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  • 51.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Sesseng, Christian
    Metode for evaluering av branner2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    Denne rapporten beskriver en enkel metode som kan anvendes ved mindre omfattende evalueringer av branner. Med metode menes her en systematikk for gjennomføring av evalueringer. En mindre omfattende evaluering vil være en gjennomgang der det enten er få forhold ved brannen som skal undersøkes, eller der situasjonen er relativt oversiktlig. Metoden er deretter anvendt på en brann i et sykehjem. Evalueringen av denne hendelsen er ikke fullstendig gjennomført, men fungerer som et eksempel på hvordan metoden kan brukes.

  • 52.
    Stensaas, Jan P.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Sesseng, Christian
    Kartlegging av forskningsstatus innen brannetterforskning2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    I dette prosjektet er det gjennomført et litteraturstudium der vi har kartlagt forskningsstatus innen utvalgte tema innenfor brannetterforskning. Det er gjennomført søk i aktuelle litteraturdatabaser for nasjonale og internasjonale publikasjoner, og i annen relevant faglitteratur som bøker og rapporter. Utvalgte relevante forskningsinstitusjoner og fagmiljøer er også kontaktet for å undersøke status innenfor de aktuelle temaene. Følgende prioriterte emner er undersøkt: • Brennbare væsker • Antennelse ved gnister, glør og varme partikler • Batterier • Selvantennelse

  • 53.
    Stolen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Heat flux in jet fires: New method for measuring the heat flux levels of jet fires2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Jet fires are ignited leakages of pressurized liquid or gaseous fuel. In jet fire testing for the offshore industry, heat flux is the defining factor for the accidental loads. NORSOK S001 [1] defines two different heat flux levels of 250 kW/m2 and 350 kW/m2 depending on the leak rate of hydrocarbons. These heat flux levels are used in risk analysis and define what type of fire load bearing structures and critical equipment need to be able to resist in a given area. Examples of such ratings can be “250 kW/m2 jet fire for 60 minutes”, “350 kW/m2 jet fire for 15 minutes” or any other combination based on calculations in the risk assessment. Combined with critical temperatures this defines the performance criteria for the passive fire protection. Each configuration of the passive fire protection needs to be tested and verified. Manufacturers of passive fire protection request fire tests to document their performance against jet fires with these various heat flux levels. The challenge is that the standard for testing passive fire protection against jet fires [2] does not define any heat flux level or any method to define or measure it. We have developed a method for defining and measuring the heat flux levels in jet fires. This method can be used when faced with the challenge of testing passive fire protection against specific levels of heat flux. The method includes a custom test rig that allows jet fire testing with different heat flux levels. A large number of tests have been performed to verify the reproducibility and repeatability of the method. Heat flux is defined as the flow of energy through a surface. The heat flux from a fire to an engulfed surface of an object is dependent on both the engulfing flame and the properties of the surface. The properties of the surface may change during the exposure to the flame as it heats up and changes its surface properties. At some point the object inside the flame will reach a thermal equilibrium with the flame where the net flow of energy into the object is balanced by the energy emitted from the object. The heat flux for an object can be calculated as incident heat flux, emitted heat flux or net heat flux. A definition of heat flux needs to include parameters of the receiving object. These variations give a lot of degrees of freedom when calculating heat flux in a fire. Special water cooled gauges are designed to measure heat flux to a cooled surface, but these have proved to be very unreliable when placed inside a large fire. A more robust and easily defined method is to measure the equilibrium temperature inside an object placed inside the flame. This is the principle used in plate thermocouples used in fire resistance furnace testing [3]. In our experience, these plate thermocouples are often damaged during high heat flux jet fire tests. This raises questions to how long into the tests such measurements are reliable. Several other types of objects have been tested and the most convenient and reliable type was found to be simply a small 8 mm steel tube that is sealed in the end and has a thermocouple inside. One key difference between this small tube thermocouple and the plate thermocouple is that the plate thermocouple is directional and the tube is omnidirectional. Current works and tests will optimize the measuring objects in order to get the most relevant equilibrium temperature while still maintaining the robustness of the sensor during the test. The suggested heat flux calculation is to follow the Stefan-Boltzmann relation of temperature and heat flux. For a black body this gives 350 kW/m2 for 1303 °C and 250 kW/m2 for 1176 °C. A lower emissivity may be defined for the surface of the sensing object giving higher temperatures for the same flux levels. This method gives a simple, robust and reproducible correlation between heat flux levels and temperatures that can be measured during jet fire tests. The method does not differ between the varying convective and radiative heat transfer in the flame, but it is a representative measurement for the temperature that an object would reach when placed inside the flame.

