Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
12345 51 - 100 av 219
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 51.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Organisational learning without fire?: Risk analyses as a basis for developing crisis management capabilities2023Ingår i: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 163, artikel-id 106144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk analyses are seen as a vital tool for crisis prevention and developing capability to respond to future crises. In Sweden, all municipalities are required to perform risk and vulnerability analyses as a basis for their crisis management work. The aim of this paper is to study how and why a risk and vulnerability analysis can become a part of an organisational process for learning how to prevent and prepare for crises. This is done through a study of civil servants in Swedish municipalities and county administrative boards about how they develop and use risk and vulnerability analysis for creating a crisis management capability within the organisation. It is shown that the results from risk and vulnerability analyses normally are not transferred within or beyond the municipalities and that the learning within the organisation and within society is thus limited. © 2023 The Author(s)

  • 52.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Alirani, Gertrud
    Johansson, Roine
    Vylund, Lotta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Policy Development in Swedish Crisis Management: Restructuring of Fire and Rescue Services2023Ingår i: The Modern Guide to the Multiple Streams Framework / [ed] Zahariadis, Nikolaos; Herweg, Nicole; Zohlnhöfer, Reimut; Petridou, Evangelia, Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd , 2023Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 53.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Danielsson, Erna
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Framing volunteers identifying and integrating volunteers in crises response operations2022Ingår i: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, ISSN 2212-4209, Vol. 74, s. 102912-102912, artikel-id 102912Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study takes the perspective of civil society and aims to examine how different volunteers are framed both by others and themselves, and how terms such as ‘mixed blessing’ (used to describe volunteers as both a blessing and a curse) affect how volunteers are perceived during a crisis. Our objective is to further understand the consequences this may entail regarding how voluntary resources are integrated and requisitioned. Interviews were conducted with volunteers involved in the response to a large forest fire in Västmanland, Sweden in 2014. The results show four different types of volunteers, which we have classified as: the caring neighbourhood volunteers, pre-organised emergency volunteers, non-emergency professionals, and unneeded volunteers. Their contribution in a crisis is related to three areas: when they arrive at the scene (time), what resources they bring (resources), and whether or not pre-established arrangements to integrate them into the operation exist (structure). The study results indicate the need to develop and apply various strategies for efficient use of different volunteers' resources to ensure crisis preparedness.

  • 54.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Heidenreich, Sara
    Baron, Nina
    How to improve climate change adaptation in rural areas of the Nordic Region2023Ingår i: Fast Track to Vision 2030, Oslo: Nordforsk , 2023Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 55.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Vermina Plathner, Frida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    “This community will grow” — little concern for future wildfires in a dry and increasingly hotter Swedish rural community2024Ingår i: Regional Environmental Change, ISSN 1436-3798, E-ISSN 1436-378X, Vol. 24, nr 2, artikel-id 69Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased risk of wildfires is often highlighted in media coverage of climate change in the Nordic countries. How an increased risk is reflected in the concerns and adaptive measures within the most likely affected communities is nevertheless not known. This study investigates concerns and adaptation to wildfires in a rural community in south-eastern Sweden. The comparatively dry study area has a history of frequent but often low-consequence wildfires and is projected to experience Sweden’s largest increase in severe fire weather towards 2100. Through narratives, this study elucidates potential wildfire concerns in this area and motivations behind adaptation measures. The narratives are compared to a physical causal network extracted from the literature on fires and their consequences in the region. Residents foresee an increased wildfire risk but do not consider it a threat to the future well-being of the community. Forest owners and homeowners express low commitment in preventive or adaptive measures. Instead, contrasting the reality of the twentieth century, the fire service is currently considered to be responsible for both preventing and suppressing fires. This attitude is attributed to the lack of severe implications from the generally well-managed fires in the region. Actions for prevention and adaptation seem triggered by media attention or experience from real high-consequence events occurring elsewhere, rather than local wildfire occurrence or climate change projections. © The Author(s) 2024.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 56.
    Fink, Gerhard
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Jockwer, Robert
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Šušteršič, Iztok
    Innorenew CoE, Slovenia.
    Stepinac, Mislav
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Palma, Pedro
    Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Switzerland.
    Bedon, Chiara
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Casagrande, Daniele
    National Research Council of Italy, Italy.
    Franke, Steffen
    Bern University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland.
    D’Arenzo, Giuseppe
    University of Kassel, Germany.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Viau, Christian
    Carleton University, Canada.
    HOLISTIC DESIGN OF TALLER TIMBER BUILDINGS - COST ACTION HELEN (CA20139)2023Ingår i: World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2023), 2023, s. 1001-1008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the worldwide construction sector being responsible for one third of carbon dioxide emissions, as well as forty percent of the world’s energy use and waste production, a shift to sustainable and renewable construction techniques is crucial. Engineered timber, a champion of sustainable construction materials, has evolved to a stage that enables the construction of not only family housing but also taller buildings so far commonly built from concrete or steel. Designing taller timber buildings made is more demanding than their concrete and steel counterparts. Whereas different design aspects (architectural, structural, fire safety, acoustics, etc.) of concrete buildings can work almost independently, the design of taller timber buildings should be performed with intensive collaboration among the design teams. It is therefore crucial to address taller multi-storey timber buildings from a collaborative and interdisciplinary perspective, considering static, dynamic, fire, acoustic, human health, and other aspects in parallel and not in isolation. Only through interdisciplinary analysis and interaction can a set of holistic design guidelines be developed that will enable the safe construction of taller timber buildings, as well as respect human wellbeing demands. In this paper, the COST Action CA20139 will be presented and the main aims will be discussed.

  • 57.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fredagsvik, Nora
    Stiftelsen Brannbamsen Bjørnis, Norway.
    Nergård, Annette
    Stiftelsen Brannbamsen Bjørnis, Norway.
    Lie, Anniken
    Trøndelag brann og redningstjeneste IKS, Norway.
    Effekten av Bjørnis - Studie av effekten av Bjørnis på brannsikkerheten i norske husstander2024Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    I denne FRIC studien er den forebyggende effekten av Bjørnis for brannsikkerheten i norske husstander studert. Hovedkonklusjonen er at Bjørnis har ført til en tydelig og dokumenterbar forbedring av brannsikkerheten i norske hjem. Studien er utført som en del av prosjekt 4.3 Brannsikkerhetstiltak for boliger i FRIC, i samarbeid med Stiftelsen Brannbamsen Bjørnis. Det er også et webinar på norsk og engelsk som presenterer studien, opptak av webinaret vil bli publisert her: https://fric.no/publikasjoner.

    | In this FRIC study, the effect of the fire mascot Bjørnis on the fire safety in Norwegian households is studied. The main conclusion is that Bjørnis has led to a clear and documentable improvement of the fire safety in Norwegian homes. This study is a part of project 4.3 Fire safety measures for dwellings in FRIC, in collaboration with the Bjørnis Foundation. There is also a webinar in Norwegian and English presenting the study, the webinar recording will be published at: https://fric.no/en/publications.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 58.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fredagsvik, Nora
    Stiftelsen Brannbamsen Bjørnis, Norway..
    Nergård, Annette
    Stiftelsen Brannbamsen Bjørnis, Norway..
    Lie, Anniken
    Trøndelag brann og redningstjeneste IKS, Norway..
    FRIC webinar: Effekten av Bjørnis - Studie av effekten av Bjørnis på brannsikkerheten i norske husstander2024Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
    Ladda ner (mp4)
    film
  • 59.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fredagsvik, Nora
    Stiftelsen Brannbamsen Bjørnis, Norway..
    Nergård, Annette
    Stiftelsen Brannbamsen Bjørnis, Norway..
    Lie, Anniken
    Trøndelag brann og redningstjeneste IKS, Norway..
    FRIC webinar: The effect of Bjørnis the fire mascot - The effect of Bjørnis for the fire safety in Norwegian households2024Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
    Ladda ner (mp4)
    film
  • 60.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Stölen, Reidar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Holmvaag, Ole Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    EBOB – Solcelleinstallasjoner på bygg: Brannspredning og sikkerhet for brannvesen2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    EBOB - Solar cell installations on buildings. Fire spread and safety for fire services.

