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  • 51.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Smith, Göran
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. University of Sydney, Australia: Västra Götalandsregionen, Sweden.
    Shared mobility services in Swedish rural areas: Development and demonstration of the KomILand-concept2021Inngår i: 2021 International Transport Forum (ITF) Pre-Summit Research Day, 2021Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport accounts for a large share of global green-house gas emissions. Research efforts are being made to identify, develop, and test new types of resource efficient solutions that meet peoples’ mobility needs. A growing trend within this realm is so called shared mobility services – such as car-sharing, bicycle rental, and ride-sourcing – which is expected to have the potential to complement and strengthen public transport and support less car-centric lifestyles. Shared mobility has become an integral part of the dominant discourse around the future of transport (autonomous-connected-electric-shared), and although their modal shares still are minor, recent years have seen significant growth of shared mobility services.

    However, eforts to develop shared mobility services have predominantly been made in urban areas where the services are expected to have greater impact on green-house gas reduction. Further, most research on shared mobility has focused on urban areas . Consequently, there is a lack of empirical research on how shared mobility services can be organized in rural areas, and what effects they can have on aspects such as of car ownership, green-house gas emissions, and quality of life.

    The KomILand project set out to address these knowledge gaps by developing and testing the KomILand concept – a regional Mobility-as-a-Service platform that enable rural dwellers to put together shared mobility service offerings that are tailored to the specific needs of their communities. An initial pre-study (2017-2018) paved the way for a trial of the concept by identifying suitable rural towns, likely user groups and their demands, key service components, and possible business models. Subsequently, the ongoing trial phase of the project (2019-2021) aims to develop a functional prototype and to test it in collaboration with civic associations in three rural towns with 800-900 inhabitants in Västra Götaland in West Sweden.

    In the following, this extended abstract first presents key findings from the pre-study. Thereafter, a few insights from the ongoing trial are provided prior to a concluding discussion on possible pathways for the journey from a temporary, small-scale trial towards a region-wide and continuous operation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 52.
    Bernecker, Tobias
    et al.
    Heilbronn University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Speiser, Jonas
    Heilbronn University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Engwall, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hasselgren, Björn
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Helms, Hinrich
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Widegren, Fredrik
    WSP, Sweden.
    Business models, Ownership, and Financing Strategies: Implications of an introduction of electric road systems on markets and possible business models2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for a rapid and substantial decarbonization of the transport system runs counter to the established development trends in road freight. While the challenges that station-based energy supply systems are facing mainly involve replacing and overcoming propulsion technology, a major challenge facing the implementation of an electric road system (ERS) also includes, to a greater extent, the organizational, financial, and more complicated regulatory issues based on energy-road interactions. The question of whether an ERS is seen as part of the (public) road system or the (private) energy system will fundamentally affect the market structure of an ERS. Different ERS configurations can create new business opportunities for road operators. Different archetypes of business models for ERS-related services can be identified which could enable an opportunity for new value creation for the private sector. Policy measures enabling business model development for an ERS should be diversified and target all actors involved.

    In cross-border ERS projects, business models for infrastructure operators, freight forwarders, and energy suppliers of ERS have to be embedded in the respective national contexts as well as in an international perspective in order to be sustainable. Otherwise the establishment and operation of ERS are likely to fail. Different legal, economical, and environmental national conditions have to be taken into account and need to be respected. This will most probably lead to country-specific balances between policy push and market pull measures along cross-border ERS corridors. Local differences in the division of responsibilities between public and private actors could also occur and need to be taken into account. By paying proper attention to these points from the very beginning, a key success factor of cross-border ERS is met.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 53.
    Besker, Terese
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Navigating the Cyber-Security Risks and Economics of System-of-Systems2023Inngår i: 2023 18th Annual System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSe 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cybersecurity is an important concern in systems-of-systems (SoS), where the effects of cyber incidents, whether deliberate attacks or unintentional mistakes, can propagate from an individual constituent system (CS) throughout the entire SoS. Unfortunately, the security of an SoS cannot be guaranteed by separately addressing the security of each CS. Security must also be addressed at the SoS level. This paper reviews some of the most prominent cybersecurity risks within the SoS research field and combines this with the cyber and information security economics perspective. This sets the scene for a structured assessment of how various cyber risks can be addressed in different SoS architectures. More precisely, the paper discusses the effectiveness and appropriateness of five cybersecurity policy options in each of the four assessed SoS archetypes and concludes that cybersecurity risks should be addressed using both traditional design-focused and more novel policy-oriented tools. 

  • 54.
    Besker, Terese
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Jolak, Rodi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Svensson, Pontus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Syntes: Affärsekosystem för cirkularitet av elbilsbatterier: Slutrapport2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med att fler saker elektrifieras, ökar även behovet av batterier. Då metallerna i batterier är sällsynta, svårutvunna och begränsade, kan vi troligen inte enbart förlita oss på nytillverkning av batterier, tillverkade av nybrutna metaller, utan vi måste även kunna cirkulera och återanvända utrangerade batterier. Transportsystemet genomgår för närvarande en omställning till att bli fossilfritt och därigenom mer hållbart. Elektrifiering av fordon är en viktig del av denna omställning. Dessa eldrivna fordon (eng. electric vehicle, EV) innehåller batterier, vars kapacitet försämras över tid. Batterier vars prestanda inte längre uppfyller kraven för användning i fordon kan dock fortfarande få en lång återstående livslängd genom att exemplevis återbrukas inom andra domäner som har lägre kapacitetskrav. I närtid står vi inför ett läge där vi kommer att få fler och fler uttjänta batterier från elbilsflottan. Detta forskningsprojekt fokuserar på just dessa uttjänta EV-batterier och på vilket sätt de kan cirkuleras på en andrahandsmarknad, i form av s.k. Second Life-batterier (SLB). Denna cirkulation innebär dock både tekniska och affärsmässiga utmaningar. Hur kan vi säkerställa att tillräckliga batterihälsodata samlas in och används för att ge en rättvisande bild av värdet på ett EV-batteri som som tas bort från ett fordon? Vilka affärsmodeller behövs? I den här studien presenterar vi hållbara cirkulära modeller för återanvända batterier genom att analysera marknadsscenarier, studera processerna och relationerna mellan intressenter samt granska möjliggörare och ekosystem. Vi diskuterar även möjligheter, utmaningar och regleringar för att ge en omfattande förståelse av cirkulära modeller för återanvända elfordonsbatterier.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 55.
    Besker, Terese
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Martini, Antonio
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Bosch, Jan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    The use of incentives to promote technical debt management2022Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 142, artikkel-id 106740Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context When developing software, it is vitally important to keep the level of technical debt down since, based on several studies, it has been well established that technical debt can lower the development productivity, decrease the developers' morale and compromise the overall quality of the software, among others. However, even if researchers and practitioners working in today's software development industry are quite familiar with the concept of technical debt and its related negative consequences, there has been no empirical research focusing specifically on how software managers actively communicate and manage the need to keep the level of technical debt as low as possible. Objective This study aims to understand how software companies give incentives to manage technical debt. This is carried out by exploring how companies encourage and reward practitioners for actively keeping the level of technical debt down add whether the companies use any forcing or penalising initiatives when managing technical debt. Method As a first step, this paper reports the results of both an online survey providing quantitative data from 258 participants and interviews with 32 software practitioners. As a second step, this study sets out to specifically provide a detailed assessment of additional and in-depth analysis of technical debt management strategies based on an encouraging mindset and attitude from both managers and technical roles to understand how, when and by whom such strategies are adopted in practice. Results Our findings show that having a technical debt management strategy (specially based on encouragement) can significantly impact the amount of technical debt related to the software. Conclusion The result indicates that there is considerable unfulfilled potential to influence how software practitioners can further limit and reduce technical debt by adopting a strategy based explicitly on an encouraging mindset from managers where they also specifically dedicate time and resources for technical debt remediation activities.

