tension perpendicular to the grain: Experimental study and probabilistic analysis2010In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 827-835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The weak mechanical properties of wood in tension perpendicular to the grain are often the origin of catastrophic brittle failure. In order to enhance the tension strength perpendicular to the grain and achieve a more ductile failure, flax fiber and glass fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites were used to strengthen glue-laminated (glulam) timber specimens. Three series of specimen of glulam timber (flax fiber reinforced, glass fiber reinforced, and unreinforced), with a grand total of 28 specimens, were tested in tension perpendicular to the grain. For an approximate amount of FRP reinforcement of 1.2% in volume (thickness of ∼0.7 mm), an increase of the tensile strength of up to 74% was shown, with a stiffness increase of up to 41%. For all reinforced specimens, semiductile failures were observed. A parametric study was carried out using both the Monte Carlo (MC) method and the first-order second moment (FOSM) method. It is shown that the mean values obtained during experiments are in agreement with those from the MC simulation. However, the standard deviations from the MC simulation are larger. From the FOSM analysis, it is demonstrated that the variation in glulam stiffness perpendicular to the grain is not the first parameter driving the variation for the reinforced system. The variation in mechanical properties of the flax fibers appeared to be the driving parameter for the strength of the system. © 2010 ASCE.

  • 865.
    André, Alann
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Kliger, R.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Asp, Leif
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Compression failure mechanism in small scale timber specimens2014In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 50, p. 130-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the failure mechanism of wood loaded in compression parallel to the grain has been shown to be an important parameter in the design of timber beams strengthened with fibre-reinforced plastics (FRP). In this paper, a constitutive relationship for wood under uniaxial compression load parallel to the grain was determined experimentally. Several parameters, such as silviculture, moisture content and radial position in the log in relation to the pith from where the specimen was sawn, were considered. Small clear-wood specimens were used. The strain localisation in the failure region (kinkband) was monitored using the digital image correlation method. The results show that silviculture and moisture content are two very important parameters which influence the compression failure mechanism. Furthermore, there is a significant difference in behaviour between specimens from the juvenile region of the log and specimens from mature wood. Based on experimental results, two numerical models were built, considering either a global or a local constitutive relationship. It was demonstrated that both numerical models yield accurate results and that, depending on the experimental equipment available, a constitutive relationship could be extracted and used as input in these numerical models. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 866.
    André, Alann
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Kliger, R.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Haghani, R.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Timber reinforced FRP: Compression failure mechanism2012In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering, CICE 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When it comes to strengthening, structural timber engineering has seen polymer composite materials becoming key materials over the last decades. A great number of studies have already shown that the majority of the results were promising. Several strengthening systems applied to structural timber or glued-laminated timber beams revealed that the ultimate failure mode remains in tension regardless of the reinforced system. However, the collapse can be controlled and postponed by optimising the strengthening system. It has been shown that strengthening timber on the tension and compression side simultaneously increases the stiffness and moment capacity more than if the reinforcement was only positioned on the tension side. This is mainly due to the ductility of wood in compression which is fully utilised when strengthening is located on both sides. The main objective behind this study is to develop an experimental method to determine the compressive behaviour of small clear timber specimens reinforced with CFRP.

  • 867.
    André, Alann
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Kliger, R.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Olsson, Robin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Compression failure mechanism in small-scale wood specimens reinforced with CFRP: An experimental study2013In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 41, p. 790-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optimal use of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) when strengthening timber beams loaded in bending involves considering placing the reinforcement on both the tension and the compression side, in order to utilise the ductile compression failure of the wood to the full. In this respect, a knowledge and understanding of the compression failure mechanism of the timber/CFRP system becomes a point of paramount importance. However, no testing method specific to the compression loading of small wood specimens reinforced with CFRP is currently available. This investigation focuses on the experimental developments of the geometry and test set-up necessary in order to determine the compression failure mechanism of small wood block specimens reinforced with CFRP loaded in compression parallel to the grain. The method is based on an existing testing method for unreinforced wood specimens. The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method is used to monitor deformation during experiments. The experimental results of reinforced specimens are compared with those of paired unreinforced specimens tested in a previous study. The experimental method presented in this study shows that specific geometry and test considerations must be implemented when compared with the existing method for unreinforced specimens. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 868.
    André, Alann
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Nilsson, Sören
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Asp, Leif
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Finite element delamination study of a notched composite plate under flexural loads2009In: ICCM International Conferences on Composite MaterialsConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The delamination process in notched composite plates under flexural loading has been investigated using finite element analysis. Cohesive elements implemented in the commercial finite element package ABAQUS have been used in the region around the drilled-hole, and positioned between layers where delamination was observed during experiments presented in an accompanying paper. The delamination initiation and subsequent propagation was studied between the layers at the tension side separately and simultaneously. For all FE models, the load displacement curve was in good agreement with the one from experiments. However, the amount of damage reported from the fractography study was more extensive than that predicted by the models. Finally, it was shown that the models with only one cohesive layer show significantly different results to that of the model with four cohesive layers in terms of size of the degradation area.

