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  • 51.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. NTNU, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ehrlenspiel, Rupert
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Smouldering fire test methods – Documenting the potential for smouldering fires in thermal insulation2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this FRIC report, fire test methods to document smouldering in thermal insulation are presented. Standardized test methods from Europe, USA and Canada are presented, describing the test principles and assessment criteria. In addition, a selection of non-standardized experimental methods for smouldering fire documentation used in research and investigations are presented. Finally, factors impacting the outcome of tests as well as knowledge gaps are discussed. The overview presented in this report may be used as a guideline to the reader on benefits and challenges with different methods. Industry, researchers, fire investigators and others may benefit from this overview, to ensure that a relevant method is chosen for each end-use.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 52.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    Hansen, Per Arne
    Wighus, Ragnar
    Hva tåler en brannvegg?2015Inngår i: Brandposten, nr 52, s. 34-35Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 53.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge. Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Jensen, Ulla Eidissen
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Smouldering Combustion inLoose-Fill Wood Fibre Thermal Insulation: An Experimental Study2018Inngår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 54, nr 6, s. 1585-1608Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A bench-scale experimental setup has been used to study the conditions necessary

    for smouldering ignition in four types of loose-fill wood fibre thermal insulation, and

    to study the development of the smouldering process. The products varied with regard to

    wood species, grain size and fire retardant chemical additives. The test material was

    placed in an insulated open top container and heated from below. Temperatures within

    the sample and mass loss were measured during the tests. Both the fibre size and the level

    of added fire retardant seem to influence the smouldering ignition. Two different types of

    smouldering were identified in this study. Materials undergoing smouldering Type 1

    obtained maximum temperatures in the range 380C to 440C and a total mass loss of

    40 wt% to 50 wt%. Materials undergoing smouldering Type 2 obtained maximum temperatures

    in the range 660C to 700C and a total mass loss of 80 wt% to 90 wt%. This

    implies that Type 2 smouldering involves secondary char oxidation, which represents a

    risk for transition to flaming combustion and thereby a considerable fire hazard. This has

    been an exploratory project and the results must therefore be considered as indicative.

    The findings may, however, have implications for fire safety in the practical use of loosefill

    wood fibre insulation in buildings, and further experimental studies should be performed

    with this in mind to obtain more knowledge about the topic.

  • 54.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Stensaas, Jan P.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Bøe, Andreas Gagnat
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Hox, Kristian
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    The Large Fire in Lærdal, January 2014. How did the Fire Spread and what Restricted the Fire Damage?2015Inngår i: Natural Disasters and Societal Safety / [ed] R.H. Gabrielsen & S. Lacasse, Oslo: Novus Forlag, 2015, s. 99-112Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume contains the written versions of the lectures presented at the symposium“Natural Disasters and Societal Safety” held on 28 April 2015. The symposium wasjointly organised and funded by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters(DNVA), the Norwegian Academy of Technological Sciences (NTVA) and TheResearch Council of Norway (RCN). The programme for the symposium can befound on the next pages.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 55.
    Stolen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Heat flux in jet fires: New method for measuring the heat flux levels of jet fires2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Jet fires are ignited leakages of pressurized liquid or gaseous fuel. In jet fire testing for the offshore industry, heat flux is the defining factor for the accidental loads. NORSOK S001 [1] defines two different heat flux levels of 250 kW/m2 and 350 kW/m2 depending on the leak rate of hydrocarbons. These heat flux levels are used in risk analysis and define what type of fire load bearing structures and critical equipment need to be able to resist in a given area. Examples of such ratings can be “250 kW/m2 jet fire for 60 minutes”, “350 kW/m2 jet fire for 15 minutes” or any other combination based on calculations in the risk assessment. Combined with critical temperatures this defines the performance criteria for the passive fire protection. Each configuration of the passive fire protection needs to be tested and verified. Manufacturers of passive fire protection request fire tests to document their performance against jet fires with these various heat flux levels. The challenge is that the standard for testing passive fire protection against jet fires [2] does not define any heat flux level or any method to define or measure it. We have developed a method for defining and measuring the heat flux levels in jet fires. This method can be used when faced with the challenge of testing passive fire protection against specific levels of heat flux. The method includes a custom test rig that allows jet fire testing with different heat flux levels. A large number of tests have been performed to verify the reproducibility and repeatability of the method. Heat flux is defined as the flow of energy through a surface. The heat flux from a fire to an engulfed surface of an object is dependent on both the engulfing flame and the properties of the surface. The properties of the surface may change during the exposure to the flame as it heats up and changes its surface properties. At some point the object inside the flame will reach a thermal equilibrium with the flame where the net flow of energy into the object is balanced by the energy emitted from the object. The heat flux for an object can be calculated as incident heat flux, emitted heat flux or net heat flux. A definition of heat flux needs to include parameters of the receiving object. These variations give a lot of degrees of freedom when calculating heat flux in a fire. Special water cooled gauges are designed to measure heat flux to a cooled surface, but these have proved to be very unreliable when placed inside a large fire. A more robust and easily defined method is to measure the equilibrium temperature inside an object placed inside the flame. This is the principle used in plate thermocouples used in fire resistance furnace testing [3]. In our experience, these plate thermocouples are often damaged during high heat flux jet fire tests. This raises questions to how long into the tests such measurements are reliable. Several other types of objects have been tested and the most convenient and reliable type was found to be simply a small 8 mm steel tube that is sealed in the end and has a thermocouple inside. One key difference between this small tube thermocouple and the plate thermocouple is that the plate thermocouple is directional and the tube is omnidirectional. Current works and tests will optimize the measuring objects in order to get the most relevant equilibrium temperature while still maintaining the robustness of the sensor during the test. The suggested heat flux calculation is to follow the Stefan-Boltzmann relation of temperature and heat flux. For a black body this gives 350 kW/m2 for 1303 °C and 250 kW/m2 for 1176 °C. A lower emissivity may be defined for the surface of the sensing object giving higher temperatures for the same flux levels. This method gives a simple, robust and reproducible correlation between heat flux levels and temperatures that can be measured during jet fire tests. The method does not differ between the varying convective and radiative heat transfer in the flame, but it is a representative measurement for the temperature that an object would reach when placed inside the flame.