    The aim of the project has been to answer the following four research questions: 1. How do wind speed and air gap size affect the fire development in the cavity between the solar cell module and the underlying roof structure, and how do these factors affect the extent of damage to the underlying roof structure? 2. How do solar cell modules affect a fire on a realistic, Norwegian, pitched roof? 3. What work is ongoing in Europe and internationally to developing test methods for fire technical documentation of photovoltaic modules, and how should this be implemented in Norway? 4. How should fire service personnel be secured in their work when the fire includes solar cell installation? In this research question, larger installations beyond residential houses and detached houses are also relevant, including larger buildings, flat roofs and BIPV. To answer research questions 1 and 2, a total of 29 experiments were performed with fire spread in the cavity behind solar cell modules on pitched roof surfaces. The experiments were performed at RISE Fire Research's laboratory in Trondheim in 2021. This main report (RISE report 2022:82) summarizes the entire project, and additional details from the experiments performed are given in a separate technical report (RISE report 2022:83). The main findings from the experiments are that solar cell modules mounted parallel to the roof surface on pitched roofs can affect the fire dynamics of a fire on the roof surface. It was found that both the length of the damaged area on the roof and the temperature rise inwards in the roof (below the chipboard) increased when the distance between the simulated solar cell module and the roof surface decreased. Furthermore, the findings indicate that there is a relation between the size of the gap between the roof surface and the solar cell module, and how large initial fire is needed for the fire to spread. A larger distance between the roof surface and the solar module requires a larger initial fire for the fire to spread. The temperature increase inwards in the roof structure was not large enough in the experiments performed to pose a danger of immediate fire spreading inwards in the structure. Work is ongoing internationally on the development of test methods for fire technical documentation of solar cell modules. This work has so far not resulted in new standards or procedures that can be implemented in Norway. Information has been found from various guidelines and reports on what equipment and expertise the fire service needs to secure their efforts. It is important that the fire service has sufficient knowledge about the working principle of a solar cell installation, so that they understand that parts of the installation can conduct electricity, even if the switch-off switch is activated. The fire service must also be given training in how to handle a fire in a building with a solar cell installation, as well as what protective equipment and tools are needed. The answers from the various fire services to a questionnaire show that solar cell installations rarely are included in the risk and vulnerability analyses (ROS analyses). As a consequence, they do not currently have good enough training and knowledge about handling fires in buildings with solar cell installations. The questionnaire also shows that it seems somewhat unclear to the fire service what responsibility they have in the event of a fire in solar cell installations. This should be clarified, and in cases where solar cell installations pose an increased risk, the fire service must be provided with resources so that they have the right equipment, the right competence, and the right staff to handle such fires.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 61.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Vold, Mari
    TBRT Trøndelag Fire and Rescue Service, Norway.
    Fjellanger, Inger Johanne
    DSB Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection, Norway.
    Communication of fire safety2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is made by Fire Research and Innovation Centre (FRIC). The purpose is to find the best ways to communicate knowledge about fire and fire safety to different target groups and to learn from those working with communication of fire safety in Norway today. These include local fire services, organizations like the Norwegian Fire Protection Association (Norsk Brannvernforening), insurance companies and local, regional and national authorities. The study poses three main questions. Information is collected through a survey which 40 Norwegian fire services answered, through dialogue with relevant stakeholdersin meetings and in a webinar, and through the authors’ own experiences in their own organizations.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 62.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Vold, Mari
    TBRT Trøndelag brann og redningstjeneste, Norway.
    Fjellanger, Inger Johanne
    DSB Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap, Norway.
    Kommunikasjon av brannsikkerhet2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    Denne rapporten er utarbeidet av brannforsknings- og innovasjonssenteret Fire Research and Innovation Centre (FRIC). Målsettingen er å finne ut hvordan man best kan kommunisere kunnskap om brann og brannsikkerhet til ulike målgrupper, og å lære av de som driver med kommunikasjon av brannsikkerhet i Norge i dag. Dette inkluderer lokalt brannvesen, organisasjoner slik som Norsk Brannvernforening, forsikringsselskaper, samt lokale, regionale og nasjonale myndigheter. Tre hovedspørsmål er belyst. Informasjon er samlet inn gjennom en spørreundersøkelse som 40 norske brannvesen besvarte, gjennom dialog med relevante aktører i møter og på et webinar, samt fra forfatternes egne erfaringer med arbeid på temaet i sine organisasjoner.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 63.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Kjølsen Jernæs, Nina
    NKU, Norway.
    Moltubakk Kempton, Hanne Moltubakk Kempton
    Hovedorganisasjonen KA, Norway.
    Fire-protective textiles for cultural historic objects: Part 3 of the BraTeK project2024Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the experimental study in the BraTeK (Brannbeskyttende tekstiler for kulturhistoriske objekter) project part 3. A method for small-scale exposure of radiative heating followed by water exposure has been developed to imitate the scenario of a church fire with water extinguishing. Six textiles have been evaluated by their heat and water properties for fireprotection of cultural historic objects. The overall conclusion for each textile shows that two were ranked as good, three as intermediate and one as poor. The similarity of the two materials ranked as “good” is an aluminium layer on the exposed side. Combined with the results from BraTeK part 1 and 2 (NIKU reports), the conclusions from this report may support the owners’ choice of fire-protective textiles.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 64.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    FRIC - General Introduction2022Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (mp4)
    fulltext
  • 65.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Rømning ved brann i litium-ion batteri i elsparkesykkel2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire evacuation during lithium-ion battery fires in electric scooters

    This study deals with escape in the event of a lithium-ion battery fire. The study is funded by the Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection (DSB) and the Norwegian Building Authority (DiBK). The main objective is to evaluate the consequences of a thermal runaway in an electric scooter in an enclosed space in terms of the spread of gas and smoke from the battery and the potential to prevent escape via escape routes. The scenarios examined are representative of public buildings, schools, office buildings, and other buildings that require many people to escape via large open spaces (e.g., classrooms, open-plan offices) and corridors (escape routes). In addition to the experimental study, information about incidents involving fires in electric scooters in Bergen in recent years has been collected, and the Bergen Fire Service’s experiences from these incidents are presented. A total of 6 large-scale experiments were carried out with a fire in an electric scooter, 3 of the experiments were carried out in a 55 m2 large room corresponding to a classroom, and 3 of the experiments were carried out in a 15 m long corridor (38 m2 ). The ceiling height in the building was around 3 m. The concentrations of the gases CO2, CO, O2, HCl, HF, HCN, SO2, CH2O, NO and NO2 were measured in the experiments. The measurements are used to establish an experimental basis for evaluating whether and when critical gas values (according to ISO 13571:2012 "Lifethreatening components of fire") are achieved and thus lead to reduced ability to escape. The temperature change caused by the fire was measured at different heights in the room. In addition, video documentation is used to assess how the spread of smoke affects escape in a situation where there is a fire in an electric scooter in an escape route. The study has shown that a thermal runaway in a lithium-ion battery leads to a rapid fire development where the battery essentially bursts into flames, with jet fires and potential ejections of burning battery cells far away from where the fire started. The duration of this fire behavior with jet fires and flying debris was between 3 and 7 minutes. In the fire experiments, the emitted energy was not high enough to raise the room temperature to a critical level. Near the fire, however, there is a hazard of fire spread to other combustible materials in the room due to the behavior of the fire and high temperature of the jet flame. Ejection of burning battery cells poses a hazard of fire spread even to areas far away from the start location. Fires in an electric scooter battery or similar lithium-ion batteries can cause a rapid spread of smoke to the entire room. In the conducted experiments, the fire room was no longer smoke-free at the height of 1.9 m already after 1-2 minutes. Due to this rapid spread of smoke, visibility in the room will be affected after a short time and make escape more difficult. In the corridor, the smoke spread was relatively evenly distributed in height, while the smoke in the large room ("classroom") spread in a layer under the roof. Both forms of dispersion are thus possible, depending on the room and ventilation configuration. The gas measurements in the fire experiments detected both asphyxiant and irritant gases. Due to the battery size, which affects how much gas is formed, in relation to room size and ventilation conditions, the calculated FEC, i.e., the critical concentration of irritant gases, was below the selected limit value of 0.1 in all experiments. Although the FEC value was below 0.1 in all the experiments, people in the fire room would have begun to feel an effect from some of the toxic gases. However, this effect would not have been disabling. The FED, that is, the critical dose for asphyxiant gases, was only obtained after 23 to 30 minutes. It is important to remember that the concentration of toxic gases in a room due to a fire in a lithium-ion battery depends on the ratio of battery size, room size, and ventilation conditions. This means the limit values could have been exceeded for a larger battery or in a smaller room. The most important recommendation from this study is: Avoid storing and charging electric scooters and similar in living areas and escape routes. Chapter 7 also presents 8 tips and recommendations for the population, as well as 1 for the building owner and 1 for the fire service.

