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  • 51.
    Lycken, Anders
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Produktion och processer.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Olsson, Marcus
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Räftegård, Oskar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    SågELS – bakgrund och framtagningsprocess2016Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 52.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Social hållbarhet med fokus på bostadsrenovering - en antologi.2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 53.
    Mäger, Katrin Nele
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Determination of the effective material properties for the thermal simulations2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Network on Timber Engineering Research 2016 (INTER 2016), 2016, s. 397-400Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 54.
    Mølgaard, Susanne
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Henriksson, Marielle
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Cárdenas, Marité
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Malmö University, Sweden.
    Svagan, Anna
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Cellulose-nanofiber/polygalacturonic acid coatings with high oxygen barrier and targeted release properties2014Inngår i: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 114, s. 179-182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A bio-inspired coating consisting of pectin (polygalacturonic acid) and cationic cellulose nanofibers were successfully produced by the layer-by-layer method. The build-up and the morphology of the resulting coatings were studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The coating was able to survive the exposure of a simulated gastric fluid, but was partially degraded upon exposure to pectinase enzyme, which simulate the action of the microbial symbionts present in the human colon. Prior to exposure, the oxygen permeability coefficient of the coating (0.033 ml (STP) mm m-2 day-1 atm-1 at 23 °C and 20% RH) was in the same order of magnitude as for ethylene vinyl alcohol films (0.001-0.01 ml (STP) mm m-2 day-1 atm-1). However, after exposure to the mimicked gastrointestinal (GI) tract conditions, the contribution of coating to the overall barrier properties was not measurable.

  • 55.
    Negreira, Juan
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Trollé, Arnaud
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Jarnerö, Kirsi
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Sjökvist, Lars-Göran
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Bard, Delphine
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Psycho-vibratory evaluation of timber floors - Towards the determination of design indicators of vibration acceptability and vibration annoyance2015Inngår i: Journal of Sound and Vibration, ISSN 0022-460X, E-ISSN 1095-8568, Vol. 340, s. 383-408Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In timber housing constructions, vibrations can be a nuisance for inhabitants. Notably, the vibrational response of wooden floor systems is an issue in need of being dealt with more adequately in the designing of such buildings. Studies addressing human response to vibrations are needed in order to be able to better estimate what level of vibrations in dwellings can be seen as acceptable. In the present study, measurements on five different wooden floors were performed in a laboratory environment at two locations in Sweden (SP in Växjö and LU in Lund). Acceleration measurements were carried out while a person either was walking on a particular floor or was seated in a chair placed there as the test leader was walking on the floor. These participants filled out a questionnaire regarding their perception and experiencing of the vibrations in question. Independently of the subjective tests, several static and dynamic characteristics of the floors were determined through measurements. The ultimate aim was to develop indicators of human response to floor vibrations, specifically those regarding vibration acceptability and vibration annoyance, their being drawn based on relationships between the questionnaire responses obtained and the parameter values determined on the basis of the measurements carried out. To that end, use was made of multilevel regression. Although the sample of floors tested was small, certain clear trends could be noted. The first eigenfrequency (calculated in accordance with Eurocode 5) and Hu and Chui׳s criterion (calculated from measured quantities) proved to be the best indicators of vibration annoyance, and the Maximum Transient Vibration Value (computed on the basis of the accelerations experienced by the test subjects) to be the best indicator of vibration acceptability.

  • 56.
    Nele Mäger, Katrin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Implementation of new materials to the component additive method for fire design of timber structures2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire resistance of timber structures is an important topic of research and discussion. A popular method for protecting timber members against fire is the use of protective non-combustible claddings. For these, the most widespread material is gypsum plasterboard. A method for calculating the fire resistance of timber frame assemblies is the improved component additive method which will be introduced to the next version of the European standard EN 1995-1-2. Currently there exist formulas only for material groups. In this work two more materials are added and the implementation procedure is described. Four horizontal model scale furnace tests were conducted. Thermal simulations of the tested configurations were conducted by the finite element software SAFIR v2014a1. The thermal parameters of the studied materials were calibrated in order to obtain the same temperature rise curves as were shown in the fire tests. The calibration procedure developed was implemented on cellulose fibre insulations. With the suitable effective thermal parameters, another set of simulations was run based on the work of Vanessa Schleifer and material specific formulas derived. These were compared with results of separate full scale test results to verify the safety of the calculations.

  • 57.
    Niklewski, Jonas
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Frühwald Hansson, Eva
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Fjellström, Per-Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Durability of rain-exposed timber bridge joints and components2016Inngår i: WCTE 2016: World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2016, s. 4667-4675Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of details is an important aspect in durability design of rain-exposed timber structures. Joints are considered the weak-points of these structures as they accumulate moisture and facilitate deterioration by decay. The present study aims to study the influence of detail design, and its effect on the service life, by estimating the decay rate in a number of rain-exposed timber components and joints, typically found in timber bridges. A test-setup was exposed outdoors over a period of one year while the moisture content was measured in specific measuring points. The test-setup included groups of beams, columns and joints commonly found in timberbridges. For the beams and columns, the effectiveness of typical protective measures was also tested. The annual decay rate was estimated using two different decay prediction models. Compared to a reference beam, the results show that structural protection reduced the risk of decay while joints and end-grain tended to be at increased risk. The lowest service life, estimated to 3-4 years, was found close to end-grain where drying was hindered but moisture could accumulate. In general, the discrepancy between the two decay models was large for low to medium exposure and decreased with increasing exposure.

