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  • 51.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    Prediction of load bearing resistance of timber beams in fire2010Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 52.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Fragiacomo, Massimo
    University of Sassari, Italy.
    The reduced cross-section method for evaluation of the fire resistance of timber members: Discussion and determination of the zero-strength layer2015Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 51, nr 6, s. 1285-1309Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The reduced cross-section method (RCSM) is included in Eurocode 5 (EN-1995-1-2) for the design of timber members in fire conditions. The method considers the strength and stiffness reduction beneath the charred layer by adding an additional depth (known as the ‘zero-strength’ layer) to the charring depth. The zero-strength layer is one of the key parameters for the fire design of timber members. Recently, some concerns have been raised that the zero-strength layer might be non-conservative in some applications. This paper presents the background to the RCSM, followed by a short discussion on the mechanical assumptions, simplifications and possible limitations of the method itself. Further, it discusses determination of the zero-strength layer thickness for members in bending, tension and compression, and provides guidelines on the use of standard experimental tests to determine this quantity. For demonstration of the determination procedure, the results of fire tests in bending, tension and compression were analysed following the described procedure. Results show that the zero-strength layer exceeds the value used in practice, indicate that the method of Eurocode 5 may be non-conservative and should be revised.

  • 53.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Klippel, Michael
    Fragiacomo, Massimo
    Lange, David
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Verification of the load-bearing resistance of timber members by means of the reduced cross-section method – Background to the Eurocode model and comparison to fire tests in bending2013Ingår i: 8th International Conference on Structures in Fire, Tongji University , 2013, , s. 8Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 54.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Fire exposed wooden I-joists for wall assemblies2011Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 55.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    Model scale fire tests of Isover Ulitmate - Part 1.1. Effective material properties in the fire situation2010Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 56.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    Model scale fire tests of Isover Ulitmate - Part 1.2. Load Bearing Tests2010Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 57.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Klippel, Michael
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Comparison of test results and the Reduced Cross-Section Method using a zero-strength layer2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the 1st European Workshop Fire Safety of Green Buildings, Shaker , 2014, , s. 51-53Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 58.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Klippel, Michael
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Frangi, Andrea
    Comparison of the fire resistance of timber members in tests and calculation models2013Ingår i: Proc of International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction, 2013, s. 365-378Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 59.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Klippel, Michael
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Frangi, Andrea
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Review and analysis of fire resistance tests of timber members in bending, tension and compression with respect to the Reduced Cross-Section Method2014Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 68, s. 81-99Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Reduced Cross-Section Method (RCSM) provides a popular method for the design of timber members exposed to fire, using an effective cross-section and mechanical properties at normal temperature. The RCSM was adopted from a single publication and was originally developed for single-span beams exposed to bending load. It has been introduced in Eurocode 5 for a large range of timber members, including columns under compression and members under tension. Recently, the applicability of the method and its extended applications were called into question on the basis of limitations and contradictions found by advanced simulations. This paper analyses a total of 153 fire resistance tests (117 members in bending, six members in compression and 30 members in tension) with respect to the RCSM. The analysis shows that (i) most of the references are of too poor quality, or are incomplete, to validate a design model, (ii) results with adequate information content showed a significant deviation from the RCSM, and (iii) that the RCSM may lead to a non-conservative design. For members in tension, results fit well with the RCSM, while significant deviations were found for members in compression. Members in bending show very large scatter. It is therefore recommended that the existing design approach inEurocode 5 should be revised in order to include the results of advanced calculations and appropriate tests.

  • 60.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Frangi, Andrea
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Tiso, Mattia
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Simulation of the Fire Resistance of Cross-laminated Timber (CLT)2018Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 54, nr 5, s. 1113-1148Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-laminated timber, typical abbreviations CLT or XLAM, is currently one of the most innovative product in building with wood. This solid engineered timber product provides advantages compared to other solid timber slabs as the dimension stability, i.e. swelling and shrinkage, is controlled by the crosswise laminations. As for other components, the fire resistance has to be verified for this type of product. While fire testing is time consuming and costly, simulations provide flexibility to optimize the product or to develop simplified design models for structural engineers. In this paper, a simulation technique is presented which can be used to determine the fire resistance of CLT. The technique was then used to develop simplified design equations to be used by engineers to predict the behavior of CLT in fire resistance tests and verify its fire resistance. Following existing models, the simplified design model aims for a two-step process whereby in a (i) first step the residual cross section and in (ii) a second step the load bearing capacity of the partly heated residual cross section is determined. The presented simulations consider the effective thermal–mechanical characteristics of wood exposed to standard fire and perform an advanced section analysis using a temperature profile corresponding to the actual protection and the location of the centroid together with the possibility of plasticity on the side of compression. It was shown that simulation results agree well with test results and that they can be used to determine layup specific modification factors used by the reduced properties method or zero-strength layers used by the effective cross section method. It was shown that the use of the zero-strength layers is favorable compared to the modification factors to calculate the resistance of the residual cross section. This is due to the large range of modification factors answering the typical layup of CLT comprising layers with their fiber direction cross the span direction. Subsequently, the methodology was used to determine design equations for initially unprotected and protected three-, five- and seven-layer CLT in bending and buckling. While the zero-strength layer for glulam beams in bending is assumed to be 7 mm (0.3 in), for CLT the corresponding value is in most of the cases between 5 mm and 12 mm but is different for other loading modes such as buckling (wall elements) and depending on the applied protection.