    Ladda ner fulltext (mp4)
    Video Test 2
    Ladda ner fulltext (mp4)
    Video Test 4
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 66.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Jiang, Lei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Stølen, Reidar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Brannsikkerhet ved oppføring og rehabilitering av bygg2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire safety during construction and rehabilitation of buildings. This study deals with how the covering of buildings during the construction or rehabilitation of buildings affects fire safety and to what extent the regulations take this into account. The main focus has been mapping relevant requirements, recommendations, and performances related to the covering of buildings, mapping available materials, investigating the material’s fire properties, and modelling the spread of smoke within the covering. A mapping of the relevant laws and regulations applied for constructing and rehabilitating buildings has been carried out. The mapping has shown that demands are placed on owners, users, project owners, builders, businesses, employers, planners and contractors through many different laws and regulations. The people involved can have several roles, and similar roles have different names in the various regulations. For buildings in use, fire safety must be ensured for both the users and workers. It also applies that both the owner and the users are responsible for ensuring fire safety. It requires good communication and cooperation between different actors to ensure that fire safety is maintained for all involved, during the construction and rehabilitation of buildings. When covered scaffolding is used, the Regulations concerning the performance of work, use of work equipment and related technical requirements [10] require that the covering satisfy the fire requirements for materials used in escape routes (§17-20). The guideline to the Norwegian Regulations on technical requirements for construction works, TEK10, (Veiledningen til TEK10) §11-9, provides pre-accepted performance levels. For escape routes, class B-s1,d0 (In 1) is specified for walls and ceilings. There is no requirement for fire classification of the walkways in the scaffolding under the applicable laws and regulations. We believe there should be requirements for fire classification of the walkways, in the same way as for the covering, i.e., B-s1,d0 (In 1) for surfaces on walls and ceilings and Dfl-s1 (G) for surfaces on floors. The simulations of the spread of smoke from a fire inside a building during construction or rehabilitation show that the spread of smoke is affected when the scaffolding around the building is covered. Covering around the sides leads to a greater horizontal spread of smoke in the scaffolding than without covering. When the cover also has a roof, the smoke first accumulates underneath the cover's roof before it eventually also fills up with smoke down the floors of the scaffolding. The simulations showed that establishing an open field in the upper part of the cover would ventilate the smoke gases effectively, and the spread of smoke was essentially the same as for a cover without a roof. In addition, the simulation indicated that the air flow through the walkways in the scaffold could be an important factor in reducing the covering's negative effect on the spread of smoke. Of the 64 different products used for covering found in the survey, 35% had full classification according to EN 13501-1 (such as B,s1-d0). About 6% stated that the product was not flame retardant. Of the remainder, it was evenly distributed between those who stated a fire classification according to other test methods, those who did not provide any information on the fire properties and those who stated that the product was flame retardant without further specification. The mapping also indicates that the products from market leaders used by large general contractors provide products with documented fire properties. Conversations with two of Norway’s largest fire and rescue services shed light on several challenges connected to covering scaffolding and construction during firefighting activities. They pointed out that the covering could cause challenges and delays throughout their efforts. The covering gives a reduced visual overview of the spread of smoke and the location of doors and windows. This information is important for planning both extinguishing and smoke diver efforts. In addition, the covering can be an obstacle to the actual extinguishing effort, the use of an extinguishing agent and smoke divers and rescue efforts.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 67.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Yang, Aileen
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Dovran, Freddie
    Oslobygg KF, Norway.
    Olsen, Jørn
    GK Norge, Norway.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    BRAVENT – Storskala branntester (del 1): Brannytelse for ikke-brannklassifiserte ventilasjonskomponenter2024Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    BRAVENT – Large-scale fire tests (part 1): Fire performance for non-fire rated ventilation components In the overall BRAVENT project, the goal is to generate answers and documentation on current issues related to ventilation and fire by examining these with experimental fire tests. The present study aimed to evaluate the fire performance of key non-fire-rated components, mainly DCV dampers and exhaust filters, in a comfort ventilation system by testing the hypothesis that the ventilation components will not be damaged by fire within 30 or 60 minutes. To test the hypothesis, a total of 14 large-scale fire tests with different fuels were carried out. The tests were carried out in a test building with several rooms that are representative of classrooms, offices, and corridors. The fire tests were designed to investigate relevant fire scenarios for school buildings, but the findings from the tests can also be used for other purpose-built buildings. The building was equipped with a full-fledged damper-optimized ventilation system, sized to serve a total of 450 m2 and thus provide a realistic basis for the fire tests. Currently, there is no documentation on how non-fire-rated dampers are affected by high temperatures that occur during a fire. The temperature specifications given for non-fire rated DCV dampers are intended for normal operation. Two different types of DCV dampers were tested. In one type, the airflow was measured with a measuring cross, and for the other, the airflow was measured with sensors integrated into the damper blade itself. In several of the conducted tests the non-fire-rated dampers were not able to sustain their function for the required duration of 30 minutes or longer, and failed completely when the temperature inside or outside the dampers reached about 200 ºC. Misreporting of some temperature measurements in the building management system already occurred at lower temperatures, around 120˚C, without significantly affecting the delivered air flow rate. For the damper type with a measuring cross, the plastic hoses connecting the measuring cross and the measuring transducer for the damper melted when hot smoke was transported through the damper. This failure resulted in the DCV damper measuring too low or no airflow. In several tests, this measurement error meant that the DCV damper opened fully, trying to achieve a large enough airflow. In one of the tests where the supply air damper was placed inside the fire room, such a fault on the supply air damper caused it to close completely. In addition to the damage to the dampers, the power supply to the damper was destroyed, and a fuse for the power supply in the control cabinet was short-circuited. This resulted in the building management system losing contact with all the dampers. This shows that a local error can cause the entire system to fail. For the other damper type, where the sensors were located in the damper blade, the high temperatures caused the entire damper blade to melt. It was not observed that soot in the fire smoke led to problems with the dampers' measuring sensors for any of the damper types examined. This indicates that for the performed test series, high temperature and not soot was the greatest challenge for the dampers in the event of a fire. In addition to examining how dampers are affected by fire, there was also an investigation into how the filter performs during a fire. It was found that the filter could largely capture the soot particles in the smoke. This means that equipment located downstream of the filter is relatively well protected against soot, and the possibility of soot contamination to the supply air side via a rotating heat recovery unit can, therefore, be considered minimal as long as the filter is not damaged. However, when the filter collects so much soot, it shows that the potential for the filter to clog. How quickly this happens depends, among other things, on the materials that burn and the size of the fire in relation to the air handling unit's capacity. This also aligns with results from an earlier BRAVENT project [1]. The air temperature in the unit was in all tests carried out below 60˚C and thus lower than the filters' maximum operating temperature of 70˚C. The conclusion from the tests is that the extraction principle with non-fire-rated components cannot be considered a safe strategy for 30 or 60 minutes.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 68.
    Gales, John
    et al.
    York University, Canada.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fire research for timber structures2023Ingår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, nr 4, s. 413-414Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 69.
    Garberg Olsø, Brynhild
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Stølen, Reidar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Schjøth Bunkholt, Nora
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Leikanger Friquin, Kathinka
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Hjertnes, Jostein
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Factors Affecting the Fire Safety Design of Photovoltaic Installations Under Performance-Based Regulations in Norway2023Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 59, s. 2055-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of Photovoltaic (PV) installations on the fire safety of buildings must be considered in all building projects where such energy systems are established. The holistic fire safety of the building largely depends on how the fire safety of the PV installation is considered by the different actors during the design and construction process. Research has therefore been undertaken to study how performance-based regulations in combination with the lack of national guidelines affect the overall fire safety considerations for PV installations in Norway. Four factors were found to govern to which extent PV installations are emphasised in the fire safety design phase: (1) whether the building was first of its kind as a pioneering building, (2) whether the building was built before or after the publication of the 2018 revision of the norm NEK 400, (3) The level of knowledge and experience of the fire safety consultant, which in turn affects the use of performance-based engineering tools and the level of detailing in the design and construction phases, and (4) The degree of integration in the building. The main goal of the study is to give an insight and a contribution to the development of in-depth knowledge on how fire safety design for PV installations on buildings is handled in Norway, which may also be relevant to other countries with similar performance-based regulations.