  • 58.
    Nordman, Roger
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Lycken, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Produktion och processer.
    Andersson, Jan-Erik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Räftegård, Oskar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Roadmap för energieffektivisering i svensk sågverksindustri2016Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 59.
    Nordén, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö.
    Boork, Magdalena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Development of methods for objective assessment of lighting: a pilot study2015Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 60.
    Norén, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Räftegård, Oskar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Södra Climate Arena: uppföljning2015Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 61.
    Ohman, Micael Bjorn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Dimensional stability in four different wooden facade claddings2016Inngår i: WCTE 2016: World Conference on timber engineering, 2016, s. 2810-2818Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypothesis is that a good cladding system in wood should be characterized by a homogeneous dimensional behaviour with minimal variation between individual panel boards to minimize maintenance, i.e. repainting or, in the worst case, replacement of whole panels. Four different types of cladding panels were tested: a regular spruce panel, a quality-sorted P-marked spruce panel, a regular panel of pine heartwood and a spruce glulam panel, 50 panels of each type. The objective was to study the dimensional changes under changing moisture conditions in order to find the cladding material with the smallest possible dimensional and distortion movements. The shape stability of the panels was measured and expressed in terms of bow, spring, twist and cupping. The spruce glulam panels showed the best shape stability, proven significantly different in comparison to the other two spruce panel systems. Panels of pine heartwood showed a tendency greater dimensional stability than the spruce panels, but not enough to be considered statistically significantly different in this study.

  • 62.
    Olsson, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Källsner, Bo
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Shear modulus of structural timber evaluated by means of dynamic excitation and FE analysis2015Inngår i: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 48, nr 4, s. 977-985Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the results from dynamic excitation of 105 centre boards of Norway spruce in edgewise bending are evaluated with respect to shear modulus using the FE method. Advantages of the method presented here, in relation to the torsion method given in EN 408 (Timber structures—structural timber and glued laminated timber—determination of some physical and mechanical properties, 2010), are that the testing is very simple to carry out and also that the shear stresses occur in the same way as in a beam subjected to bending. Although no alternative methods for evaluation of the shear modulus were applied in this study, results indicating a robustness of the suggested method are presented. According to calculations the estimated shear modulus varies considerably between different boards. The calculated mean value and standard deviation of the dynamic shear modulus is about 744 and 106 MPa, respectively. No significant correlation between the estimated shear modulus and the measured static modulus of elasticity in bending was found, but a correlation between calculated shear modulus and density was identified (R 2 = 0.24). Conclusions of the results are that dynamic excitation of boards should be considered as an alternative method for determination of shear modulus in EN 408 (Timber structures—structural timber and glued laminated timber—determination of some physical and mechanical properties, 2010), and a relation between the board density and the board shear modulus, rather than a relation between the board MOE and the board shear modulus, should be stated in EN 338 (Structural timber—strength classes, 2009).

  • 63.
    Olsson, Sara
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Biobaserade material och produkter.
    Enhancing UV-protection of Clear Coated Wood by utilizing Reactive UV-absorber and Epoxy Functionalized Soybean Oil2015Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 64.
    Olsson, Sara
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Westin, Mats
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Östmark, Emma
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Reactive UV-absorber and epoxy functionalized soybean oil for enhanced UV-protection of clear coated wood2014Inngår i: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 110, s. 405–414-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work investigates the photostabilising effect of a pretreatment consisting of 2-hydroxy-4(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-benzophenone (HEPBP) and epoxy functionalized soybean oil (ESBO), reacted on to Scots pine veneers coated with two different acrylic top coats. Two different pretreatment procedures were used, varying in reaction time and temperature. Results from FTIR and SEC analysis indicate that a large amount of reactant was present on the veneers after treatment with either of the two reaction procedures. Furthermore, coating of the pretreated surfaces was possible and the pretreatment does not seem to affect the adhesion between the coating and the wood substrate. Both accelerated ageing and natural exposure was used to study the resistance to photodegradation, and the results were analysed using colour measurements, FTIR and SEM. These analyses all show that 1400 h of accelerated ageing degrades neither the wood nor the coating to any larger extent. However, after 4000 h of UV exposure some signs of degradation are visible but to a lesser extent for pretreated samples. For the samples exposed to natural weathering during 14 months the performance was good in terms of photostabilisation, however all samples suffer from mould to different extents. Pretreated samples show smaller and more evenly distributed areas of mould compared to the references, which show slightly more mould. The combined coating/pretreatment system is thus assumed to have an effect in terms of photostabilization of the coated wood.