  • 54.
    Stolen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Glansberg, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Daaland Wormdahl, Espen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Heat flux in jet fires : Unified method for measuring the heat flux levels of jet fires2018Ingår i: Nordic Fire and Safety Days (NFSD2018) Conference proceedings (with peer-review),, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Passive fire protection materials are used to protect critical structures against the heat from fires. In process plants with pressurized combustible substances there may be a risk of jet fires. Through risk analysis the severity of these jet fires is determined and these result in fire resistance requirements with different heat flux levels for different segments. The relevant test standard for fire resistance against jet fires does not include any measurements or definitions of the heat flux in the test flame which the tested object is exposed to. This paper presents methods for reaching different heat flux levels and how to measure them in a jet fire with limited deviations from the established jet fire test standard.

  • 55.
    Stolen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Stensaas, Reidar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Solcelleteknologi og brannsikkerhet2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    Bruken av solcelleteknologi er i stor vekst i Norge. I denne studien er branntekniske utfordringer ved bruk av solcelleteknologi undersøkt, med hensyn på brannstart, brannspredning og brannslokking. Studien danner et kunnskapsgrunnlag for å ivareta brannsikkerheten under montering, drift og under slokkeinnsats, samt for å utforme et enhetlig og tydelig regelverk. Resultatene fra studien viser:

    Brannstart: Solcelleinstallasjoner inneholder mange koblingspunkt, som kan være potensielle tennkilder, og en liten mengde brennbare materialer. Dermed er det som trengs til stede for å starte en brann. Det er viktig at alle kontaktpunkter i solcelleinstallasjonen er robuste og tåler den påkjenningen de blir utsatt for gjennom sin levetid uten at det oppstår dårlig kontakt som kan føre til brann.

    Brannspredning: For utenpåmonterte solcellemoduler er det ofte en åpen luftspalte mellom modul og bygning. Dersom det er en brann i denne luftspalten, vil varmen kunne bli akkumulert, noe som kan føre til raskere og større brannspredning enn om bygningsoverflaten ikke hadde vært tildekket. I fullskalaforsøk med solcellemoduler montert på tak spredte brannen seg under hele arealet som var dekket av moduler, men stoppet da den nærmet seg kanten av dette arealet. Dette illustrerer viktigheten av at områder med solceller utenpå en bygning blir seksjonert for å unngå brannspredning. Eventuelt kan det benyttes mindre brennbare materialer på taket under solcellemodulene for å motvirke den økte varmepåkjenningen som solcellemodulene gir. Luftspalten mellom modul og bygning kan potensielt også gi endringer i luftstrømningen langs bygget, som igjen kan påvirke brannspredningen.

    Brannslokking: Brannvesenet har behov for informasjon om det er solcelleinstallasjon i bygget og hvilke deler av det elektriske anlegget som kan være spenningssatt. Under slokkeinnsats må brannvesenet ta hensyn til berøringsfare, og fare for at det kan oppstå lysbuer og andre feil som kan føre til nye antennelsespunkt. Ferskvann kan brukes som slokkemiddel, dette må spyles fra minimum 1 meters avstand med spredt stråle og minimum 5 meters avstand med samlet stråle. Solcellemoduler kan komplisere brannslokking ved at de danner en fysisk barriere mellom brannvesenet og brannen, samt fordi det må tas hensyn til plassering av spenningssatte komponenter. Når disse punktene er tatt høyde for, bør ikke utenpåmonterte solcelleinstallasjoner være et problem.