  • 56.
    Stolen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Glansberg, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Daaland Wormdahl, Espen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Heat flux in jet fires : Unified method for measuring the heat flux levels of jet fires2018Inngår i: Nordic Fire and Safety Days (NFSD2018) Conference proceedings (with peer-review),, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Passive fire protection materials are used to protect critical structures against the heat from fires. In process plants with pressurized combustible substances there may be a risk of jet fires. Through risk analysis the severity of these jet fires is determined and these result in fire resistance requirements with different heat flux levels for different segments. The relevant test standard for fire resistance against jet fires does not include any measurements or definitions of the heat flux in the test flame which the tested object is exposed to. This paper presents methods for reaching different heat flux levels and how to measure them in a jet fire with limited deviations from the established jet fire test standard.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 57.
    Stolen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Stensaas, Reidar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Solcelleteknologi og brannsikkerhet2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [no]

    Bruken av solcelleteknologi er i stor vekst i Norge. I denne studien er branntekniske utfordringer ved bruk av solcelleteknologi undersøkt, med hensyn på brannstart, brannspredning og brannslokking. Studien danner et kunnskapsgrunnlag for å ivareta brannsikkerheten under montering, drift og under slokkeinnsats, samt for å utforme et enhetlig og tydelig regelverk. Resultatene fra studien viser:

    Brannstart: Solcelleinstallasjoner inneholder mange koblingspunkt, som kan være potensielle tennkilder, og en liten mengde brennbare materialer. Dermed er det som trengs til stede for å starte en brann. Det er viktig at alle kontaktpunkter i solcelleinstallasjonen er robuste og tåler den påkjenningen de blir utsatt for gjennom sin levetid uten at det oppstår dårlig kontakt som kan føre til brann.

    Brannspredning: For utenpåmonterte solcellemoduler er det ofte en åpen luftspalte mellom modul og bygning. Dersom det er en brann i denne luftspalten, vil varmen kunne bli akkumulert, noe som kan føre til raskere og større brannspredning enn om bygningsoverflaten ikke hadde vært tildekket. I fullskalaforsøk med solcellemoduler montert på tak spredte brannen seg under hele arealet som var dekket av moduler, men stoppet da den nærmet seg kanten av dette arealet. Dette illustrerer viktigheten av at områder med solceller utenpå en bygning blir seksjonert for å unngå brannspredning. Eventuelt kan det benyttes mindre brennbare materialer på taket under solcellemodulene for å motvirke den økte varmepåkjenningen som solcellemodulene gir. Luftspalten mellom modul og bygning kan potensielt også gi endringer i luftstrømningen langs bygget, som igjen kan påvirke brannspredningen.