  • 65.
    Olsson, Sara
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Matsunaga, Hiroshi
    Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Japan.
    Kataoka, Yutaka
    Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Japan.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Matsumura, Junji
    Kyushu University, Japan.
    Westin, Mats
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Östmark, Emma
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    A SEM study on the use of epoxy functional vegetable oil and reactive UV-absorber as UV-protecting pretreatment for wood2015Inngår i: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 113, s. 40-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the ageing performance of a UV protective system for wood, comprising the reactive UV absorber 2-hydroxy-4(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-benzophenone (HEPBP) and epoxy functional vegetable oils (linseed and soybean oil). Scots pine samples of radial or cross-sectional surfaces were treated using a combination of the two components, or using only one of the oils. The treated samples were then aged in a Weather-Ometer for 2 × 60 h and analysed using VPSEM to follow the degradation of the wood substrate in the exact same spot before, during and after ageing. The results of the radial surfaces show slightly less degradation of samples treated with a combination of HEPBP and oil, and for the cross-sectional surfaces an even stronger protective effect is visible. For samples treated with only one of the two oils, no improvement was detectable. The radial surfaces were also analysed using FTIR where the results indicate presence of the protective treatment even after 120 h of exposure. Overall the combined pretreatment of HEPBP and epoxy functional linseed oil was concluded to have a photostabilising effect of the wood substrate.

  • 66.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Linnéuniversitetet / Linnaeus University.
    Strength grading of structural timber and EWP laminations of Norway spruce: Development potentials and industrial applications2014Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 67.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Olsson, Anders
    Enquist, Bertil
    Localized modulus of elasticity in timber and its significance for the accuracy of machine strength grading2014Inngår i: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 46, nr 4, s. 489-501Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 68.
    Persson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Andersson, Jan-Erik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Automatisk övervakning och uppföljning i torkprocessen2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of the project was to develop technology that makes it possible to automatically monitor and control the drying process and thus meet the target moisture content with higher precision.

    Weighing of the green wood was seen as a feasible and cost-effective method to get information about the green wood density and moisture content. The hypothesis was that the variations in dry density of pine and spruce are low enough to give a good enough estimate of green moisture content when weighing the timber before drying. A scale was installed at Kåge sawmill in the green sorter between the sink bins and the sticker stacker. All wood that passed the scale was weighted automatically and the three regular check-ups of the scale showed that it had an accuracy of just under 0,9% in relation to the reference weight. This gives an error of 1,8 – 2 % of the calculated moisture content depending on the variation of density of the wood

    The density of green wood, dry density and green moisture content was followed for four products between March and November 2013, one thin and one thick for both spruce and pine. The results from the tests showed variations of the dry density is subordinate to the green moisture content. The largest variation in green moisture content was found for 32 x 125 mm pine where it varied between 64 and 82 %. Spruce with the dimensions 63x150 mm was the only dimension that did not have any variation in green moisture content.

    Measurements indicate that it is possible to achieve the set goals: to be able to predict the green moisture content by about ± 5% points, while also adding variations in dry density, scale uncertainty and fluctuating green dimensions.

    Key words: Packet weight, industrial sawmill, wood drying

  • 69.
    Persson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Förädling och processer (TRf).
    Andersson, Jan-Erik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Förädling och processer (TRf).
    Vikberg, Tommy
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Produktion och processer.
    Couceiro, José
    Paketvägning 2 – automatisk övervakning och uppföljning i tork 22016Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 70.
    Persson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Förädling och processer (TRf).
    Vikberg, Tommy
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Produktion och processer.
    Andersson, Jan-Erik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Förädling och processer (TRf).
    Lycken, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Produktion och processer.
    Nordman, Roger
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Fläktreglering – Industriella torkförsök med Alent Drying AB2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 71.
    Persson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Förädling och processer (TRf).
    Vikberg, Tommy
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Produktion och processer.
    Andersson, Jan-Erik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Förädling och processer (TRf).
    Lycken, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Produktion och processer.
    Nordman, Roger
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Fläktreglering – Industriella torkförsök med Valutec AB2016Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 72.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Architecture and the Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Exploring climate impacts of timber buildings: the effects from including non-traditional aspects in life cycle climate impact assessment2015Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 73.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pantze, Anna
    Tyréns AB, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Life cycle assessment of road bridges: Implications from using biobased building2016Inngår i: SBE16 – International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment, 2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 74.
    Pousette, Anna
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Fjellström, Per-Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Experiences from timber bridge inspections in Sweden – examples of influence of moisture2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 75.
    Pousette, Anna
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggande och boende (TRb).
    TallTimber Facades – utveckling av kostnadseffektiva och säkra klimatskal för träbyggande2015Inngår i: Bygg & teknik, Vol. 107, nr 8, s. 40-42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 76.
    Pousette, Anna
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Schlyter Gezelius, Camilla
    Gezelius Arkitektkontor AB, Sweden.
    Innovative façade elements of wood with modern design and new technology2016Inngår i: WCTE 2016: World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2016, s. 3365-3372Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The project included product development and materials research. The aim was to produce a wooden façade system with an attractive modern appearance and good constructive design with the help of modern woodworking technology. Important requirements to consider were that the system should have a contemporary, attractive expression and that the façade system should provide a product with high quality ambitions in terms of environmental impact. It should also be flexible and easy to use for architects and designers who want to create unique façades. The main focus in this study was about the visible wood surface appearance where the intention was to create a varied surface with interesting innovative designs, with a method that make it possible to always create new patterns. Two different façade cladding systems were developed by combining woodcraft tradition, new research, digital design tools and industrial processes in the wood construction industry. Prototypes with patterned surfaces on both individual boards joined together and on a system based on multi-layer solid wood panels were tested.

