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  • 51. Kaombe, D.D.
    et al.
    Lenes, M.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Toven, K.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Hägg, M.-B.
    Glomm, W. R.
    Turbiscan as a tool for studying phase separation tendency of pyrolysis oil2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 52.
    Karlsson, Rose-Marie Pernilla
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Bioraffinaderi och energi. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Thermodynamics of the Water-Retaining Properties of Cellulose-Based Networks2019Inngår i: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 1603-1612Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Noncrystalline cellulose-based gel beads were used as a model material to investigate the effect of osmotic stress on a cellulosic network. The gel beads were exposed to osmotic stress by immersion in solutions with different concentrations of high molecular mass dextran and the equilibrium dimensional change of the gel beads was studied using optical microscopy. The volume fraction of cellulose was calculated from the volume of the gel beads in dextran solutions and their dry content and the relation between the cellulose volume fraction and the total osmotic pressure was thus obtained. The results show that the contribution to the osmotic pressure from counterions increases the water-retaining capacity of the beads at high osmotic pressures but also that the main factor controlling the gel bead collapse at high osmotic strains is the resistance to the deformation of the polymer chain network within the beads. Furthermore, the osmotic pressure associated with the deformation of the polymer network, which counteracts the deswelling of the beads, could be fitted to the Wall model indicating that the response of the cellulose polymer networks was independent of the charge of the cellulose. The best fit to the Wall model was obtained when the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ) of the cellulose-water system was set to 0.55-0.60, in agreement with the well-established insolubility of high molecular mass β-(1,4)-d-glucan polymers in water.

  • 53.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Jonson, Bo
    Johansson, Marie
    Enquist, Bertil
    The effect of single-side ion exchange on the flexural strength of plain float glass and float glass containing a drilled hole2013Inngår i: Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A, ISSN 1753-3554, Vol. 54, nr 2, s. 66-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of single-side ion exchange (using a KNO3:KCl mixture) on the ring-on-ring flexural strength of float glass has been studied. Two ion exchanged series, treated at 450 and 515°C, were investigated. The ion exchanged samples showed approximately 160 respectively 100% increases in their arithmetic mean strength compared to as-received float glass. Furthermore, a series of samples containing drilled holes were studied in order to investigate the effect of singleside ion exchange on such common construction elements. The samples that contained drilled holes were ion exchanged at 450°C and showed around 140% increase of the fracture load compared to the untreated samples containing drilled holes. As a general observation, the ion exchange treatment induced ∼110 MPa compressive stresses (515°C) and ∼180 MPa compressive stresses (450°C). The ion exchanged samples showed no significant increase in stiffness.

  • 54.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Jonson, Bo
    Reibstein, Sindy
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Surface ruby colouring of float glass by sodium-copper ion exchange2013Inngår i: Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A, ISSN 1753-3554, Vol. 54, nr 3, s. 100-107Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, colouration of the tin side of commercial soda-lime-silica float glass by copper ion exchange is described and characterised. Data on the resulting concentration versus depth profiles, absorbance versus depth profiles, UV-Vis spectra and CIE-Lab colour coordinates are reported. Fundamental aspects of the process of colouration are described and discussed. Optimum saturation of the colour is achieved after ion exchange at 520°C for 10 h or at 500°C for 20 h. The depth of the coloured layer increases with increasing treatment time. At the same time, a linear dependency is found between the values of a and b in the CIE-Lab colour space for variations of treatment time and temperature. The later indicates broad tunability of colouration between different shades of ruby and varying colour saturation. It is shown that colour arises from a redox reaction between copper species and residual tin ions, and that the depth of the coloured layer is governed by the position of the tin hump. The critical concentration of tin and copper to achieve colour formation was found to be ∼0·25 mol% and >1 mol%, respectively.

  • 55.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Jonson, Bo
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    The technology of chemical glass strengthening: A review2010Inngår i: Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A, ISSN 1753-3554, Vol. 51, nr 2, s. 41-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The methods of chemical strengthening for improving the mechanical properties of oxide glasses are reviewed. Chemical strengthening is compared with thermal strengthening and different methods of measuring strength are discussed. Different ions, salts and other related methods for improving the ion exchange process and mechanical properties are described as well as applications of strengthening.

  • 56.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Jonson, Bo
    Sundberg, Peter
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Surface analysis of float glass using surface ablation cell (SAC).: Part 2. Determination of the diffusion characteristics of K+-Na+ ion exchange2010Inngår i: Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A, ISSN 1753-3554, Vol. 51, nr 2, s. 55-62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface ablation cell (SAC), a laboratory equipment for determining surface concentration profiles, has been utilised to characterise surface ion exchange processes in float glass. In this paper, single-side ion exchange is reported. Data on the ion concentration profiles were used to calculate diffusion coefficients as well as the activation energy for K +-Na+ ion exchange. The air-sides of float glass samples were treated with two different salt mixtures, (I) 2:1 KNO3:KCI, and (II) 1:2 KNO3:KCl, (both by weight), and heated to different temperatures below Tg, 460-520°C. The diffusion coefficients calculated using a Green's function approach were in the ranges (I) 1.4×10-11 to 6.8×10-11 and (II) 1.8×10-11 to 6.0×10-11 cm2/s while those calculated using Boltzmann-Matano were in the ranges (I) 5.7×10 -11 to 14×10-12 and (II) 3.4×10-12 to 6.0×10-12 cm2/s. Average values of the activation energies obtained through the Green's function were (I) 111.0 kJ/mol and (II) 99.8 kJ/mol for the different salt mixtures.

  • 57.
    Krewer, Christoffer
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Woodhouse, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Holtz, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Early phase design tool for non-LCA experts: Integrating environmental assessment in the development of novel processing technology in food industry2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Life Cycle Assessment methodology often applies a product perspective but can be used to assess novel production technologies by comparing novel products with a baseline product, as long as the functional unit of the product is considered to be the same. There is increasing environmental concerns in society and pressures on industry to take into account their impact on the environment. Tools are available for this, but not tools adapted to specific industry needs. The reasons to use LCA are foremost to guide the development towards the most sustainable solutions and to evaluate the market potential from an environmental perspective. Challenges arise when applying LCA in early development stages, e.g. getting access to recent development data, to increase commitment and incentives to take early LCA results into consideration, to present results in an attractive way etc. LCA calculations must also keep up with the sometimes rapid development. In order to meet these challenges interactive report software have been introduced to industrial partners (non-LCA experts) in an EU project called FutureFood (Grant agreement no: 635759). The project goal is to develop a new processing technology for foods (CO2 drying). In order to meet the LCA related challenges a platform has been used that is developed by PRé Consultants (Pre, 2016?), called Share and Collect. It allows LCA experts to develop tools for non-experts so that users are able to alter parameters in the LCA model and assess the result of the changes. It is done by providing the industrial partners with an intuitive web based graphical user interface (GUI). When a user changes input data in the GUI, parameter values also change in the model, an LCA calculation engine runs the model and the GUI presents the corresponding results. In the project a tool for assessing the processing technology has been developed and the industrial partners  are provided rights to access the tools and create ‘what if’ scenarios. Examples of changes are change of electricity production, transport distances, transport types or modes, raw material source, packaging, production resource or energy efficiency etc. The tool has been evaluated by the non-LCA expert industrial partners, and the first review results show that it is user friendly, visually appealing and interesting in its interactive way because of the instant feedback of results. Tailored models such as the ones developed in the project have the potential to support knowledge based decisions in innovation projects in companies.

  • 58. Kuktaite, R.
    et al.
    Plivelic, T.S.
    Ture, H.
    Hedenqvist, M.S.
    Gällstedt, M.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Marttila, S.
    Johansson, E.
    Changes in the hierarchical protein polymer structure: Urea and temperature effects on wheat gluten films2012Inngår i: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, nr 31, s. 11908-11914Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 59. Lakatos, Tibor
    Viscosity-Temperature relations in glass composed of SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O-K2O-Li2O-CaO-MgO-BaO-PbO-B2O31976Inngår i: Glasteknisk tidskrift, Vol. 31, nr 3, s. 51-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 60. Lakatos, Tibor
    et al.
    Johansson, Lars Gunnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Simmingsköld, Bo
    Inverkan av Li2O och B2O3 soda-kalk-silikatglas på viskositeten1975Inngår i: Glasteknisk tidskrift, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 7-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 61. Lakatos, Tibor
    et al.
    Johansson, Lars Gunnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Simmingsköld, Bo
    The effect of some glass components on the viscosity of glass1972Inngår i: Glasteknisk tidskrift, Vol. 27, nr 2, s. 25-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 62.
    Le Bozec, Nathalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Joiret, Suzanne
    CNRS, France.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Persson, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    The role of chromate conversion coating in the filiform corrosion of coated aluminum alloys2003Inngår i: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 150, nr 12, s. B561-B566Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanisms of inhibition of chromate conversion coating on the filiform corrosion of coated aluminum alloy AA6016 was investigated using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and Raman microspectroscopy. The results showed that Cr(VI) was preferably leached out at the opening of the filament, whereas Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) at all other locations. The leached out Cr(VI) accumulated mainly in the pitting area, located in the scratch just outside the filament. The chromate released from the CCC was partly reduced to Cr(III) in the pit. The formation of an Al/Cr mixed oxide was observed in the pitting area. The repassivation of pits in the scratch by the chromate leaching from the CCC close to the scratch explains the low propagation of filiform corrosion observed for the chromated surfaces.

  • 63.
    LeBozec, Nathalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Jönsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Atmospheric corrosion of magnesium alloys: Influence of temperature, relative humidity, and chloride deposition2004Inngår i: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 60, nr 4, s. 356-361Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory tests have been performed to determine how climatic parameters, e.g., relative humidity, temperature, and the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl), influence the corrosion rate of magnesium alloys AZ91D (UNS M 11916) and AM50 (UNS M 10500). The effect of the surface state also has been investigated. The exposures were performed at 75%. 85%. and 95% relative humidity (RH) and at 25°C and 35°C. The amount of NaCl ranged from 14 μg cm-2 to 240 μg cm-2 . The corrosion rate of both materials increased as a function of temperature, RH, and amount of NaCl. A strong influence of the surface state, i.e., as-cast or polished, was observed mainly due to the combined effect of an active surface layer and the roughness of as-cast surfaces. © 2004, NACE International.

  • 64.
    LeBozec, Nathalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Jönsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Atmospheric corrosion of magnesium alloys: Influence of temperature, relative humidity and chloride deposition2003Inngår i: NACE - International Corrosion Conference Series, National Association of Corrosion Engineers International , 2003Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory tests have been performed in order to determine how the climatic parameters e.g. relative humidity and temperature, and the amount of NaCl influence the corrosion rate of magnesium alloys AZ91D and AM50. The effect of the surface state has also been investigated. The exposures were performed at 75%, 85% and 95% R.H. and at 25 and 35oC. The amount of sodium chloride ranged from 14 to 240 μg cm-2. The corrosion rate of both materials increased as a function of temperature, relative humidity and NaCl amount. A strong influence of the surface state e.g. as cast or polished was observed mainly due the discontinuity of as cast surfaces.

  • 65.
    LeBozec, Nathalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Persson, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    In situ studies of the initiation and propagation of filiform corrosion on aluminium2003Inngår i: Proceedings - Electrochemical Society, 2003, s. 111-122Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the initiation and propagation of filiform corrosion on coated aluminium surfaces was using in situ FTIR microspectroscopy and the scanning Kelvin probe. During the initiation partially hydrolysed aluminium chloride was formed in a defect on the coated surface. The conditions in the defect resembled the environment that is found in growing pits with low pH and high chloride concentration close to the coating interface. This weakened the adhesion of the organic coating and initiated the formation of a filament. The movement of the active head was followed with in situ FTIR microspectroscopy in humid air using the characteristic IR band around 2500 cm-1 from Al(H2O)6 3+. This band is present in spectra from partially hydrolysed aluminium chloride, which was found in the head during propagation of the filament. The absorption of water in the hygroscopic corrosion products in the head of the filament was followed by measuring the changes in the intensity of the Al(H2O)6 3+ band during variation in the relative humidity.

  • 66.
    LeBozec, Nathalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Persson, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Axelsen, Sten B.
    Statoil ASA, Norway.
    Effect of climatic parameters on filiform corrosion of coated aluminium alloys AA60162003Inngår i: NACE - International Corrosion Conference Series, National Association of Corrosion Engineers International , 2003Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of temperature, relative humidity and wet dry transition on initiation and propagation of filiform corrosion on coated aluminium alloys AA6016 have been studied. The aluminium surfaces were tested in both milled and grinded conditions with chromium, phosphate and titanium-zirconium based pretreatment. A full paint system used for automotive applications (ED coat + top-coat) and an electrodeposited coat (ED coat) were investigated for the different combinations of mechanical finish, surface pretreatment and coating system. In the temperature range between 5 to 50°C, filiform corrosion, or underfilm corrosion in general, increased significantly. The effect of relative humidity and wet-dry cycling on the other hand, seems to be strongly influenced by parameters like pretreatment, coating system, and also temperature. Filiform corrosion was the highest in the range 75 to 95 % relative humidity and a distinct maximum was observed at 85% R.H. for some coating systems. However, filiform corrosion propagated at humidity down to 40-50% R.H. For specimens with chromate and phosphate based surface pretreatments, filiform corrosion was lower after exposure to tests with wet-dry cycles. The samples with titanium-zirconium based pretreatments, on the other hand, had a very poor filiform corrosion resistance in the cyclic test compared to exposures at constant relative humidity. © 2003 by NACE International.

  • 67.
    LeBozec, Nathalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Persson, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Axelsen, Sten B.
    Statoil ASA, Norway.
    Effect of climatic parameters on filiform corrosion of coated aluminum alloys2004Inngår i: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 60, nr 6, s. 584-593Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of temperature, relative humidity, and wet-dry transition on initiation and propagation of filiform, corrosion on coated aluminum alloy 6016 (AA6016 [UNS A96016]) have been studied. Corrosion products formed in the filament were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)- microspectroscopy. The aluminum surfaces were tested in both milled finish and grinded conditions with chromium, phosphate, and titanium-zirconium-based pretreatment. An electrodeposited coat (ED coat) and a full paint system used for automotive applications (ED coat + topcoat) were investigated for the different combinations of mechanical finish, surface pretreatment, and coating system. In the temperature range between 5°C and 50°C, filiform corrosion, or underfilm corrosion in general, increased significantly. The effect of relative humidity and wet-dry cycling, on the other hand, seems to be strongly influenced by parameters like pretreatment, coating system, and temperature. Filiform corrosion was the highest in the range from 75% to 95% relative humidity (RH), and a distinct maximum was observed at 85% RH for some coating systems. However, filiform. corrosion propagated at humidity down to 40% to 50% RH. For specimens with chromate- and phosphate-based surface pretreatments, filiform, corrosion was lower after exposure to tests with wet-dry cycles. The samples with titanium-zirconium-based pretreatments, on the other hand, had a very poor filiform corrosion resistance in the cyclic test compared to exposures at constant relative humidity. © 2004, NACE International.

  • 68.
    Li, Jing
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ecco, Luiz
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Fedel, Michele
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    In situ AFM and electrochemical study of a waterborne acrylic composite coating with CeO2 nanoparticles for corrosion protection of carbon steel2015Inngår i: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 162, nr 10, s. C610-C618Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The corrosion protection of a waterborne acrylic composite coating with 1 wt% ceria nanoparticles (CeNP) coated on carbon steel in 3 wt% NaCl solution was investigated by ex-situ and in situ as well as electrochemical atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations, combined with open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The synthesized CeNP were stabilized by acetic acid. The transmission electron microscopy characterization showed fine nano-size of as-synthesized CeNP, the ex-situ AFM imaging revealed uniform dispersion of the CeNP in the composite coating and greatly reduced nano-sized pinholes in the coating. The in situ and electrochemical (EC) AFM investigations indicate release of some CeNP and aggregates from the coating surface and then precipitation of some particles and cerium-compounds during the exposure. The OCP and EIS results demonstrated that the addition of 1 wt% CeNP leads to a significantly improved long term barrier type corrosion protection of the waterborne acrylic composite coating for carbon steel in 3 wt% NaCl solution. The beneficial effect of the CeNP is attributed to the blocking of nano-sized defects and inhibition by the cerium compounds originated from the acetic acid stabilized CeNP.

  • 69. Li, Ying Zhen
    Study of fire and explosion hazards of alternative fuel vehicles in tunnels2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation of fire and explosion hazards of different types of alternativefuel vehicles in tunnels is presented. The different fuels are divided into four types:liquid fuels, liquefied fuels, compressed gases, and electricity, and detailed parameters are obtained. Three types offire hazards for the alternativefuel vehicles: pool fires, jet fires and fireballs are identified andinvestigated in detail. Fromthe perspective of pool fire size, the liquid fuels pose equivalent or evenmuch lower fire hazards compared to the traditionally used fuels, but theliquefied fuels may pose higher hazards. For pressurized tanks, the fires are generally much larger in size butshorter in duration. The gas releases from pressure relief devices and the resulting jet firesare highly transient. Forhydrogen vehicles, the fire sizes are significantly higher compared to CNGtanks, while flame lengths only slighter longer. Investigation of the peakoverpressure in case of an explosion in a tunnel was also carried out. Theresults showed that, for the vehicles investigated, the peak overpressure of tankrupture and BLEVE are mostly in a range of 0.1 to 0.36 bar at 50 m away. Thesituations in case of cloud explosion are mostly much more severe andintolerable. These hazards need to be carefully considered in both vehiclesafety design and tunnel fire safety design. Further researches on thesehazards are in urgent need.

  • 70.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Analysis of Muskö tunnel fire flows with automatic sprinkler activation2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of the present study is analyzing the best position of a sprinkler nozzle in a tunnel cross-section in the Muskö tunnel, south of Stockholm, Sweden. Activation of the sprinklers installed along the centerline and along the sidewall is investigated through analysis of full scale experiments and by three dimensional numerical modelling. Then the tunnel velocity is analyzed by one dimensional numerical modelling for various fire locations in the Muskö tunnel. For both activating the automatic sprinklers nearby the fire and avoiding activation of the sprinklers further downstream, the automatic sprinklers are recommended to be installed along the centerline of the tunnel. It has also been found that the tunnel velocity varies significantly with the fire location. When the fire is on the left side of the tunnel, the flow velocity mostly remains in a range of 1 m/s (positive or negative) within the first 10 minutes, which helps early activation of the automatic sprinklers. When the fire is on the right side of the tunnel, the flow velocity mostly remains within a range of -1 m/s and 1 m/s within the first 5 minutes, and the velocity mostly increases to 2 m/s at around 10 min. Therefore, the scenario for fire located on the left side is better than that for fire on the right side, especially when it is located between the middle of the right section and the right portal. As one typical case with fire on the right side, the tunnel velocity maintains at 1 m/s for the first 5 min and gradually increases to 2 m/s at 10 min. Under such conditions, the automatic sprinkler system is expected to perform well. 

  • 71.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    New models for calculating maximum gas temperatures in large tunnel fires2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this report focuses on estimating maximum gas temperatures at ceiling level during large tunnel fires. Gas temperature is an important parameter to consider when designing the fire resistance of a tunnel structure. Earlier work by the authors has established correlations between excess ceiling gas temperature and effective tunnel height, ventilation rate, and heat release rate. The maximum possible excess gas temperature was set as 1350°C, independent of the tunnel structure and local combustion conditions. As a result of this research, two models have been developed to better estimate possible excess maximum gas temperatures for large tunnel fires in tunnels with differing lining materials and structure types (e.g. rock, concrete). These have been validated using both model- and full-scale tests. Comparisons of predicted and measured temperatures show that both models correlate well with the test data. However, Model I is better and more optimal, due to the fact that it is more conservative and easier to use. The fire duration and flame volume are found to be related to gas temperature development. In reality, the models could also be used to estimate temperatures in a fully developed compartment fire.

  • 72.
    Menzel, Carolin
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mariette
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Andersson, Roger
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Vazquez-Gutirrez, José L.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Daniel, Geoffrey
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Langton, Maud
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    RISE., Innventia.
    Koch, Kristine
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Improved material properties of solution-cast starch films: Effect of varying amylopectin structure and amylose content of starch from genetically modified potatoes2015Inngår i: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 130, s. 388-397Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High-amylose potato starches were produced through genetic modification resulting in changed granule morphology and composition, with higher amylose content and increased chain length of amylopectin. The increased amylose content and structural changes in amylopectin enhanced film-forming behavior and improved barrier and tensile properties in starch films. The molecular structure in these starches was related to film-forming properties. Solution-cast films of high-amylose starch revealed a homogeneous structure with increasing surface roughness at higher amylose content, possibly due to amylose aggregation. Films exhibited significantly higher stress and strain at break compared with films of wild-type starch, which could be attributable to the longer chains of amylopectin being involved in the interconnected network and more interaction between chains, as shown using transmission electron microscopy. The oxygen permeability of high-amylose starch films was significantly decreased compared with wild-type starch. The nature of the modified starches makes them an interesting candidate for replacement of non-renewable oxygen and grease barrier polymers used today.

  • 73.
    Molnes, Silje N.
    et al.
    UoS University of Stavanger, Norway; NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Torrijos, Ivan P.
    UoS University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Strand, Skule
    UoS University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Paso, Kristofer G.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE., Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Sandstone injectivity and salt stability of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) dispersions: Premises for use of CNC in enhanced oil recovery2016Inngår i: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 93, s. 152-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reservoir production is frequently supported by using flooding fluids, often seawater. The efficiency is affected by various factors, such as the wettability of the reservoir rock and the mobility ratio between reservoir oil and injected fluid phase. These factors again influence sweep efficiency, which is the fraction of the total reservoir oil volume in contact with injected fluid during oil recovery. Addition of nanoparticles can affect the sweep efficiency on a macroscopic level by increasing the volume of petroleum in contact with the flooding fluid. Presented here are core-flooding studies performed using cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) of different concentrations in low-saline water. The studies were performed to investigate the injectivity of CNC into a high-permeable sandstone core, and to observe the effects addition of electrolytes had on the rheological properties of a low concentration dispersion of CNC. Zeta- potential and shear viscosity of dilute dispersions containing CNC was investigated under increasing electrolyte concentration. The flooding experiments show that the CNC has good injectivity in sandstone for all concentrations used, and the viscosity measurements performed on the effluent prove that the particles are able to travel through the core. Being sufficiently small for injection into sandstone and showing good colloidal stability at low salinities, CNC particles have the premises necessary to function properly as a flooding additive for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in sandstone reservoirs.

  • 74.
    Naderi, A.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lindström, T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Pettersson, T.
    The state of carboxymethylated nanofibrils after homogenization-aided dilution from concentrated suspensions: A rheological perspective2014Inngår i: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 2357-2368Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 75.
    Naderi, Ali
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi. RISE., Innventia. BillerudKorsnäs, Sweden.
    Koschella, Andreas
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Heinze, Thomas
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Shih, Kuo-Chih
    University of Connecticut, USA; National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
    Nieh, Mu-Ping
    University of Connecticut, USA.
    Pfeifer, Annett
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Chang, Chung-Chueh
    Stony Brook University, USA.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sulfoethylated nanofibrillated cellulose: Production and properties2017Inngår i: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 169, s. 515-523Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sulfoethylated nanofibrillated cellulose (NFCSulf) was produced by an industrially relevant process. The properties of the NFCSulf were compared with those of carboxymethylated nanofibrillated cellulose (NFCCarb), which has been identified as an attractive NFC for several industrial applications. The investigations revealed that NFCSulf is characterized by a higher degree of fibrillation and has superior redispersion properties. Furthermore, NFCSulf displays higher stability in varying pH values as compared to NFCCarb. Hence, NFCSulf may be a more attractive alternative than NFCCarb in applications such as rheological modifiers or adsorbing components in personal care products, in which the performance of NFC must remain unaffected in varying ambient conditions. The superior properties of NFCSulf compared to NFCCarb were proposed to be due to the combination of the unique chemical characteristics of the sulfoethylated reagent, and the larger size of the sulfonate group compared to the carboxymethyl group.

  • 76.
    Nechyporchuk, Oleksandr
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF AB.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF AB.
    Regenerated Casein-Nanocellulose Composite Fibers via Wet Spinning2019Inngår i: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 1419-1426Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of sustainable biobased fibers is required to displace their fossil-based counterparts, e.g., in textile, nonwoven, or composite applications. Regenerated protein fibers have a potential in this regard if their mechanical properties are improved. Herein, we study for the first time the use of nanocellulose as reinforcement in regenerated protein fibers produced using wet spinning. The influence of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) incorporated into regenerated casein fibers is examined in terms of mechanical and morphological properties. The influence of different conditions for fiber chemical cross-linking is also investigated. Incorporation of CNC (up to 37.5 wt %) into spin dopes results in a continuous increase of fiber Young's modulus (up to twofold) in the dry state. Both maximum and breaking tenacity of dry fibers are enhanced by CNC, with a maximum at 7.0-10.5 wt % of CNC. When testing after being wetted, both breaking tenacity and Young's modulus of the composite fibers decrease, likely due to weakening of hydrogen bonds between CNC in the presence of water. We also demonstrate that the presence of salt during chemical cross-linking is crucial to produce intact and separated fibers in the yarn.

  • 77.
    Newson, William R.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Rasheed, Faiza
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kuktaite, Ramune
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    RISE., Innventia.
    Plivelic, Tomás S.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Eva
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Commercial potato protein concentrate as a novel source for thermoformed bio-based plastic films with unusual polymerisation and tensile properties2015Inngår i: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 5, nr 41, s. 32217-32226Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial potato protein concentrate (PPC) was investigated as a source of thermoformed bio-based plastic film. Pressing temperatures of 100 to 190°C with 15 to 25% glycerol were used to form PPC films. The shape of the tensile stress-strain curve in thermoformed PPC was controlled by glycerol level and was independent of processing temperature. Tensile testing revealed that elongation at break increased with processing temperature while Young's modulus was unaffected by processing temperature, both in contrast to previous results in protein based systems. Also in contrast to previous studies, Young's modulus was found to be only sensitive to glycerol level. Maximum tensile stress increased with increasing processing temperature for PPC films. Maximum stress and strain at break correlated with the extractable high molecular weight protein content of the processed films measured with size exclusion chromatography. Infrared absorption indicated that the content of β-sheet structure increased from the commercial protein concentrate to that pressed at 100°C, but did not further develop with increasing press temperature. Changes in structural arrangements were observed by small angle X-ray scattering indicating the development of different correlation distances with processing temperature but with no clear long range order at the supramolecular level. The novel Young's modulus behaviour appears to be due to constant secondary structure or the effect of aggregated protein structure formed during protein production. Unique strain at break behaviour with processing temperature was demonstrated, likely due to new connections formed between those aggregates.

  • 78.
    Nilsson, Helena
    et al.
    RISE., STFI-Packforsk.
    Olsson, Ann
    RISE., STFI-Packforsk.
    Lindström, Mikael
    RISE., STFI-Packforsk.
    Iversen, Tommy
    RISE., STFI-Packforsk.
    Bark suberin as a renewable source of long-chain ω-hydroxyalkanoic acids2008Inngår i: Macromolecular Symposia, ISSN 1022-1360, E-ISSN 1521-3900, Vol. 272, nr 1, s. 104-106Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polycondensations of cis-9,10-epoxy-18-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid, isolated from birch outer bark, were performed at 75°C in toluene as solvent and at 85°C In bulk using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B as catalyst. The polycondensation performed in toluene in presence of molecular sieves gave a polyester with DP 50 after 24 h. The same DP was obtained at much shorter reaction time (3 h) by bulk polymerization in an open vial without any drying agent present.

  • 79.
    Olin, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hyll, Kari
    RISE., Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ovaskainen, Louise
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ruda, Marcus
    Cellutech AB, Sweden.
    Schmidt, Oskar
    Cellutech AB, Sweden.
    Turner, Charlotta
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Development of a semicontinuous spray process for the production of superhydrophobic coatings from supercritical carbon dioxide solutions2015Inngår i: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 54, nr 3, s. 1059-1067Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have been fabricated in a continuous spray process, where an alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) wax is dissolved in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and sprayed onto the substrate. The mass of extracted AKD from scCO2 has been investigated as well as the pressure, temperature, and flow of CO2 at the steady-state spray conditions. Several different substrates such as glass, aluminum, paper, poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) have been successfully coated, and the superhydrophobic properties have been evaluated by measurement of water contact angle, water drop friction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and surface topography. The most efficient spray process, considering surface properties and mass of extracted AKD, is obtained at the lowest temperature investigated, 67 °C, and the highest pressure evaluated in this study, 25 MPa. We also show that the influence of preexpansion conditions (p, T) on the surface temperature at the selected spray distance (3 cm) is negligible by measurement with an infrared camera during spraying.

  • 80.
    Osong, S.H.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Norgren, S.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Engstrand, P.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Lundberg, M.
    PulpEye AB, Sweden.
    Hansen, P.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Development of nano-ligno-cellulose produced from mechanical pulp2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective in this work was to develop a methodology for producing mechanical pulp based nano-ligno-cellulose (NLC) from fines fractions. Also there has been a great deal of enthusiasm to evaluate particle size distribution of NLC. In this work the crill characterisation technique was used. The crill values of TMP and CTMP based nano-ligno-celluloses were measured as a function of the homogenisation time. Results showed that the crill value of both TMP-NLC and CTMP-NLC correlated with the homogenisation time. Another objective was to utilise NLC as strength additives in paper and board grades. Laboratory sheets of CTMP and bleached kraft pulp (BKP), with the addition of their respective NLC, were made in a Rapid Kothen sheet former. It was found that handsheets of pulp fibres blended with NLC improved the z- strength and other important mechanical properties for similar sheet densities.

  • 81.
    Ovaska, Sami-Seppo
    et al.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Hiltunen, Salla
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Schuster, Erich
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Backfolk, Kaj
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Characterization of rapeseed oil/coconut oil mixtures and their penetration into hydroxypropylated-starch-based barrier coatings containing an oleophilic mineral2016Inngår i: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 101, s. 569-576Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was conducted that demonstrated that the blending of edible oils leads to changes in surface tension, thermal properties, viscosity, and oil penetration times through a barrier-coated paperboard. The results emphasize the significance of testing the oil and grease resistance (OGR) oil blends in order-to verify the suitability of the packaging material for real-life end-use applications. The results of the OGR determinations suggest that hydroxypropylated-starch-based composite coatings containing an oleophilic high aspect ratio mineral can be tailored for food shaving different fatty acid compositions by varying the pigmentation level. Compared to standard OGR tests, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)-based techniques make it possible to evaluate the oil penetration time and its diffusion behavior very accurately, both inside the coating layer and in the bulk matrix. It was found that, at room temperature, coconut oil tends to crystallize inside the substrate, inducing swelling of the coating layer, which probably has an influence on the physicomechanical properties of the packaging material.

  • 82.
    Palme, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Peterson, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    de la Motte, Hanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Theliander, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Brelid, Harald
    Södra Innovation, Sweden..
    Development of an efficient route for combined recycling of PET and cotton from mixed fabrics2017Inngår i: Textiles and Clothing Sustainability, ISSN 2197-9936, Vol. 3, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Most textile waste is either incinerated or landfilled today, yet, the material could instead be recycled through chemical recycling to new high-quality textiles. A first important step is separation since chemical recycling of textiles requires pure streams. The focus of this paper is on the separation of cotton and PET (poly(ethylene terephthalate), polyester) from mixed textiles, so called polycotton. Polycotton is one of the most common materials in service textiles used in sheets and towels at hospitals and hotels. A straightforward process using 5–15 wt% NaOH in water and temperature in the range between 70 and 90 °C for the hydrolysis of PET was evaluated on the lab-scale. In the process, the PET was degraded to terephthalic acid (TPA) and ethylene glycol (EG). Three product streams were generated from the process. First is the cotton; second, the TPA; and, third, the filtrate containing EG and the process chemicals. The end products and the extent of PET degradation were characterized using light microscopy, UV-spectroscopy, and ATR FT-IR spectroscopy, as well as solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the cotton cellulose degradation was evaluated by analyzing the intrinsic viscosity of the cotton cellulose. The findings show that with the addition of a phase transfer catalyst (benzyltributylammonium chloride (BTBAC)), PET hydrolysis in 10% NaOH solution at 90 °C can be completed within 40 min. Analysis of the degraded PET with NMR spectroscopy showed that no contaminants remained in the recovered TPA, and that the filtrate mainly contained EG and BTBAC (when added). The yield of the cotton cellulose was high, up to 97%, depending on how long the samples were treated. The findings also showed that the separation can be performed without the phase transfer catalyst; however, this requires longer treatment times, which results in more cellulose degradation.

  • 83.
    Peters, Greg
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Spak, Björn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Environmental Prospects for Mixed Textile Recycling in Sweden2019Inngår i: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, E-ISSN 2168-0485Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of cotton and other fibers causes excessive resource use and environmental impacts, and the deployment of these fibers in “fast fashion” is creating large masses of textile waste. Therefore, various industrial researchers are attempting to develop systems to recycle cellulosic materials. This is a challenging undertaking because of the need to handle mixed waste streams. Alkaline hydrolysis has been suggested as a useful textile recycling process, but its sustainability credentials have not been fully examined via life cycle assessment. The aim of this article is to provide such an examination and to guide process developers by scaling up results from recent laboratory work to a small-scale industrial facility. The results indicate that the recycling process is promising from an environmental point of view. The key issue controlling the relative environmental performance of the recycling system in comparison to a single-use benchmark is how the process for converting recovered cotton into a cellulosic fiber is performed. A fully integrated viscose production system or a system that makes one of the newer cellulosic fibers (e.g., lyocell) from the recovered cotton will improve the performance of the recycling system relative to its alternatives.

  • 84.
    Petersen, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Enebro, Jonas
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Yarahmadi, Nazdaneh
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Development of nanocomposites based on organically modified montmorillonite and plasticized PVC with improved barrier properties2016Inngår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 133, nr 3, artikkel-id 42876Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Montmorillonite (MMT) was organically modified with tributyl citrate (TBC). Organoclays (OMMTs) were processed with diisononyl phthalate (DINP)-plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to form polymer nanocomposites. The produced composite materials showed a contradictory change in properties to that expected of a layered silicate nanocomposite, with a decreased E-modulus and increased gas permeability compared with a material without OMMT. It was experimentally shown that the TBC modifier was extracted from the OMMT and was dispersed in the PVC/DINP matrix, whereupon the OMMT collapsed and formed micrometer-sized agglomerates. Further investigation revealed that TBC has a significant effect on the gas permeability and the E-modulus, even at low additions to a DINP-plasticized PVC. A PVC nanocomposite with the TBC acting as both the OM for MMT and as the primary plasticizer was produced. This material showed a significantly increased E-modulus as well as a decrease in gas permeability, confirming that it is possible to develop a nanocomposite based on plasticized PVC, if both the organo-modification of the MMT and the formulation of the matrix are carefully selected.

  • 85.
    Posner, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF AB, Energi och miljö.
    Factsheets on alternatives to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, its salts and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 86.
    Posner, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF AB, Energi och miljö.
    Report on the assessment of alternatives to perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, its salts and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 87.
    Posner, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Chemicals in textiles - Risks to human health and the environment: Report from a government assignment2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 88.
    Raj, Akanksha
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wang, Min
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Liu, Chao
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ali, Liaquat
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Niclas G.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi, material och ytor. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dėdinaitė, Andra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi, material och ytor. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Molecular synergy in biolubrication: The role of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) in surface-structuring of lubricin2017Inngår i: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 495, s. 200-206Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypothesis Synovial surfaces are lubricated by biomolecular aggregates that act in synergy, and lubricin is one key biolubricant. Its molecular structure allows extensive hydration and this is conducive to its lubrication performance. However, in order to fullfil its lubrication function it needs to be anchored and oriented on the surface in a proper way. We suggest that cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is one of the biomolecules that promotes anchoring of lubricin in a fashion that facilitates lubrication. Experiments Weakly hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surfaces were coated by COMP and lubricin, individually and in combinations. Adsorption was investigated using a quartz crystal microbalance, and friction between the biopolymer-coated surfaces was determined by employing the atomic force microscope-colloidal probe technique. Findings It was found that COMP facilitated firm directed attachment of lubricin in a manner that resulted in low friction forces, significantly lower than what was achieved when lubricin was directly adsorbed to PMMA. Evidently, COMP provides means for lubricin to attach strongly and in a favourable conformation for efficient lubrication of this surface. We suggest that our findings can be extrapolated to cartilage surfaces, where co-localization of COMP and lubricin has been demonstrated.

  • 89.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Peters, Gregory M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Validation of the results from toxicity assessment in LCA using triangulation2015Inngår i: SETAC Europe 25th Annual Meeting Abstract Book, 2015, s. 28-, artikkel-id 121Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission initiative for Product Environmental Footprint is based on life cycle assessment (LCA), with the USEtox consensus model as the recommended impact assessment method for toxicity. The confidence in the scientific robustness will be crucial for the intended users to take actions based on the results. This research work aims to validate the results from toxicity assessment within the context of LCA by benchmarking USEtox with two alternative approaches in a case study. While strictly speaking there can be no experimental validation of environmental damage predicted in an LCA of a generic product, comparison of the results of three different methods can be considered a form of triangulation in LCA which can potentially provide confidence in an individual method. A textile case was chosen as the textile industry is an intense user of chemicals.Three different quantitative or semi-quantitative methods for toxicity assessment were used: the USEtox model chosen for the European PEF work; the Score System presented in the European Commission's Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Textiles Industry; and the Strategy Tool presented by Askham. The results show that the three methods do not give a consistent toxicity assessment of the chemicals in the case study. For USEtox the result also depends on whether the practitioner uses the default method or add more characterization factors. The two semi-quantitative methods give more equal importance to the chemicals while the USEtox scores differ by several orders of magnitude. The Simple Score System and the Strategy Tool are very concerned with persistent pollutants and therefore the chemicals which are not readily biodegradable, receive a high score. The USEtox score on the other hand is relatively low for the persistent organic chemicals. Validation of results using triangulation can be used both to create confidence and/or help identify new challenges that were not previously perceived in the method. In this case we showed that the property of persistence is judged to have lower importance in USEtox compared to the two other methods, which is a finding that can be used to develop the fate modelling in USEtox. On the other hand, USEtox could provide additional advice compared to the two other methods, that one of the substances could be more environmentally problematic than what these semi-quantitative methods signals.

  • 90.
    Sjöstedt, Anna
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wohlert, Jakob
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE., Innventia.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Structural changes during swelling of highly charged cellulose fibres2015Inngår i: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 22, nr 5, s. 2943-2953Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural changes of fibrils and fibril aggregates in the fibre wall were studied after oxidation of the cellulose by 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy to high charge densities (highest charge density: 1300 μeq/g). The increase in pore volume was measured by mini-WRV at two different pH levels, and the supramolecular structure in the fibre wall in terms of aggregate size, specific surface area and average pore size was measured by solid state NMR, DVS desorption and BET N2 gas adsorption. A structural change in the arrangement of the fibrils inside the fibril aggregates was observed although the oxidation did not lead to a complete liberation of individual fibrils, i.e. they still exist as an aggregated structure after oxidation. Theoretical estimates suggest that the electrostatic repulsion energy connected with the increase in surface charge of the fibrils can be sufficient to gradually separate the fibrils enough to expose all fibril surfaces to oxidation chemicals.

  • 91.
    Skagestad, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Tel-Tek, Norway.
    Normann, Fredrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gardarsdottir, Stefania Osk
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Anheden, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi. RISE., Innventia.
    Eldrup, Nils H.
    HSN, Norway.
    Ali, Hassan
    HSN, Norway.
    Haugen, Hans Aksel
    Tel-Tek, Norway.
    Mathisen, Anette
    Tel-Tek, Norway.
    CO2stCap - Cutting Cost of CO2 Capture in Process Industry2017Inngår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 114, s. 6303-6315Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a presentation of the CO2stCap project to be undertaken in the four year project period (2015 - 2019). The project focuses on partial CO2 capture in process industry and how this can be applied to reduce cost. By performing techno-economic analyses, the optimal capture rate, including optimal design, application and configuration for different industry sources can be obtained. Cost estimation methods are used as a basis to identify and verify potentials for cost reduction when applying different options for implementation of partial CO2 capture. CO2stCap. Industries studied in this project are pulp & paper, steel, cement and metallurgical production of silicon for solar cells.

  • 92.
    Staffas, Louise
    et al.
    IVL, Sweden.
    Karlfeldt Fedje, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Anita
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Behandling och återvinning av outnyttjade resurser i flygaska2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande projekt har utgått från frågan "Hur kan användbara ämnen i flygaska från avfallsförbränning återföras till det industriella kretsloppet och restprodukten klassas som icke farligt avfall?"

    Sju askor har ingått i studien: en returträaska från fluidbäddpanna, en avfallsflygaska från fluidbäddpanna och fem avfallsflygaskor från rosterpannor.

    Askornas totalhalter av olika ämnen har mätts i syfte att undersöka vilka möjligt värdefulla substanser som finns. Cu, Ag, Al, Zn och Sb bedömdes som mest intressanta att återvinna. Metallhalterna i askorna är ofta låga utifrån återvinningsprocessaspekt, vilket gör att askorna ger mycket ballast i återvinningsaktörernas processer. Det finns andra sekundära råvaror, som t.ex. elektronik-skrot och slaggrus, som är mer intressanta för metall-återvinningsaktörer. För att kunna konkurrera med dessa strömmar måste askan upparbetas och/eller anrikas för att kunna passa i metallåtervinnings-processerna, vilket kan vara en framkomlig väg för några askor.

    Askorna lakades enligt SS-EN-127457-3 för att, tillsammans med totalhalterna, ge klarhet i vilka ämnen som förhindrar askorna att utgöra icke farliga avfall. Det är halterna av Cr och Pb, samt utlakningen av Cl-, Pb och SO42- som i de flesta fall utgör hinder för IFA-deponi av originalaskor.

    I syfte att undersöka möjligheten att laka ut metaller för återvinning lakades askorna med syra; dels olika koncentrationer av syra och dels med olika pH. Ingen av dessa metoder visade sig ge utlakning i sådan omfattning att det skulle vara en generellt framkomlig väg att utnyttja resurserna i flygaskorna från avfallsförbränning. I enskilda fall kan lakning för utvinning vara framgångsrikt.

    Som prioritet två låg att behandla askorna så att de uppfyller mottagningskriterierna för deponi för icke farligt avfall. Som ett första behandlingssteg tvättades askorna med vatten. Två tvätt-omgångar med vatten visade sig i vissa fall ge askor som uppfyller kriterierna. I andra fall skulle dispens för lakning av ett eller två ämnen per aska (Cl-, Cr, Pb, Sb och SO42-) behövas för att få tillstånd för deponering på IFA-deponi.

    Ett antal användningsområden för det salt som tvättas ut i vattentvättstegen har identifierats; bl.a. vägsalt, aluminiumåtervinning, PVC-tillverkning. Kravspecifikationer för dessa har jämförts med saltsammansättningen för saltet från askorna. PVC-tillverkning och aluminiumåtervinning är de två applikationer som bedöms vara mest intressanta att undersöka vidare.

    Flygaskor från avfallsförbränning måste undergå omfattande upparbetning för att utgöra attraktiva substrat för återvinning eller andra användningar.

  • 93. Stenlund, Patrik
    et al.
    Murase, Kohei
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    Palmquist, Anders
    Understanding mechanisms and factors related to implant fixation: a model study of removal torque2014Inngår i: Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1751-6161, E-ISSN 1878-0180, Vol. 34, s. 83-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Osseointegration is a prerequisite for achieving a stable long-term fixation and load-bearing capacity of bone anchored implants. Removal torque measurements are often used experimentally to evaluate the fixation of osseointegrated screw-shaped implants. However, a detailed understanding of the way different factors influence the result of removal torque measurements is lacking. The present study aims to identify the main factors contributing to anchorage. Individual factors important for implant fixation were identified using a model system with an experimental design in which cylindrical or screw-shaped samples were embedded in thermosetting polymers, in order to eliminate biological variation. Within the limits of the present study, it is concluded that surface topography and the mechanical properties of the medium surrounding the implant affect the maximum removal torque. In addition to displaying effects individually, these factors demonstrate interplay between them. The rotational speed was found not to influence the removal torque measurements within the investigated range. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 94. Strömbom, S
    et al.
    Posner, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Chemicals management in the textile sector: Dialogue between authorities, research institutes and retailers leading to concrete actions2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Life Cycle Management, 2015, s. 631-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 95.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Refining of lead glass using As(III)/Sb(III) or As(V)/Sb(V)1999Inngår i: Glasteknisk tidskrift, Vol. 54, nr 3, s. 87-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 96.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    The impact of refining agents on glass colour2000Inngår i: Glasteknisk Tidskrift, Vol. 55, nr 3, s. 65-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 97.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    The virtual glass academy2003Inngår i: Glass, ISSN 0017-0984, Vol. 80, nr 4, s. 124-125Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual Glass Academy - a pedagogical model for e-learning with multimedia support, is a pilot project which provides education over the web for glass workers. The goal of the project is to develop and test a pedagogical model for short, problem-oriented, interactive, web-based courses with multimedia support for the glass industry. The participants in the pilot course come from the three partner glassworks and the college.

  • 98.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Bring, T.
    Jonson, Bo
    Gold ruby glasses: Influence of iron and selenium on their colour2006Inngår i: Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A, ISSN 1753-3554, Vol. 47, nr 4, s. 112-120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Colour development of gold ruby alkali silicate glasses, when various elements are added to the batch, has been investigated. Elements used in the study are selenium, iron, tin, lead, antimony, cerium, titanium and bismuth. The colours are presented and compared by their Lab coordinates. Among the elements selenium and iron are found to be important, and the role of these elements in colour development is discussed. Thermodynamic calculations show that important oxidation states are Fe2+ for iron and Se0 and Se 2- for selenium, and that higher melting temperature improves the colour, as it affects the oxidation states of both Fe and Se.

  • 99.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Lundstedt, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Jonson, Bo
    A CIELAB approach facilitating glass decolourising and recycling of coloured cullet2009Inngår i: Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A, ISSN 1753-3554, Vol. 50, nr 2, s. 89-94Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The CIEL*a*b* coordinate system has been demonstrated as useful for describing the colour characteristics of decolourised flint glass. The amounts of cobalt and erbium oxides necessary for sufficient decolourising of additions of recycled coloured cullet can be calculated from the apparent linear dependence of the CIE a * and b* coordinates on the amounts of cobalt and erbium oxides added to the batch. For the success of such a calculation the colour point of the added cullet must be determined.

  • 100.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Persson, Kent
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lang, Maria
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Jönsson, Anders
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fluid jet polishing of planar flat glass surfaces and within holes2014Inngår i: Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A, ISSN 1753-3554, Vol. 55, nr 2, s. 49-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Planar ground float glass surfaces and the surfaces within holes are polished using fluid jet polishing (FJP) in order to improve their visual appearance or material strength. The large flexibility of FJP makes it suitable for polishing holes and other complex geometries. The influence of polishing speed, incident angle, distance, pressure, abrasive concentration, and nozzle diameter are investigated. Al2 O 3 is the abrasive used. The surface quality is evaluated visually and also measured with an optical profiler. The mechanical strength of the polished holes are evaluated with an MTS testing machine. Planar surfaces, and the surfaces of drilled and water cut holes are greatly improved by polishing. For a planar surface the lowest root mean square surface slope, Sdq, value achieved is 0•5 deg using 50% abrasive and 1000 mesh grains. The failure load of the glass with drilled holes increased 20% with FJP.

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