    Videre arbeid: For utenpåmonterte solcelleinstallasjoner, er det lite forskning på vertikal montering (på fasader), og hvordan en eventuell endret branndynamikk kan påvirke brannspredning og slokking. Videre er det i dag økende bruk av bygningsintegrerte solcelleinstallasjoner, noe som gir mange mulige nye utfordringer for brannsikkerheten og for regelverk, ettersom solcellen da er en del av bygningskroppen, samtidig som den er en elektrisk komponent. Tysk statistikk tyder på at brannrisiko for slike installasjoner kan være større enn for utenpåmonterte solcelleinstallasjoner, og dette vil det derfor være viktig å undersøke nærmere.

  • 56.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Dødsbranner i Norge – Forprosjekt2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 57.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    EU Fire Standards and Research2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the Furniture Flammability and Human Health Summit, 2017, s. 16-17Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 58.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Fire incidents and potential fire incidents on Norwegian oil and gas installations2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents results from a review of fire incidents and potential fire incidents on installations under the responsibility of the Petroleum Safety Authority Norway (Ptil). The review was an initiative of, and funded by SP Fire Research.

  • 59.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    Optisk varsling – Veiledningstekst2016Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [no]

    Denne rapporten er utarbeidet på oppdrag fra Direktoratet for byggkvalitet (DiBK) og Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap (DSB). Prosjektet har bakgrunn i at DiBK har mottatt et endringsforslag til eksisterende tekst i VTEK § 11-12, annet ledd annet ledd bokstav a, preaksepterte ytelser punkt 4. Teksten omhandler optisk varsling som en del av et brannalarmanlegg.

  • 60.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Bøe, Andreas G.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Stolen, Reidar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Gjøsund, Gudveig
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Halvorsen, Kristin
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Almklov, Petter G.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Rett tiltak på rett sted: Forebyggende og målrettede tekniske og organisatoriske tiltak mot dødsbranner i risikogrupper2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    Personer som på ulike måter kan kategoriseres som sårbare, er overrepresentert i dødsbrannstatistikken. Derfor er det viktig å finne fram til effektive og målrettede tiltak som kan forhindre framtidige dødsbranner der personer som tilhører det som omtales som sårbare grupper er involvert. I rapporten brukes en helhetlig analytisk tilnærming som skal fange opp mangfoldet av dimensjoner som kan påvirke forebygging av dødsbrann, og hvordan disse virker i samspill med hverandre. Prosjektet har operert med en forståelse av sårbarhet som inkluderer både det fysiske miljøet, de menneskelige behovene og de sosiale og organisatoriske omgivelsene. En del av rapporten retter seg mot tekniske løsninger som kan brukes for å forbedre brannsikkerheten til sårbare grupper. Det har vært et mål å finne ut hvordan organisatoriske og tekniske tiltak kan brukes og ses i sammenheng, og hvordan tekniske tiltak kan implementeres, vurderes og dokumenteres.