  • 77.
    Pousette, Anna
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Tsantaridis, Lazaros
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Brandskyddat trä – egenskaper och användning, state-of-the-art2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was an inventory of fire retardant treated wood, fire-retardanttreatments, properties, and use in different applications, and to analyze the possibilitiesfor the future. The project was funded by TCN – Träcentrum Norr. Expected industrialbenefit was an update of knowledge for wooden buildings.Fire retardant treatments can improve the reaction to fire properties of wood and thehighest fire classifications for combustible products can be reached, for example class Bs1,d0. This means that visible wood surfaces can be used in higher and larger buildings.Fire retardant treatment has no or very limited effect on the fire resistance of structuralelements, as the charring rate is hardly changed. One exception is intumescent fireretardant paints that swell and may postpone charring and thus increase the fireresistance. However, the improved fire behavior of many fire retardant treated woodproducts deteriorates over time, especially at outdoor use due to leaching. A system ofdurability classes has been developed as a complement to fire classes and makes itpossible for potential users to find reliable products for different uses. Fire retardanttreated wood products can maintain their properties after accelerated and/or natural agingif the retention levels are high enough, but many products are losing their firecharacteristics during aging. Paint systems are usually needed at exterior applications tomaintain the fire performance properties. The main use of fire retardant treated wood is asvisible wood surfaces indoors, such as in escape routes, apartments in high-rise buildings,public buildings and sports arenas. Documentation of long-term properties should beincluded to support the use of reliable fire-retardant wood, especially important forproducts to be used outdoors.Key words: Fire retardant treated wood, fire-retardant treatments, wood products, paintsystems, weather durability

  • 78.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Brischke, Christian
    Leibniz University, Germany.
    Richter, Klaus
    Technische Universität München, Germany.
    Mode of action of brown rot decay resistance in modified wood: a review2014Inngår i: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 68, nr 2, s. 239–246-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemically or physically modified wood materials have enhanced resistance to wood decay fungi. In contrast to treatments with traditional wood preservatives, where the resistance is caused mainly by the toxicity of the chemicals added, little is known about the mode of action of nontoxic wood modification methods. This study reviews established theories related to resistance in acetylated, furfurylated, dimethylol dihydroxyethyleneurea- treated, and thermally modified wood. The main conclusion is that only one theory provides a consistent explanation for the initial inhibition of brown rot degradation in modified wood, that is, moisture exclusion via the reduction of cell wall voids. Other proposed mechanisms, such as enzyme nonrecognition, micropore blocking, and reducing the number of free hydroxyl groups, may reduce the degradation rate when cell wall water uptake is no longer impeded.

  • 79.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Kölle, Martina
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Brischke, Christian
    Leibniz University Hannover, Germany.
    Richter, Klaus
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Effects of thermal modification on Postia placenta wood degradation dynamics: measurements of mass loss, structural integrity and gene expression2016Inngår i: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 50, nr 2, s. 385-397Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanism by which modified wood resists decay has long been discussed, but is still not fully understood. A better understanding of decay resistance mechanisms could improve wood protection processes and product properties. In this study, the dynamics of brown rot decay in thermally modified wood was examined through measurements of mass loss, strength loss and gene expression. Close monitoring of mass loss over 120 days in thermally modified wood exposed to Postia placenta showed a delay in the onset of degradation compared to untreated wood, and once the degradation had started, the rate was lower. Thermally modified wood did not inhibit expression of wood degradation-related genes before mass loss and was similar to that in untreated wood once mass loss could be detected. Comparing gene expression as well as strength loss at the same stage of decay rather than at the same time after exposure showed smaller differences in decay patterns between thermally modified and untreated wood than previous results indicate. It is concluded that the key to understanding degradation resistance in thermally modified wood is to compare the decay patterns in thermally modified wood and untreated wood before mass loss occurs.