  • 56.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Lund University, sweden.
    Agility in Software 2.0 – Notebook Interfaces and MLOps with Buttresses and Rebars2022Inngår i: International Conference on Lean and Agile Software DevelopmentLASD 2022: Lean and Agile Software Development pp 3-16, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2022, s. 3-16Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial intelligence through machine learning is increasingly used in the digital society. Solutions based on machine learning bring both great opportunities, thus coined “Software 2.0,” but also great challenges for the engineering community to tackle. Due to the experimental approach used by data scientists when developing machine learning models, agility is an essential characteristic. In this keynote address, we discuss two contemporary development phenomena that are fundamental in machine learning development, i.e., notebook interfaces and MLOps. First, we present a solution that can remedy some of the intrinsic weaknesses of working in notebooks by supporting easy transitions to integrated development environments. Second, we propose reinforced engineering of AI systems by introducing metaphorical buttresses and rebars in the MLOps context. Machine learning-based solutions are dynamic in nature, and we argue that reinforced continuous engineering is required to quality assure the trustworthy AI systems of tomorrow.

  • 57.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Lund University, Sweden.
    The AIQ Meta-Testbed: Pragmatically Bridging Academic AI Testing and Industrial Q Needs2021Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, ISSN 1865-1348, E-ISSN 1865-1356, Vol. 404, s. 66-77Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AI solutions seem to appear in any and all application domains. As AI becomes more pervasive, the importance of quality assurance increases. Unfortunately, there is no consensus on what artificial intelligence means and interpretations range from simple statistical analysis to sentient humanoid robots. On top of that, quality is a notoriously hard concept to pinpoint. What does this mean for AI quality? In this paper, we share our working definition and a pragmatic approach to address the corresponding quality assurance with a focus on testing. Finally, we present our ongoing work on establishing the AIQ Meta-Testbed. 

  • 58.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Using Search-Based Software Testing to Guide the Strive for Robust Machine Learning Components: Lessons Learned Across Systems and Simulators in the Mobility Domain2022Inngår i: Proceedings - 2022 IEEE 14th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 59.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Abdessalem, Raja
    University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Nejati, Shiva
    University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg; University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Jegeden, Francois
    ESI Group, France.
    Shin, Donghwan
    University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Digital Twins Are Not Monozygotic – Cross-Replicating ADAS Testing in Two Industry-Grade Automotive Simulators2021Inngår i: 2021 14th IEEE Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation (ICST), 2021, s. 383-393Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing levels of software- and data-intensive driving automation call for an evolution of automotive soft-ware testing. As a recommended practice of the Verification and Validation (V&V) process of ISO/PAS 21448, a candidate standard for safety of the intended functionality for road vehicles, simulation-based testing has the potential to reduce both risks and costs. There is a growing body of research on devising test automation techniques using simulators for Advanced Driver-Assistance Systems (ADAS). However, how similar are the results if the same test scenarios are executed in different simulators? We conduct a replication study of applying a Search-Based Software Testing (SBST) solution to a real-world ADAS (PeVi, a pedestrian vision detection system) using two different commercial simulators, namely, TASS/Siemens PreScan and ESI Pro-SiVIC. Based on a minimalistic scene, we compare critical test scenarios generated using our SBST solution in these two simulators. We show that SBST can be used to effectively generate critical test scenarios in both simulators, and the test results obtained from the two simulators can reveal several weaknesses of the ADAS under test. However, executing the same test scenarios in the two simulators leads to notable differences in the details of the test outputs, in particular, related to (1) safety violations revealed by tests, and (2) dynamics of cars and pedestrians. Based on our findings, we recommend future V&V plans to include multiple simulators to support robust simulation-based testing and to base test objectives on measures that are less dependant on the internals of the simulators.

  • 60.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Bengtsson, J.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Osterling, H.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hagelborn, A.
    NordAxon AB, Sweden.
    Gagner, Isabella
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Tomaszewski, Piotr
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Quality Assurance of Generative Dialog Models in an Evolving Conversational Agent Used for Swedish Language Practice2022Inngår i: Proceedings - 1st International Conference on AI Engineering - Software Engineering for AI, CAIN 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, s. 22-32Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the migration megatrend, efficient and effective second-language acquisition is vital. One proposed solution involves AI-enabled conversational agents for person-centered interactive language practice. We present results from ongoing action research targeting quality assurance of proprietary generative dialog models trained for virtual job interviews. The action team elicited a set of 38 requirements for which we designed corresponding automated test cases for 15 of particular interest to the evolving solution. Our results show that six of the test case designs can detect meaningful differences between candidate models. While quality assurance of natural language processing applications is complex, we provide initial steps toward an automated framework for machine learning model selection in the context of an evolving conversational agent. Future work will focus on model selection in an MLOps setting.

  • 61.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Bronson, Joshua
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Christensson, Linus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lennartsson, Olof
    Infotiv AB, Sweden.
    Sonnsjö, Elias
    Infotiv AB, Sweden.
    Ebabi, Hamid
    Infotiv AB, Sweden.
    Karsberg, Martin
    Infotiv AB, Sweden.
    Exploring the Assessment List for Trustworthy AI in the Context of Advanced Driver-Assistance Systems2021Inngår i: 2021 IEEE/ACM 2nd International Workshop on Ethics in Software Engineering Research and Practice (SEthics), 2021, s. 5-12Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is increasingly used in critical applications. Thus, the need for dependable AI systems is rapidly growing. In 2018, the European Commission appointed experts to a High-Level Expert Group on AI (AI-HLEG). AI- HLEG defined Trustworthy AI as 1) lawful, 2) ethical, and 3) robust and specified seven corresponding key requirements. To help development organizations, AI-HLEG recently published the Assessment List for Trustworthy AI (ALTAI). We present an illustrative case study from applying ALTAI to an ongoing development project of an Advanced Driver-Assistance System (ADAS) that relies on Machine Learning (ML). Our experience shows that ALTAI is largely applicable to ADAS development, but specific parts related to human agency and transparency can be disregarded. Moreover, bigger questions related to societal and environmental impact cannot be tackled by an ADAS supplier in isolation. We present how we plan to develop the ADAS to ensure ALTAI-compliance. Finally, we provide three recommendations for the next revision of ALTAI, i.e., life-cycle variants, domainspecific adaptations, and removed redundancy.

  • 62.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Groen, Eduard
    Preface: REFSQ 2020 posters and tools track2020Inngår i: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, ISSN 1613-0073, E-ISSN 1613-0073, Vol. 2584Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 63.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Lund University, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Jens
    Semcon AB, Sweden.
    Socha, Kasper
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Lund University, Sweden.
    Lennartsson, Olof
    Infotiv AB, Sweden.
    Sonnsjö Lönegren, Elias
    Infotiv AB, Sweden.
    Bui, Thanh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Tomaszewski, Piotr
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Sathyamoorthy, S R
    QRTECH AB, Sweden.
    Brink, Sebastian
    Combitech AB, Sweden.
    Helali Moghadam, Mahshid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Ergo, SMIRK is safe: a safety case for a machine learning component in a pedestrian automatic emergency brake system2023Inngår i: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 335-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Integration of machine learning (ML) components in critical applications introduces novel challenges for software certification and verification. New safety standards and technical guidelines are under development to support the safety of ML-based systems, e.g., ISO 21448 SOTIF for the automotive domain and the Assurance of Machine Learning for use in Autonomous Systems (AMLAS) framework. SOTIF and AMLAS provide high-level guidance but the details must be chiseled out for each specific case. We initiated a research project with the goal to demonstrate a complete safety case for an ML component in an open automotive system. This paper reports results from an industry-academia collaboration on safety assurance of SMIRK, an ML-based pedestrian automatic emergency braking demonstrator running in an industry-grade simulator. We demonstrate an application of AMLAS on SMIRK for a minimalistic operational design domain, i.e., we share a complete safety case for its integrated ML-based component. Finally, we report lessons learned and provide both SMIRK and the safety case under an open-source license for the research community to reuse. © 2023, The Author(s).