  • 61.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    The Reduced Cross-Section Method for the Design of Timber Structures Exposed to Fire–Background, Limitations and New Developments2012Ingår i: Structural Engineering International, ISSN 1016-8664, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 514-522Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The load resistance of timber members exposed to fire is determined from the uncharred residual cross section. Owing to elevated temperatures in parts of the residual cross section, the strength and stiffness properties are lower than under normal conditions. The effective residual cross-section model provides a simplified user -friendly design concept to account for the reduced properties of timber exposed to fire. A fictitious zero-strength layer is removed from the residual cross section obtained after removal of the char layer, and the remaining cross section is assumed to have normal strength and stiffness properties. The method is implemented in Eurocode 5 as the reduced cross-section method. This paper deals with the background of this method, originally developed for rectangular cross sections of glued laminated timber, and shows extensions to other types of cross sections such as solid timber frame members and I-joists. While the thickness of the zero-strength layer was originally given as 7,6 mm, the results of simulations presented here show that the thickness of the zero-strength layer depends on a number of parameters, such as the dimensions and geometry of the cross section, the stress conditions (compression or tension) of the fire-expose d side(s), the load ratio and the duration of fire exposure. It is concluded that the assumption of a fixed value of 7,6 mm is often non-conservative.

  • 62.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Menis, Agnese
    Fragiacomo, Massimo
    Boström, Lars
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Bochicchio, Giovanna
    The load-bearing performance of CLT wall elements in full-scale fire tests2013Ingår i: Interflam 2013, Interscience Communications , 2013, , s. 1143-1155Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 63.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioekonomi, Biobaserade material.
    Noren, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Liblik, Johanna
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Brandon, Daniel
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Small-scale test method for the fire behaviour of woodadhesive bonds in CLT2018Ingår i: Book of abstracts of the final conference COST FP1404”Fire Safe Use of Bio-Based Building Products”, 2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing use of cross laminated timber (CLT) in the building sector. CLT is a wood panel product made from layers of solid lumber boards. Each layer of boards is oriented perpendicular to adjacent layers and glued on the wide faces of each board. It has been recognised that different adhesive systems have different behaviour in fire; especially that delamination behaviour of CLT can be avoided by choosing a suitable adhesive system. The best method for evaluation of the delamination is a full‐scale fire test, but considering the high costs of such tests, it is of the utmost importance to develop small‐scale methods for evaluating the adhesive bond properties in fire. The intention is that such small‐scale methods should provide the same results as full‐scale tests. A new, smaller scale method for classifying adhesives with respect to  fire properties would also simplify  the planning of  full scale  tests. Previous  tested small‐scale method for evaluation of finger joints is presented in (1).  In this study, a small‐scale fire test methodology for evaluation of CLT adhesive bond performance in  fire  is  introduced  (2).  The  aim  was  to  demonstrate  an  easy  tool  to  distinguish  between  fire resistant adhesive bonds and non‐fire‐resistant bonds, especially with respect to delamination. The cone heater of a cone calorimeter was used to carry out the tests. Cone calorimeter in accordance with ISO 5660 is one of the most widely used bench‐scale instrument in fire research. This small‐scale  device  has  several  advantages  over  larger‐scale  tests  thanks  to  its  fast,  simple  and  cost‐efficient manner to investigate basic material properties.  