  • 80.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Richter, Klaus
    Technische Univerität München, Germany.
    Effect of wood modification on gene expression during incipient Postia placenta decay2014Inngår i: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 86, nr B, s. 86-91Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The mode of action of nontoxic wood modifications and the fungal response to modified wood are not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the reaction of Postia placenta in terms of gene expression of selected genes upon the encounter of acetylated, DMDHEU-treated and thermally modified wood. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that the investigated P.placentagenes involved in oxidative degradation were expressed at higher levels in modified wood than in untreated wood, while expression levels in modified wood for the investigated genes involved in enzymatic degradation were slightly lower than those in untreated wood. The results indicate that the response of P.placenta upon the encounter of modified wood is to up-regulate the expressionof the oxidative degradation machinery. In addition, our results support the theory that the decay resistance of the herein studied modified woods is due to inhibition of fungal molecules, needed for oxidative degradation of wood polymers, to penetrate the wood cell wall.

  • 81.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF AB.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Biobaserade material och produkter.
    Zamani, Bahareh
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Peters, Greg
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Clarifying sustainable fashion: Life cycle assessment of the Swedish clothing consumption2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 82.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF AB.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Zamani, Bahareh
    Chalmers University of Technology, .
    Peters, Greg
    Chalmers University of Technology, .
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, .
    Will Clothing Be Sustainable? Clarifying Sustainable Fashion2016Inngår i: Textiles and Clothing Sustainability: Implications in Textiles and Fashion / [ed] Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu, Singapore: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2016, s. 1-45Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mistra Future Fashion research programme (2011–2019) is a large Swedish investment aimed at reducing the environmental impact of clothing consumption. Midway into the programme, research results and insights were reviewed with the intent to see what picture appears from this interdisciplinary consortium, developed to address the multiple sustainability challenges in clothing consumption and the tools for intervention. Such tools comprise product design, consumer behaviour changes, policy development, business models, technical development, recycling, life cycle assessment (LCA) and social life cycle assessment (SLCA). This chapter quantifies the extent of the sustainability challenge for the apparel sector, via an analysis of five garment archetypes. It also considers to what extent different interventions for impact reduction can contribute in society’s endeavour towards sustainability, in terms of staying within an “environmentally safe and socially just operating space”, inspired by the planetary boundaries approach. In particular, the results show whether commonly proposed interventions are sufficient or not in relation to the impact reduction necessary according to the planetary boundaries. Also, the results clarify which sustainability aspects that the clothing industry are likely to manage sufficiently if the proposed interventions are realised and which sustainability aspects that will require more radical interventions in order to reach the targets.

  • 83.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Zamani, Bahare
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Biobaserade material och produkter.
    Peters, Greg M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A life cycle assessment (LCA)-based approach to guiding an industry sector towards sustainability: the case of the Swedish apparel sector2016Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 133, s. 691-700Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental challenges associated with consumption of textiles have generally been investigated on product level in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies. For social sustainability aspects, social hotspot analysis has instead been applied on the textile sector level. The aim with the industry sector approach developed by the authors was to enable assessment of different interventions in terms of how they contribute to reaching targets for environmental and social sustainability, on the sector level. The approach was tested in a case study on the Swedish apparel sector. The industry sector approach consists of three steps that address three different questions: 1) What is the current sustainability performance of the sector? 2) What is an acceptable sustainability performance for the sector? 3) Are proposed interventions enough to reach an acceptable sustainability performance? By answering these questions, it is possible to measure performance in relation to sector level targets and learn which types of interventions (technical improvements, behavioral changes, new business models, etc.), and which actors (manufacturers, retailers, consumers, authorities, etc.) that can potentially provide the greatest improvements. By applying the approach in the case study, conclusions could be drawn on whether specific interventions appear to be sufficient or not in relation to the set environmental targets. The influence of the interventions in relation to reaching targets for social sustainability was found to be the most difficult to measure due to lack of data. To spur the industry sector's stakeholders to actualize the full potential of the most effective environmental interventions, a scheme for structured evaluation of LCA results directed towards these prospective actors was developed. Based on the results from the study, actor-oriented advice could be provided.

  • 84.
    Ruud, Svein
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Markusson, Caroline
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Nordén, Johan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö.
    Karlsson, Henrik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Lindgren, Mikael
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Ollas, Patrik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Belysningen väg från el till rumstemperatur2013Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 85.
    Räftegård, Oskar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Andersson, Jan-Erik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Torkhus energijämförelse i praktiken – Bygdsiljum2016Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 86.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Frände, Niklas
    Internet pages Sweden2016Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 87.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Orskaug, Thomas
    Norwegian Institute of Wood Technology, Norway.
    Andersson, Allan
    Novia University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Prefabricated Wood Elements for Sustainable Renovation of Residential Building Façades2016Inngår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 96, s. 756-767Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Prefabricated elements to provide environmentally friendly, energy- and cost-efficient solutions for the building envelope have been studied. The newly developed element system has a high level of flexibility since it is possible to adjust the length of the connection rods according to the building's energy requirements and it can be mounted on timber, concrete and brick structures. Adjustability to different types of buildings structures, materials, tolerances, geometries and energy requirements makes it very applicable and efficient.