  • 61.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Ishol, Herbjörg M.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Rømning i brann: funksjonen til ulike visuelle ledesystemer2014Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 62.
    Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Amon, Francine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Shayesteh, Haghighatpanah
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Larsson, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Bergstrand, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Fire safe furniture in a sustainable perspective2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Loose furnishings, such as upholstered furniture, mattresses and textiles, are very important for the early stages of fires. Such products can be easily ignited, contribute to rapid spread of fire and produce a lot of smoke and heat when they burn. This limits the time and opportunity for evacuation and fire rescue. The regulation of fire properties of interior textiles, armchairs, sofas and mattresses has been discussed nationally and internationally for many years, without resulting in more stringent requirements for such products, at least not on a harmonized level. Fire safety and environmental considerations are important factors that are often set against each other. It is therefore important to promote the development of safe and fireproof furnishings that are environmentally friendly throughout their life cycle, and which satisfy other requirements that are usually imposed on this product group. The main objective of this project has been to contribute to new knowledge about how fire safety associated with loose interior design can be improved through developing products that meet sustainability and circularity requirements. These new products shall have fire performance comparable to flame retarded reference products but will rely on construction techniques and materials containing small amounts or no flame retardants. The new products shall be safe while in use and shall be recyclable at the end of life. Sustainability and environmental impact analyses including life cycle analyses of furnishing materials have been performed, as well as fire tests for screening the fire performance of a selection of material combinations. Combining a requirement for both sustainable yet fire safe furnishing is a complex task to solve. The more complex the material combination, the more difficult to predict both factors in parallel. Slight variations in components can potentially change the overall scoring of their performance. Cotton, wool and polyester has been shown to have equally high sustainability scores, although cotton had relatively high environmental impact. Polyamide was identified as the fabric with the best environmental performer but scoring lower on sustainability. The cushion material has great impact on fire safety because it may contribute with large amounts of heat energy and smoke. Polyurethane is by far the most common cushion material and comes in many variations, some including chemical fire retardants (FR). FR’s have not been included in in the sustainability and environmental impact analyses in this study, instead focus has been on exploring alternative methods of achieving comparable fire performance. In the case of cushion material, latex was identified as performing much higher on both sustainability and environmental impact than polyurethane. Unfortunately, latex was not a part of the fire testing series and was therefore not explored with regard to fire performance. Future studies should explore the interaction of the fire performance properties of different materials identified as high sustainability and environmental impact performers, especially in full scale room fire experiments. Thorough knowledge about how different components (of high sustainability and low environmental impact) contribute to the fire performance and how these are maintained throughout the furniture’s lifetime, would improve the possibility of fire safe furniture to be part of a circular economy.

  • 63.
    Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Evaluating particle and gas transmission through firefighters’ clothing2019Ingår i: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this project has been to establish new knowledge and methods for testing the penetration of hazardous soot and smoke particles into fire clothing. The aim has been to provide the basis for the development of new fire-fighter clothing with better protection against particle penetration. In cooperation with fire services, authorities and protection clothing producers, needs, requirements and recommendations have been investigated. For the documentation and relevant classification of protective clothing, test set-ups in small and larger scale have been developed. The aim has been to be able to achieve representative and repeatable fire- and smoke exposure for accurate measurement of the particle penetration into clothing and trough clothing layers for screening materials and design solutions. With regard to the performance of the clothing, the small-scale tests give indications of the textiles’ ability to block gases and particles from penetrating into the clothing. The large-scale tests give indications to how the design of the clothing as a whole is able to prevent intrusion of gases and particles.

  • 64.
    Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Glansberg, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Smoke alarm efficiency: Waking sleeping occupants2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A literature survey was conducted to study the available research connected to wakening of sleeping people from the sound of a smoke alarm. The effect on the sound attenuation from typical building materials has also been studied.

    While the common high frequency signal used in residential smoke alarms will wake up most unimpaired adults, is not the most efficient alarm type to awaken certain groups of the population. Children, elderly and people influenced by alcohol or medicines that affect sleep belong to the group at risk of not being awaken by the sound of the common smoke alarm.

    A 520 Hz alarm signal have been shown to efficiently wake up the general population as well as people at risk. This signal has also been shown to maintain its sound level more efficiently when transmitted through and via ordinary building components in dwellings.

    For this reason, it is recommended that product documentation related to the CE-marked smoke alarm should include both minimum sound output (dB(A)) as well as describing the tone (e.g. frequency) in order for the consumer to be able to make an informed choice that fits their needs.

  • 65.
    Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Hox, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Bøe, Andreas Gagnat
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Wighus, Ragnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Slokkevannsmengder2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 66.
    Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Hox, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Ishol, Herbjørg M.
    SWECO, Sweden.
    Utredning i forbindelse med brannvesenets dimensjonering2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    Denne rapporten er utarbeidet på oppdrag fra Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap (DSB). DSB har bedt RISE Fire Research om å bistå med evalueringer i forbindelse med utarbeidelse av forslag til revidert forskrift for organisering og dimensjonering av brann- og redningsvesenet.   Prosjektet har hatt som målsetting å evaluere spesifikke problemstillinger relatert til: 1. Responstid og innsatstid 2. Dimensjonering av beredskap a. Størrelse på samlet innsatsstyrke samt oppmøte b. Vaktberedskap – dagkasernering  3. Dimensjonering av beredskap – vaktlag og støttestyrke med hensyn til såkalt "fremskutt enhet"