  • 64.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Lund University, Sweden.
    Jabangwe, Ronald
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Aberg, Simon
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Arvid
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hedlund, Ludvig
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lidfeldt, August
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Test automation with grad-CAM Heatmaps - A future pipe segment in MLOps for Vision AI?2021Inngår i: Proceedings - 2021 IEEE 14th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2021, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2021, s. 175-181Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine Learning (ML) is a fundamental part of modern perception systems. In the last decade, the performance of computer vision using trained deep neural networks has outperformed previous approaches based on careful feature engineering. However, the opaqueness of large ML models is a substantial impediment for critical applications such as in the automotive context. As a remedy, Gradient-weighted Class Activation Mapping (Grad-CAM) has been proposed to provide visual explanations of model internals. In this paper, we demonstrate how Grad-CAM heatmaps can be used to increase the explainability of an image recognition model trained for a pedestrian underpass. We argue how the heatmaps support compliance to the EU's seven key requirements for Trustworthy AI. Finally, we propose adding automated heatmap analysis as a pipe segment in an MLOps pipeline. We believe that such a building block can be used to automatically detect if a trained ML-model is activated based on invalid pixels in test images, suggesting biased models.

  • 65.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Wernberg, Joakim
    Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Sweden.
    Olsson, Thomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Andersson, Martin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Illuminating a Blind Spot in Digitalization - Software Development in Sweden’s Private and Public Sector2020Inngår i: Proceedings of the IEEE/ACM 42nd International Conference on Software Engineering Workshops, Association for Computing Machinery , 2020, s. 299-302Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As Netscape co-founder Marc Andreessen famously remarked in 2011, software is eating the world – becoming a pervasive invisible critical infrastructure. Data on the distribution of software use and development in society is scarce, but we compile results from two novel surveys to provide a fuller picture of the role software plays in the public and private sectors in Sweden, respectively. Three out of ten Swedish firms, across industry sectors, develop software in-house. The corresponding figure for Sweden’s government agencies is four out of ten, i.e., the public sector should not be underestimated. The digitalization of society will continue, thus the demand for software developers will further increase. Many private firms report that the limited supply of software developers in Sweden is directly affecting their expansion plans. Based on our findings, we outline directions that need additional research to allow evidence-informed policy-making. We argue that such work should ideally be conducted by academic researchers and national statistics agencies in collaboration.

  • 66.
    Boyer, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Hunka, Agnieszka
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Linder, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Whalen, Katherine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Habibi, Shiva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Product Labels for the Circular Economy: Are Customers Willing to Pay for Circular?2021Inngår i: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, Vol. 27, s. 61-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While existing research has probed consumer responses to products of different recirculation pathways (recycling, reuse, refurbishment, etc), little work has examined consumer responses to an explicit “circular economy” product label or how willingness to pay is influenced by a continuum of circularity levels. This paper reports on the results of an online survey experiment that tests whether customers are willing to pay more for products with a theoretical multi-level Circular Economy score. Conjoint analysis was used on 800 respondents in the United Kingdom to test their willingness to pay for mobile phones and robot vacuum cleaners at different levels of circularity alongside other product attribute combinations. Results indicate that the average customer almost always prefers a more “circular” product when compared to products with otherwise identical attributes, and that customers are consistently willing to pay more for products with low or moderate levels of circular content. However, analysis suggests that willingness to pay more for products disappears, and in some cases declines, as the proportion of recirculated content increases. Results offer evidence that applying a numerical circular economy label at low levels of recirculated content could be a profitable strategy for producers of mobile phones and robot vacuum cleaners. Such a strategy is less certain for heavily refurbished products, fully reused products, or other product types. © 2020 The Authors

  • 67.
    Bram, Staffan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Burgén, Julia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Evakuering av kustnära fartyg i en automatiserad framtid2023Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den kustnära färjetrafiken är en tacksam miljö för att testa nya automationslösningar. Här finns många fartyg som trafikerar relativt lugna vatten och där bemanningen redan idag är begränsad till en eller två personer. Men förändringar i teknik och bemanning kommer också kräva nya perspektiv i säkerhetsarbetet. I projektet SPECTRUM har besättningens roll vid en nödevakuering undersökts och jämförts med olika automationsscenarier för kustnära färjetrafik. Resultatet pekar ut områden där fortsatt forskning och utveckling är nödvändig för att säkerställa att en evakuering av ett fartyg kan genomföras med så goda förutsättningar som möjligt - om bemanningen reduceras, yrkesroller förändras eller om besättningen ersätts med automationslösningar.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 68.
    Broman, Emanuel
    et al.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden; Linköping University, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Efficient capacity allocation on deregulated railway markets2022Inngår i: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 21, artikkel-id 100294Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As railway markets are increasingly deregulated, coordinating and prioritising between capacity requests becomes more complex and more important. This paper describes the advantages and challenges of different allocation methods in vertically separated open-access railway markets, with several railway operators and heterogeneous traffic, and where a public infrastructure manager must resolve operators’ conflicting path requests. Three broad groups of allocation methods are described: administrative methods, allocation by social cost-benefit analysis and willingness-to-pay based allocation. We describe pros and cons of these allocation principles for three different market segments: commercial traffic with long planning horizons, (subsidized) traffic controlled by public transport agencies, and traffic with short planning horizons. We then outline an allocation process that meets the requirements of a deregulated market better than conventional methods. It is a mixed method, which uses an auction-like mechanism to allocate pre-defined paths to commercial operators on specified, capacity-constrained lines. The net social benefits of capacity reserved for traffic controlled by public transport agencies is assessed through social cost-benefit analysis of timetables. The benefits decrease when timetables are adjusted to make room for additional commercial train paths; the size of this loss determines the reservation price of the auction-like mechanism. Dynamic pricing is used for short-term allocation on congested line segments. © 2021

  • 69.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Diener, Derek
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Enebog, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Hautajärvi Stenmark, Heidi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Matteoni, Marina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Nyström, Thomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Nilsson-Lindén, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Renström, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Den cirkulära bilen (förstudie)2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med förstudien Den cirkulära bilen var att börja bygga konkreta visioner som möjliggör att Sverige har en cirkulärt anpassad bilflotta med fossilfria och klimatneutrala transporter år 2045 och att bygga en solid bas för ett steg 2-projekt, som i sin tur kommer att ge stöd och kapacitet för aktörer att accelerera den cirkulära bilvärdekedjan. Projektet har samlat 13 parter från hela värdekedjan och gemensamt lagt grunden till vidare arbete i ett fortsättningsprojekt – en ansökan som genererat intresse från ett stort antal parter både befintliga och nytillkommande. Inom studien har startmöten och workshops genomförts där parter samlats digitalt och frågeställningar sonderats. Intervjuer har genomförts med parter där möjligheter och utmaningar med omställningen diskuterats. Studiebesök har genomförts där kunskapsdelning skett och samverkan möjliggjorts. Fysisk workshop har genomförts med samtliga parter. Här tittade man gemensamt på trender och möjliga framtidsscenarios genom hela systemet. Detta gav en bra grund för det vidare arbetet med steg 2. Förstudien har genererat stort intresse från aktörer i hela värdekedjan, skapat nya kontakter och möjligheter till samverkan och blivit uppstarten på en gemensam kunskapsresa för verklig förändring. Studien har initierat arbete brett i värdekedjan kopplat till gemensamma frågeställningar samt framtidsspaningar, vilket möjliggör gemensamt arbete för bred omställning och tydliggjort behovet av åtgärder som förflyttar hela systemet. Detta ses som en god grund för ett steg 2 projekt med förutsättningar för att förverkliga den cirkulära bilvärdekedjan.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 70.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Schnurr, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    8 ton society Sweden: Assessing the material footprint of sharing and circular lifestyles in housing,mobility and food2019Inngår i: Life Cycle Management Conference 2019, Poznan, Polen, 2019, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 96Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The average Swedish household throws away 480 kg of solid garbage per year. But this amount of material is only a small share of the resource consumption that our lifestylegives rise to. Our homes need to be built, goods produced, we are transported,and food is produced. In today's linear consumption society, every individual inthe EU is estimated to have a material footprint of 29 tons/year on average – afootprint that needs to shrink to 8 tons in order to stay within “planetaryboundaries”. In a circular system, products are recycled and shared leading toless resources and materials needed, but do we know how much? Which resourceand material consumption is generated in Sweden? What could we achieve througha transition to a sharing and circular economy, and how would our consumptionpatterns look like within a sustainable material lifestyle? The goal of thisstudyis to assess the material footprint of sharing and circular lifestyles inhousing, mobility and food system. "8 ton society" takes athree-level method approach: (1) National: assessing the material footprint ofsharing and circular lifestyles in housing, mobility and food systems on anational level. (2) Municipal: Mapping material and waste streams at municipallevel (for the three Swedish municipalities Göteborg, Malmö och Umeå), by whichmunicipalities can identify opportunities for a circular society, for exampleby supplementing existing climate strategies and waste plans with circularaction plans. (3) Household: Combined with a household level analysis ofmaterial footprints, the project contributes to behavioral change at householdlevel as well as strengthened decision making and innovation at national andmunicipal level. The results of the study are material footprints and scenariosthat are used as basis for the development of reduction measures. The scenariosdescribe potential “8t societies” for Sweden, meaning potential policy andsocietal innovations that allow for a drastic reduction of material footprint.These include sharing and circular solutions. Additionally, the project willcontrast the Swedish results to similar projects that have been carried out in Finland and Germany.