    Brannslokking: Brannvesenet har behov for informasjon om det er solcelleinstallasjon i bygget og hvilke deler av det elektriske anlegget som kan være spenningssatt. Under slokkeinnsats må brannvesenet ta hensyn til berøringsfare, og fare for at det kan oppstå lysbuer og andre feil som kan føre til nye antennelsespunkt. Ferskvann kan brukes som slokkemiddel, dette må spyles fra minimum 1 meters avstand med spredt stråle og minimum 5 meters avstand med samlet stråle. Solcellemoduler kan komplisere brannslokking ved at de danner en fysisk barriere mellom brannvesenet og brannen, samt fordi det må tas hensyn til plassering av spenningssatte komponenter. Når disse punktene er tatt høyde for, bør ikke utenpåmonterte solcelleinstallasjoner være et problem.

    Videre arbeid: For utenpåmonterte solcelleinstallasjoner, er det lite forskning på vertikal montering (på fasader), og hvordan en eventuell endret branndynamikk kan påvirke brannspredning og slokking. Videre er det i dag økende bruk av bygningsintegrerte solcelleinstallasjoner, noe som gir mange mulige nye utfordringer for brannsikkerheten og for regelverk, ettersom solcellen da er en del av bygningskroppen, samtidig som den er en elektrisk komponent. Tysk statistikk tyder på at brannrisiko for slike installasjoner kan være større enn for utenpåmonterte solcelleinstallasjoner, og dette vil det derfor være viktig å undersøke nærmere.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    RISE-rapport2018_31_Solcellete_Brann
  • 58.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Ishol, Herbjörg M.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Rømning i brann: funksjonen til ulike visuelle ledesystemer2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 59.
    Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Evaluating particle and gas transmission through firefighters’ clothing2019Inngår i: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this project has been to establish new knowledge and methods for testing the penetration of hazardous soot and smoke particles into fire clothing. The aim has been to provide the basis for the development of new fire-fighter clothing with better protection against particle penetration. In cooperation with fire services, authorities and protection clothing producers, needs, requirements and recommendations have been investigated. For the documentation and relevant classification of protective clothing, test set-ups in small and larger scale have been developed. The aim has been to be able to achieve representative and repeatable fire- and smoke exposure for accurate measurement of the particle penetration into clothing and trough clothing layers for screening materials and design solutions. With regard to the performance of the clothing, the small-scale tests give indications of the textiles’ ability to block gases and particles from penetrating into the clothing. The large-scale tests give indications to how the design of the clothing as a whole is able to prevent intrusion of gases and particles.

  • 60.
    Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Brannsikkerhet i lek- og aktivitetssenter2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire safety in buildings used for play and recreational activity

    This project has been carried out on behalf of the Norwegian Building Authority (DiBK) and the Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection (DSB) as part of the research agreement between DSB and RISE Fire Research.

    The aim of the project has been to determine whether activity centres (offering indoor activities for different age groups, e.g. indoor playgrounds, trampoline parks and gymnastics halls) are well equipped to reduce the risk of ignition, spread of fire, and smoke production, and for high heat release as well as to handle escape in case of fire. All with regard to the particular combination of the number and type of visitors, type of activity in the premises, as well as the large amount of combustible and potentially highly flammable furnishings present in the building.

    In this report we have described fire engineering issues specifically related to the activity centres, partly based on a study of technical reports from the buildings’ planning phase and monitoring reports from the operational phase.

    Our main findings are related to

    • Lacking overall fire safety evaluation regarding the building and the safety plans of the responsible business owner with respect to:- The significance of the furnishing and use of material for personal safety.- Distribution of responsibility to evaluate the furnishing in a risk perspective.

    • Ignition and early fire development:- There is not enough focus on ignition sources in the design and planning phase.- The fire performance of materials is not sufficiently taken into account during the design and planning phase and the requirements for documentation are insufficient and not relevant enough.

    • Escape:- Children's behaviour during escape is not taken into account when planning.- The activity in activity centres is not taken into account during the planning phase.- The effect of the interior (both material properties, physical position in the room and geometry) on the escape routes and escape time is not taken into account when planning.- Deviations from the requirement for low-placed way guidance systems are made on an uncertain basis.