  • 70.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Risks with hydrogen in underground facilities2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    RISE has previously studied alternative fuels, such as batteries and gaseous fuels including liquid and compressed hydrogen (GH2). Each fuel has its unique risks. Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is a cryogenic fluid and is thus stored in cooled liquid form, which entails specific risks. The purpose of this report is to, based on the current state of research, map the risks of hydrogen in underground facilities in relation to conventional fuels and investigate which technical measures can be taken to reduce the risks. Unlike diesel, hydrogen (and for instance methane or gasoline) has such a low flash point that an emission can be ignited at normal temperature by a small ignition source. Hydrogen is also very buoyant, with strong diffusion and dispersion characteristics, accordingly it accumulates at high points in a subsurface environment. Hydrogen requires very low energy to ignite at or near stoichiometric mixing with air at around 30%. The lower flammability limit is, compared to other flammable fuel/air mixtures high at around 4%, which means that many smaller releases in ventilated spaces will be too lean. Explosions would require a higher hydrogen concentration, above 8% or more. In subsurface environments, containment contributes to a higher increase in pressure, as well as an increased risk of explosion for both GH2 and LH2. The handling of hydrogen underground can therefore be seen as problematic. When it comes to hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, however, there are safety measures to achieve equivalent safety with conventional vehicles. For example, the shut-off valve (mandatory in regulation) on each tank that reduces the risk of leakage, and through the development of explosion-free composite tanks (not mandatory in regulation) in the event of fire that provide a less dangerous fire scenario than a diesel or gasoline tank in case of fire. When it finally comes to transporting hydrogen, pipelines are the long-term sustainable (and safe) alternative. Transport of compressed hydrogen gives a low amount of gas per trailer and entails relatively higher risks than CNG underground, for example in tunnels. The usage of liquid hydrogen, so far, has an impressive safety record, events like BLEVE or fireballs appear to be rare. The transport of liquid hydrogen provides a larger amount of hydrogen per trailer (than for compressed hydrogen) with a relatively lower risk than, for example, LNG in the open, but a slightly higher risk for explosion of accumulated gas compared to GH2 in enclosed spaces. The safety requirements for transport of compressed hydrogen are less stringent than for road vehicles, e.g., with regard to shut-off valves and melt-fuses and could be improved. Several risk mitigation measures for tunnels and other underground facilities have been identified.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 71.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Uneven exposure of compressed natural gas (CNG) and hydrogen (H2) cylinders: Fire and extinguishment tests2024Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 146, artikel-id 104170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicles that are powered by gaseous fuel, e.g., compressed natural gas (CNG) or hydrogen (H2), may, in the event of fire, result in a jet flame from a thermally activated pressure relief device (TPRD), or a pressure vessel explosion. There have been a few incidents for CNG vehicles where the TPRD was unsuccessful to prevent a pressure vessel explosion in the event of fire, both nationally in Sweden and internationally. If the pressure vessel explosion would occur inside an enclosure such as a road tunnel, the resulting consequences are even more problematic. In 2019 the authors investigated the fire safety of CNG cylinders exposed to localized fires. One purpose of the tests conducted in 2021 reported in this paper is to investigate whether extinguishment with water, e.g., from a tunnel deluge system, may compromise the safety of vehicle gas cylinders in the event of fire. Steel cylinders handles the situation with localizde fire and/or cooling with water well. Composite tanks can rupture if the fire exposure degrades the composite material strength, and the TPRD is not sufficiently heated to activate, e.g., if the fire is localized or if the TPRD is being cooled by water, which prevents its activation.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 72.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Runefors, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Madsen, Dan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Egardt, Erik
    MSB Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, Sweden.
    Tactical depressurization of hydrogen containers with civilian rifle and ammunition2022Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There can be situations, for example if gas containers have been damaged in a vehicle crash, when the fire and rescue service would like to depressurize the gas containers through shooting with a civilian rifle. Modern high-pressure hydrogen containers are designed for a working pressure of 700 bars. This means that they have a very thick and strong shell made of composite material. At the same time the fire and rescue service only have access to civilian rifles and ammunition that can be bought for hunting purposes. Thus, tactical and safe depressurization of hydrogen containers is a big challenge. RISE have, together with the Södra Älvsborgs Fire and Rescue Services (SÄRF), Swedish Civil Contingency Agency, and Lund University conducted shooting tests of gas tanks mounted on a hydrogen gas vehicle and three stand-alone hydrogen gas tanks. The shooting tests were conducted at Remmene shooting field in Sweden. Thirteen shooting tests with hydrogen tanks placed in favouarable positions were performed. Out of these, only four tests were succesful in puncturing the individual gas tank in a single shot. Furthermore, two unwanted events occurred; one rupture (after 7 shots) and two powerful jets (after 20 and one shot respectively). This shows that further development and research is required in order to develop a method to safely depressurize high pressure hydrogen tanks.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
    Ladda ner (mp4)
    film
  • 73.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Millgård, Ulrika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    TUSC HANDBOK Brandskydd under byggtiden för tunnlar och andra undermarksanläggningar: Med exempel på risker och förslag på åtgärder2022 (uppl. 2)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ingen ska skadas eller drabbas av sjukdom på grund av sitt arbete. Detta ställer krav på genomtänkt utformning av brandskyddet och utrymningssäkerhet under byggtiden för tunnel eller andra undermarksanläggningar. Ett syfte med denna handbok är att tydliggöra vilka krav som ställs på brandskydd under byggtiden, samt ge exempel på vanliga brandrisker och förslag på hur dessa kan hanteras.

    Handboken vänder sig till aktörer, såsom byggherrar, projektörer, entreprenörer och byggarbetsmiljösamordnare, involverade i planering, projektering och byggnation av undermarksanläggningar. Med undermarksanläggning menas här väg-, järnväg-, vatten-, avlopps- kabel- och distributionstunnel, bergrum och slutförvar.  Handboken omfattar inte gruva, byggnader ovan mark, eller brandskydd i färdigställd anläggning.

    Handboken är avsedd att användas som vägledning och inspiration vid planering, projektering, genomförande, samt utbildning och övning med fokus på brandsäkerhet. 

    Klicka på länken ”TUSC Handbok” högst upp till höger för att öppna handboken. Strax under finns det en länk till en MS Power Point introduktion till handboken, ett övningsprotokoll och ett kommunikations material.

    Ladda ner fulltext (zip)
    PPT_Introduktion
    Ladda ner fulltext (zip)
    Övningsprotokoll
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Communication material
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    TUSC Handbook
  • 74.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Olofsson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Andersson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Burgén, Julia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Huang, Chen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    BREND 2.0 - Fighting fires in new energy carriers on deck 2.02022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The project BREND investigated risk with alternative fuel vehicles inside ro-ro spaces. BREND 2.0 is a continuation and has in particular investigated two of the major risks identified in BREND, namely the risk of toxic gases from electric vehicle fires and the risk of a pressure vessel explosion for fire exposed biogas or hydrogen vehicle tanks. Simulations of electric vehicle fires inside a ro-ro space based on real input fire data has been performed. Field experiments that investigate the conditions that can lead to pressure vessel explosion were made with fire exposed biogas and hydrogen tanks. Recommendations are given about how ro-ro space fires in alternative fuel vehicles, or indeed any vehicle fire, can be managed.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 75.
    Gernay, Thomas
    et al.
    Johns Hopkins University, USA.
    Franssen, Jean-Marc
    Liege University, Belgium.
    Robert, Fabienne
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Lund University, Sweden.
    Felicetti, Roberto
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Bamonte, Patrick
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Brunkhorst, Sven
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Mohaine, Siyimane
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    Zehfuß, Jochen
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Experimental investigation of structural failure during the cooling phase of a fire: Concrete columns2022Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 134, artikel-id 103691Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Structures may collapse during the cooling phase of a fire, yet standard furnace tests only measure the response under heating. There lacks experimental test protocols and design methods to assess resistance until burnout. This paper describes a new experimental approach for burnout resistance evaluation, reports experimental data on loaded reinforced concrete columns in furnace tests with cooling down phases, and presents numerical models of the tests. The test results show that columns designed for a standard fire resistance of 60 min exhibited a fire resistance of 83 min in the furnace but failed during the cooling phase when the burners were shut off after 72 min while the load was maintained. Two other specimens survived exposure to heating of 45 and 55 min, respectively, and their residual capacity was measured. Finite element analyses show agreement with the tests, showing applicability of numerical methods for evaluating burnout resistance of concrete columns. These findings demonstrate experimentally that delayed thermal-mechanical effects can jeopardize structural stability in real fires, and provide a framework to measure these effects. Moving beyond fire resistance to quantify the response until burnout will support designs for safety of occupants and firefighters throughout the fire and promote repairability and resilience. 

  • 76.
    Gernay, Thomas
    et al.
    Johns Hopkins University, USA.
    Zehfuß, Jochen
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Brunkhorst, Sven
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Robert, Fabienne
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    Bamonte, Patrick
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mohaine, Siyimane
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    Franssen, Jean-Marc
    Liege University, Belgium.
    Experimental investigation of structural failure during the cooling phase of a fire: Timber columns2023Ingår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, nr 4, s. 445-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes fire tests on loaded glued laminated timber columns in which the structural response was measured during the heating and cooling phases. Identical columns with 280 × 280 mm2 cross-section and 3.7 m length were tested under various heating durations in a standard furnace to investigate integrity to full burnout. Two of the columns were subjected to ISO 834 heating until failure and their measured fire resistance was 55 and 58 min, respectively. Two columns were subjected to 15 min of ISO 834 heating followed by controlled cooling; these columns failed during the cooling phase, respectively after 98 and 153 min. Flame self-extinction occurred after approximately 40 min while smoldering continued locally. Two columns tested under 10 min of ISO 834 heating both survived the defined heating–cooling exposure. Thermocouples inside the columns show sustained temperature increases for hours after the end of the heating phase. These full-scale furnace experiments show that timber columns may fail during the cooling phase after exposure to standard heating for about 25% of the standard fire resistance duration. These results, in line with previous numerical predictions, highlight the need for further investigation into fire safety until full burnout for timber structures. 

