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  • 51.
    Johansson, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Krona, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Influence Of Surface Lipids In Commercial Zein On Microstructure And Rheological Properties Of Gluten-Free Dough2012In: Annual Transactionof the Nordic Rheology Society, Vol. 20, p. 247-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berta, Marco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Öhgren, Camilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rigdahl, Mikael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Flow Behaviour and Microstructure of a β-Glucan Concentrate2018In: Journal of Polymers and the Environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8919, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 3352-3361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extensional viscosity is an important rheological characteristic of polymer melts. It is however not as frequently reported on as the shear viscosity. The extensional viscosity is of special interest when considering polymeric materials for foaming and film blowing processes. Here, the extensional (and shear) viscosity along with the melt strength and the tensile properties of the corresponding solid film of a β-glucan concentrate are reported on. A capillary viscometer equipped with a hyperbolic die, yielding a contraction flow, was used to assess the extensional viscosity of the aqueous β-glucan compound at room temperature and at elevated temperatures (110 and 130 °C). In general, the extensional viscosity as well as the shear viscosity decreased with increasing deformation rate. The influence of two different amounts of added water (40 and 50%) was also examined. As expected, both types of viscosities decreased with increasing temperature. It is suggested that gelatinization of the starch fraction in the concentrate at 110 and 130 °C contributes to temperature dependence of the viscosity. To some extent, this is supported by light microscopy and confocal scanning laser microscopy studies of the microstructure of the materials. The results reported here indicate that the β-glucan concentrate might, after some modifications, be used as a complement to fossil-based polymers and processed by conventional manufacturing techniques. 

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  • 53.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Carrillo Aguilera, Marc
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Karlson, Leif
    Akzo Nobel Functional Chemicals AB, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rigdahl, Mikael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Chain-Length Shortening of Methyl Ethyl Hydroxyethyl Cellulose: An Evaluation of the Material Properties and Effect on Foaming Ability2018In: Journal of Polymers and the Environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8919, Vol. 26, no 11, p. 4211-4220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past century, plastics have become a natural element in our every-day life. Lately however, an awareness about the fossil origin and often non-degradable nature of many plastics is rising. This has resulted in the emergence of some bio-based and/or biodegradable plastics, often produced from renewable resources. One possible candidate for bioplastics production could be found in cellulose. This paper aims at contributing information regarding a cellulose derivative, which could possibly be used in foamed plastics applications. Therefore, the reduction of the chain-length of a methyl ethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose (MEHEC), assessed by size exclusion chromatography, and the effect of chain-length on the foaming behaviour were studied. The foaming was accomplished with a hot-mould technique using aqueous polymer solutions. The generated steam was here used as the blowing agent and important parameters were polymer concentration and solution viscosity. The density of the produced foams was assessed and was in some cases comparable to that of commodity foams. It was found that reducing the chain-length enabled an increase of the initial polymer concentration for the foaming process. This is believed to be beneficial for creating more structurally stable foams of this type.

  • 54.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kádár, Roland
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rigdahl, Mikael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Processing window for extrusion foaming of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose2016In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 1675-1685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Foamed materials are gaining an increased interest due to their good mechanical properties in relation to their low densities and an increased industrial demand can be expected. A few less attractive issues can however be associated with commodity foamed products. For instance the raw-material often originates from non-renewable, fossil-based, sources. Furthermore, degradation in nature is slow, therefor the disposed product is burned or end up in landfills. One possibility to reduce the impact on nature could be to produce foams from natural polymers such as starch or cellulose. In this study the possibility to produce foams from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) with water as blowing agent, by continuous extrusion, was investigated. A pre-study using a capillary viscometer, batch-extruder, was conducted to evaluate the foamability of HPMC. Due to promising results further experiments were conducted with a single-screw extruder. The goal was to find an adequate processing window for foaming. It was concluded that HPMC could successfully be foamed by continuous extrusion, although a careful tailoring of the processing parameters was required. Crucial parameters were here the temperature, pressure and residence time distribution in the extruder. Regions of the extruded foams were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy and HPMC foams with a density in the range of that of fossil-based polymeric foams could be produced.

  • 55.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Emanuel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rigdahl, Mikael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Extrusion Parameters for Foaming of a β-Glucan Concentrate2019In: Journal of Polymers and the Environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8919, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 1167-1177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastics is a group of materials commonly encountered on a daily basis by many people. They have enabled rapid, low-cost manufacturing of products with complicated geometries and have contributed to the weight reduction of heavy components, especially when produced into a foamed structure. Despite the many advantages of plastics, some drawbacks such as the often fossil-based raw-material and the extensive littering of the material in nature, where it is not degraded for a very long time, needs to be dealt with. One way to address at least one of the issues could be to use polymers from nature instead of fossil-based ones. Here, a β-glucan concentrate originating from barley was investigated. The concentrate was processed into a foam by hot-melt extrusion, and the processing window was established. The effect of different blowing agents was also investigated. Water or a combination of water and sodium bicarbonate were used as blowing agents, the latter apparently giving a more uniform pore structure. The porous structure of the foamed materials was characterized mainly by using a combination of confocal laser scanning microscope and image analysis. The density of the samples was estimated and found to be in a similar range as some polyurethane foams. A set of 3D parameters were also quantified on two selected samples using X-ray microtomography in combination with image analysis, where it was indicated that the porous structure had a pre-determined direction, which followed the direction of the extrusion process. © 2019, The Author(s).