  • 67.
    Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Ishol, Herbjørg M.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Vurdering av brannvesenet: Kompetanse og opplæring i brannvesenet2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 68.
    Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Mai, Thai Trung
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Ethanol-fuelled, flue-less fireplaces - An evaluation2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 69.
    Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Rød, B.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Guay, F.
    INOV INESC Inovação, Portugal.
    Almeida, R.
    Danish Institute of Fire and Security Technology, Denmark.
    Theocharidou, M.
    European Commission, Italy.
    Novel methodologies for analysing critical infrastructure resilience2018Ingår i: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 2018, s. 1221-1230Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of Critical Infrastructures (CI), both policy and research focus has shifted from protection to resilience. The IMPROVER project has developed a CI resilience management framework (ICI-REF), applicable to all types of CI and resilience domains (technological, organisational and societal) allowing operators to understand and improve their resilience. IMPROVER has also developed methodologies to be used within the framework, accompanied with resilience indicators for operators to assess their technological and organisational resilience. The framework allows CI operators to incorporate resilience management as part of their risk management processes. The ICI-REF, the resilience analysis methodologies and indicators have been optimised, applied and demonstrated in a pilot implementation, focusing on the potable water supply in Barreiro, Portugal. Conclusions from the operators so far are that the indicators, well-defined and unambiguously described, are crucial for monitoring resilience activities, to ensure objective, consistent, repeatable and representative results from the assessed processes.

  • 70.
    Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Fire fatalities in Norway: An analysis of 350 fires from 2005 to 20142017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 71.
    Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Fire safety for vulnerable people2017Ingår i: International Fire Protection Magazine, nr 69, s. 76-78Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 72.
    Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Forutsetninger og muligheter for svensk-norsk brannforskningssamarbeid: Oppsummering av workshop 11 juni 20132013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 73.
    Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Preventing fatal fires involving vulnerable people2016Ingår i: FPE Extra, nr 12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    SP Fire Research has conducted a study for the Norwegian authorities aimed at finding targeted technical and organisational measures that can be implemented in order to avoid fire fatalities among so-called vulnerable groups. Individuals that may be categorized in different ways as vulnerable are overrepresented in the fire fatality statistics in Norway and internationally. In fact, almost 80 % of the fire fatalities had characteristics that would make them vulnerable to a fire situation. Most victims die alone in their own homes. Although our study has mainly been concerned with the nature of the Norwegian society, we are convinced that our findings are universal, and believe that results from this work also can become useful outside Norway.

  • 74.
    Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Recommendations for documentation of reaction-To-fire properties of materials in the oil and gas industry2017Ingår i: 15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire and Materials 2017, 2017, s. 778-789Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a set of recommended reaction-To-fire test methods and related criteria for different construction products and furnishing products for use on offshore petroleum industry facilities. The system was first developed and published in 2008, as a response to performance based fire safety regulations. It has since then been extensively used by petroleum companies operating on the Norwegian shelf. The recommendations have been revised and updated recently to take revisions and developments of regulations, standards and test methods into account. These recommendations can be used as a part of the risk management system where the fire safety in high risk application areas shall be controlled, and are not limited to application of materials on facilities in the offshore petroleum industry only.

  • 75.
    Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Aamnes Mostue, Bodil
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Hendelser med brann i elektriske anlegg: Årsaksforhold og tiltak2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 76.
    Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Amon, Francine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Haghighatpanah, Shayesteh
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Larsson, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Fire safe, sustainable loose furnishing2019Ingår i: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study has been to investigate the fire properties and environmental aspects of different upholstery material combinations. An analysis of the sustainability and circularity of selected textiles, along with lifecycle assessment, is used to qualitatively evaluate materials from an environmental perspective. The cone calorimeter was the primary tool used to screen 20 different material combinations from a fire performance perspective. It was found that textile covers of conventional fibres such as wool, cotton and polyester, can be improved by blending them with fire resistant speciality fibres. A new three-dimensional web structure has been examined, showing preliminary promising fire properties with regard to ignition time, heat release rates and smoke production.