  • 869. Andrén, B
    et al.
    Brunnstrom, Kjell
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Wang, K
    Readability of displays in bright outdoor surroundings SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers2014In: SID Display Week 2014, 2014, p. 1100-1103Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 870. Andrén, B
    et al.
    Wang, K
    Brunnstrom, Kjell
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Characterizations of 3D TV: Active vs passive2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 871.
    Andrén, B
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo, Broadband Technology.
    Wang, K
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo, Broadband Technology.
    Brunnström, K
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo, Broadband Technology.
    Rydell, N
    Fuller, S
    A comparison of visual ergonomic measurements between active and passive 3DTV2011In: EURODISPLAY 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 872.
    Angervall, T
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Förenklad metod för klimat-/GWP-beräkningar av livsmedel : slutrapport, ver 12011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att genomföra livscykelanalyser enligt gängse standarder och metoder är ofta mycket resurskrävande. För företag med många och sammansatta produkter är det inte realistiskt att ta fram LCA-baserade resultat för alla deras olika produkter, inte ens om de är inriktade mot enbart klimatpåverkan. För att livsmedelsföretagen ändå ska kunna ta fram LCA-baserade underlag och resultat om deras produkters klimatpåverkan finns det därför behov av en förenklad modell för GWP-beräkningar. SIK’s projekt om att ta fram en ny och enklare metod för att beräkna livsmedelsprodukters klimatpåverkan/ GWP i ett livscykelperspektiv som ett alternativ till fullständiga livscykelanalyser enligt ISO 14040-43 och PAS 2050. Det huvudsakliga målet har varit att livsmedelsföretagen på ett enklare, snabbare och billigare sätt skall kunna få trovärdiga underlag och fakta med god kvalitet om sina produkters klimatpåverkan. Övriga mål i projektet har varit att öka kunskapen om olika livsmedels klimatpåverkan i ett livscykelperspektiv genom att studera livsmedels-produkter som tidigare inte har analyserats ur ett LCA-perspektiv.

  • 873.
    Angervall, T
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Mat och klimat : en sammanfattning om matens klimatpåverkan i ett livscykelperspektiv2008Report (Other academic)
  • 874.
    Angervall, T
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Utveckling av förbättringsarbetet i befintliga miljöledningssystem inom livsmedelsindustrin2004Report (Other academic)
  • 875.
    Angré, Alexander
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Ahlfors, Magnus
    QuintusTechnologies AB, Sweden.
    Chasoglou, Dimitri
    Höganäs AB, Sweden.
    Larsson, Linn
    AB Sandvik Technologies Material, Sweden.
    Claesson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Karlsson, Oskar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Phase transformation under isostatic pressure in HIP2017In: Powder Metallurgy, ISSN 0032-5899, E-ISSN 1743-2901, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 167-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new HIP cooling systems enable very fast cooling rates under isostatic pressure. This does not only enable shorter HIP cycles but also allows complete heat treatment cycles to be performed in one HIP cycle. It has been shown in previous studies that extreme pressures of several thousand bar can push phase transformation towards longer times. The new URQ HIP cooling systems give the opportunity to investigate the impact of pressures up to 2000 bar on phase transformation time dependency. For each of the two materials in this study, a comparison of austenite phase transformation time at 100 and 1700 bar was performed. The study was performed by isothermal heat treatment of specimens for a specific time followed by quenching. To evaluate the influence of pressure on hardenability, the phase fractions were evaluated using grid method on SEM images. The study found significant influence of HIP pressure on hardenability.