    • Organizational measures:- Organizational measures are hardly mentioned in the fire concepts.- Deviations regarding organizational measures during the operational phase is the responsibility of business owners. This indicates uncertainty or lack of competence of regulations

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 61.
    Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Holmvaag, Ola Anders
    Norwegian Fire Academy, Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Evaluation of fire in Stavanger airport car park 7 January 20202020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is commissioned by the Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection (DSB) and the Norwegian Building Authority (DiBK). RISE Fire Research has been commissioned to evaluate the fire in the multi-storey car park at Stavanger airport Sola on the 7th January 2020. The aim is to promote learning points for public benefit with regard to the extent of the fire, regulations, extinguishing efforts, structural design, effects on the environment and the role of electric vehicles in the fire development. Information has been collected via interviews, on-site inspection, contact with stakeholders, review of relevant regulations, documents and literature. Design of the building: Active, passive and organizational fire protection measures have been evaluated. In our opinion, the multi-storey car park should have been placed in Fire class 4 (“brannklasse 4”), since it was adjacent to important infrastructure for society. The fire design documentation for building stages B and C has shortcomings in terms of assessment of sectioning, installation of fire alarm or extinguishing systems, as well as assessment of the fire resistance of the loadbearing structure. There are a number of inconsistencies that indicate that the fire risk has not been fully mapped and assessed in connection with the preparation of the fire designs. Regulations: No deficiencies were found in the regulations relevant to this incident. Small adjustments in wording between different editions of regulations (e.g. guidance for technical regulations) can have a major impact on how the regulations should be interpreted. It is important that the authorities highlight such changes and that the fire consultant who develop a fire engineering concept avoid uncritical reuse of content from older fire concepts. Handling of the incident: How the fire service and other parties handled the incident during the emergency phase has been evaluated, and learning points have been identified for the following areas (details in section 7.3): The basis for creating national learning after major events, action plans, exercise and training, collaboration and common situational understanding, management tools, call-out, information sharing and initial situation report, immediate measures, the goal of the effort and tactical plan, organization of the site, communication and collaboration, logistics and depots, as well as handling uncertainties and follow-up. Electric vehicles: Water analyses of selected metals relevant for batteries in electric vehicles did not show any lithium, and only low concentrations of cobalt. This indicates that batteries in electric vehicles did not contribute to pollution of nearby water resources. Observations during the fire indicate that electric vehicles did not contribute to the fire development beyond what is expected from conventional vehicles. Further technical studies of the batteries from the burned electric and hybrid vehicles are necessary to evaluate whether batteries from electric vehicles were involved in the fire.

    Environmental impact, extinguishing foam: During the incident, a lot of extinguishing foam was used, but this led to a limited environmental impact. The extinguishing foam was found not to add substantial amounts of PFAS during the extinguishing efforts. Analyses conducted by COWI still show PFAS content in all water samples, which is linked to previous emissions. Oxygen depletion as a result of release of extinguishing foam is considered to have led to local toxic effects on the aquatic environment, but not a general negative effect on the sea life in Solavika. There is a need for stronger awareness of, and focus on the use of, extinguishing foams and logging of the amount of foam used. Here one may learn from Sweden. Environmental impact, smoke: Smoke from the fire was mainly not driven in the direction of the terminal buildings, and during the first period only in the direction of areas with low population density. The fire smoke affected the evacuation of a nearby hotel. Eventually, the wind turned in the direction of areas with higher population density, and a population warning was sent out. Based on few health consultations (11 at the emergency room and 2 in hospital), as well as the municipality’s assessment of the incident, it is assumed that the fire smoke had limited health consequences for neighbours. The smoke content has not been analyzed. Finally; learning points from evaluation of the fire are relevant for many stakeholders, such as the fire service, authorities, construction design, for the owner and for research in the field.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 62.
    Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Holmvaag, Ole Anders
    Norges brannskole, Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Evaluering av brann i parkeringshus på Stavanger lufthavn Sola 7. januar 20202020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is commissioned by the Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection (DSB) and theNorwegian Building Authority (DiBK). RISE Fire Research has been commissioned to evaluatethe fire in the multi-storey car park at Stavanger airport Sola on the 7th January 2020. The aim isto promote learning points for public benefit with regard to the extent of the fire, regulations,extinguishing efforts, structural design, effects on the environment and the role of electric vehiclesin the fire development. Information has been collected via interviews, on-site inspection, contactwith stakeholders, review of relevant regulations, documents and literature.