  • 77.
    Godio, Michele
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Low-velocity out-of-plane impact tests on double-wythe unreinforced brick masonry walls instrumented with optical measurements2023Ingår i: International Journal of Impact Engineering, ISSN 0734-743X, E-ISSN 1879-3509, Vol. 178, artikel-id 104597Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Unreinforced brick masonry makes up today a significant piece of the European built environment, including not only residential buildings but also strategically important structures that are not designed to withstand blasts and impacts. Yet, it is difficult to accurately estimate the response of these structures and the extent of damage they sustain during such extreme loading conditions. This paper presents the implementation and discusses the results of laboratory impact tests conducted on natural-scale double-wythe unreinforced brick masonry walls, a typology that is frequently found in Northern Europe. The walls were spanning vertically between two reinforced concrete slabs and were subjected to low-velocity drop-weight pendulum tests in which they were repeatedly hit until the opening of a breach in the centre of the wall. The tests were instrumented with both hard-wired and optical measurements, the latter consisting of high-speed cameras and digital image correlation techniques, to face the difficulty of observing cracks and determining the deflections of the walls with adequate accuracy at the time of the impact. Investigated in these tests were the out-of-plane response of the walls and their capacity to resist the impacts. The axial load applied on the top of the walls was varied for two wall configurations and monitored throughout the tests to study the effect of arching on the failure mechanism produced and number of repeated hits needed to open the breach. Of interest was also the evidence of cracking, more specifically the way it initiated on the undamaged walls and next propagated upon consecutive hits. The data generated from these tests are made available to support further investigations on masonry structures subjected to extreme actions.

  • 78.
    Godio, Michele
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Low-velocity out-of-plane impact tests on double-wythe unreinforced brick masonry walls instrumented with optical measurements2023Ingår i: International Journal of Impact Engineering, ISSN 0734-743X, E-ISSN 1879-3509, Vol. 178, artikel-id 104597Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Unreinforced brick masonry makes up today a significant piece of the European built environment, including not only residential buildings but also strategically important structures that are not designed to withstand blasts and impacts. Yet, it is difficult to accurately estimate the response of these structures and the extent of damage they sustain during such extreme loading conditions. This paper presents the implementation and discusses the results of laboratory impact tests conducted on natural-scale double-wythe unreinforced brick masonry walls, a typology that is frequently found in Northern Europe. The walls were spanning vertically between two reinforced concrete slabs and were subjected to low-velocity drop-weight pendulum tests in which they were repeatedly hit until the opening of a breach in the center of the wall. The tests were instrumented with both hard-wired and optical measurements, the latter consisting of high-speed cameras and digital image correlation techniques, to face the difficulty of observing cracks and determining the deflections of the walls with adequate accuracy at the time of the impact. Investigated in these tests were the out-of-plane response of the walls and their capacity to resist the impacts. The axial load applied on the top of the walls was varied for two wall configurations and monitored throughout the tests to study the effect of arching on the failure mechanism produced and number of repeated hits needed to open the breach. Of interest was also the evidence of cracking, more specifically the way it initiated on the undamaged walls and next propagated upon consecutive hits. The data generated from these tests are made available to support further investigations on unreinforced masonry structures subjected to extreme actions.

  • 79.
    Godio, Michele
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Single- and double-wythe brick masonry walls subjected to four-point bending tests under different support conditions: Simply supported, rigid, non-rigid2023Ingår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 404, artikel-id 132544Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Out-of-plane actions cause confined unreinforced masonry walls (URM) to develop what is known as an arching action. The role of arching is central in the resisting mechanisms of a wall; it contributes significantly to its loadbearing capacity as long as the wall’s deflections are minor, but gradually loses effect with increasing deflections, until collapse occurs. To date, limited experimental data is available on how arching develops in relation to the out-of-plane behaviour of the wall. This study brings new experimental evidence to this aspect. Quasi-static monotonic four-point bending tests were conducted on eleven brick wall strips, with reinforced concrete (RC) slabs affixed below and over the walls to simulate contact conditions of a typical construction system. The walls were tested vis-à-vis three different support conditions: simply supported, rigid, and non-rigid. The influence of these support conditions on the out-of-plane behaviour of the walls was studied on specimens with varying thickness – single and double wythe – and subjected to different levels of axial compression (or overload). While the former support condition was designed not to yield any arching inside the wall (unconfined masonry), the intermediate and latter solutions generated an arching action that was proportional respectively to the elongation of the wall (partially confined masonry), and its deflection (confined masonry). The walls were tested inside a bi-axial test setup that allowed not only the out-of-plane force but also the arching action to be measured, corroborating its central role in the development of the out-of-plane capacity of the walls. To support the observations, deformation characteristics and crack distributions were determined using two optical measurement systems placed in front and to the side of the walls, making use of the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. The results of the tests are discussed in terms of failure mechanism as well as force and displacement capacity of the walls in relation to the investigated parameters. The test data is collected and made available to help with future research on the out-of-plane capacity of URM walls.

  • 80.
    Grahn, Desirée
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Hjort, Anders
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Jivén, Karl
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Forsström, Ellinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Dahlbom, Sixten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Förnybar flytande biogas (LBG) till sjöfart i praktiken2024Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing the environmental and climate impact of shipping propelled by liquefied natural gas (LNG) requires the introduction of alternative fuels such as liquid biogas/biomethane (LBG) (Jivén et al., 2022). Today, only a small part of the biomethane produced in Sweden is liquefied into LBG and an even smaller part is used as fuel for shipping. The price and availability of biogas is governed by supply and demand in an international market where shipping, industry and heavy trucks demand biogas. The biogas then needs to be processed into upgraded biogas (biomethane) or LBG quality in order to be transported and used in the respective sectors inside and outside of Sweden. The trend is for a larger proportion of biogas to be liquefied into LBG. The market has thus gone from a local market, where biogas was produced in the city's wastewater treatment plant and the city buses ran on biogas, to an international market where biogas often is transported in the same way as fossil gas and marketed using the fossil gas together with certificates. The project "Renewable liquid biogas (LBG) for shipping in practice" was carried out by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute and RISE in 2023 together with stakeholders from the shipping sector, ports and industry organizations for biogas. The project has studied the conditions required to make LBG available to shipping in practice at Swedish ports. The study shows that the major obstacles to an established use of LBG in the shipping sector in Sweden today are pricing/willingness to pay that is affected by international market prices, lack of suitable logistical solutions as well as the absence of the piece of the puzzle that is the business model and cooperation needed to make available the large volumes of biogas that shipping may demand. The stakeholders in the project estimate their total need of biogas to 3 TWh in a short term, and 10 TWh in a longer term. The project has identified a number of conclusions and recommendations for future work, including that the potential for biogas is large and untapped, but that new solutions for the distribution and logistics of LBG are needed. There is a clear interest from maritime actors as they see biogas as a strategic solution and the dialog between actors in the industry remains important. A change in the tax system could be needed so that more actors can use the green gas principle for LBG. In addition, a functioning "marketplace" is needed, which simplifies for sellers and buyers of LBG, and agreements/contracts are needed that are longterm and to a greater extent based on the costs of producing and providing LBG.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 81.
    Granström, Anders
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Vylund, Lotta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Perception of wildfire behaviour potential among Swedish incident commanders, and their fire suppression tactics revealed through tabletop exercises2023Ingår i: International journal of wildland fire, ISSN 1049-8001, E-ISSN 1448-5516, Vol. 32, s. 320-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Swedish wildfires are handled by multipurpose municipal rescue services, raisingquestions about how non-specialist incident commanders (ICs) perceive and interpret wildfirebehaviour. Aims. Elucidating ICs’ interpretations of fire behaviour, fuel complexes, weather,landscape structure and the role of these in tactical decisions. Methods. We exposed SwedishICs to questionnaires and tabletop exercises for different standardised fire scenarios.Key results. Despite minimal formal wildfire training, ICs showed reasonable consensus in ratingof fuels, fire behaviour, hose-lay production rates, etc. Tactics were to access the fire from thenearest road with hose-line laid from the engine and water ferried on trucks. In a scenario whereinitial attack failed, they typically fell back to roads, without burning off. This indicates a fundamental flaw in tactics employed for high-intensity fires, which easily breach forestry roads, and inviteoutflanking. Conclusions. The IC wildfire knowledge is built on personal and group experiencerather than formal education. We found reasonable competence, despite the organisations beingdesigned primarily for other purposes. However, tactical understanding of complex, large incidentswas poor. IC training should emphasise potential hazards of such incidents to enhance groupcompetence despite their low frequency. Implications. Standardised tabletop exercises canprovide insight into decision-making of ICs that is otherwise hidden.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 82.
    Grönlund, Oskar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Quant, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Rasmussen, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Guidelines for the fire protection of battery energy storage systems2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy storage is essential for enhancing the stability, efficiency and sustainability of the modern energy supply chain. It can help reduce the dependency on fossil fuels and increase the use and market penetration of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power, which are intermittent and variable. The most common technology for short storage times (minutes to days) is electrochemical energy storage, and more specifically lithium-ion battery energy storage systems (BESS). In line with the EU ambition for more sustainable electric vehicle batteries, it is likely that second life applications and repurposing of electric vehicle batteries will increase. One of the main challenges for the deployment of BESS is the fire safety of lithium-ion batteries. Today, there is a lack of national guidelines in Sweden for how to design a BESS in terms of fire safety, which causes uncertainty. Without national guidelines, each municipality and local fire and rescue service must develop their own advice, which may result in inconsistent and costly solutions with a varying degree of fire protection. The aim of this study was to produce national guidelines for the fire protection of BESS. The guidelines were produced by literature searches, review of relevant laws, regulations and standards, review of international guidelines, workshops, information retrieval from project partners and through studying lessons learnt from previous incidents. The produced guidelines (found in Appendix C, in Swedish) are formed around three application categories, based on the type of application and user, which reflect the size of the BESS. For the first category, BESS for single-family home use, guidance is given for separated placement of BESS, remote fire alarm, and separated ventilation. For the second category, BESS for multi-dwelling blocks or businesses, recommendations regarding placement, detection and ventilation are increased. It is also advised to have an installation that allows the fire and rescue services to ventilate fire gases without opening doors and that emergency response plans are produced. For the third category, BESS for large-scale commercial applications and mobile BESS, some further requirements are introduced. They include risk analysis, separate building and fire cell demands, as well as recommendations for CCTV and gas monitoring as well as fire hose connection. The guidelines assume that current national laws and building regulations are complied with. Additionally, insurance companies may have their own guidance which should be checked before installation. The guidelines produced in this project should thus be used as a supporting tool or when an increased level of protection is sought. The guidelines only address BESS with lithium-ion batteries. It was not included in the work to evaluate whether special requirements should apply for reused or remanufactured batteries (second-life).