  • 876.
    Anheden, Marie
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ehn, Christian
    RISE, Innventia.
    The role of intermediate products in biorefinery development: Kraft lignin and pyrolysis oil as intermediates for production of naphtha cracker feed from forest-based raw materials2015In: NWBC 2015. Proceedings of the 6th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Helsinki, Finland, 20-22 Oct. 2015, 2015, p. 210-219Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has been undertaken to estimate key performance factors important for development of biomass value chains with intermediate products. In the case selected, the end-product had to be suitable as feed product to a naphtha cracker. Pyrolysis oil and kraft lignin were the investigated intermediates, while yield, cost and carbon dioxide footprint were compared with direct production of bio naphtha from forest residues at the petrochemical plant and fossil naphtha. Three bio-based value chains were evaluated: without intermediate; with pyrolysis oil as intermediate; and with kraft lignin separated from black liquor as intermediate. Innventia AB's simulation model in WinGEMS was used to simulate the hypothetical reference pulp mill and the effects of integration with the lignin removal (LignoBoost) and pyrolysis equipment. It has been concluded that the use of intermediates produced integrated with decentralised local industrial plants could reduce total cost and carbon dioxide emissions of transporting forest based biomass to a centrally located conversion plant. However, the economic benefit was not very large compared with the overall value chain cost to produce the final product. Kraft lignin from pulp production was a very interesting intermediate, particularly in the case of the economic benefit

  • 877.
    Anheden, Marie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Kulander, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Wallinder, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Vamling, Lennart
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hjerpe, Carl Johan
    F Industri, Sweden.
    Fugelsang, Malin
    F Industri, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Åsa
    Preem, Sweden.
    Evaluation of alternative routes for production of bio-oil from forest residues and kraft lignin2018In: The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference: NWBC 2018 : proceedings / [ed] Hytönen Eemeli, Vepsäläinen Jessica, Espoo: VTT , 2018, p. 85-89Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 878.
    Anheden, Marie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Uhlin, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Wolf, Jens
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Hedberg, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Berg, Robert
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Ankner, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Berglin, Niklas
    NiNa Innovation, Sweden; ÅF Industry, Sweden.
    von Schenck, Anna
    NiNa Innovation, Sweden; ÅF Industry, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anders L
    Valmet AB, Sweden.
    Guimaraes, Matheus
    Fibria, Sweden.
    Fiskerud, Maria
    Karlstad Airport, Sweden.
    Andersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Value chain for production of bio-oil from kraft lignin for use as bio-jet fuel2017In: The 7th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Stockholm, Sweden, 28-30 Mar. 2017: NWBC 2017, Stockholm: RISE Bioekonomi , 2017, p. 104-109Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The LignoJet project aimed to achieve an intermediate lignin-oil product miscible with fossil feedstock and with a significantly reduced oxygen content. A technical concept for production has been studied that involves combined catalysed depolymerisation and hydrodeoxygenation, so called hydrogenolytic depolymerisation, of kraft lignin. Kraft lignin was separated through membrane ultrafiltration from softwood and eucalyptus black liquor followed by precipitation through LignoBoost technology. A difference in lignin properties was observed between ultrafiltration of softwood and eucalyptus black liquor through 15 and 150kDa ceramic membranes. Lignin-oils with similar oxygen content were produced regardless of origin and fractionation technique. A lignin-oil with favourable properties as precursor for refinery integration for jet fuel production as produced in small-scale batch experiments using nickel-based catalyst. Stable pumpable oils with melting point of less than 25-50 deg C and with 20-30% lower oxygen content and aromatic content were obtained that would be suitable as jet fuel precursors. The estimated production cost was found to be competitive with that of other liquid biofuels, while additional revenues could potentially be achieved by also producing chemical and materials from suitable fractions of the lignin-oil.