  • 88.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Peters, Greg
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    ten Hoeve, Marieke
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Making the most of LCA in technical inter-organisational R&D projects2014Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 70, s. 97–104-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In technical Research and Development (R&D) projects, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the technology under development is sometimes carried out. Particularly in inter-organisational R&D projects, the roles of LCAs tend to be unclear and arbitrary, and as a consequence, LCA work is not adequately designed for the needs of the project. There is a need for research on how to choose an appropriate role for LCA in such projects and how to plan LCA work accordingly. We have identified some possible roles of LCA in inter-organisational R&D projects and used experiences from LCA work in different such projects to identify four project characteristics that are decisive for what roles the LCA can have. The project characteristics are: (i) the project's potential influence on environmental impacts, (ii) the degrees of freedom available for the technical direction of the project, (iii) the project's potential to provide required input to the LCA, and (iv) access to relevant audiences for the LCA results. We discuss how evaluation of these project characteristics can help project commissioners, project managers and LCA practitioners to deliberately choose appropriate roles of LCA in inter-organisational R&D projects and plan projects for efficient use of LCA.

  • 89.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Peters, Greg M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Using the planetary boundaries framework for setting impact-reduction targets in LCA contexts2015Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 20, nr 12, s. 1684-1700Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The planetary boundaries (PBs) framework suggests global limits for environmental interventions which could be used to set global goals for reducing environmental impacts. This paper proposes a procedure for using such global goals for setting impact-reduction targets at the scale of products for use, for example, in life cycle assessment (LCA) contexts, e.g. as a basis for evaluating the potential of interventions to reduce the environmental impact of products.

    Methods

    The procedure consists of four steps: (i) identifying the PBs quantified in literature that correspond to an impact category which is studied in the product assessment context in question; (ii) interpreting what the identified PBs imply in terms of global impact-reduction targets; (iii) translating the outcome of (ii) to reduction targets for the particular global market segment to which the studied product belongs; and (iv) translating the outcome of (iii) to reduction targets for the studied product. The procedure requires some assumptions and value-based choices—the influence of these is tested by applying the procedure in a specific LCA context: a study of Swedish clothing consumption.

    Results and discussion

    The application of the procedure in an LCA context suggested the need for eliminating all or nearly all impact of Swedish clothing consumption for most impact categories. Thus, it is improbable that a single type of impact-reduction intervention (e.g. technological development or changed user behaviour) is sufficient. The outcome’s strong dependence on impact category suggests that the procedure can help in prioritising among impact categories. Furthermore, the outcome exhibited a strong dependence on the chosen method for allocating the globally allowed impact between regions—this was tested by applying different principles identified in a literature review on the allocation of emissions rights. The outcome also strongly depended on the geographical scope—this was tested by changing the geographical scope from Sweden to Nigeria.

    Conclusions

    The proposed procedure is feasible to use for LCA practitioners and other environmental analysts, and data is available to apply the procedure in contexts with different geographical scopes. Value-based choices are, however, unavoidable and significantly influence the outcome, which accentuates the subjectivity and potentially controversial nature of allocating a finite impact space to certain regions, market segments and products. How to match PBs with appropriate LCA impact categories is an important area for future research.

  • 90.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Peters, Greg
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Life cycle assessment of construction materials: the influence of assumptions in end-of-life modelling2014Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 723-731Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The nature of end-of-life (EoL) processes is highly uncertain for constructions built today. This uncertainty is often neglected in life cycle assessments (LCAs) of construction materials. This paper tests how EoL assumptions influence LCA comparisons of two alternative roof construction elements: glue-laminated wooden beams and steel frames. The assumptions tested include the type of technology and the use of attributional or consequential modelling approaches. Methods: The study covers impact categories often considered in the construction industry: total and non-renewable primary energy demand, water depletion, global warming, eutrophication and photo-chemical oxidant creation. The following elements of the EoL processes are tested: energy source used in demolition, fuel type used for transportation to the disposal site, means of disposal and method for handling allocation problems of the EoL modelling. Two assumptions regarding technology development are tested: no development from today's technologies and that today's low-impact technologies have become representative for the average future technologies. For allocating environmental impacts of the waste handling to by-products (heat or recycled material), an attributional cut-off approach is compared with a consequential substitution approach. A scenario excluding all EoL processes is also considered. Results and discussion: In all comparable scenarios, glulam beams have clear environmental benefits compared to steel frames, except for in a scenario in which steel frames are recycled and today's average steel production is substituted, in which impacts are similar. The choice of methodological approach (attributional, consequential or fully disregarding EoL processes) does not seem to influence the relative performance of the compared construction elements. In absolute terms, four factors are shown to be critical for the results: whether EoL phases are considered at all, whether recycling or incineration is assumed in the disposal of glulam beams, whether a consequential or attributional approach is used in modelling the disposal processes and whether today's average technology or a low-impact technology is assumed for the substituted technology. Conclusions: The results suggest that EoL assumptions can be highly important for LCA comparisons of construction materials, particularly in absolute terms. Therefore, we recommend that EoL uncertainties are taken into consideration in any LCA of long-lived products. For the studied product type, LCA practitioners should particularly consider EoL assumptions regarding the means of disposal, the expected technology development of disposal processes and any substituted technology and the choice between attributional and consequential approaches.