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Rapport
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Appendix C
  • 83.
    Guo, Qinghua
    et al.
    Taiyuan University of Science and Technology China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Yan, Zhiguo
    Tongji University, Cina.
    Zhu, Hehua
    Tongji University, China.
    Numerical study on thermally driven smoke flow characteristics in long tunnels under natural ventilation2023Ingår i: International journal of thermal sciences, ISSN 1290-0729, E-ISSN 1778-4166, Vol. 192, artikel-id 108379Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses on the flow structures and mass flow rates of thermally driven smoke flows induced by fires in long transportation tunnels under natural ventilation. The important influencing factors including heat release rate (HRR), tunnel width and height, are taken into consideration. The mechanism of the smoke flow movement is explored. The results show that for a fire in a long naturally ventilated transportation tunnel, there exists a critical point which is dependent on HRR and tunnel geometry. This critical point is defined as the location where the smoke layer thickness and the outgoing mass flow rate increase towards it and decrease after it. Further, it is found that the critical point moves farther away from the fire source in a wider or higher tunnel, while it lies closer to the fire source for a higher HRR. A correlation is proposed to estimate the location of the critical point. The outgoing mass flow rates along the tunnel are calculated using the two-layer flow model and well-mixed flow model of thermally driven flows, and the results indicate that these models produce satisfactory predictions of the mass flow rates if the vertical temperature profile is known. © 2023 The Authors

  • 84.
    Haubold, Thorben
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Germany; Fraunhofer Institute, Germany.
    Wolter, Nick
    Fraunhofer Institute, Germany; University of Bremen, Germany.
    Sandinge, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Mayer, Bernd
    Fraunhofer Institute, Germany; University of Bremen, Germany.
    Koschek, Katharina
    Fraunhofer Institute, Germany.
    How Phosphorous Flame Retardant Additives Affect Benzoxazine-Based Monomer and Polymer Properties2023Ingår i: Macromolecular materials and engineering, ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054, Vol. 308, nr 11, artikel-id 2300132Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The phosphorous-based flame retardant additives poly(m-phenylene methylphosphonate) (PMP) and resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate) (RDP) are reacted with bisphenol F and aniline–based benzoxazine (BF-a). DSC, rheological analysis, FT-IR, and soxhlet extraction reveal the covalent incorporation of both FR additives—initiating phenols in PMP structure as well as free phenols generated via transesterification reaction in the case of RDP. In contrast to PMP, RDP elongates the processing window but decreases the thermo–mechanical properties. Both additives increase the resistance in reactions against small flames with solely a phosphorous loading of 0.3 wt%, resulting in a V-0 rating and an improvement in the OI value by up to 2% for RDP and 4% for PMP. Both FRs reduce the heat release rate but increase the smoke production and the smoke toxicity in the case of RDP. 

  • 85.
    Haugen, N. E. L.
    et al.
    SINTEF Energy Research, Norway.
    Bugge, M.
    SINTEF Energy Research, Norway.
    Mack, A.
    Stuttgart University, Germany.
    Li, Tian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. NTNU, Norway.
    Skreiberg, Ø.
    Bed Model for Grate-Fired Furnaces: Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling and Comparison to Experiments2022Ingår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 36, nr 11, s. 5852-5867Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A detailed but still central processing unit (CPU)-efficient bed model for grate-fired combustion of biomass and waste is developed. Simulations of wood chip combustion are performed, and the results are compared to experiments. The so-called layer model is used to track the development of the thermally thick representative fuel particles in the bed. As an efficient way of handling a large number of physical fuel particles, each representative fuel particle represents a number of physical particles with the exact same properties. The motion of the fuel bed is handled in a way that requires negligible CPU power, while for wastes and other fuels with less defined shapes and structure, it still yields accuracy similar to the much more CPU-intensive collision-based models. In this work, the bed model is coupled with ANSYS Fluent and used to simulate one of the test campaigns performed at the grate-fired pilot unit at the University of Stuttgart. It is found that for the test campaign of interest, burning wood chips, the fuel bed is ignited from below, and it is explained how this is due to the thermal properties of the grate and how important the numerical handling of the grate is for an accurate prediction of the bed behavior.

  • 86.
    Haukø, Anne-Marit
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Garberg Olsø, Brynhild
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Mysen, Mads
    GK Norge, Norway.
    Ingebrigtsen, Sturla
    Trox Auranor, Norway.
    Samuelsen, Per Henning
    Oslobygg KF, Norway.
    Byenstuen, Tommy
    Oslobygg KF, Norway.
    Dovran, Freddy
    Oslobygg KF, Norway.
    Øyen Knutsen, Peer
    Oslobygg KF, Norway.
    Haug, Hugo
    Oslobygg KF, Norway.
    Kausland, Åge
    Bergen kommune, Norway.
    Tvilde, Tor
    Bergen kommune, Norway.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Prosjektnotat : Kontrollplan – Ventilasjonsanleggets funksjon under brann2024Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    Dette notatet er en delleveranse i arbeidspakke WP3 i prosjektet BRAVENT – Effektiv ventilasjon av røyk fra små branner. Notatet med tilhørende vedlegg Kontrollplan gir en beskrivelse av hvordan periodisk kontroll og daglig/ukentlig internkontroll av ventilasjonsanleggets funksjon under brann i skolebygg kan utføres. Kontrollplanen kan også være nyttig for bruk i andre offentlige formålsbygg.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 87.
    Haukø, Anne-Marit
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Garberg Olsø, Brynhild
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Mysen, Mads
    GK Norge, Norway.
    Ingebrigtsen, Sturla
    Trox Auranor, Norway.
    Samuelsen, Per Henning
    Oslobygg KF, Norway.
    Byenstuen, Tommy
    Oslobygg KF, NorwayOslobygg KF, Norway.
    Dovran, Freddy
    Oslobygg KF, Norway.
    Øyen Knutsen, Peer
    Oslobygg KF, Norway.
    Kværner Hestetun, Johanne
    Oslobygg KF, Norway.
    Haug, Hugo
    Oslobygg KF, Norway.
    Kausland, Åge
    Bergen kommune, Norway.
    Tvilde, Tor
    Bergen kommune, Norway.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    BRAVENT – Veileder for brannteknisk prosjektering av ventilasjonsanlegg i skolebygg2024Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    Dette dokumentet er en veileder. Veilederen skal benyttes av rådgivende ingeniører i brannteknisk prosjektering av ventilasjonsanlegg i skolebygg. Det fokuseres på rømningssikkerhet og skadebegrensning ved små branner i en tidlig fase av brannforløpet. Veilederen beskriver forutsetninger for bruk, krav og preaksepterte ytelser i VTEK, samt ulike typer ventilasjonsanlegg med tilhørende komponenter. Dokumentet illustrerer typiske prinsippløsninger for ulike ventilasjonsstrategier i bygg, samt forskningsresultater fra brannforsøk og undersøkelser i tidligere faser av BRAVENT-prosjektet. Veilederen tar for seg nybygg, eksisterende bygg og verneverdige bygg hvor grensesnittet mellom rådgivende ingeniør brann (RIBr), ventilasjon (RIV), elektro (RIE) og automasjon (RIAut) defineres. En sjekkliste oppsummerer viktige punkter å hensynta ved prosjektering av ventilasjonsanlegg. Rutiner for drift og vedlikehold beskrives til slutt.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 88.
    Haukø, Anne-Marit
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Garberg Olsø, Brynhild
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Yang, Aileen
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Aamodt, Andreas
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Samuelsen, Per Henning
    Oslobygg KF, Norway.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Functional testing of ventilation systems in schools during activated fire alarm - Coherence with the fire safety strategy2022Ingår i: RISE rapport 2022:72. https://ri.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1657152/FULLTEXT01.pdf, 2022, s. 63-64Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to present results from functional testing of ventilation systems in schools during activated fire alarm. It was investigated whether the results had coherence with the ventilation strategy in the fire safety concept and the function description for the ventilation system. Functional testing was performed at several schools in three different municipalities in Norway. Results from the preliminary mapping showed that some of the personnel responsible for maintenance of the ventilation systems lacked knowledge about the system's function during fire. Older schools often don't have a fire safety strategy at all, whereas newer schools and renovated schools normally have well documented fire safety strategies, including the ventilation system's function during fire. However, there is little or no information in the building's MOM-documentation (management, operation and maintenance) about how functional testing must be performed. The functional testing showed several incoherencies with the fire safety strategy of the school buildings.