  • 879.
    Anjou, K
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Aromen hos kött : en litteraturstudie1966Report (Refereed)
  • 880.
    Anjou, K
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Aromen hos några vacciniumarters bär : [The aroma of the berries from som Vaccinium species]1974Report (Refereed)
  • 881.
    Anjou, K
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Industriell saftframställning : en litteraturstudie1966Report (Refereed)
  • 882.
    Anjou, K
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Naturliga variationer i den kemiska sammansättningen hos råsafter av frukt och bär : en litteraturstudie1966Report (Refereed)
  • 883. Anjou, K
    et al.
    von Sydow, E
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Variation in the composition of fruit juices: a study of the literature1966Report (Refereed)
  • 884. Anjou, K.
    et al.
    von Sydow, Erik
    SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    The aroma of cranberries.: 1. Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.1967In: Acta Chemica Scandinavica, ISSN 0904-213X, E-ISSN 1902-3103, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 945-952Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 885. Anjou, K.
    et al.
    von Sydow, Erik
    SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    The aroma of cranberries.: 2. Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.1967In: Acta Chemica Scandinavica, ISSN 0904-213X, E-ISSN 1902-3103, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 2076-2082Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 886. Anjou, K.
    et al.
    von Sydow, Erik
    SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    The aroma of cranberries.: 3. Juice of vaccinium vitis idaea L.1969In: Acta Chemica Scandinavica, ISSN 0904-213X, E-ISSN 1902-3103, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 109-114Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 887. Anjou, K.
    et al.
    von Sydow, Erik
    SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    The aroma of cranberries.: 4. Juice of Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait1968In: Arkiv för Kemi, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 9-14Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 888.
    Ankarling, Olle
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek..
    Ett svenskt sågverks leveransservice. Identifiering och kvantifiering av leveransserviceelement och utveckling av mätmetoder för leveransservice vid sågverk1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fler företag inom träbranschen intresserar sig idag för materialadministration och har som målsättning att minska lager- och transportkostnader samt öka intäkterna genom förbättrad och anpassad leveransservice. Detta arbete handlar om leveransservice vid distribution av sågade trävaror och om hur kraven på den fysiska distributionen varierar och därför bör anpassas för produkt, kund och marknad. Arbetet består av dels en litteraturstudie och dels en fallstudie.

  • 889.
    Ankarson, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    Carlsson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    EMC simulation on component and system level2005Report (Refereed)
  • 890.
    Ankarson, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    Carlsson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    Greencom - WP3 Antenna Studies2010Report (Refereed)
  • 891.
    Ankarson, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    Carlsson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    The safe communication platform2009Report (Refereed)
  • 892.
    Ankarson, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    Carlsson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    Ohlsson, Stefan
    Susceptibility analysis of a wireless car safety related system2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 893. Ankarson, Peter
    et al.
    Liu, Yueqiang
    Carlsson, Jan
    Numerical Study of a PIFA Mounted on a Car Compared to Measurements2005In: 2005 IEEE EMC International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibilit, 2005, , p. 878-882Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 894.
    Anker, M
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Edible and biodegradable films and coatings for food packaging : a literature review1996Report (Refereed)
  • 895.
    Anker, M
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Edible and biodegradable whey protein films as barriers in foods and food packaging2000Report (Refereed)
  • 896. Anker, M.
    et al.
    Berntsen, J.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Improved water vapor barrier of whey protein films by addition of an acetylated monoglyceride2002In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 81-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to determine to what extent the water-vapor barrier of whey protein isolate (WPI) films could be improved by adding a lipid and make laminate and emulsion films. The laminate whey protein-lipid film decreased the water vapor permeability (WVP) 70 times compared with the WPI film. The WVP of the emulsion films was half the value of the WPI film and was not affected by changes in lipid concentration, whereas an increased homogenization led to a slight reduction in WVP. The mechanical properties showed that the lipid functioned as an apparent plasticizer by enhancing the fracture properties of the emulsion films. This effect increased with homogenization. The maximum strain at break was 117% compared with 50% for the less-homogenized emulsion films and 20% for the pure WPI films. Phase-separated emulsion films were produced with a concentration gradient of fat through the films, but pure bilayer films were not formed. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 897. Anker, M.
    et al.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Aging of whey protein films and the effect on mechanical and barrier properties2001In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 989-995Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work focuses on the aging of whey protein isolate (WPI) films plasticized with glycerol (G) and sorbitol (S). The films were cast from heated aqueous solutions at pH 7 and dried at 23 °C and 50% relative humidity (RH) for 16 h. They were stored in a climate room (23 °C, 50% RH) for 120 days, and the film properties were measured at regular intervals. The moisture content (MC) of the WPI/G films decreased from 22% (2 days) to 15% (45 days) and was thereafter constant at 15% (up to 120 days). This affected the mechanical properties and caused an increased stress at break (from 2.7 to 8.3 MPa), a decreased strain at break (from 33 to 4%), and an increased glass transition temperature (T g) (from -56 to -45 °C). The barrier properties were, however, unaffected, with constant water vapor permeability and a uniform film thickness. The MC of the WPI/S films was constant at ?9%, which gave no change in film properties.