  • 91.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Peters, Greg
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Life Cycle Assessment of Forest Products: Challenges and Solutions2016Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing environmental degradation and our dependency of finite resources are important motivations for developing a more bio-based society. In such a society, the most abundant renewable resource on the planet – forest biomass – will play a much more prominent role than in our current fossil-based society. To guide this transformation and obtain the potential environmental benefits of a more bio-based society, there is a need for high-quality, context-adapted environmental assessments.

    Different types of environmental assessments are needed for decision-making concerned with different types of entities: sites, products, organisations, industry sectors, regions, nations, etc. For studies of products and services, life cycle assessment (LCA) is the most commonly used assessment tool worldwide. LCA is capable of assessing a wide range of environmental impacts over the entire life cycle of products and services, from resource extraction (the “cradle”), via production, transportation and use, to waste management (the “grave”).

    Although there is an array of useful consensus documents guiding the LCA practitioner – the 14040/14044 International Organisation for Standardisation’s (ISO) standard, the EN 16760 standard, the international reference life cycle data system (ILCD) handbook, the product environmental footprint (PEF) guide, to name a few – it can be rather challenging to carry out an LCA. Key challenges include the modelling of the product system and its interaction with the environment, the translation of emissions and resource use into quantified environmental impacts, and the interpretation and use of the results in various contexts. For example, how should one allocate environmental impacts between the many outputs of a biorefinery? How can one assess the climate, biodiversity and water cycle impacts of forestry operations? How can one get the most out of LCA in research and development projects? What do LCA results say in relation to the global challenges, for example as expressed by the planetary boundaries?

    The purpose of this book, belonging to the series “SpringerBriefs in Biobased Polymers”, is to provide an introduction to some of the key challenges of carrying out LCAs of forest products, and to suggest some means for handling them. The book can function as a gateway into the literature on LCA of forest products, as it is rich with references to technical reports and scientific papers. The book is written primarily for LCA practitioners with some previous experience of LCA work, but also less experienced LCA practitioners and others interested in environmental aspects of forests products – such as decision makers confronted with LCA results – can hopefully find it interesting and useful.

  • 92.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä. RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Biobaserade material och produkter.
    Peters, Greg
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Moving down the cause-effect chain of water and land use impacts: An LCA case study of textile fibres2013Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 73, s. 104–113-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 93.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Røyne, Frida
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Systemanalys. Umeå University, Sweden.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Systemanalys.
    Peters, Greg M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Allocation in LCAs of biorefinery products: implications for results and decision-making2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 93, s. 213-221Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) of biorefinery products, a common challenge is the choice of method for allocating environmental burdens of multifunctional processes (feedstock cultivation and biorefinery processes), a choice which can substantially influence LCA results and hence decision-making. The aim of this paper is to explore how this choice influences results and in which decision contexts the choice is particularly important. To do this, we tested six allocation methods in a case study of a biorefinery using pulpwood as feedstock. Tested methods included: main product bears all burden, substitution, traditional partitioning methods (based on economic value and exergy), a hybrid method combining elements of substitution and partitioning, and an alternative hybrid method developed by us, which allocates less environmental burden to co-products with a high potential to mitigate environmental burdens. The methods were tested in relation to decision contexts and LCA questions of relevance for biorefineries.

    The results indicate that the choice of allocation method deserves careful attention, particularly in consequential studies and in studies focussed on co-products representing relatively small flows. Furthermore, the alternative hybrid allocation method is based on a logical rationale – favouring products with higher substitution potential – and has some other potential benefits. However, in cases where the scales of co-product flows are of different orders of magnitude, the method yields extreme results that could be difficult to interpret. Results also show that it can be important with consistent allocation for both cultivation and biorefinery processes, particularly when substitution is applied.

  • 94.
    Schalnat, Joanna
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Jermer, Jöran
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Andersson, Bo-Lennart
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Corrosion of fasteners in thermally modified timber – final report after 13 years exposure outdoors2016Inngår i: 9th European TMT Workshop (proceedings), 2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Preservative-treated and modified wood may behave differently to untreated wood, especially the properties related to the corrosion of fasteners. The main reasons for this are that preservative, treated and modified wood contain chemicals that can increase corrosion and that such wood is often used in constructions where exposure to rain or moisture is an issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thermally treated timber (TMT)* on the corrosion of different types of fasteners in comparison with untreated wood. The study was part of a series of investigations of properties of TMT that SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden initiated in 2001 with financial support from the Swedish Wood Association (Jermer et al 2003). Progress reports have been published in 2005 (Jermer and Andersson 2005) and 2012 (Jermer and Andersson 2012).