  • 89.
    Haukø, Anne-Marit
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Wedvik, Barbro
    NIKU, Norway.
    Bergius, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    FRIC research result webinar: Guideline - Fire resistance upgrade of cultural heritage doors.2022Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
    Ladda ner fulltext (mp4)
    Video
  • 90.
    Haukø, Anne-Marit
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Wedvik, Barbro
    NITU, Norway.
    Bergius, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Guideline – Fire resistance upgrade of cultural heritage doors2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Older wooden doors can be one of the weaker points with regards to fire resistance in apartment buildings. This guideline proposes how glass, protective boards, sealing lists, hardware and door frames can be mounted to the door to be expected to achieve a fire resistance of approximately 30 minutes (as if the door would be fire resistance tested). The only intended use of this guideline is when changing the door due to antiquarian reasons is not possible or desirable. These types of older doors typically have a thickness of 40-50 mm, with glass on the upper part and a thinner wooden door panel on the lower part. For antiquary reasons, the interventions on the doors should be as little intrusive and as reversible as possible. A total number of four fire tests were performed, with two small door models in each test. Different solutions for mounting of fire resistant glass, gypsum boards and glazing lists were tested. The main conclusions from the fire tests are: Glass must have a minimum fire resistance rating of 30 minutes (integrity and insulation) and be securely fastened with steel frames or steel angles Thinner parts like fielded wooden panels can be upgraded with stone wool and 12.5 mm robust gypsum boards Both intumescent strips and silicone gaskets must be mounted around the door leaf The gap between the door frame and the wall must be sealed using stone wool and fire sealant

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 91.
    Haukø, Anne-Marit
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Wedvik, Barbro
    NIKU, Norway.
    Bergius, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Upgrading of Fire Resistance to Architectural Heritage Escape Route Timber Doors2023Ingår i: International Journal of Architectural Heritage, ISSN 1558-3058, E-ISSN 1558-3066Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Original timber stairwell doors in historic masonry apartment buildings of architectural heritage value can be found in the larger cities of Norway. In Oslo, there are around 4000 such buildings, of which many still hold preserved original stairwell doors. The doors often have glass with decorative patterns in the upper parts, and timber panels on the lower part. Old residential buildings are vulnerable to fire due to the building construction and need fire protection upgrades. The stairwell doors are critical elements to prevent fire spread and to keep evacuation routes safe, so their function and condition are important to the level of fire protection in the building. The research work in this paper aims to find retrofit methods for upgrading the fire resistance of these types of doors so they maintain their integrity and insulating properties for up to 30 minutes, at the same time as they maintain their architectural expression. The upgrades must be as little intrusive and destructive as possible. Intermediate scale tests were carried out in a fire resistance test furnace, using different door configurations. The tests lasted between 30 minutes and 42 minutes, with a thermal exposure from the standard time/temperature curve described in EN 1363–1. The results from the tests showed that 40 mm thick laminated wood could withstand up to 30 minutes of fire exposure, thin timber panels could be upgraded using stone wool and robust gypsum boards type R, and that fire-resistant glass could be mounted on the inside of the original glass in different ways. Visual observations indicate that adding smoke seals inside the door leaf are effective for stopping cold and hot smoke. The solutions presented enables the preservation of the original doors’ architectural design, their historical values and aesthetic character. 

  • 92.
    Haukø, Anne-Marit
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Wedvik, Barbro
    NIKU, Norway.
    Bergius, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Veileder - Brannteknisk oppgradering av verneverdige tredører2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    Gamle tredører kan være et av de svakere punktene med hensyn til brannmotstand leilighetsbygg. Denne veilederen foreslår hvordan glass, platekledninger, tetningslister, dørkarmer, lås og beslag kan monteres for at døren kan oppnå en forventet brannmotstand på ca. 30 minutter (tilsvarende som hvis døren ble brannmotstandstestet). Den eneste tiltenkte bruken av denne veilederen er når bytte av dør på grunn av antikvariske hensyn ikke er mulig eller ønskelig. Denne typen gamle dører har typisk en tykkelse på 40-50 mm, med glass i øvre del og en tynnere trefylling i nedre del. Av antikvariske hensyn bør inngrepene på dørene v re minst mulig inngripende og mest mulig reversible. Det ble utført totalt fire branntester, med to små dørmodeller i hver test. Ulike løsninger for montering av brannsikkert glass, gipsplater og tettelister ble testet. Hovedkonklusjonene fra branntestene er: • Glass må ha minimum brannmotstand på 30 minutter (integritet og isolasjon) og være forsvarlig testet med stålrammer eller stålvinkler • Tynnere deler av døren som trefyllinger kan oppgraderes med steinull og 12,5 mm robust gipsplate type R • Rundt dørbladet skal det monteres både gummilist og ekspanderende list • Spalten mellom dørkarm og vegg skal tettes med steinull og branntettemasse

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 93.
    He, Kun
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Cheng, Xudong
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Fire spread among multiple vehicles in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation2023Ingår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 133, artikel-id 104967Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The characteristics of fire spread among multiple vehicles in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation were investigated by analyzing the experimental data from a series of fire tests in a 1:15 scale tunnel. Further, a simple theoretical model for gas temperature in a tunnel with multiple fire sources was proposed and used in analysis of the experimental data. The results showed that, for objects (wood piles) placed at a same separating distance downstream of the fire, the fire spread occurred faster and faster along the tunnel. Validation of the simplified temperature model for multiple fire sources was made against both model and full-scale tunnel fire tests. The model was further used to predict the critical conditions for fire spread to the second and third objects. Comparisons with the test data showed that average excess temperature of 465 K (or an equivalent incident heat flux of 18.7 kW/m2) could be used as the criterion for fire spread, and this was verified further by other model-scale tests and full-scale tests. The results showed that the critical fire spread distance monotonously increases with the heat release rate, and decreases with the tunnel perimeter. For multiple fire sources with equivalent heat release rates, as the separation distance between the first two fire sources increases, the critical fire spread distance from the second fire source to the third fire source decreases, but the total fire spread distance from the first fire source to the third one increases. If the total heat release rate at the site of a downstream fire source is greater than that at the former fire source, the critical fire spread distance becomes longer.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 94.
    He, Kun
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Shi, Long
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Cheng, Xudong
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Experimental study on the maximum ceiling gas temperature driven by double fires in a tunnel with natural ventilation2024Ingår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 144, artikel-id 105550Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The maximum gas temperature below the ceiling is an important parameter for tunnel safety. The present study analyzed the characteristics of the maximum excess ceiling gas temperature driven by double fire sources in a naturally ventilated tunnel. A series of small-scale tunnel fire experiments were carried out with different fire separation distances and heat release rates. Theoretical analysis based on the equivalent virtual origin was also performed. The results showed that there exists only one peak gas temperature when the two fire plumes are merged before reaching the ceiling, while two peak gas temperatures can be observed when the two fire plumes are completely separated. The maximum excess gas temperature below the tunnel ceiling gradually decreases with an increasing fire separation distance in the plume merging region (S < Scp). When the fire separation distance increases further (S > Scp), the effect of the fire separation distance on the maximum gas temperature below the ceiling is very limited. Furthermore, a model using an equivalent fire source was proposed to predict the maximum excess gas temperature below the ceiling, considering different plume merging states. The present study contributes to the understanding of the maximum excess gas temperature characteristics of the smoke flow driven by double fires with an equal heat release rate in naturally ventilated tunnels. 