  • 71.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Steward, Corey
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Schnurr, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Konsumtionsbaserade resursavtryck och cirkulär ekonomi i Sverige: Nationella och lokala resursavtryck i Göteborg, Malmö och Umeå2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    World Business Council for Sustainable Development WBCSD estimates that by 2050we will need four to tenfold improvements in resource efficiency. Sweden's Agenda 2030Action Plan for 2018 - 2020 has a strategy for sustainable consumption that aims, amongother things, to increase resource efficiency and circular economy. The Swedishinnovation Agency Vinnova runs a program on circular economy from theory to practice.

    This study is part of a project called “8 on society” and financed by the Swedishinnovation agency Vinnova. The aim of the project is to measure the citizens nationalfootprint and to increase the knowledge of municipalities on circular economy, the useof resources and citizens material footprints.

    In this study we have chosen a method that measures the citizens consumption and itstotal impact on global resources. The method is called Lifestyle Material Footprint LMFand include, among other things, abiotic and biotic resources. A sustainable level withinplanetary boundaries lies at 8 tons per person, according to calculations from theWuppertal Institute and Aalto University.

    The results of this study are based on national and municipal statistics on consumptioncombined with a resource database. The results show that Sweden's consumption-basedmaterial footprint is 32 tons per person and year: including food (20%), mobility (41%),housing (27%), and electronics / clothing / furniture (4%), leisure activities (6%). Theresults for Gothenburg and Malmö are also around 30-35 tons. Umeå stands out and isaround 40 tons. This is because heating for housing and transport are much higher innorthern Sweden. Finland shows similar figures, eg 40 tons.

    Sweden's resource footprint for leisure activities is around 2,000 kg per person and year(distributed on 200 kg outdoor activities, 800 kg computer / TV, culture 100 kg, tourism900 kg). Differences between the three cities lie in tourism. Umeå residents travel more.Sweden's resource footprint for electronics, clothing and furniture is 1400 kg per personand year (800 kg electronics, 499 kg clothes and shoes, and 88 kg furniture).

    The results also show that Swedish waste's related resource footprint is 5.5 tons including2.7 tons for electronics and 1 ton for mixed waste. Gothenburg and Malmö are around 3-4 tons including 1 ton for electronics and 1 ton for mixed waste.

    Future scenarios and different lifestyles have been discussed (local, digital, circular) andcalculations of scenarios around division and circularity show that Sweden's resourcefootprint fall below 8 tons, but only if sharing initiatives increase from 10% to 20%, andcircularity increases to 40%.

    The results also indicate that there is an opportunity to integrate resource footprint intostrategy and action plans in the three cities. Future prospects for using resource footprintas indicator look good. Within the new OECD study and the follow-up of circulareconomics, several new indicators have been proposed, including a resource footprint.To achieve a sustainable society and a circular economy, it also needs a resource targetkg / person for example in IT and electronics!

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 72.
    Bui, Thanh
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Jakobsson, Daniel
    Trafikverket, Sweden.
    Löfgren, Birger
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Rudmark, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Sundström, Christofer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Vyth, Jakob
    IBM, Sweden.
    Data Driven Traffic Management Policy2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of data and information is generated for different purposes every day in the traffic system. There is an increased interest within the Swedish Transport Administration (STA) in using this data for planning of maintenance, traffic management and strategy work. In this report the first steps towards such a system is developed by the process of defining a business objective, collecting data, understand the data, prepare the data, create a model and evaluate the results. All these different steps were important in the performed study. To find a good case creating business value required lots of discussions and interviews with key figures at STA. The case investigated is to predict the traffic situation on four road segments in Gothenburg based on two years of data for the traffic situation, weather, and road situation including accidents and road works.

    The data for primarily weather and traffic are not collected for the purpose of being used for this application. This is one reason for that data is missing from some of the data sets for different time periods. One conclusion from the project is that data analysts must be included not only in the data analyze phase, but also in the data collection phase to achieve good results.

    Different methods for creating data driven models are evaluated and compared based on the two year period of data available. It is found that linear regression performs better than tree-based classification and prediction method regarding performance, while the tree-based method more clearly can create understanding for what variables that correlate to the traffic situation.

    The methods for developing models based on the data used in this project are generic and are possible to be used when larger data sets are available. Additional data sources, such as events in the city and building works may also be included in such analysis. Furthermore, it is found valuable to have the possibility to develop models on a local computer based on a smaller data set, and make the final computations based on the larger data sets in a cloud based solution.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 73.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Amanuel, Mahdere DW
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Förarlösa tjänster i Västra Skaraborg - En förstudie inom SMaRT-projektet2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom projektet SMaRT har RISE utfört en förstudie för att analysera möjligheterna till förarlösa tjänster inom Västra Skaraborg. Målet för de svenska deltagarna i SMaRTprojektet var att undersöka hur besökare kan ta sig till attraktiva besöksplatser utan egen bil. I den här förstudien har vi undersökt när en möjlig lösning skulle kunna vara förarlösa tjänster. Arbetet utfördes i nära samarbete med representanter från de berörda kommunerna. Vi har identifierat en potentiell rutt i Vara tätort där man förutom själva tjänsten även skulle kunna få synergieffekter mellan tjänsten och kommunala mål för trafiken i tätorten. En mer generell slutsats är att förarlösa tjänster i sig inte nödvändigtvis är värt investeringen, utan man bör se hur tjänsten passar in i ett större systemperspektiv för att bedöma dess lämplighet. Vi har också inom arbetet identifierat en rad platser där det finns enklare och mer omedelbara insatser om man vill nå allmänna mål kring smart besöksnäring och konkretare mål för den unika platsen. I många fall pågår redan ett sådant arbete och vi rekommenderar att fortsätta på det spåret hellre än att klämma in en förarlös tjänst. Ett exempel är hur många av de platser vi besökt är omtalade för naturupplevelsen samtidigt som det finns ett ökande behov av parkeringsplatser för att tillgodose alla besökare. Här kan man planera annorlunda för framtiden så att första parkett inte ges till de som fikar i den egna bilen utan till de som cyklat, tågluffat eller åkt tillsammans med andra. Och då också tillhandahålla de mobilitetsalternativen.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 74.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Amanuel, Mahdere DW
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Ramboll, Sweden.
    Olsson, Ola
    Ramboll, Sweden.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Lunds kommun, Sweden.
    Ulander, Gustaf
    Skellefteå kommun, Sweden.
    Bassioukas Hanseklint, Petra
    Skellefteå kommun, Sweden.
    Vainio, Jyrki
    Region Gotland, Sweden.
    Lindberg Helander, Gustav
    Eskilstuna kommun, Sweden.
    Körkkö, Jani
    Eskilstuna kommun, Sweden.
    Zarghampour, Hamid
    Trafikverket, Sweden.
    Självkörande landsbygd2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur skulle autonoma fordon kunna användas inom kollektivtrafiken på landsbygden? Genom intervjuer, workshops och en RFI (request for information, ett första steg mot upphandling) har vi undersökt frågan utifrån fyra konkreta områden i Sverige – Lund, Gotland, Eskilstuna och Skellefteå. 

    Med en definition av landsbygd baserad på individens mobilitet har vi sett att Sveriges landsbygd rymmer mindre orter på väg att avfolkas där äldre, barn och de utan körkort hade kunnat få bättre tillgång till samhällelig service med autonoma fordon. Vi har också sett att flera av landets nya arbetsplatser kommer befinna sig på landsbygden och därmed skapa ett mobilitetsbehov från staden till landet. 

    För att kunna realisera de identifierade möjligheterna finns ett behov av att framföra fordonen i högre hastigheter samt att de ska kunna hantera mer komplexa trafiksituationer än vad dagens piloter i städerna visat. På landsbygden finns alltså ett utrymme för nya fordon att visa upp sig. Samtidigt ser vi hur man inte ska förvänta sig att investeringarna i autonoma fordon kommer betala sig på en linje, snarare behöver man lyfta blicken och se systemeffekten när stomlinjetrafiken blir mer attraktiv då bussarna går raka vägen istället för via mindre samhällen. 

    Vi har inte sett några belägg på att den digitala infrastrukturen behöver utvecklas för att möjliggöra försök med autonoma fordon på någon av de undersökta rutterna. Dagens 4G-täckning är fullgod och fordonen borde ha tillgång till tillräckligt bra positioneringsdata för att bedriva verksamheten. Däremot ställs flera frågor om hur ersättningstrafiken organiseras när fordonen inte klarar av vädret, vem som står för säkrare hållplatser och hur chaufförens övriga ansvar realiseras när fordonet är förarlöst. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 75.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Sobiech, Cilli
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Andersson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Skoglund, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektrifiering och pålitlighet.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    The role of policy labs for introducing autonomous vehicles2021Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explains the methodological approach of policy labs as used in applied research projects on autonomous vehicles in Sweden. While introducing new technologies we need to ensure that regulations and policies keep up with the fast-paced technological development.  Policy labs is one way of managing the perceived conflict between technological innovation and existing regulations. Within a policy lab, a wide range of stakeholders gather to solve the bottlenecks for innovations together. We show through three different R&D projects how the policy lab approach can be applied and which results, improvements and challenges it revealed for introducing autonomous vehicles.  

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 76.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sprei, F.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Teaching sustainable development through entrepreneurial experiences2020Inngår i: International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, ISSN 1467-6370, E-ISSN 1758-6739, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 142-156Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to address the challenges of teaching sustainable development to computer engineering students. Part of the problem is that they perceive the topic as irrelevant for their future profession. Design/methodology/approach: To address this challenge, we introduced a project element into a course on sustainable development where the students developed applications for sustainable mobility together with the local public transport authority, an academic institution and a multinational telecom company. Findings: The findings conclude that the course changes improved the overall student satisfaction while succeeding in anchoring sustainable development in a context which the students can relate to. The collaboration was also perceived as fruitful by the external stakeholders who encouraged the students to stay in touch for their bachelor theses and internships. Research limitations/implications: The theoretical implication is a first attempt in integrating sustainable development education with entrepreneurial experiences, whereas the practical implication is a description of how the integration can be realized. Practical implications: The contribution is therefore of value for both educational researchers to open novel research opportunities and for teachers to describe new possibilities for sustainable development education. Originality/value: The contribution describes how entrepreneurial experiences can be used to motivate engineering students in mandatory courses on sustainable development and ethics. The approach is novel in that the approach has not been described earlier in this context. 

  • 77.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Implications of the AI Act in relation to mobility2023Inngår i: Transportation Research Procedia, Vol. 72, s. 1832-1839Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ambition of the European Union is to lead the way in digitalization. A cornerstone in fulfilling the ambition is the proposed AI Act. Our ambition with this contribution is to create awareness of how regulating Artificial Intelligence (AI) will affect mobility within the EU. The chosen definition of AI is broad enough to cover most software and the regulated topics will affect areas such as road traffic and public transport, safety components in machines but not vehicles. Such systems deemed to pose a high risk will need to be certified and CE-marked. It will also have an impact on the relationship between provider and user of AI systems, with a clear ambition to open the black box of business to enable compliancy with GDPR and handling of anomalies. At the same time, the AI Act opens up for using personal data for other purposes than originally stated during collection.

  • 78.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Sustainable AI and Disruptive Policy – AI Regulatory Sandboxes2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid pace of digitalization and the new opportunities for value creation has raised a concern that regulation is lagging behind and becoming an obstacle. A number of tools have been proposed in order to facilitate innovation that is aligned with existing or upcoming policies.

    A specific case of both facilitating and regulating innovation is the EU’s proposed regulation of AI systems. The act not only poses legal requirements on providers and users of AI systems but also includes measures for facilitating innovation – the concept of regulatory sandboxes is defined with specific purposes together with legal exempts.

    At the time of releasing our paper, the trilogue has reached a political agreement. This means the proposed AI Act will be, even though we do not yet have the final wording. By mapping the negotiation mandates of the European Commission, the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union against Swedish experiences of facilitating innovation and regulatory compliance in relation to AI, we still suggest launching pilots for regulatory sandboxes without delay.

    Based on our own experiences from conducting policy labs and those reported on by others from their regulatory trials, we conclude that it takes time to grow confidence in defining a research agenda with other stakeholders and then strike the balance between facilitation and surveillance of innovation. Something that will require institutional learning and capacity building.

    The mandate to foster and facilitate regulatory compliance as well as innovation, given to the public sector through the AI Act’s regulatory sandboxes, is disruptive. It changes the role and responsibilities for some national authorities, requiring the acquisition of new competences and resources, as well as for the private sector. When they team up with a competent authority the mandate to act becomes larger, as does the responsibility with regards to which kinds of innovation to drive.

    Conducting trials in the current window of opportunity, between now and when the AI Act is in force, will create experiences that policy makers and stakeholders can draw on when creating the detailed guidelines for organising regulatory sandboxes. Adopting an incremental and iterative process enables a transition from learning the basics of selecting a case and finding relevant partners to detailing how to process data and sharing responsibilities and rewards.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    RegulatorySandboxes-RISE
  • 79.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Bodea, Gabriela
    TNO, Netherlands.
    van Ette, Frans
    TNO, Netherlands.
    Lazo, Claudio
    TNO, Netherlands.
    Ailisto, Heikki
    VTT, Finland.
    A Comparison of AI Policies and Programmes in Finland, the Netherlands and Sweden – Case Sweden2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2018 the Swedish Government released its strategy on AI, the national approach for artificial intelligence. The strategy focuses on three main areas – education, research and innovation – with the ambition that Sweden would be the best country in the world regarding applying AI. Two key areas were mentioned – the competitiveness of Swedish enterprises on a global market and the strengthening of the public sector.

    Since then, the domestic discourse has changed, as Social-democratic lead governments have been replaced by a Conservative-Liberal government, the launch of ChatGPT, as well as the introduction of EUs Digital Decade with new targets for digitalisation and a proposed regulation of AI. We have therefore conducted a first evaluation of the strategy and the state of AI in Sweden. Based on official reports and interviews we recommend that the Swedish strategy on AI should …

    … acknowledge the EU and accommodate for the upcoming regulations and resources within the Digital Decade,

    … embrace the pluralism of Swedish governance and facilitate collaboration among authorities and different levels of administration,

    ... ensure the competence and the mandate of the public sector accordingly,

    ... be adaptable to changes in both the domestic and international discourse,

    … investigate long-term funding solutions of strategic AI initiatives, and finally,

    … define sustainable and ethical AI in order to facilitate responsible usage and development of AI as well as facilitate procurement.

    This will require prioritisation of targets and initiatives as well as a way of assessing progress which is suitable for the Swedish context.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 80.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Carlgren, Lisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Sjöblom, Ted
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen.
    Policylabb Smarta Fartyg2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish Shipping Policy Lab

    Smart ships, or Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships as they are also known, have a great potential to advance shipping and sustainable development through optimisation of operations and maintenance. In situations that pose a risk to humans or where humans tend to lose their concentration, smart ships can also contribute to increased safety onboard and for the environment. In short, smart ships are suitable for operations that are dirty, dull and dangerous. The Swedish Shipping Policy Lab was an initiative to support on-going projects within smart shipping with policy-developing activities with the ambition to strengthen Swedish competitiveness. The project has actively strived for a systematic approach to how shipowners, technology developers and authorities among others can foster policy development and innovation in relation to smart ships. As an outcome the project has identified three policies related to the investigated cases (see Appendix G for more details): 1. Navigational assistance from land – A shared statement by the Swedish Maritime Administration and the Swedish Transport Agency on the role of navigational assistance from land and the need to further investigate the service before it can be regulated in more detail. 2. The Ljusterö Ferry – Certification of ferries is commonly done in relation to an established and consistent set of technical requirements. For smart ships such as the new road ferries procured for the Ljusterö-connection it is reasonable to complement traditional certification with a safety case to ensure that the ship is seaworthy. 3. Smart maritime drones – Ships less than five meters long that do not carry passengers are excluded from national rules regulating the supervision performed by the Swedish Transport Agency. As long as there is no explicit need to inspect a specific ship, the probability of a supervision is low. If an inspection were to incur, it is necessary to show how the smart ship and its operation complies to applicable regulation in terms of laws and collision avoidance. Despite the maritime sector having a long tradition of international governance there are still no international instruments explicitly for smart ships. A conclusion from the policy lab is that while such work is ongoing, there is room for the flag states and their authorities to develop and operate smart ships in accordance with national policies. Or, to paraphrase, smart ships seem suitable for operations that are dirty, dull, dangerous and domestic.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 81.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Carlgren, Lisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Sjöblom, Ted
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen.
    The Swedish policy lab for maritime autonomous surface ships2022Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish policy lab for maritime autonomous surface ships, or smart ships, explored three use cases for developing policy in practice. The policies regard smart ships on national waters: one short-term written policy identifying the next shared step for two authorities to position remote navigational assistance as a new service, giving the maritime ecosystem one official position to relate to; one informal policy relying on a mutual trust, where information sharing between an operator of small, unmanned ships and the supervisory authority enables critical competence building; and one evolving policy on the process of certifying autonomous or remote operated functions using non-standardized technology. In conclusion, despite shipping being explicitly regulated internationally we found that there is substantial leeway for national policies regarding smart ships on national waters.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 82.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Carlgren, Lisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Sjöblom, Ted
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen.
    The Swedish policy lab for maritime autonomous surface ships2023Inngår i: Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2352-1457, Vol. 72, s. 1840-1847Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish policy lab for maritime autonomous surface ships, or smart ships, explored three use cases for developing policy in practice. The policies regard smart ships on national waters: one short-term written policy identifying the next shared step for two authorities to position remote navigational assistance as a new service, giving the maritime ecosystem one official position to relate to; one informal policy relying on a mutual trust, where information sharing between an operator of small, unmanned ships and the supervisory authority enables critical competence building; and one evolving policy on the process of certifying autonomous or remote operated functions using non-standardized technology. In conclusion, despite shipping being explicitly regulated internationally we found that there is substantial leeway for national policies regarding smart ships on national waters.

  • 83.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Olsson, Måns
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Proposed EU Regulations’ Impact on Data Utilisation– A Multi-Case Study within Public Transport2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation: In a broad sense data sharing onboard public transport vehicles is governed by two different business models – interoperable and free of charge access for some data versus data that is restricted to specific uses by commercial contracts and existing legislation. Under the Digital Decade the EU has proposed new legislation with the ambition to promote a single digital market. The question then arises – how will the upcoming regulations affect existing business models for data utilisation?

    Method: We have investigated two different cases where existing technology meets upcoming EU legislation. The questions have been framed through dialogue with actors in the industry, to cover topics and questions that are both concrete and current. Using the policy lab methodology, we have investigated the possibility to re-use surveillance film from public transport vehicles for passenger counting. The analysis compares GDPR and the Swedish camera surveillance act with the proposed AI Act, to see what new possibilities or obstacles arise. We have also explored the changes that the Data Act may impose on different actors’ access to data derived from the batteries installed in an electric bus.

    Results: The AI Act will not change the business models within the eco-system but facilitate access to more personal data (including personal data where GDPR otherwise would be a barrier), useful for training automated passenger counting. Those responsible for placing the system on the market will still need to ensure that they are compliant with GDPR in terms of processing personal data. In terms of the Data Act the outcome is more disruptive as the owner and user of a vehicle is entitled to all data representing their usage, free of charge, and this will impair existing business models for data access. It is also possible for multiple actors to be users, for instance if the vehicle is owned by a public transport authority and leased by an operator.

    Discussion: Our analysis shows that while the impact of the Data Act can resonate with the ambitions behind the regulation in terms of making more data interoperable and available free of charge, it can also have the opposite effect. The latter is specifically the case where altruistic data sharing already is in place and the Data Act imposes standard contracts for and role-based restrictions towards utilisation. Both the AI Act and the Data Act are complex and often difficult to assess. In relation to the Data Act, the recitals were helpful for interpreting the application of articles and definitions. For understanding the relationship between the AI Act and GDPR we combined the legal analysis with prototyping the impacts and relied on sharing insights with other actors. This highlights the need for multiple ways of performing the data collection and analysis as well as the suitability of policy labs as a research method

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 84.
    Carlgren, Lisa
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Glaser, Pernilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Navigating Complexity2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Complexity is everywhere. It is in my body and between us. It is in the web of the organization and in the turmoil of the world. When we experience complexity as a problem, something that is overlooked, wrong or misunderstood, it is rare that we immediately know what it is. Complexity as possibility is not something different from complexity as a problem, it is just another quality that needs to be unpacked and understood.[...]

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 85.
    Cederstav, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    AutoSec slutrapport: AutoSec-resultatspridning och omvärldsbevakning för cybersäkerhetsprojekt.2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 86.
    Cederstav, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Bygga-projektet. Mätning av GC-bro i Varberg.: Nyttor och konsekvenser av HCT i tätort, även kallat ”Bygga”-projektet2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 87.
    Cederstav, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Wandel, Sten
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Segerborg-Fick, Ann
    Ecoloop, Sweden.
    Rylander, David
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Asp, Thomas
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Ranäng, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    High capacity city transport with intelligent access - A Swedish case study of transporting excavated material2022Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This project studies how the HCT-concept (High Capacity Transport) can be applied in cities, by performing pilots in Varberg and Stockholm. The project will test the hypothesis that the HCT-concept will improve both productivity and transport efficiency and thereby reduce CO2 by up to 40%. The pilots include tests of new optimized trucks and new concepts with connected trucks, road machines and bridges. Demonstration of digital access control including geofencing of speed and routes will be included. A system analysis on a societal level will be performed, with the target to incorporate HCT-city in the existing HCT roadmap. The results will be a foundation for a strategy including dispensations and regulatory changes on national roads and a recommendation how HCT-city can be designed to reach the highest possible productivity and transport efficiency.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 88.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Wnuk, Krysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Alegroth, Emil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Component attributes and their importance in decisions and component selection2020Inngår i: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 28, s. 567-593Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-based software engineering is a common approach in the development and evolution of contemporary software systems. Different component sourcing options are available, such as: (1) Software developed internally (in-house), (2) Software developed outsourced, (3) Commercial off-the-shelf software, and (4) Open-Source Software. However, there is little available research on what attributes of a component are the most important ones when selecting new components. The objective of this study is to investigate what matters the most to industry practitioners when they decide to select a component. We conducted a cross-domain anonymous survey with industry practitioners involved in component selection. First, the practitioners selected the most important attributes from a list. Next, they prioritized their selection using the Hundred-Dollar ($100) test. We analyzed the results using compositional data analysis. The results of this exploratory analysis showed that cost was clearly considered to be the most important attribute for component selection. Other important attributes for the practitioners were: support of the componentlongevity prediction, and level of off-the-shelf fit to product. Moreover, several practitioners still consider in-house software development to be the sole option when adding or replacing a component. On the other hand, there is a trend to complement it with other component sourcing options and, apart from cost, different attributes factor into their decision. Furthermore, in our analysis, nonparametric tests and biplots were used to further investigate the practitioners’ inherent characteristics. It seems that smaller and larger organizations have different views on what attributes are the most important, and the most surprising finding is their contrasting views on the cost attribute: larger organizations with mature products are considerably more cost aware.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 89.
    Chen, Lei
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Guardian angel — using lighting drones to improve traffic safety, sense of security, and comfort for cyclists2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the picturesque municipality of Skara, Sweden, an innovative endeavor named the Skara Skyddsängel project embarked on a mission to revolutionize the concept of nighttime cycling safety. Tackling the challenge of inadequate lighting on bike paths, especially during the long, dark Swedish winters, this project proposed a novel solution: the use of drones for dynamic, on-demand bicycle path illumination. Aimed at enhancing safety and comfort for cyclists, this initiative stood at the intersection of technological innovation, sustainable mobility, and community welfare. The project's journey began with meticulous planning and development of a drone lighting system, featuring commercial drones equipped with powerful LED spotlights. The technical prowess of these drones was matched with a suite of sophisticated software for precise navigation and cyclist tracking. The endeavor then extended into the realm of user experience. A series of user studies, including initial pilot tests, focus groups, and extensive field trials, were conducted. Participants first experienced the innovative lighting in a virtual setting with VR headsets. After further improvements, cyclists were invited and test the solution in real-world settings, providing invaluable feedback. The feedback from these user studies painted a picture of success and potential. Most participants expressed a sense of increased safety and comfort under the watchful illumination of the drones. The lighting was deemed effective, with its broad and strong coverage enhancing visibility significantly. While the technology showed immense promise, it also pointed out areas for refinement, such as improving drone stability and light distribution. The project's reach extended beyond the confines of Skara through an aggressive dissemination campaign. It garnered attention through press releases, was a subject of discussion in various media outlets, and featured prominently in events like Kista Mobility Day in Stockholm and the GMC Global Mobility Call in Spain. The project's milestones and findings were also shared at international conferences, including the prestigious Human-Computer Interaction International (HCII) 2023, the annual POLIS conference 2023, as well as Transportforum 2024. The Skara Skyddsängel project stands as a testament to the potential of integrating advanced technology into everyday life to enhance safety and promote sustainable practices. It underscores the feasibility of drone-based lighting solutions as a viable alternative to traditional infrastructure, particularly in resource-constrained settings. As the project transitions from concept to reality, it highlights the importance of continued innovation, regulatory considerations, and public engagement. The road ahead calls for further technical enhancements, broader user studies, and a deep dive into the regulatory and ethical aspects of drone usage, as well as economic analysis. In conclusion, the Skara Skyddsängel project is not just about bringing light to dark paths; it's about envisioning a future where technology and human-centric design converge to create safer, more inclusive, and sustainable communities. The project not only illuminates bike paths but also lights the way for future endeavors aiming to merge technology with public welfare.

  • 90.
    Chen, Lei
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Gråsjö, Mikael
    Carmenta AB, Sweden.
    Adebahr, Martin
    CEVT China Euro Vehicle Technology AB, Sweden.
    King, Philip
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Cloud-based traffic control: a system of systems for accelerating c-its deployment and autonomous vehicle integration2020Inngår i: Proceedings of Virtual ITS European Congress, 2020, artikkel-id Paper number ITS-TP18522Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The traffic system is transforming into a highly complex system of systems with increasing connectivity and automation. Engineering such a system of systems requires close interaction between related stakeholders including authorities, car manufacturers, and the service and technology providers, both from the organizational and technical perspective. This paper describes a cloud-based traffic control system that provides a platform to support cross-sector interoperable information sharing, and data intelligence for future connected and autonomous vehicle integration. The system is engineered from a system of systems perspective with multi-stakeholder engagement and is designed to be cloud-native for stakeholder and service scalability. The paper discusses the motivation of the system, followed by a detailed description on the system architecture and the constituent systems. Supported services are presented with their working process, information flow, as well as their public demonstrations.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 91.
    Chen, Lei
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Johnson, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Public and private partnership platform for quik and effective implementation of digital transport infrastructure2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This pre-study aims at analyzing the needs of digital infrastructure for connected and automated transport systems in Sweden and building roadmaps with concrete actions for accelerating the implementation of digital infrastructure. The pre-study has conducted extensive literature studies on projects, activities, and policies related to digital infrastructure in Sweden, the EU, and globally. The pre-study focuses on supporting existing activities, goals, and roadmaps within the Swedish transport sector and follows closely the roadmap for a connected and automated road transport system from Trafikverket. Expert interviews with both public and private stakeholders have been conducted to collect opinions and to formulate concrete actions. The report consists of mainly two parts, the description of physical and digital transport infrastructure, and the identified focus areas, roadmaps, and action plans. Also, state-of-the-art digital transport infrastructure is given as an appendix to support the roadmap. The report describes physical digital transport infrastructure as the IT, communication, and data infrastructure that together with regulations and standards enables interoperable and digital cooperation between connected vehicles, people, infrastructure, and other data sources. It is a system of systems that requires both bottom-up and top-down approaches with balanced public and private investments. A layered description is given including the communication infrastructure, transport data eco-system, applications and services, and organizational partnership. The report proposes the establishment of a long-term public-private partnership platform to join forces to accelerate the implementation of physical digital transport infrastructure. The platform requires strong engagement from all stakeholders for addressing common challenges and for stimulating innovative policies and business models. As a trigger, eight focus areas are proposed including connectivity, positioning, control tower, data, architecture, evaluation, policies and regulations, and business models. For each area, the roadmap describes in detail the actions that should be taken together with the expected results for the year 2021 to 2025. The transport system is a system of systems that evolves fast. Stakeholder roles and responsibilities may change with new business models and new actors emerge all the time. To accommodate such evolution, the roadmap proposes iterative development processes. The proposed actions are by no means fixed, instead, the stakeholders need to yearly conduct evaluations, agree on prioritized tasks and expected results, identify gaps, and decide on new prioritized activities. The pre-study is financed by the strategic innovation program Drive Sweden, which is a joint investment by Vinnova, Formas and Energimyndigheten, and Trafikverket through the project Plattform för snabb och effektiv implementering av digital infrastruktur för transportsystem with project number 2019-04787

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 92.
    Chen, Lei
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Torstensson, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Federated Learning to Enable Automotive Collaborative Ecosystem: Opportunities and Challenges2020Inngår i: Proceedings of Virtual ITS European Congress, 2020, artikkel-id Paper number ITS-TP18524Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the strong interests in creating data economy, automotive industries are creating data silos with each stakeholder maintaining its own data cloud. Federated learning (FL), designed for privacy-preserving collaborative Machine Learning (ML), offers a promising method that allows multiple stakeholders to share information through ML models without the exposure of raw data, thus natively protecting privacy. Motivated by the strong need for automotive collaboration and the advancement of FL, this paper investigates how FL could enable privacy-preserving information sharing for automotive industries. We first introduce the statuses and challenges for automotive data sharing, followed by a brief introduction to FL. We then present a comprehensive discussion on potential applications of federated learning to enable an automotive collaborative ecosystem. To illustrate the benefits, we apply FL for driver action classification and demonstrate the potential for collaborative machine learning without data sharing.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 93.
    Chen, Lei
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Torstensson, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Habibovic, Azra
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    System of Systems for emergency response: the case with CAVs on highways2022Inngår i: IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC. Volume 2022-October, 2022, Pages 839-844, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, s. 839-844Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergency response system is a complex system of systems (SoS). The introduction of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) introduces an extra dimension into the complexity. Future emergency response must be able to take into account of the autonomous vehicles with different automation levels and leverage the increasing connectivity and automation for efficient emergency response. Architecture frameworks have long been used for system engineering for large complex systems. The emerging unified architecture framework converges previous architecture frameworks for a unified one towards both military and civilian use. Based on the scenario of emergency response with CAVs on highways, this paper motivates an enterprise architecture for emergency response system of systems (ERSoS) with identification of the key challenges and opportunities in addition to a proposal of required capabilities. The work is a first iteration of an enterprise architecture for ERSoS with CAVs and forms part of the overall ERSoS architecture development process. 

  • 94.
    Chen, T.
    et al.
    Chang’an University, China.
    Guo, C.
    Chang’an University, China.
    Li, H.
    Gao, T.
    Chang’an University, China.
    Chen, Lei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Tu, H.
    Tongji University, China.
    Yang, J.
    Chang’an University, China.
    An Improved Multimodal Trajectory Prediction Method Based on Deep Inverse Reinforcement Learning2022Inngår i: Electronics, E-ISSN 2079-9292, Vol. 11, nr 24, artikkel-id 4097Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rapid development of artificial intelligence technology, the deep learning method has been introduced for vehicle trajectory prediction in the internet of vehicles, since it provides relative accurate prediction results, which is one of the critical links to guarantee security in the distributed mixed-driving scenario. In order to further enhance prediction accuracy by making full utilization of complex traffic scenes, an improved multimodal trajectory prediction method based on deep inverse reinforcement learning is proposed. Firstly, a fused dilated convolution module for better extracting raster features is introduced into the existing multimodal trajectory prediction network backbone. Then, a reward update policy with inferred goals is improved by learning the state rewards of goals and paths separately instead of original complex rewards, which can reduce the requirement for predefined goal states. Furthermore, a correction factor is introduced in the existing trajectory generator module, which can better generate diverse trajectories by penalizing trajectories with little difference. Abundant experiments on the current popular public dataset indicate that the prediction results of our proposed method are a better fit with the basic structure of the given traffic scenario in a long-term prediction range, which verifies the effectiveness of our proposed method. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 95.
    Dexe, Jacob
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nordic lights? National AI policies for doing well by doing good2020Inngår i: Journal of Cyber Policy, ISSN 2373-8871, Vol. 5, s. 332-349Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Getting ahead on the global stage of AI technologies requires vast resources or novel approaches. The Nordic countries have tried to find a novel path, claiming that responsible and ethical AI is not only morally right but confers a competitive advantage. In this article, eight official AI policy documents from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are analysed according to the AI4People taxonomy, which proposes five ethical principles for AI: beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, justice and explicability. The principles are described in terms such as growth, innovation, efficiency gains, cybersecurity, malicious use or misuse of AI systems, data use, effects on labour markets, and regulatory environments. The authors also analyse how the strategies describe the link between ethical principles and a competitive advantage, and what measures are proposed to facilitate that link. Links such as a first-mover advantage and measures such as influencing international standards and regulations are identified. The article concludes by showing that while ethical principles are present, neither the ethical principles nor the links and measures are made explicit in the policy documents.

  • 96.
    Dexe, Jacob
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nordic lights? National AI policies for doing well by doing good2020Inngår i: Journal of Cyber Policy, ISSN 2373-8871, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 332-349Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Getting ahead on the global stage of AI technologies requires vast resources or novel approaches. The Nordic countries have tried to find a novel path, claiming that responsible and ethical AI is not only morally right but confers a competitive advantage. In this article, eight official AI policy documents from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are analysed according to the AI4People taxonomy, which proposes five ethical principles for AI: beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, justice and explicability. The principles are described in terms such as growth, innovation, efficiency gains, cybersecurity, malicious use or misuse of AI systems, data use, effects on labour markets, and regulatory environments. The authors also analyse how the strategies describe the link between ethical principles and a competitive advantage, and what measures are proposed to facilitate that link. Links such as a first-mover advantage and measures such as influencing international standards and regulations are identified. The article concludes by showing that while ethical principles are present, neither the ethical principles nor the links and measures are made explicit in the policy documents.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 97.
    Dexe, Jacob
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nöu, Anneli Avatare
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Rad, Alexander
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Towards increased transparency with value sensitive design2020Inngår i: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. volume 12217, Springer , 2020, Vol. 12217, s. 3-15Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past few years, the ethics and transparency of AI and other digital systems have received much attention. There is a vivid discussion on explainable AI, both among practitioners and in academia, with contributions from diverse fields such as computer science, human-computer interaction, law, and philosophy. Using the Value Sensitive Design (VSD) method as a point of departure, this paper explores how VSD can be used in the context of transparency. More precisely, it is investigated (i) if the VSD Envisioning Cards facilitate transparency as a pro-ethical condition, (ii) if they can be improved to realize ethical principles through transparency, and (iii) if they can be adapted to facilitate reflection on ethical principles in large groups. The research questions are addressed through a two-fold case study, combining one case where a larger audience participated in a reduced version of VSD with another case where a smaller audience participated in a more traditional VSD workshop. It is concluded that while the Envisioning Cards are effective in promoting ethical reflection in general, the realization of ethical values through transparency is not always similarly promoted. Therefore, it is proposed that a transparency card be added to the Envisioning Card deck. It is also concluded that a lightweight version of VSD seems useful in engaging larger audiences. The paper is concluded with some suggestions for future work. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020.

  • 98.
    Dexe, Jacob
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Rad, Alexander
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Transparency and insurance professionals: a study of Swedish insurance practice attitudes and future development.2021Inngår i: Geneva papers on risk and insurance. Issues and practice, ISSN 1018-5895, E-ISSN 1468-0440, Vol. 46, s. 547-572Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The insurance industry is being challenged by increased adoption of automated decision-making. AI advances could conceivably automate everything: marketing, customer service, underwriting and claims management alike. However, such automation challenges consumer trust, as there is considerable public and scholarly debate over the 'black box' character of many algorithms. Insurance being a business of trust, this suggests a dilemma. One suggested solution involves adopting algorithms in a transparent manner. This article reports a study of how Swedish insurers deal with this dilemma, based on (i) eight interviews with insurance professionals representing four companies with a joint market share of 45-50% of the Swedish property insurance market and (ii) a questionnaire answered by 71 professionals in a Swedish insurance company. The results show that while transparency is seen as potentially valuable, most Swedish insurers do not use it to gain a competitive advantage or identify clear limits to transparency and are not using AI extensively.

  • 99.
    Dexe, Jacob
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Rad, Alexander
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Transparency and insurance professionals: a study of Swedish insurance practice attitudes and future development2021Inngår i: Geneva papers on risk and insurance. Issues and practice, ISSN 1018-5895, E-ISSN 1468-0440, Vol. 46, nr 4, s. 547-572Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The insurance industry is being challenged by increased adoption of automated decision-making. AI advances could conceivably automate everything: marketing, customer service, underwriting and claims management alike. However, such automation challenges consumer trust, as there is considerable public and scholarly debate over the ‘black box’ character of many algorithms. Insurance being a business of trust, this suggests a dilemma. One suggested solution involves adopting algorithms in a transparent manner. This article reports a study of how Swedish insurers deal with this dilemma, based on (i) eight interviews with insurance professionals representing four companies with a joint market share of 45–50% of the Swedish property insurance market and (ii) a questionnaire answered by 71 professionals in a Swedish insurance company. The results show that while transparency is seen as potentially valuable, most Swedish insurers do not use it to gain a competitive advantage or identify clear limits to transparency and are not using AI extensively.

  • 100.
    Dexe, Jacob
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Söderlund, Kasia
    Lund University, Sweden.
    van Berkel, Niels
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Jensen, Rikke Hagensby
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Lepinkäinen, Nea
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Vaiste, Juho
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Explaining automated decision-making: a multinational study of the GDPR right to meaningful information2022Inngår i: Geneva papers on risk and insurance. Issues and practice, ISSN 1018-5895, E-ISSN 1468-0440, Vol. 47, nr 3, s. 669-697Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) establishes a right for individuals to get access to information about automated decision-making based on their personal data. However, the application of this right comes with caveats. This paper investigates how European insurance companies have navigated these obstacles. By recruiting volunteering insurance customers, requests for information about how insurance premiums are set were sent to 26 insurance companies in Denmark, Finland, The Netherlands, Poland and Sweden. Findings illustrate the practice of responding to GDPR information requests and the paper identifies possible explanations for shortcomings and omissions in the responses. The paper also adds to existing research by showing how the wordings in the different language versions of the GDPR could lead to different interpretations. Finally, the paper discusses what can reasonably be expected from explanations in consumer oriented information.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
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