    Design of the building: Active, passive and organizational fire protection measures have beenevaluated. In our opinion, the multi-storey car park should have been placed in Fire class 4(“brannklasse 4”), since it was adjacent to important infrastructure for society. The fire designdocumentation for building stages B and C has shortcomings in terms of assessment of sectioning,installation of fire alarm or extinguishing systems, as well as assessment of the fire resistance ofthe loadbearing structure. There are a number of inconsistencies that indicate that the fire risk hasnot been fully mapped and assessed in connection with the preparation of the fire concepts.

    Regulations: No deficiencies were found in the regulations relevant to this incident. Smalladjustments in wording between different editions of regulations (e.g. guidance for technicalregulations) can have a major impact on how the regulations should be interpreted. It is importantthat the authorities highlight such changes and that the fire consultant who develop a fireengineering concept avoid uncritical reuse of content from older fire concepts.

    Handling of the incident: How the fire service and other parties handled the incident during theemergency phase has been evaluated, and learning points have been identified for the followingareas (details in section 7.3): The basis for creating national learning after major events, actionplans, exercise and training, collaboration and common situational understanding, managementtools, call-out, information sharing and initial situation report, immediate measures, the goal ofthe effort and tactical plan, organization of the site, communication and collaboration, logisticsand depots, as well as handling uncertainties and follow-up.

    Electric vehicles: Water analyses of selected metals relevant for batteries in electric vehicles didnot show any lithium, and only low concentrations of cobalt. This indicates that batteries inelectric vehicles did not contribute to pollution of nearby water resources. Observations duringthe fire indicate that electric vehicles did not contribute to the fire development beyond what isexpected from conventional vehicles. Further technical studies of the batteries from the burnedelectric and hybrid vehicles are necessary to evaluate whether batteries from electric vehicleswere involved in the fire.

    Environmental impact, extinguishing foam: During the incident, a lot of extinguishing foamwas used, but this led to a limited environmental impact. The extinguishing foam was found notto add substantial amounts of PFAS during the extinguishing efforts. Analyses conducted byCOWI still show PFAS content in all water samples, which is linked to previous emissions.Oxygen depletion as a result of release of extinguishing foam is considered to have led to local toxic effects on the aquatic environment, but not a general negative effect on the sea life inSolavika. There is a need for stronger awareness of, and focus on the use of, extinguishing foamsand logging of the amount of foam used. Here one may learn from Sweden.

    Environmental impact, smoke: Smoke from the fire was mainly not driven in the direction ofthe terminal buildings, and during the first period only in the direction of areas with lowpopulation density. The fire smoke affected the evacuation of a nearby hotel. Eventually, the windturned in the direction of areas with higher population density, and a population warning was sentout. Based on few health consultations (11 at the emergency room and 2 in hospital), as well asthe municipality’s assessment of the incident, it is assumed that the fire smoke had limited healthconsequences for neighbours. The smoke content has not been analyzed.

    Finally; learning points from evaluation of the fire are relevant for many stakeholders, such as thefire service, authorities, construction design, for the owner and for research in the field.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 63.
    Stölen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    EBOB – Solcelleinstallasjonar på bygg: Eksperimentell studie av brannspreiing i holrom bak solcellemodular på skrå takflater2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    EBOB - Solar cell installations on buildings. Experimental study of fire spread in cavity behind solar cell modules on pitched roof surfaces.