  • 898. Anker, M.
    et al.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Effects of pH and the gel state on the mechanical properties, moisture contents, and glass transition temperatures of whey protein films1999In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 1878-1886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical properties, moisture contents (MC), and glass transition temperature (T(g)) of whey protein isolate (WPI) films were studied at various pH values using sorbitol (S) as a plasticizer. The films were cast from heated aqueous solutions and dried in a climate chamber at 23 °C and 50% relative humidity (RH) for 16 h. The critical gel concentrations (c(g)) for the cooled aqueous solutions were found to be 11.7, 12.1, and 11.3% (w/w) WPI for pH 7, 8, and 9, respectively. The cooling rate influenced the c(g), in that a lower amount of WPI was needed for gelation when a slower cooling rate was applied. Both cooling rates used in this study showed a maximum in the c(g) at pH 8. The influence of the polymer network on the film properties was elucidated by varying the concentration of WPI over and under the c(g). Strain at break (?(b)) showed a maximum at the c(g) for all pH values, thus implying that the most favorable structure regarding the ability of the films to stretch is formed at this concentration. Young's modulus (E) and stress at break (?(b)) showed a maximum at c(g) for pH 7 and 8. The MC and ?(b) increased when pH increased from 7 to 9, whereas T(g) decreased. Hence, T(g) values were -17, -18, and -21 °C for pH 7, 8, and 9, respectively. E and ?(b) decreased and ?(b) and thickness increased when the surrounding RH increased. The thickness of the WPI films also increased with the concentration of WPI.

  • 899. Anker, M.
    et al.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Mechanical Properties, Water Vapor Permeability, and Moisture Contents of ?-Lactoglobulin and Whey Protein Films Using Multivariate Analysis1998In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 1820-1829Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical and barrier properties of ?-lactoglobulin (?-Lg) and whey protein isolate (WPI) films were studied using sorbitol (S) as a plasticizer. The films were cast from heated aqueous solutions and dried in a climate chamber at 23 °C and 50% relative humidity for 16 h. The multivariate analysis used has proved to be a valuable tool for evaluating and quantifying the influences of the variables in the specified experimental domain. Two identical factorial designs were applied to evaluate the influence of the concentration of ?-Lg and WPI, the concentration of S, and the pH. The two materials, ?-Lg and WPI, show similar results, which can be attributed to the dominating protein ?-lactoglobulin. At pH 9, Young's modulus and stress at break are not affected when the concentration of ?-Lg, WPI, or S varies. At pH 7 and 8, Young's modulus and stress at break increase when the concentration of ?-Lg and WPI increases, and they decrease when the concentration of S increases. Strain at break increases when pH increases from 7 to 9, a more pronounced effect being observed for the WPI films. Water vapor permeability (WVP) decreases and increases for pH 7 and 9, respectively, as the concentration of ?-Lg and WPI increases. This contrast in behavior at different pH values is probably due to a structural difference that occurs above pH 8. Moisture content and WVP increase when S increases. Here a clear distinction can be observed between the two film materials: the ?-Lg films show higher values for both moisture content and WVP measurements.

  • 900. Anker, M.
    et al.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Relationship between the microstructure and the mechanical and barrier properties of whey protein films2000In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 48, no 9, p. 3806-3816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work was focused on the relationship between the microstructure and the mechanical and barrier properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) films. Sorbitol (S) and glycerol (G) were used as plasticizers and the pH was varied between 7 and 9. The films were cast from heated aqueous solutions and dried in a climate room at 23 °C and 50% relative humidity for 16 h. The microstructure of the films was found to be dependent on the concentration, the plasticizers, and the pH. When the concentration increased, a more aggregated structure was formed, with a denser protein network and larger pores. This resulted in increased water vapor permeability (WVP) and decreased oxygen permeability (OP). When G was used as a plasticizer instead of S, the microstructure was different, and the moisture content and WVP approximately doubled. When the pH increased from 7 to 9, a denser protein structure was formed, the strain at break increased, and the OP decreased.

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