  • 77.
    Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Bergstrand, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Fire safe upholstered furniture: Alternative strategies to the use of chemical flame retardants2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that upholstered furniture represents a fire risk due to the fact that it is composed of relatively large amounts of easily ignited and very combustible materials. The fire properties are usually improved by adding chemical flame retardants to the upholstery materials.

    The goal of this investigation is to demonstrate how sufficient fire safety in upholstered furniture may be achieved, without the use of flame retardant chemicals.

    A number of cover materials in different combinations with other materials including wadding, barrier materials and foam, have been tested in small scale cone calorimeter tests and in mock-up chair tests. Time to ignition, heat release and smoke production of the different combinations have been examined.

    It is shown that there certainly are possibility to improve these properties by means of alternative strategies other than by adding chemical flame retardants.

  • 78.
    Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Hox, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Assessment of the response time of Norwegian fire and rescue service2018Ingår i: Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2018, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 79.
    Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Steinbakk, Sandra H.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Brannsikkerhet og helse- og miljøeffekter i forbindelse med stoppete møbler, madrasser og innredningstekstiler2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 80.
    Säter Böe, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Hox, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    BRAVENT – Delrapport 2 ; Brannspredning i ventilasjonskanaler2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This is sub-report 2 of the BRAVENT project (Fire and smoke distribution in ventilation ducts) which presents results from experiments where the risk of spreading fire and heat in ventilation ducts has been investigated. In the experiments, the effect of fire insulation on the duct, and mixing hot smoke with air at room temperature in the duct (as from adjacent rooms) has been investigated. The ventilation duct was connected to a furnace at one end and a fan at the other end. The furnace was heated to the desired temperature, and hot smoke was drawn through the duct at a certain velocity. Thermocouples measured the temperature both inside the duct (smoke gas temperatures) and on the duct’s external surface at different distances from the furnace.

  • 81.
    Säter Böe, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Stensaas, Jan Paul
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    BRAVENT – Delrapport 1 : Teori- og kunnskapssammenstilling2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently questions about whether spread of heat and smoke in ventilation ducts during a fire represent an increased risk for personal safety and loss of properties have been raised. The technical solutions currently used to fulfill the pre-accepted performance given in the guidelines to the building regulations with regard to fire protection of ventilation ducts are largely based on descriptions in SINTEF's Building Design Sheet 520.352 on fire- and smoke protection of ventilation systems, and in BV Netts Guide for fireproof ventilation, also known as the BVNett Guide. This topic was once again raised in connection with the revision of the 2017 edition of the building regulations, when it was pointed out in inquiry statements that the pre-accepted performances are insufficiently defined and that the solutions outlined in the Building Design Sheet and the BVNett Guide are not sufficiently documented.

    In order to elucidate this topic and provide scientific documentation on the extent to which the spread of heat and smoke in ventilation ducts represents a risk to persons and properties, the BRAVENT project (Fire and smoke spread in ventilation ducts) was initiated.

    The project investigates issues related to heat dissipation in ventilation ducts, clogging of filters in ventilation systems due to smoke, the effect of the seal-up strategy with respect to pressure build-up in the fire room and smoke spread through leakages in the construction.

    The objective of the sub-task presented in this report was to:

    Compile a theoretical basis for the experiments and analyzes to be carried out.

    1. Map relevant regulations for fire protection of ventilation systems.

    2. Map standards that are the basis for determining the fire resistance of components included in a ventilation system.

    3. Map the state-of-the-art regarding a. the need to fire insulate ventilation ducts.

    b. the need to install bypass channels to prevent the filter systems from being clogged by smoke particles.

    c. the effect of installing fire dampers in all fire-partitions with respect to smoke spread.

    d. how smoke can be spread via ventilation ducts and leaks in the building structure.

    e. the pros and cons of seal-up and extraction strategies.

    © RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

    This is sub-report 1, which summarizes the relevant, fire-related theory and state-of-the-art in the focus area. The report serves as the theoretical basis for planning of experiments and for the other activities in the BRAVENT project.

  • 82.
    Sæter Bøe, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    En vurdering av effekten til slokkesprayer på det norske markedet2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    Kravene som stilles til slokkesprayer (en type supplerende brannslokningsutstyr) er tydelige når det gjelder merking, men uklare med hensyn til slokkeeffekt. SP Fire Research har på oppdrag for Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap (DSB), testet 11 slokkesprayer for å undersøke hvor god slokkeeffekten er, og hvor godt merket de er. Resultatene fra testene viser at de aller fleste slokkesprayene ikke tilfredsstiller krav til slokkeeffekt som oppstilles av den britiske standarden BS 6165:2002 og den kommende europeiske standarden prEN 16856:2015, som omfatter slike produkter.   De beste produktene viste imidlertid en relativt god slokkeeffekt, og kan være et godt supplement til annet brannslokningsutstyr for å slokke en brann i en tidlig fase. 

  • 83.
    Sæter Bøe, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Fullskala branntest av elbil2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    Norge og Grenland Energy, gjennomført to fullskala branntester av elbiler av merke Tata Indica GLX. Batteriet i bilene var et 26 kWh Li-ion batteri med en katode bestående av nikkel, magnesium og kobolt (NMC-katode).  I test 1 ble en elbil sluppet i fritt fall fra en høyde på 20 meter, for å simulere en kraftig kollisjon. Umiddelbart etter sammenstøtet begynte det å ryke kraftig fra batteriet. Etter  ca. 7 minutter begynte bilen å brenne med synlige flammer. Bilen fikk deretter brenne fritt. Etter 2,5 timer ble temperaturen målt mellom 310 og 540 °C på ulike deler av batteripakken. Bilen var da fullstendig utbrent. Testen viser at en elbil som blir utsatt for en kraftig kollisjon kan begynne å brenne.   I test 2 var målet å antenne batteripakken ved å bruke en ekstern varmekilde, for deretter  å måle hvor mye slokkevann som krevdes for å slokke brannen. Batteriet ble oppvarmet av en propanbrenner fra undersiden av bilen. Etter ca. 10 minutter begynte bilen å brenne med synlige flammer. Det ble gjennomført to slokkeforsøk under brannen. Brannen reantente etter første slokkeforsøk, men ble fullstendig slokket i andre forsøk. Til tross for den eksterne oppvarmingen av batteriet, og at bilen var overtent i en lengre periode, begynte det ikke å brenne i batteripakken. Brannen kunne dermed  slokkes med samme innsatsmetode og tidsforbruk som en brann i en konvensjonell bensin-/dieselbil.

  • 84.
    Valdés, Virginia
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge. Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Smouldering fires in wood pellets: the effect of varying the airflow2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Smouldering is a flameless form of combustion, deriving its heat from heterogeneous reactions occurring on the surface of the fuel when heated in an oxidizer environment. Smouldering is of interest both as a fundamental combustion problem and as a practical fire hazard, for instance in industrial storage units [1]. Many materials can sustain a smouldering reaction, among them wood pellets, which are becoming more widely used as an alternative to oil -fired central heating in residential and industrial buildings. Smouldering fires are difficult to detect, becoming a hazard that must not be underestimated [2]. The influence of varying the airflow, using two different configurations of smouldering combustion was studied: reverse and forward propagation. These are defined according to the direction in which the smouldering reaction front propagates relative to the oxidizer flow. In reverse smouldering, the reaction front propagates in the opposite direction to the oxidizer flow. In forward smouldering the front propagates in the same direction as the oxidizer flow: convective transport is in the direction of the original fuel ahead, preheating it before the smoulder zone is reached.