  • 95.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Fragiacomo, Massimo
    University of Sassari, Italy.
    The reduced cross-section method for evaluation of the fire resistance of timber members: Discussion and determination of the zero-strength layer2015Inngår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 51, nr 6, s. 1285-1309Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The reduced cross-section method (RCSM) is included in Eurocode 5 (EN-1995-1-2) for the design of timber members in fire conditions. The method considers the strength and stiffness reduction beneath the charred layer by adding an additional depth (known as the ‘zero-strength’ layer) to the charring depth. The zero-strength layer is one of the key parameters for the fire design of timber members. Recently, some concerns have been raised that the zero-strength layer might be non-conservative in some applications. This paper presents the background to the RCSM, followed by a short discussion on the mechanical assumptions, simplifications and possible limitations of the method itself. Further, it discusses determination of the zero-strength layer thickness for members in bending, tension and compression, and provides guidelines on the use of standard experimental tests to determine this quantity. For demonstration of the determination procedure, the results of fire tests in bending, tension and compression were analysed following the described procedure. Results show that the zero-strength layer exceeds the value used in practice, indicate that the method of Eurocode 5 may be non-conservative and should be revised.

  • 96.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Klippel, Michael
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Comparison of test results and the Reduced Cross-Section Method using a zero-strength layer2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 1st European Workshop Fire Safety of Green Buildings, Shaker , 2014, , s. 51-53Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 97.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Klippel, Michael
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Frangi, Andrea
    Review and analysis of fire resistance tests of timber members in bending, tension and compression with respect to the Reduced Cross-Section Method2014Inngår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 68, s. 81-99Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Reduced Cross-Section Method (RCSM) provides a popular method for the design of timber members exposed to fire, using an effective cross-section and mechanical properties at normal temperature. The RCSM was adopted from a single publication and was originally developed for single-span beams exposed to bending load. It has been introduced in Eurocode 5 for a large range of timber members, including columns under compression and members under tension. Recently, the applicability of the method and its extended applications were called into question on the basis of limitations and contradictions found by advanced simulations. This paper analyses a total of 153 fire resistance tests (117 members in bending, six members in compression and 30 members in tension) with respect to the RCSM. The analysis shows that (i) most of the references are of too poor quality, or are incomplete, to validate a design model, (ii) results with adequate information content showed a significant deviation from the RCSM, and (iii) that the RCSM may lead to a non-conservative design. For members in tension, results fit well with the RCSM, while significant deviations were found for members in compression. Members in bending show very large scatter. It is therefore recommended that the existing design approach inEurocode 5 should be revised in order to include the results of advanced calculations and appropriate tests.

  • 98.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Lange, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Workshop on Fire Safety and Bio-Based Building Products in Berlin2015Inngår i: Brandposten, nr 52, s. 14-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 99.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Menis, Agnese
    University of Sassari, Italy.
    Fragiacomo, Massimo
    University of Sassari, Italy.
    Clemente, Isaia
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Bochicchio, Giovanna
    CNR Ivalsa Trees and Timber Institute, Italy.
    Behaviour of loaded cross-laminated timber wall elements in fire conditions2015Inngår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 51, nr 6, s. 1341-1370Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is increasingly being used in medium-rise timber buildings for a number of reasons, such as rapidity of construction, cost effectiveness and robustness. Like for other building materials, verification of the load-bearing performance in fire conditions is an important issue. Experimental fire tests have been performed on loaded CLT wall elements at research institutes in Sweden and Italy. In total, three large-scale and four medium-scale tests have been carried out. The aim was to gain information about initially protected and unprotected elements, to be used for classification and also for validation of calculation models. In the test series, reference tests at normal temperature were included to obtain information (e.g. stiffness, strength) about the material tested in fire conditions. In addition, model-scale fire tests were performed to investigate the loss in stiffness resulting from fire exposure and the effect of different protection types. Loaded fire tests varied in the range of 41.8 min to 120 min, depending on the CLT structure, the level of load, and the type of protection. Data on temperature within specimens and residual cross-sections were collected. Charring rates evaluated from experimental results were comparable with values proposed by Eurocode for the design of timber structures. Conservative solutions were obtained by using simplified design methods and comparing their results to test results and results of advanced modelling. It was shown that the load-bearing performance of CLT may show abrupt changes due to its layered structure. It is strongly recommended that a minimum residual depth depending on the CLT structure should be required in order to ensure robust building products.

  • 100.
    Sikander, Eva
    et al.
    Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Capener, Carl-Magnus
    Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Esad, Alan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö.
    Klimatskalets yttre lufttäthet - energieffektivitet och fuktsäkerhet2015Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    En slutrapport från ett projektet vars syfte var att lyfta och utvärdera möjligheterna med utvändigt lufttäta klimatskal, både vid nyproduktion och vid ombyggnad där klimatskalet skall uppgraderas.

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