    This report describes a total of 29 experiments where the fire spread in the cavity behind solar cell modules on pitched roof surfaces were studied. The experiments were performed at RISE Fire Research's laboratory in Trondheim in 2021. The series of experiments was carried out to investigate how a fire on a pitched roof surface will be affected by the presence of solar cell modules installed parallel to the roof surface. Simulated steel solar cell modules were used for all experiments. In a small-scale experimental setup, it was studied how different distances (6, 9, 12 and 15 cm) between the simulated solar cell module and the roof surface affect the fire spread at two different wind speeds (2 and 4 m/s). In a medium-scale experimental setup, it was studied how the fire spread was affected by the size of the initial fire. Finally, in a large-scale experimental setup, it was studied how the fire spread occurs on a roof surface with dimensions in the same order of magnitude as for a roof on a small house. The results show that solar cell modules mounted parallel to the roof surface on pitched roofs can affect the fire dynamics of a fire on the roof surface. The findings from the experiments indicate that there is a correlation between the distance from the roof surface to the solar cell module and how large initial fire is needed for the fire to spread. In the small-scale experiments with a small initial fire, it was not found that the simulated solar cell module affected the extent of damage when the distance between the module and the roof surface was greater than 9 cm. For experiments performed in an intermediate-scale setup, it was found that with a larger initial fire, the fire could spread even when there was 12 cm between the roof surface and the simulated solar cell module. The two large-scale experiments also showed fire spread under the simulated solar cell modules with a UL crib (a standardized fire source) used as the initial fire. The extent of the damaged area on the roof surface was similar for the two experiments, even though the wind direction was different. In both experiments, the fire spread below two rows of simulated solar modules and all the way to the ridge. The heat transfer inwards in the roof construction were greater in the experiments with a simulated solar cell module present than without. It increases with a reduced distance between the roof surface and the simulated solar cell module. Directly below the initial fire, no substantially increased thermal stress was observed on the underlying structure when a simulated solar cell module was installed. The thermal stress, on the other hand, increased to a greater extent because of the fire on the roof surface becoming more extensive when the simulated solar cell module was installed. There was a relatively low temperature increase measured under the chipboard behind the roof covering, which indicates that there was no immediate danger of fire spreading inwards into the roof structure directly through the 22 mm thick chipboard.

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  • 64.
    Valdés, Virginia
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge. Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Smouldering fires in wood pellets: the effect of varying the airflow2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Smouldering is a flameless form of combustion, deriving its heat from heterogeneous reactions occurring on the surface of the fuel when heated in an oxidizer environment. Smouldering is of interest both as a fundamental combustion problem and as a practical fire hazard, for instance in industrial storage units [1]. Many materials can sustain a smouldering reaction, among them wood pellets, which are becoming more widely used as an alternative to oil -fired central heating in residential and industrial buildings. Smouldering fires are difficult to detect, becoming a hazard that must not be underestimated [2]. The influence of varying the airflow, using two different configurations of smouldering combustion was studied: reverse and forward propagation. These are defined according to the direction in which the smouldering reaction front propagates relative to the oxidizer flow. In reverse smouldering, the reaction front propagates in the opposite direction to the oxidizer flow. In forward smouldering the front propagates in the same direction as the oxidizer flow: convective transport is in the direction of the original fuel ahead, preheating it before the smoulder zone is reached.

  • 65.
    Villacorta, Edmundo
    et al.
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway; Otto von Guericke University, Germany.
    Haraldseid, Ingunn
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway; Otto von Guericke University, Germany.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway; Otto von Guericke University, Germany.
    Hagen, Bjarne
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Erland, Sveinung
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Kleppe, Gisle
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Krause, Ulrich
    Otto von Guericke University, Germany.
    Frette, Vidar
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Onset of smoldering fires in storage silos: Susceptibility to design, scenario, and material parameters2021Inngår i: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 284, artikkel-id 118964Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass fuels in large storage units are prone to self-heating and ignition causing smoldering fires. Here, the susceptibility of such ignition processes to parameters is explored through small-scale experiments. In a silo geometry, wood pellets samples of size 0.75 to 1.5 kg were heated from below to initiate smoldering, while the top was open, allowing convective exchange of gases between the porous sample and the surroundings. The thermally insulated sidewalls reduce the heat flow in lateral direction in a similar way that additional pellets material would do in a larger set-up. Thus, the present experimental set-up mimics a much larger system in lateral direction. After heating was terminated, the procedure led to self-sustaining smoldering or spontaneous cooling, depending on parameters. The transition zone between smoldering and non-smoldering was explored under variation in sample size, imposed heating, pellets type, and height of sample container. Logistic regression was applied to fit the experimental data to a model. The model predicted the probability of an experiment to result in either smoldering or non-smoldering under variation in parameters – and the parameters were sorted according to importance. The duration of the external heating was found to be the most influential parameter. For risk assessments in connection with large biomass fuel storage units, this result indicates that the temperature increase could be more important than the size and geometry of the storage unit and the stored material type. © 2020 The Authors

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