  • 85.
    Wendelborg Brandt, Are
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Wighus, Ragnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    IG-541 og personsikkerhet – behov for dokumentasjon for byggverk i risikoklasse 4 og 62019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of the extinguishing gas IG-541 for fire protection of construction works designed for overnight stays has been discussed in Norway in recent times.For buildings where automatic fire extinguishing systems are required according to the Norwegian regulations on technical requirements for construction works (TEK17) § 11-12, the guidance to the regulations states that sprinkler systems as described in NS-EN 12845 and NS-INSTA 900-1 (for residential buildings and parts of buildings intended for residential purposes), are accepted.In Norway, the owner of the building has to "prove" that the requirements of the regulations are fulfilled. It is then necessary that competent actors are providing the needed documentation, and this is mainly done by fire safety engineers.The standards that apply in Norway for application of IG-541 are prNS-EN 15004-1 Fixed fire-fighting systems - Gas-extinguishing systems - Part 1 Design, installation and maintenance (ISO 14520-1: 2015, modified) and NS-EN 15004-10 Fixed fire extinguishing systems - Gas extinguishing systems - Part 10: Physical properties and system design of gas extinguishing systems for IG-541 extinguisher (ISO 14520-15: 2015, modified). Another standard relevant to the assessment of personal safety of IG-541 is ISO 14520-1.It is not explicitly described in any of the current standards that IG-541 can be used in dwellings, but it is also not stated that IG-541 cannot be used in such areas. A process has been carried out within the standardization committees that are responsible for gas-based extinguishing systems, in order to highlight this issue. This has been discussed in the Norwegian mirror committee for CEN TC191, SN K014. The committee concluded in April 2017 that there was a lack of clear guidelines for using IG-541 in construction works designed for overnight stays, and that there was a need to start a separate activity to get these conditions described in the current Norwegian standard. The committee could not find sufficient resources to prepare a satisfactory standard or provide a supplement to an existing standard, but if individual actors would voluntarily conduct the work, one could evaluate possible proposals. Since this, no actors have expressed an interest in taking part in such a working task, and nothing is so far carried out.IG-541 is described as a gas mixture that allows humans to continue breathing and take up oxygen from air with a reduced oxygen content, even at oxygen concentrations lower than the limits stated for other types of inert extinguishing gases. This is due to the addition of CO2 which stimulates the breathing reflex. This effect has not been assessed here, since this is not a part of RISE Fire Research's field of expertise. Quality assurance of the medical information is therefore left to the expertise in this discipline.Since it is not explicitly mentioned in NS-EN 15004-1 that IG-541 can be used dwellings, we have searched for documentation that could indicate if this can be justified. The practice that some of the suppliers of IG-541 systems seem to follow, is to claim that since it has been carried out qualification tests to determine the extinguishing gas concentration that is required to achieve the minimum requirements of EN 15004-1, this gas is eligible to extinguish fires in flammable liquids, fires in electrical installations and Class A fires. The qualification tests have been carried out according to test methods described in NS-EN 15004-1, Annex B and Annex C.For other extinguishing systems that are used as an alternative to sprinkler systems and which must fulfill the requirements in TEK17, extensive documentation work has been carried out. Separate test standards have been developed to document the extinguishing properties of the systems.In order to facilitate and clarify the requirements for documentation of the extinguishing properties of IG-541, there is a need for test standards which can be used to document the extinguishing properties of IG-541 in realistic fire scenarios that can be expected in construction works designed for overnight stays. By conducting a successful test series, a system would be qualified to be considered equivalent to sprinkler systems with regard to the extinguishing properties.ConclusionBased on the current standards that have been reviewed in this report, there is no basis for using IG-541 in construction works designed for overnight stays, without fulfilling the evacuation requirements that apply to gas extinguishing systems in general. For design concentration for IG-541, this means that persons must be evacuated within 5 minutes after activation of the system. IG-541 is not treated differently from other inert gases in the standards.The term "personnel" used in NS-EN 15004-1 also gives a clear indication that the standard is not intended for construction works designed for overnight stays.It is recommended to initiate work to investigate whether it is possible to extend the allowed duration of exposure to IG-541 based on medical conditions.It must also be documented that the requirements for air tight rooms and buildings, at the same time as requirements for pressure relief when triggering gas extinguishing systems, can be fulfilled in the application areas that include permanent residence. If the duration of exposure to the gas can be increased, it may give rise to an increased application time for IG-541 resulting in a slower pressure build-up than required by standards, and thereby reducing the potential for exposing people for a high overpressure.If it is possible to document that longer duration of exposure to a design concentration of IG-541 does not lead to increased health risks, it must also be documented that the extinguishing effect of IG-541 is equivalent to sprinkler systems. This can be done either by developing a new test standard or by changing the already existing standard NS-EN 15004-10.

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