  • 64.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Olofsson, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Nurk, Jane Liise
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Öberg Månsson, Ingrid (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Small-scale tests with adhesive bonds with CLT, GLTand finger joints2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood construction is growing rapidly and provides a substantial contribution to the development of a more sustainable construction sector. Several modern wood-based building systems are developed with a focus on tall wooden houses and industrial production, where glued products are an important part. Fire safety is important, but the adhesive properties in fire conditions are not fully understood. This applies in particular to new adhesive systems but also to existing ones that exhibit poor load carrying capacity in a fire. The problem has been noted by the FSUW (Fire Safe Use of Wood) global network, which formed a sub-group of “Glue-line failure of engineered wood products” with representatives from Australia, NZ, Canada, USA, France, Italy, Switzerland, Sweden, and Germany. The global network has gathered knowledge and experience from known cases of fire testing of glued wood components (especially glulam, finger joints, and CLT) and has defined research needs. The results highlighted by this group relate to the delamination of glued bonds in a fire which can cause increased charring of glued wood products, especially for CLT. The results show that the temperature during standard fire testing increases continuously without cooling phase and with delamination of CLT until a collapse of the structure occurs. Thicker CLT may be required to reduce delamination risks or to protect the wood material. This can lead to increased costs and greater weight of the construction as well as reduced possibility of using visible wood. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance to find methods for evaluating the adhesive bond properties in a fire. The hypothesis is that different adhesive systems have different behaviour in fire, and especially that delamination behaviour can be avoided by choosing a suitable adhesive system. The best method for the evaluation of fire delamination is a full-scale test, but considering the high costs of such full-scale tests, a smaller-scale test needs to be developed. The intention of FIRENWOOD project is that such small-scale methods should give the same results as full-scale tests. A new, smaller-scale method for classifying adhesives concerning fire properties would also simplify the planning of full-scale tests. In Work Package 3 of FIRENWOOD project, some small-scale fire testing methods for adhesive bonds were evaluated at RISE, and this report includes results from small-scale fire tests of adhesive bonds in finger joints, CLT and GLT. The report is organized in three chapters based on the three different products tested. The common for all three tests was that the same eleven adhesive systems were used in all adhesive bonds.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 65.
    Sæter Bøe, Andreas
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Nele Mäger, Katrin
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Leikanger Friquin, Kathinka
    SINTEF Community, Norway.
    Just, Alar
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    FRIC Webinar : Charring of wooden I-joists in assemblies with combustible insulation2021Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
    Ladda ner fulltext (mp4)
    fulltext
  • 66.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Brandstopp i modulbyggnader2016Ingår i: Bygg & teknik, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Bristande brandteknisk funktion hos byggnadstekniska detaljlösningar är ofta en starkt bidragande orsak till brandspridning. Flera incidenter de senaste åren visar tydligt att byggsystem med hålrum kan ha stor inverkan på brandförloppet och medföra stora egendomsskador i alla typer av byggnader. Befintliga rekommendationer om att brandstopp måste installeras i hålrum för att hindra att dolda bränder uppstår och sprids mellan brandceller följs tyvärr ofta inte inom praktiskt byggande.brandprovning.

  • 67.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Fire safety in timber buildings. Technical guideline for Europe. Estonian summary2010Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 68.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Brandsäkra trähus 3 – nordisk-baltisk handbok2012Ingår i: Bygg & teknik, nr 6, s. 62-66Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 69.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Brandsäkra trähus 3: nordisk-baltisk kunskapsöversikt och vägledning2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Handbokens syfte är at ge praktisk vägledning och råd om dimensionering av träkonstruktioner och träprodukter för att uppfylla krav på brandsäkerhet i de nordiska och baltiska länderna med europeiska klasser och dimensioneringsmetoder, både enligt Eurokod 5 och enligt nya beräkningsmetoder som ännu inte ingår i Eurokod 5. Detaljlösningar är dessutom viktiga, vilket betonas särskilt.

  • 70.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Tuleohutud puitmajad, 3. VERSIOON2013Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 71.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linneaus University, Sweden.
    Schmid, Joakim
    ETH, Switzerland.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH, Switzerland.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety. TUT Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Werther, Norman
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Fire design of CLT in Europe2018Ingår i: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 50, s. 68-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The fire safety design of cross-laminated timber (CLT or X-Lam) in Europe is governed by the Construction Products Regulation and its essential requirements, as for all other building products. These requirements are mandatory, to be used in all European countries. They include classification systems for reaction to fire of building products, fire resistance of building elements, and structural Eurocodes. The reaction-to-fire performance of CLT in accordance with the European classification system is specified. Higher classes can be reached by chemical treatments, but the durability of the reaction-to-fire performance needs to be fulfilled according to a new European system. The fire resistance design of CLT building elements is not included in Eurocode 5, the structural Eurocode for timber, but can be either tested according to European standards or calculated by using design methods being developed recently. This article provides information about both reaction to fire and fire resistance of CLT in Europe. Furthermore, the importance of proper detailing in building design and in practice is stressed. Finally, performance-based design is introduced and some further research needs suggested.

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