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 95.
    Honfi, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Bedon, Chiara
    University of Trieste, Sweden.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    Lund University, Sweden; Silesian University of Technology, Poland.
    Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour of Glass Panes Exposed to Radiant Heating2022Ingår i: Fire, ISSN 2571-6255, Vol. 5, nr 4, artikel-id 124Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite much research and applications, glass material and its use in buildings is still challenging for engineers due to its inherent brittleness and characteristic features such as sensitivity to stress concentrations, reduction in strength over time and from temperature, and breakage due to the stresses that may build up because of thermal gradients. This paper presents the results of an original test series carried out on monolithic glass panes with the dimensions of 500 × 500 mm2 and different thicknesses, under the exposure to radiant heating. The research study also includes a one-dimensional (1D) heat transfer model and a numerical, three-dimensional (3D) thermo-mechanical model that are used to investigate in greater detail the phenomena observed during the experiments. As shown, the behaviour of glass under radiant heating is rather complex and confirms the high vulnerability of this material for building applications. The usability and potential of thermo-mechanical numerical models is discussed towards experimental feedback. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 96.
    Huang, Chen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Andrei, Lipatnikov
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Development of a numerical tool using an open-source code for creating a safer working environment for the Swedish industries regarding dust explosions2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Dust explosion has been a constant threat to the physical working environment of the Swedish process industries which deal with combustible powders. Examples of such industries are pellets, paper, metal processing, food and feed, pharmaceuticals, and additive industries. This project aims at (i) development of physics-based and well-validated models which address the important combustion phenomena in dust explosions, (ii) development of a well-verified and an efficient numerical tool based on an open-source toolbox OpenFOAM for predicting consequences of dust explosions and (iii) simulation of large-scale dust explosions in the process industries. The project result improves the understanding of dust explosions, and it provides the process industries with a numerical tool for designing safer process plant regarding dust explosions.The model and code development were carried out in a step-by-step fashion. First, the so-called Flame Speed Closure (FSC) model for premixed turbulent combustion, was implemented into OpenFOAM. The implementation was verified against analytical solutions for 1-dimensional planar and 3-dimensional spherical turbulent flames. Second, the developed code including the model, i.e., FSCDustFoam, was validated against experimental data on corn starch dust explosion in a fan-stirred explosion vessel under well-controlled laboratory conditions. Third, the FSC model was extended by adapting the well-known experimental observations of the self-similarity of the flame acceleration to address large-scale industrial dust explosions. An excellent agreement between measurements of vented corn starch dust explosions in an 11.5 m3 vessel and the simulations using the extended the FSC model was obtained.In spite of the successful development of FSCDustFoam, challenges remain. Specifically, the current version of FSCDustFoam cannot address the effect of different shapes of vent openings on dust explosions. Nevertheless, FSCDustFoam is a promising tool to be applied and further developed to resolve the challenging reality regarding dust explosions in the Swedish process industries.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 97.
    Huang, Chen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    A Sensitivity Study of a Thermal Propagation Model in an Automotive Battery Module2023Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 59, s. 1405-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal runaway is a major concern for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. A manufacturing fault or unusual operating conditions may lead to this event. Starting from a single battery cell, more cells may be triggered into thermal runaway, and the battery pack may be destroyed. To prevent this from happening, safety solutions need to be evaluated. Physical testing is an effective, yet costly, method to assessing battery safety performance. As such, the potential of a numerical tool, which can cut costs and reduce product development times, is investigated in terms of capturing a battery module’s tolerance to a single cell failure. A 3D-FE model of a battery module was built, using a commercial software, to study thermal runaway propagation. The model assumes that when the cell jelly roll reaches a critical value, thermal runaway occurs. This approach was considered to study the module’s tolerance to a single cell failure, which was in reasonable agreement with what had been observed in full-scale experiments. In addition, quantitative sensitivity study on the i) model input parameters, ii) model space, and iii) time resolutions on the computed start time instant and time duration of thermal runaway were performed. The critical temperature was found to have the greatest influence on thermal runaway propagation. The specific heat capacity of jelly roll was found to significantly impact the thermal runaway time duration. The multi-physics model for battery thermal propagation is promising and worth to be applied with care for designing safer batteries in combination with physical testing.

  • 98.
    Huang, Chen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Bloching, Marius
    IND EX®, Germany.
    Lipatnikov, Andrei
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Vented dust explosions: comparing experiments, simulations and standards2022Ingår i: Proceedings of the Tenth International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards, 2022Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A vented corn starch dust explosion in an 11.5 m3 vessel is studied by comparing experiments, simulations and thestandards. The reduced explosion overpressure inside the vessel is recorded using two pressure sensors installed on theinner wall of the vessel. 3D Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations of the experiment are performedusing the Flame Speed Closure (FSC) model and its extended version. The FSC model predicts the influence of turbulenceon premixed combustion, and the extended version allows for self-acceleration of a large-scale flame kernel, which isassociated with the combustion-induced thermal expansion effect. Such an extension is highly relevant to large-scaleindustrial application. The explosion overpressure-time trace computed using the extended FSC model agrees reasonablywell with the experimental data. Furthermore, the effect of vent size and ignition location on the explosion overpressureis studied by comparing the simulation results and the standards. The developed numerical tool and model is especiallyuseful for scenarios, which are not addressed in the standards, and it deserves further study in simulations of other largescalesdust or gaseous explosions together with comparison with experiments.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    ISFEH10_paper_33
  • 99.
    Huang, Chen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ramachandra, Vasudev
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Modelling thermal runaway initiation and propagation for batteries in dwellings to evaluate tenability conditions2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal propagation is one of the major challenges when batteries will be used in dwellings in large scale. It means the exothermic reactions in the cell are out of control and can lead to a fast release of flammable and toxic gases. In a system involving a large number of cells, thermal runaway can rapidly propagate from one battery cell to the whole system, which means substantial fire and explosion risks, an event that is important to mitigate and prevent. Multi-physics simulations together with full-scale testing is a cost-effective method for designing safer batteries. This project aims at simulating thermal runaway initiation and propagation using a multi-physics commercial software GT-Suite. 

    A battery thermal runaway model containing 12 prismatic cells based on 3-D Finite Element approach was built using GT-Suite. The computed thermal runaway time instants versus thermal runaway cell number were compared with full-scale experimental data with reasonable agreement. Quantitative sensitivity study on the model input parameters and model space and time resolutions on the computed start time instant and time duration of thermal runaway were performed. The thermal runaway model was then extended with an electric equivalent sub-model to simulate the short circuit. With the electrical model acting as the input to the thermal model, the most interesting output of the simulation is the change in temperature of the cells, dependent on the current in the cells, with respect to time. The current is determined by the value of the external resistance through which the short takes place and the voltage level of the battery pack. The obtained results from the above short circuit simulations can only be used as a starting point and not as absolute values for neither triggering the thermal model nor for accurately simulating a battery under an electrical load. Furthermore, GT-Suite was applied to simulate the gas dispersion inside a room. A comparative study of the dispersion of toxic gases during thermal runaway, utilising an arbitrary release of HCN to represent the battery gases, in a small compartment with natural ventilation was investigated and the results compared the same situation simulated in FDS. The pipe based modelling supported by GT-Suite has limited applicability and overestimated the concentrations close to the ceiling whereas the lateral concentrations where underestimated. 

    The multi-physics model for battery thermal runaway process is promising and worth to be applied with care for designing safer batteries in combination with full-scale testing. 

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 100.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Kumlin, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Electric Trucks – Fire Safety Aspects2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was performed by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden on behalf of Volvo Trucks. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden was requested to conduct a study regarding the differences between fires in conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) trucks and electric trucks. A set of guiding questions (see section Aim) were given by Volvo Trucks and in this report these questions have been answered. The questions have been answered by performing literature searches and through previous knowledge of RISE. However, for some questions, due to scarcity of data on electric truck fires, knowledge regarding electric passenger cars has been used. In addition, contact has been made with fire and rescue services around the world (Australia, UK, USA, Sweden and Finland) to collect their views on management of fires in electric vehicles (EVs). The main conclusions are: • Data on electric truck fires are scarce due to the low number of vehicles as well as the low number of fire incidents. Available data show that battery electric passenger vehicle fires are less common than ICE vehicle fires, but that the risks are different. The main differences are that battery fires tends to be harder to extinguish than fires in ICE vehicles and that there is a risk of accumulation of flammable gases, especially in enclosed spaces, upon thermal runaway. • Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) type cells, in comparison with nickel-based type cells (such as lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) and lithium nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCA)), have a higher thermal runaway onset temperature, a slower temperature increase rate, a lower maximum temperature as well as a lower gas production in total amount. However, the specific total gas production (L Ah-1) can sometimes be higher for LFP-type cells and depends on the state of charge and on the amount of electrolyte in the cell. However, the safety of a battery pack in a vehicle is determined by several factors such as preventive measures aimed at reducing the occurrence of fires (safe design). For example, by early detection and pro-active mitigation using the battery management system and thermal management system and by limiting the thermal propagation in the battery pack, reducing the extent of damage. • Fires in enclosed spaces, such as in underground parking garages and tunnels, generally imply a higher risk for firefighters due to the trapped smoke, decreased visibility and longer access routes than in open structures. Risk reduction measures for battery fires should focus on early detection of harmful events, reducing thermal propagation in the battery pack and on limiting the extent of fire spread. The severity of the consequences of vehicle fires (no matter if is an EV or an ICEV) in enclosed spaces could be reduced using suppression systems, such as a water sprinkler system, to hinder fire spread between vehicles.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
12345 51 - 100 av 219
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf