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  • 51.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Fuel Cell-Battery Hybrid Cargo Bicycle with 300 km driving range2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 52.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    High Share Renewable Islands Through Synergies Between Energy Networks2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 53.
    Lycken, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Biobaserade material.
    Torstensson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Engström, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Lagnelöv, Oscar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Söderberg, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Förarlösa virkestruckar – en förstudie2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This pilot study was initiated by the sawmill industry and aims to investigate the

    possibility of introducing autonomous vehicles in the form of forklift trucks for

    handling of timber packages at sawmills.

    The report presents the various levels of definition of autonomous vehicles, and in

    which activities we now can find examples of vehicles with varying degrees of autonomy.

    Various technical solutions to enable navigation and security for autonomous

    vehicles are presented as well as the security requirements of autonomous vehicles in

    different situations.

    To exemplify today’s and tomorrow’s use of forklifts, a sawmill’s package management

    is described, and a scenario for autonomous trucks is presented. Under that scenario,

    today’s six trucks are replaced with three or four driverless trucks. A brief economic

    calculation is made, describing the economic potential of driverless trucks. It shows

    that autonomous forklifts may be permitted to cost significantly more than conventional

    forklifts after the external security systems are installed, and still be profitable.

    The reason is mainly the personnel costs associated with running conventional forklifts.

    In conclusion, autonomous vehicles can be realized in the relatively near future in

    many industries. The sawmill industry is also expected to take advantage of the ongoing

    research and development. It is not least the economic parameters that weigh heavily

    pro an introduction of autonomous forklift trucks, while safety precautions can be a

    challenge.

    An intermediate step towards fully driverless forklift trucks can be a semi-autonomous

    solution, where the driver / operator manage a plurality of trucks by telemetry with

    manual assistance only when

  • 54.
    Magagnin, Luca
    et al.
    Politechnico de Milano, Italy.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Professor Pietro Luigi Cavallotti: 11 November 1938 – 12 October 20172018Inngår i: Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, ISSN 0020-2967, E-ISSN 1745-9192, Vol. 96, nr 1, s. 7-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 55.
    Mölmen, Live
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Alexandersson, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Surface technology should improve PEM fuel cell performance2019Inngår i: Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, ISSN 0020-2967, E-ISSN 1745-9192, Vol. 97, nr 3, s. 112-114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Leading industrial nations are investing in hydrogen technology as energy storage solution with fuel cells as the main converter to electric energy. Improvements in the performance of the key components: electrode catalyst, bipolar plates and polymer electrolyte membrane are needed to reduce costs for mass-market introduction. Consequently, surface technology has an essential role in meeting the goals. 

  • 56.
    Mölmen, Live
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Braun, Maximilian
    FEM Forschungsinstitut Edelmetalle Metallchemie, Germany.
    Baumgärtner, Manfred
    FEM Forschungsinstitut Edelmetalle Metallchemie, Germany.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Pt-P catalyst for fuel cells2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuel cell technology is becoming increasingly important in a society where the energy system is changing toward a high degree of electrification based on fossil-free primary sources of energy. Among commercial fuel cells, PEM (polymer electrolyte membrane) technology is dominating and the production is doubled each year. The reason for PEM technology being so prosperous is the ability of the industry to manufacture thin film materials (electrodes, membranes and protective films on bipolar plates), while also reaching high current densities. In order to improve the efficiency, catalysts are applied in the electrodes. These improvements have been achieved during the last decades thanks to significant materials development of membranes and electrodes, including micro- and nano-structuring and catalyst development by materials-doping. Thus, PEM technology has a strong potential to offer sustainable, cost effective and flexible solutions.

    However, PEM technology is sensitive to contamination of catalysts and membrane. Additionally, the demanding internal environment (chemistry, temperature, pressure, and dynamic operation make the conditions very harsh) poses complex challenges in terms of durability. Therefore, there are still challenges to overcome to make PEM technology more efficient and robust and thereby beneficial. The most important areas of materials development to reduce the cost of PEM fuel cells are

    • High-performance electrode catalysts enabling ultra-low precious metal loading,
    • Lower cost, lighter, corrosion-resistant bipolar plates,
    • Low cost, high-performance membranes.

    The purpose of the present work is synthesis of catalytic Pt and PtP nanoparticles onto the gas diffusion layer (GDL) of PEM fuel cells by electrodeposition, and in a next step to study aging during fuel cell testing.

    Pt particles with varying P concentration are electrodeposited onto the carbon paper GDL. The concentrations used were 0 at% P, 1 at% P and 10 at% P. The GDL is activated by plasma etching prior to electroplating. The electrolyte used, contained 8 gL-1 Pt as Pt(NO2)2(NH3)2, 70 gL-1  NaCH3COOH and 100 gL-1  Na2CO3. Phosphorous was added in the form of H3PO3. Pulsed electrodeposition was performed at a temperature of 30 °C with an on-time of 0.005 seconds and off-time of 0.195 s. The peak current was 5 A.

  • 57.
    Mölmen, Live
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Fast, Lars
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Investigation of feed water impurities on life-time of PEMWE2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    With the introduction of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), hydrogen gas produced without fossil fuels Is requiredto reduce the CO2 emissions. At the same time, the production of renewable energy is increasing. Waterelectrolysis to produce hydrogen with the use of electricity from renewable sources allows for storage of theenergy in the form of hydrogen. The gas can be utilized either back to the electric net or as fuel for FCEVs.However, the cost of water electrolysis systems needs to be reduced while the lifetime must be increased. Oneof the main limitations of the proton exchange membrane water electrolyser (PEMWE) system is the degradationof the membrane1. This limits the lifetime of the system and is expensive to replace. It has been shown thatimpurities from feed water and the degradation products from other component poison the membrane, loweringthe proton conductivity. Furthermore, metal ion impurities catalyse the formation of hydrogen peroxide at thecathode further contributing to irreversible membrane thinning2. In industrial systems, the water circulated tothe cells is purified to minimize the degradation. However, the purification limits the operating temperature ofthe systems and increases the total system cost2.The water quality used in most electrolysis cells today utilises ASTM type II deionized water. However, littleresearch is done on the limitations, and quantifying the reduction in efficiency dependent on the water quality.Dedigama et al.3 calculated the minimum flow needed, and further state that in industry, 5 times the necessaryflow of water is circulated to ensure proper wetting of the membrane. However, in research, an excess of wateris often used, up to 100 times higher flow than required, to exclude mass transport restrictions on thereactions3,4.Increasing temperature decreases the kinetic overpotential and increases the membrane conductivity4.However, also dissolution of the catalyst and degradation of the cell components increase with temperature.Furthermore, in industrial applications the maximum temperature of the water into the purification system is60°C5. Dependent on the aim of the research, experiments at temperatures as low as 25°C are performed to fitwith the industry, while others run at 80 or 90°C to probe the upper limits of current density and efficiency2.In this project we aim to analyse the effect of varying water purity on the membrane degradation in a single PEMelectrolysis cell test setup. Furthermore, the effect of changing temperature from 60 to 80°C on the impuritytolerance will be studied. The circulating feed water will be analysed with respect to conductivity, metal ion andfluorine concentration. A parallel “blank” system with only tubings, fittings etc will be assembled and comparedto the data measured from the electrolyser. Contaminating species will be added to the feed water to study theirimpact.

  • 58.
    Nagalapur, Keerthi
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Strom, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Brannstrom, Fredrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Jan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    A Simple Method for Robust Vehicular Communication with Multiple Nonideal Antennas2018Inngår i: 2018 IEEE MTT-S International Conference on Microwaves for Intelligent Mobility, ICMIM 2018, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For critical vehicular communication services, such as traffic safety and traffic efficiency, it is advisable to design systems with robustness as the main criteria, possibly at the price of reduced peak performance and efficiency. We describe a simple, low-cost method for combining the output of L nonideal (i.e., nonisotropic) antennas to the input signal to a single-port receiver with the aim to guarantee robustness, i.e., to minimize the probability that K consecutive packets arriving from the worst-case angle-of-arrival are decoded incorrectly. To minimize complexity, the combining network does not estimate or use channel state information (complex channel gains, noise levels, etc.). The combining network consists of L -1 analog phase shifters whose phases are affine functions of time. For a general L and the case when the packet error probability decays exponentially with the received SNR, the optimum slopes of the affine functions can be computed by solving an optimization problem that depends on the antenna far field functions. We provide an analytical solution for the special case of L $=2$ antennas, which turns out to be independent of the antenna patterns. In an experimental setup consisting of two monopole antennas mounted on the roof of a Volvo XC90, the proposed combining method is shown to give significant performance gains compared to using just one of the antennas.

  • 59.
    Nielsen, Lars Pleth
    et al.
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Møller, Per
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Surface technology is essential for transition to a hydrogen based energy system2018Inngår i: Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, ISSN 0020-2967, E-ISSN 1745-9192, Vol. 96, nr 1, s. 8-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of advanced surface technology for the success of the ongoing energy turnaround in Germany has recently been discussed in this journal. The purpose of the present article is to add views based on the conditions valid for the Nordic region.

  • 60.
    Nielsen, Lars Pleth
    et al.
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Møller, Per B.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Surface technology is essential for transition to a hydrogen-based energy system2018Inngår i: Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, ISSN 0020-2967, E-ISSN 1745-9192, Vol. 96, nr 1, s. 8-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of advanced surface technology for the success of the ongoing energy turnaround in Germany has recently been discussed in this journal.1 The purpose of the present article is to add views based on the conditions valid for the Nordic region.

  • 61.
    Nilsson, Fritjof
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Moyassari, Ali
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bautista, Angela
    E2F Electroficación y Estudios Ferroviarios, Spain.
    Castro, Abraham
    E2F Electroficación y Estudios Ferroviarios, Spain.
    Arbeloa, Ignacio
    Amayuelas SL, Spain.
    Järn, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Lundgren, Urban
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Welinder, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Johansson, Kenth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Modelling anti-icing of railway overhead catenary wires by resistive heating2019Inngår i: International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, ISSN 0017-9310, E-ISSN 1879-2189, Vol. 143, artikkel-id 118505Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aggregation of ice on electrical cables and apparatus can cause severe equipment malfunction and is thus considered as a serious problem, especially in arctic climate zones. In particular, cable damage caused by ice accumulation on railway catenary wires is in wintertime a common origin for delayed trains in the northern parts of Europe. This study examines how resistive heating can be used for preventing formation of ice on metallic, non-insulated electrical cables. The heat equation and the Navier Stokes equations were solved simultaneously with FEM in 3D in order to predict the cable temperature as function of external temperature, applied voltage, wind speed, wind direction, and heating time. An analytical expression for the heat transfer coefficient was derived from the FEM simulations and it was concluded that the influence of wind direction can typically be neglected. Experimental validation measurements were performed on Kanthal cables in a climate chamber, giving temperature increase results in good agreement with the simulation predictions. The resistive heating efficiency, i.e. the ratio between applied electrical energy and resulting thermal energy, was found to be approximately 68% in this particular study.

  • 62.
    Pelliccione, Patrizio
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    Halmstad University, Sweden; VTI, Sweden.
    Aderum, Tobias
    Autoliv Research, Sweden.
    Ågren, S. Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Göran
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Heldal, Rogardt
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergenhem, Carl
    Qamcom Research and Technology AB, Sweden.
    Thorsen, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Architecting cars as constituents of a system of systems2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Software-intensive Systems-of-Systems at 10th European Conference on Software Architecture, ACM , 2016, artikkel-id 5Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Future transportation systems will be a heterogeneous mix of items with varying connectivity and interoperability. A mix of new technologies and legacy systems will co-exist to realize a variety of scenarios involving not only connected cars but also road infrastructures, pedestrians, cyclists, etc. Future transportation systems can be seen as a System of Systems (SoS), where each constituent system - one of the units that compose an SoS - can act as a standalone system, but the cooperation among the constituent systems enables new emerging and promising scenarios. In this paper we investigate how to architect cars so that they can be constituents of future transportation systems. This work is realized in the context of two Swedish projects coordinated by Volvo Cars and involving some universities and research centers in Sweden and many suppliers of the OEM, including Autoliv, Arccore, Combitech, Cybercom, Knowit, Prevas, ÅF-Technology, Semcom, and Qamcom.

  • 63.
    Pettersson, Pär
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berglund, Sixten
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden ; Volvo Global Truck Technology, Sweden.
    Jacobson, Bengt
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fast, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Johannesson, Pär
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Santandrea, Fabio
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    A proposal for an operating cycle description format for road transport missions2018Inngår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 10, nr 2, artikkel-id 31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This article presents a proposal for an operating cycle format for describing transport missions of road vehicles, for example a logging truck fetching its cargo. The primary application is in dynamic simulation models for evaluation of energy consumption and other costs of transportation. When applied to product development, the objective is an ensemble of components and functions optimised for specific tasks and environments. When applied to selection of vehicle configuration, the objective is a vehicle specification tailored for its task. Method: The proposal is presented and its four main parts: road, weather, traffic and mission, are thoroughly explained. Furthermore, we implement the proposal in an example of a dynamic forward simulation model. Results: The example model is used for two case studies: a synthetic example of a complex transport mission (a logging truck fetching its cargo) that shows some advanced format features, and an example from a real vehicle log file (cargo transport) that seeks to compare the resulting simulated speed profile to the measured one. Conclusion: The results show that the proposed format works in practice. It can represent complex transport missions and it can be used to reproduce the main features of a logged speed profile even when combined with simple driver and vehicle models.

  • 64.
    Pettersson, Pär
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Pär
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Jacobson, Bengt
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Fast, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Berglund, Sixten
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Volvo AB, Sweden.
    A statistical operating cycle description for prediction of road vehicles’ energy consumption2019Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 73, s. 205-229Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a novel statistical description of the physical properties of road transport operations by using stochastic models arranged in a hierarchical structure. The description includes speed signs, stops, speed bumps, curvature, topography, road roughness and ground type, with a road type introduced at the top of the hierarchy to group characteristics that are often connected. Methods are described how to generate data on a form (the operating cycle format) that can be used in dynamic simulations to estimate energy usage and CO2 emissions. To showcase the behaviour of the description, two examples are presented using a modular vehicle model for a heavy-duty truck: a sensitivity study on impacts from changes in the environment, and a comparison study on a real goods transport operation with respect to energy usage. It is found that the stop intensity and topography amplitude have the greatest impact in the sensitivity study (8.3% and 9.5% respectively), and the comparison study implies that the statistical description is capable of capturing properties of the road that are significant for vehicular energy usage. Moreover, it is discussed how the statistical description can be used in a vehicle design process, and how the mean CO2 emissions and its variation can be estimated for a vehicle specification.

  • 65.
    Péter, L.
    et al.
    Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungary.
    Zanella, C.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    European training school for young scientists and EAST Forum 20172017Inngår i: Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, ISSN 0020-2967, E-ISSN 1745-9192, Vol. 95, nr 5, s. 237-238Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 66.
    Sainio Berntsson, Petter
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Strandén, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Warg, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Evaluation of Open Source Operating Systems for Safety-Critical Applications2017Inngår i: Proceedings of  9th International Workshop on Software Engineering for Resilient Systems, SERENE 2017 Geneva, Switzerland, September 4–5, 2017 / [ed] Alexander Romanovsky, Elena A. Troubitsyna, 2017, Vol. 10479, s. 117-132Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many different open source real-time operating systems (RTOS) available, and the use of open source software (OSS) for safety-critical applications is considered highly interesting by industrial domains such as medical, aerospace and automotive, as it potentially enables lower costs and more flexibility. In order to use OSS in a safety-critical context, however, evidence that the software fulfills the requirements put forth in a functional safety standard for the relevant domain is necessary. However, the standards for functional safety typically do not provide a clear method for how one would go about certifying systems containing OSS. Therefore, in this paper we identify some important RTOS characteristics and outline a methodology which can be used to assess the suitability of an open source RTOS for use in a safety-critical application. A case study is also carried out, comparing two open source operating systems using the identified characteristics. The most suitable candidate is then assessed in order to see to what degree it can adhere with the requirements put forth in the widely used functional safety standard IEC 61508.

  • 67.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Vinter, Jonny
    A Study of the Interplay Between Safety and Security Using Model-Implemented Fault Injection2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of high mobility and wireless communication in many safety-critical systems have increased their exposure to malicious security threats. Consequently, many works in the past have proposed solutions to ensure safety and security of these systems. However, not much attention has been given to the interplay between these two groups of nonfunctional requirements. This is a concern as safety solutions may negatively impact system security and vice versa. This paper addresses the interplay between safety and security by proposing an attack injection framework, based on model-implemented fault injection, suitable for model-based design. The framework enables us to study and evaluate the impact of cybersecurity attacks on system safety early in the development process. To this end, we have implemented six attack injection models and conducted experiments on Simulink models of a CAN bus and a brake-by-wire controller. The results show that the security attacks modeled could successfully impact the system safety by violating our defined safety requirements.

  • 68.
    Saxholm, Sari
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik. VTT MIKES, Finland.
    Högström, Richard
    VTT MIKES, Finland.
    Sarraf, Christophe
    ENSAM Ecole Nationale Superieure d'Arts et Mietiers, France.
    Sutton, Gavin J.M.
    NPL Management Limited, UK.
    Wynands, Robert
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Arrhén, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Jönsson, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Durgut, Yasin
    TUBITAK Turkiye Bilimsel Ve Teknolojik Arastirma Kurumu, Turkey.
    Peruzzi, Andrea
    VSL, The Netherlands.
    Fateev, Alexander A.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Liverts, Michael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Adolfse, C.
    Minerva Meettechniek, The Netherlands.
    Oster, A.
    Wartsilä, Finland.
    Development of measurement and calibration techniques for dynamic pressures and temperatures (DynPT): Background and objectives of the 17IND07 DynPT project in the European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research (EMPIR)2018Inngår i: Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Institute of Physics Publishing , 2018, Vol. 1065, nr 16Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This project has five specific objectives: To provide traceability for dynamic pressure and temperature through development of measurement standards and validated calibration procedures; To quantify the effects of influencing quantities on the response of dynamic pressure and temperature sensors, in order to determine the appropriate calibration procedures and measurement uncertainties for industrial measurements; To develop new measurement methods and sensors for measuring dynamic pressure and temperature in demanding industrial applications, and to demonstrate the improved accuracy and reliability obtained with those; To validate all of the methods and sensors developed in this project through demonstrations in selected industrial applications; and To ensure by close engagement with industry, that the developed calibration and measurement techniques and technology are adopted by them. The challenge is that in many industrial applications pressure and temperature measurements are performed under dynamically changing conditions. The aim of this project is to improve the accuracy and reliability of pressure and temperature measurements in these challenging conditions. A European joint research project named Development of measurement and calibration techniques for dynamic pressures and temperatures (shortname DynPT) started in the summer 2018.

  • 69.
    Shan, Lijun
    et al.
    Internet of Trust, France.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Vinter, Jonny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Schoitsch, Erwin
    Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria.
    Loiseuax, Claire
    A Survey on the Applicability of Safety, Security and Privacy Standards in Developing Dependable Systems2019Inngår i: Computer Safety,Reliability, and Security / [ed] Alexander Romanovsky, Elena Troubitsyna, Ilir Gashi, Erwin Schoitsch, Friedemann Bitsch (Eds.), 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety-critical systems are required to comply with safety standards. These systems are increasingly digitized and networked to an extent where they need to also comply with security and privacy standards. This paper aims to pro-vide insights into how practitioners apply the standards on safety, security or pri-vacy (Sa/Se/Pr), as well as how they employ Sa/Se/Pr analysis methodologies and software tools to meet such criteria. To this end, we conducted a question-naire-based survey within the participants of an EU project SECREDAS and ob-tained 21 responses. The results of our survey indicate that safety standards are widely applied by product and service providers, driven by the requirements from clients or regulators/authorities. When it comes to security standards, practition-ers face a wider range of standards while few target specific industrial sectors. Some standards linking safety and security engineering are not widely used at the moment, or practitioners are not aware of this feature. For privacy engineering, the availability and usage of standards, analysis methodologies and software tools are relatively weaker than safety and security, reflecting the fact that privacy en-gineering is an emerging concern for practitioners.

  • 70.
    Skoglund, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Warg, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Agreements of an Automated Driving System2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    When introducing automated driving systems (ADS), it is imperative that there exist mutual agreements between the ADS and stakeholders – such as the ADS equipped vehicle user, other road users, and society at large – on how the ADS should behave. Lacking such agreements, the ADS may antagonize stakeholders and, even worse, pose severe safety risks. The ADS needs a complete and unambiguous set of machine-interpretable properties describing these interactions, while the human stakeholders need to understand and accept how the ADS is designed to behave. We propose to make these considerations explicit in the form of agreements. The completeness problem is tackled by cataloguing and categorizing all agreements that need to be considered during the lifetime of an ADS in a systematic way.

  • 71.
    Skoglund, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Warg, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    In search of synergies in a multi-concern development lifecycle: Safety and cybersecurity2018Inngår i: Lecture notes in Computer Science, 2018, s. 302-313Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of developing embedded electronic systems has been increasing especially in the automotive domain due to recently added functional requirements concerning e.g., connectivity. The development of these systems becomes even more complex for products - such as connected automated driving systems – where several different quality attributes (such as functional safety and cybersecurity) need to also be taken into account. In these cases, there is often a need to adhere to several standards simultaneously, each addressing a unique quality attribute. In this paper, we analyze potential synergies when working with both a functional safety standard (ISO 26262) and a cybersecurity standard (first working draft of ISO/SAE 21434). The analysis is based on a use case developing a positioning component for the automotive domain. The results regarding the use of multi-concern development lifecycle is on a high level, since most of the insights into co-engineering presented in this paper is based on process modeling. The main findings of our analysis show that on the design-side of the development lifecycle, the big gain is completeness of the analysis when considering both attributes together, but the overlap in terms of shared activities is small. For the verification-side of the lifecycle, much of the work and infrastructure can be shared when showing fulfillment of the two standards ISO 26262 and ISO/SAE 21434.

  • 72.
    Solér, Ola
    et al.
    Region Skåne, Sweden.
    Bye, Åse
    Vätgas Sverige, Sweden.
    Aronsson, Björn
    Vätgas Sverige, Sweden.
    Wiberg, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik. Vätgas Sverige, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Cornander, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Nilsson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Alexandersson, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Eriksen, Jon
    Kunnskapsbyen Lilleström, Norway.
    Gjerlöw, Jan Carsten
    Kunnskapsbyen Lilleström, Norway.
    Rambech, Eric Lyche
    Oslo kommune, Norway.
    Kalland, Liv-Elisif
    ZERO, Norway.
    Goldmann, Mattias
    Fores, Sweden.
    Pervik, Mats
    Göteborgs Stads Leasing AB, Sweden.
    Tibbelin, Anna
    Energikontoret Skåne, Sweden.
    Baden, Niels-Arne
    GreenHydrogen, Denmark.
    Rammevilkår og strategier for hydrogen i transportsektoren2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Interreg project Blue Move promotes increased use of renewable energy to replace fossil fuels in the Øresund-Kattagat-Skagerrak (ØKS) region. International, national, regional and local framework conditions, strategies and measures are crucial in making the transport sector emission-free. Such framework conditions and strategies providing examples of what can be done at local and regional level to promote emission-free transport are described including analysis of business models for the use of hydrogen for transport, as well as proposals for strategic roadmap bullet points and a concrete checklist for municipalities that wish to facilitate emission-free transport. The purpose of the report is to help both public and private stakeholders succeed in introducing hydrogen as a fuel. A tight interaction between the public and private sector is seen crucial to secure a successful outcome. Municipalities and counties/regions have important roles as facilitators and first movers including hydrogen vehicles in their own car fleet and for public transport. Through its purchasing power, public authorities can drive development in the right direction by demanding the use of emission-free fuels. At the same time, the private sector has important roles in building and operating infrastructure, as well as adopting hydrogen fuelled passenger cars and utility vehicle.The report describes framework conditions and strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from transport at EU level and down to local level. There is a strong connection between these strategies; To achieve the EU goals, each country must set its own goals. Similar, to reach the national targets, measures must be taken at local and regional level. In Chapter 3, the EU goals and strategies are described. Chapter 4 addresses the national framework conditions and strategies in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. It appears that there are great variations in which instruments are used in the countries to promote emission-free transport. In Chapter 5, a range of insights into regional and local strategies, action plans and measures are provided. In an early phase, sustainable business models might be hard to find without financial support both for private and public stakeholders. In a Blue Move feasability study [BLUE MOVE WP3] the potential of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the ØKS region was illuminated through several case descriptions. In Chapter 6, a brief analysis of the business models described by these cases is provided. Then, a numerical example is presented illustrating the profitability of a small hydrogen station related to a fixed refuelling demand. Next, the possibility of infrastructure development in elucidation of construction machinery and coordinated initiatives in the field of heavy transport are described. At the very end of the chapter, a study of the potential for temporary hydrogen filling stations in Norway and Sweden is summarised. Finally, the report provides some practical advice on how to get more hydrogen on the road. Here, 10 roadmap bullet points at a slightly higher level for what and how to focus are given. Furthermore, a concrete 10-point checklist for municipalities is presented. The municipalities play an important role in transforming their own vehicle fleet and facilitating that private sector and its residents being able to run emissions-free. Our aim is that the report will inspire both public and private sector to plan and implement concrete measures to increase the use of hydrogen for transport and by these means achieve its goals of reduced greenhouse gas emissions.

  • 73.
    Söderberg, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Hedberg, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Jacobson, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Safety-related Machine Control Systems using standard EN ISO 13849-12018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine control systems shall be designed according to the European Machinery Directive and appropriate European standards. This report gives guidance when applying EN ISO 13849-1:2015 in projects, both for companies developing subsystems and for companies that are developing complete machines.

  • 74.
    Söderberg, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Jacobson, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Andreasson, Henrik
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    A summary of the SIGHT project - Evaluation of sensors for obstacle detection2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile machinery in forestry, mining and construction, need the ability to detect obstacles in their surroundings. By detecting and then avoid these obstacles, safety will be increased both for the operator of the machine and for the people in the risk area. Also, it allows groups of autonomous vehicles to interact with each other in an unpredictable environment. An increased level of automation also means more efficient production, reduces vehicle wear and reduced fuel consumption.

    Atlas Copco Rock Drills, Komatsu Forest and Volvo CE, together with Örebro University, Luleå University of Technology, SP Technical Research Institute, Robotdalen and Association Heavy Vehicles, cooperates in this project to evaluate the sensors with the goal of creating the machine ability Obstacle detection.

    A single sensor alone is not expected to fulfil the safety requirements. Research is needed to develop sensor systems - combination of two or more sensor technologies.

  • 75.
    Toss, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    How to Perform EMC Testing of Autonomous Vehicles2017Inngår i: Electronic Environment, nr 3, s. 32-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    EMC TESTING of autonomous vehicles is challenging because the involved systems are designed to identify unrealistic driving conditions, which is exactly what we have in a typical anechoic EMC chamber. When the system detects unrealistic conditions, autonomous driving functions are disabled or set to predefined states, which means that EMC testing of autonomous functions is not possible. To fully test autonomous driving systems, we therefore need to emulate a realistic environment in many aspects, i.e., we need to stimulate involved sensors in a realistic way.

  • 76.
    Toss, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Karlsson, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Radar reflectivity spatial profile of 3D surrogate targets and real vehicles2019Inngår i: 13th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, EuCAP 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a method to find a radar reflectivity spatial profile for comparing 3D surrogate targets with real vehicles is proposed. Utilizing this method, the spatial profile can be acquired using only high-level data from an automotive grade radar. For data within a small angular window at arbitrary aspect angle relative to the target, the proposed method back-projects Radar Cross Section (RCS) detections, to build up a spatial profile. This profile can then be used to evaluate multiple scattering centers on targets, which are important during test of autonomous vehicles and active safety functions. The method is used on measured data from 3D surrogate targets as well as real vehicles, which are presented in the paper.

  • 77.
    Vedder, Benjamin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Vinter, Jonny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    A Low-Cost Model Vehicle Testbed with Accurate Positioning for Autonomous Driving2018Inngår i: Journal of Robotics, ISSN 1687-9600, E-ISSN 1687-9619, artikkel-id 4907536Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate positioning is a requirement for many applications, including safety-critical autonomous vehicles. To reduce cost and at the same time improving accuracy for positioning of autonomous vehicles, new methods, tools, and research platforms are needed. We have created a low-cost testbed consisting of electronics and software that can be fitted on model vehicles allowing them to follow trajectories autonomously with a position accuracy of around 3 cm outdoors. The position of the vehicles is derived from sensor fusion between Real-Time Kinematic Satellite Navigation (RTK-SN), odometry, and inertial measurement and performs well within a 10 km radius from a base station. Trajectories to be followed can be edited with a custom GUI, where also several model vehicles can be controlled and visualized in real time. All software and Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) for our testbed are available as open source to make customization and development possible. Our testbed can be used for research within autonomous driving, for carrying test equipment, and other applications where low cost and accurate positioning and navigation are required.

  • 78.
    Vedder, Benjamin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Vinter, Jonny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Accurate positioning of bicycles for improved safety2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyclists are not well protected in accidents with other road users, and there are few active safety systems available for bicycles. In this study we have evaluated the use of inexpensive Real-Time Kinematic Satellite Navigation (RTK-SN) receivers with multiple satellite constellations together with dead reckoning for accurate positioning of bicycles to enable active safety functions such as collision warnings. This is a continuation of previous work were we concluded that RTK-SN alone is not sufficient in moderately dense urban areas as buildings and other obstructions degrade the performance of RTK-SN significantly. In this work we have added odometry to the positioning system as well as extending RTK-SN with multiple satellite constellations to deal with situations where the view of the sky is poor and thus fewer satellites are in view. To verify the performance of the positioning system we have used Ultra-Wideband radios as an independent positioning system to compare against while testing during poor conditions for RTK-SN. We were able to verify that adding dead reckoning and multiple satellite constellations improves the performance significantly under poor conditions and makes the positioning system more useful for active safety systems.

  • 79.
    Vogt-Ardatjew, Robert
    et al.
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Lundgren, Urban
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Romero, Sergio F.
    National Institute for Aerospace Technology, Spain.
    Leferink, Frank
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    On-Site Radiated Emissions Measurements in Semireverberant Environments2017Inngår i: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 59, nr 3, s. 770-778, artikkel-id 7778167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiated emission tests are generally performed in either free space, reflection-free environments, such as an open area test site or semi-or full-anechoic chambers, or in reverberation chambers. This paper describes measurements in semireflecting environments such as an office, a workshop of a large industrial apparatus or installation. The objective is to develop test methods and associated correction factors and uncertainties for measurements which are performed on-site, near large industrial apparatus which cannot be moved to an EMC laboratory. The measurement technique is based on reverberation chambers and tools such as insertion loss, quality factor, as well as a goodness of fit test were used to perform the test site analysis. The advantages and drawbacks of on-site measurements of large apparatus are discussed. A simplified, but not limited to perfect reverberation chambers, method of finding the measurement uncertainties was used to calculate the errors associated with imperfect reverberation and field uniformity, as well as the influence of noise and equipment nonlinearities. The results are given in form of a guideline, concluding that such measurements are possible.

  • 80.
    Warg, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Gassilewski, Martin
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Tryggvesson, Jörgen
    Comentor AB, Sweden.
    Izosimov, Viacheslav
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Werneman, Anders
    Qamcom AB, Sweden.
    Johansson, Rolf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Defining Autonomous Functions Using Iterative Hazard Analysis and Requirements Refinement2016Inngår i: Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: SAFECOMP 2016 Workshops / [ed] Amund Skavhaug Jérémie Guiochet, Erwin Schoitsch, Friedemann Bitsch, 2016, Vol. 9923, s. 286-297Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous vehicles are predicted to have a large impact on the field of transportation and bring substantial benefits, but they present new challenges when it comes to ensuring safety. Today the standard ISO 26262:2011 treats each defined function, or item, as a complete scope for functional safety; the driver is responsible for anything that falls outside the items. With autonomous driving, it becomes necessary to ensure safety at all times when the vehicle is operating by itself. Therefore, we argue that the hazard analysis should have the wider scope of making sure the vehicle’s functions together fulfill its specifications for autonomous operation. The paper proposes a new iterative work process where the item definition is a product of hazard analysis and risk assessment rather than an input. Generic operational situation and hazard trees are used as a tool to widen the scope of the hazard analysis, and a method to classify hazardous events is used to find dimensioning cases among a potentially long list of candidates. The goal is to avoid dangerous failures for autonomous driving due to the specification of the nominal function being too narrow.

  • 81.
    Warg, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Skoglund, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Argument Patterns for Multi-Concern Assurance of Connected Automated Driving Systems2019Inngår i: 4th International Workshop on Security and Dependability of Critical Embedded Real-Time Systems (CERTS 2019) / [ed] Mikael Asplund and Michael Paulitsch, Dagstuhl, 2019, Vol. 73, s. 3:1-3:13, artikkel-id 3Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Showing that dependable embedded systems fulfil vital quality attributes, e.g. by conforming to relevant standards, can be challenging. For emerging and increasingly complex functions, such as connected automated driving (CAD), there is also a need to ensure that attributes such as safety, cybersecurity, and availability are fulfilled simultaneously. Furthermore, such systems are often designed using existing parts, including 3rd party components, which must be included in the quality assurance. This paper discusses how to structure the argument at the core of an assurance case taking these considerations into account, and proposes patterns to aid in this task. The patterns are applied in a case study with an example automotive function. While the aim has primarily been safety and security assurance of CAD, their generic nature make the patterns relevant for multi-concern assurance in general.

  • 82. Zanella, Caterina
    et al.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    mCBEEs Nytt europeisktutbildningsnätverk loser korrosionsproblem på mikro- och nanonivå2018Inngår i: YtforumArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 83.
    Zhang, Yang
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro E.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Yang, Ying
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Energy flexibility from the consumer: Integrating local electricity and heat supplies in a building2018Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 223, s. 430-442Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing penetration level of renewable energy requires more flexibility measures to be implemented in future energy systems. Integrating an energy consumer's local energy supplies connects multiple energy networks (i.e., the electrical grid, the district heating network, and gas network) in a decentralized way. Such integration enhances the flexibility of energy systems. In this work, a Swedish office building is investigated as a case study. Different components, including heat pump, electrical heater, battery and hot water storage tank are integrated into the electricity and heat supply system of the building. Special focus is placed on the flexibility that the studied building can provide to the electrical grid (i.e., the building modulates the electricity consumption in response to the grid operator's requirements). The flexibility is described by two metrics including the flexibility hours and the flexibility energy. Optimization of the component capacities and the operation profiles is carried out by using Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP). The results show that the system fully relies on electricity for the heat demand when not considering the flexibility requirements of the electrical grid. This suggests that district heating is economically unfavorable compared with using electricity for the heat demand in the studied case. However, when flexibility requirements are added, the system turns to the district heating network for part of the heat demand. The system provides great flexibility to the electrical grid through such integration. The flexibility hours can be over 5200 h in a year, and the flexibility energy reaches more than 15.7 MWh (36% of the yearly electricity consumption). The yearly operation cost of the system slightly increases from 62,273 to 65,178 SEK when the flexibility hours increase from 304 to 5209 h. The results revealed that flexibility can be provided from the district heating network to the electrical grid via the building.

  • 84.
    Zhang, Yang
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Zheng, Wandong
    Tianjin University, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Planning and operation of an integrated energy system in a Swedish building2019Inngår i: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 199, artikkel-id 111920Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    More flexibility measures are required due to the increasing capacities of variable renewable energies (VRE). In buildings, the integration of energy supplies forms integrated energy systems (IES). IESs can provide flexibility and increase the VRE penetration level. To upgrade a current building energy system into an IES, several energy conversion and storage components are needed. How to decide the component capacities and operate the IES were investigated separately in studies on system planning and system operation. However, a research gap exists that the system configuration from system planning is not validated by actual operation conditions in system operation. Meanwhile, studies on system operation assume that IES configurations are predetermined. This work combines system planning and system operation. The IES configuration is determined by mixed integer linear programming in system planning. Actual operation conditions and forecast errors are considered in system operation. The actual operation profiles are obtained through year-round simulations of different energy management systems. The results indicate that the system configuration from system planning can meet energy demands in system operation. Among different energy management systems, the combination of robust optimization and receding horizon optimization achieves the lowest yearly operation cost. Meanwhile, two scenarios that represent high and low forecast accuracies are studied. Under the high and low forecast accuracy scenarios, the yearly operation costs are about 4% and 6% higher than that obtained from system planning.

  • 85.
    Zhang, Yang
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Yang, Ying
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Energy Flexibility through the Integrated Energy Supply System in Buildings: A Case Study in Sweden2018Inngår i: Energy Procedia, 2018, s. 564-569Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing penetration level of renewable energies requires more flexibility measures at the consumption side. Flexible energy prices have been placed by energy providers to promote flexibility measures from energy users. However, because of the current energy supply system in buildings, these flexible energy prices haven't been fully taken advantage of. This study focuses on the integrated energy supply system in buildings. A Swedish office building is used as the case study. The integrated energy supply system is built by installing new components, including battery, heat pump and electrical heater, and hot water tank. Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problems are solved to determine the optimal component capacities and operation profiles. The results indicate that all the studied system configurations achieve lower net present cost (NPC) than the current system. It suggests that the integrated energy supply system can take advantage of the flexible energy prices and lower the overall energy cost in the building. Among the studied configurations, the combination of air source heat pump (ASHP) and electrical heater (EH) has the lowest investment cost. This combination also has the lowest NPC except in the scenario with low borehole cost. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 86.
    Zhu, Bai
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Seifeddine, Salam
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Jarfors, Anders
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    A study of anodising behaviour of al-si components produced by rheocasting2019Inngår i: Solid State Phenomena, ISSN 1012-0394, E-ISSN 1662-9779, Vol. 285, s. 39-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to investigate the anodising behaviour of Al-Si components produced by rheocasting, to understand the effect of the surface liquid segregation (SLS) on the anodising response. The material investigated was EN AC 42000 Al-alloy with an addition of 150 ppm Sr. The component was rheocast and conventionally liquid cast for benchmarking. The RheoMetal™ process was used to prepare slurry and subsequently cast using a vertical pressure die casting machine. Prior to anodising, mechanical grinding was used as pre-treatment method for selected samples as comparison with components in the as-cast state. Anodising was performed on the components using a constant controlled voltage at 25 V, in 1 M H2 SO4, at room temperature. The duration of anodising was varied from 30 mins to 120 mins to examine the relationship between oxide layer thickness and the anodising time. The oxide layer was investigated and characterised. The results demonstrated that the presence of the SLS layer, which was enriched with alloying elements, had a significant influence on the anodising behaviour of the cast component. The oxide layer thickness of the components produced by rheocasting and fully liquid casting was measured and compared. The relations between the oxide layer thickness and anodising time, as well as the casting methods are presented and discussed in this paper..

  • 87.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Fedel, Michele
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Andersson, Nils Eric
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Deflorian, Flavio
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Zanella, C.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Influence of the Sr modification and post-treatment on corrosion resistance of oxide layer of cast Al-(low)Si alloys2017Inngår i: EUROCORR 2017 - The Annual Congress of the European Federation of Corrosion, 20th International Corrosion Congress and Process Safety Congress 2017, Asociace koroznich inzenyru z.s.- AKI - Czech Association of Corrosion Engineers , 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The current development of casting process makes it possible to cast low Si content aluminium alloys, which open the gate for the application of anodising on cast aluminium components. This paper aims to investigate the influence of Sr modification as well as the post-treatment on corrosion resistance of oxide layer of low Si content cast Al alloys. In the present study, designed Al-Si alloys with 5.45 wt-% Si were studied by performing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3 wt-% NaCl solution. The morphology of Si particle was determined by controlling the level of Sr. The microstructure features were evaluated by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, focus ion beam-SEM (FIB-SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) was applied to exam the corrosion morphology and the anodised layer with Si rich eutectic phases. The EIS study revealed that the corrosion resistance of the oxide layer on cast Al alloys can be significantly influenced by the morphology of Si particle and the post-treatment. It was found that the change of Si particle morphology from flake-like to fibrous by Sr addition can substantially improve the corrosion resistance of the oxide layer in the unsealed condition due to the formation of the more compacted oxide layer with less defects. Normally, the application of a sealing step such as the hydrothermal sealing can improve the corrosion protection of the oxide layer. However, in the current study, it was found the hydrothermal sealing step leads to a significant reduce of the corrosion protection due to the generation of cracks into the oxide layer, and the hydrothermal sealing step can counteract the improvement of the corrosion protection by Sr addition. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. All rights reserved.

  • 88.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Fedel, Michele
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Andersson, Nils-Eric
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Deflorian, Flavio
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Effect of Si content and morphology on corrosionresistance of anodized cast Al-Si alloys2017Inngår i: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 164, nr 7, s. C435-C441Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the influence of Si content and Si particle morphology on the corrosion protection of anodized oxide layers on Al-Si alloys. Two Al alloys with low Si concentrations (2.43 wt-% and 5.45 wt-%, respectively) were studied and compared with 6082-T6 via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3 wt-% NaCl solution prior to oxide layer sealing. Si particles were also modified by the addition of Sr to study the influence of Si particle morphology on the corrosion protection of the oxide layer. The EIS showed that the corrosion protection provided by the oxide layer on Al-Si alloys is significantly affected by the presence of Si particles. Si particles make the oxide layer locally thinner and more defective in the eutectic region, thereby increasing the ease of substrate corrosion attack. However, the addition of Sr can improve the corrosion protection of anodized Al-Si alloys significantly. Furthermore, it was proved that higher Si level influences negatively the anodized oxide corrosion protection due to the higher amount of cracks and defects, but Sr modification is efficient in preventing this negative effect.

  • 89.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Fedel, Michele
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Andersson, Nils-Eric
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Deflorian, Flavio
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Influence of the Srmodification and post-treatment on corrosion resistance of oxide layer of cast Al-(low)Si alloys2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 90.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University,Sweden.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    A study of anodising behaviour of Al-Si componentsproduced by rheocasting2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 91.
    Zucca, M.
    et al.
    INRIM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    Loader, B.
    NPL Management Limited, UK.
    Schmidt, M.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Welinder, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Tammi, K.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Bruna Romero, J.
    Fundacion CIRCE, Spain.
    Pichon, L.
    CNRS Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France.
    Freschi, F.
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Bauer, P.
    Technische Universiteit Delft, Netherlands.
    Blandow, V.
    TÜV SÜD AG, Germany.
    Maffucci, A.
    Università degli Studi di Cassino, Italy.
    Femia, N.
    Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Italy.
    Kuster, N.
    Schmid & Partner Engineering AG, Switzerland.
    The Project 'Metrology for Inductive Charging of Electric Vehicles'2018Inngår i: CPEM 2018 - Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The European metrology programme for innovation and research (EMPIR) is the current main programme for European research on metrology. In 2016, within the EMPIR call, the project 'Metrology for inductive charging of electric vehicles' (MICEV) was approved and it started in September 2017. Inductive charging is a wireless charging technology that will be widely used with electric vehicles (EVs) in the near future, offering many advantages over traditionally fuelled and current EVs. The project aims to advance inductive power transfer (IPT) for EV charging by developing metrology techniques for measuring power transfer efficiency and reliable demonstration of compliance with existing safety standards for human exposure. The main research topics are: measurement of the power transmitted on-board, transmission efficiency, requirements for measurements in the dynamic charging, assessment of magnetic field exposure.

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