  • 56.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nylander, Filip
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundman, Malin
    Essity Hygiene and Health AB, Sweden.
    Berta, Marco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Westman, Gunnar
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rigdahl, Mikael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hot-mould foaming of modified hemicelluloses and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose2019In: Journal of polymer research, ISSN 1022-9760, E-ISSN 1572-8935, Vol. 26, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastics are a material group which have revolutionized the materials industry during the past century. However, the often fossil origin and littering of the material is problematic. Therefore, this study aims at exploring natural polymers, such as cellulose derivatives and hemicelluloses from different botanical origins, and demonstrate the possibility to use these polymers in a foaming application. The hemicelluloses were chemically treated in order to enhance their performance and foams with ratios as high as 4:1 of hemicellulose and the cellulose derivative, respectively, were successfully produced by a hot-mould foaming technique. The foams were found to be thermally stable up to about 280 °C. The chemical modifications were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and the foams were evaluated with regard to their liquid absorption capacity as well as their density. After 1 min the best foam absorbed 12.5 g/g of liquid and after 30 min soak time and centrifugation the foams had absorption capacities between 2 and 5 g/g. All foams exhibited densities below 0.1 g/cm3. In both the absorption test and density evaluation, the foams produced from mainly hemicellulose performed in a similar way as the reference foams based only on the cellulose derivative, which is considered an impressive result since cellulose is often reported to have superior properties to hemicelluloses.

  • 57.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Schuster, Erich
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rigdahl, Mikael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Foaming behavior of water-soluble cellulose derivatives: hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and ethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose2015In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 2651-2664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and ethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose could be interesting candidates for production of lightweight, foamed packaging material originating from non-fossil, renewable resources. The foaming ability of nine different grades of the two cellulose derivatives, using water as the blowing agent, was investigated using a hot-mold process. The foaming process was studied by evaluating the water loss during the heating, both in a real-time experiment and by thermal gravimetric analysis. Further, the development of the rheological properties of the derivative-water mixtures during a simulated foaming process was assessed using dynamical mechanical thermal analysis and viscosity measurements. Five of the studied derivatives showed promising properties for hot-mold foaming and the final foams were characterized with regard to their apparent density. It was concluded that the foamability of these systems seems to require a rather careful tailoring of the viscoelastic properties in relation to the water content in order to ensure that a network structure is built up and expanded during the water evaporation.

  • 58.
    Kaunisto, Erik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Wassén, Sophia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    A thermodynamical finite element model of the fibre formation process during extrusion of high-moisture meat analogues2024In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 362, article id 111760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A finite element model of spinodal decomposition in a power-law fluid in the extruder cooling die has been developed to investigate the effects of different parameters on fibre formation and alignment. The model makes use of the Cahn-Hilliard equations with a thermodynamic potential and numerical approximations to simulate local compositions in the separated state. The constitutive model is calibrated towards extrusion-relevant strain rates and temperatures by using a combination of rheometry techniques. The simulations show that the effect of decreased wall cooling has a limited effect on fibre development. Instead, decreasing the die width or increasing the die length can be used somewhat interchangeably to achieve fibre formation at the die exit. Viscosity also seemed to influence fibre formation in the outer viscous regions of the die by yielding comparably finer lamellar structures. The local composition of fibres also varied across the die, which may indicate differences in fibre consistency. 

  • 59. Koch, K.
    et al.
    Gillgren, Thomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Andersson, R.
    Mechanical and structural properties of solution-cast high-amylose maize starch films2010In: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, ISSN 0141-8130, E-ISSN 1879-0003, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 13-19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Krona, Annika
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Klose, Felix
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gold, Julie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kadar, Roland
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Developing cultured meat scaffolds of extruded vegetable-based proteins2017In: Annual Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, Vol. 25, p. 311-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Muscle cells from animals can becultivated in cell culture medium, but to beused as a meat food product, they need asolid matrix to grow on that can alsocontribute to the texture. In this project wehave created promising fibrous growthsubstrates from extruded plant basedproteins that the cells are able to attach toand grow on. Cultured meat is still far froma commercial product, but may, in the longrun, give even tastier, healthier and moreenvironmentally friendly meat products.

  • 61. Langton, Maud
    et al.
    Åström, Annika
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    Effect of microstructure on sensory perception of particulate gels”,1996In: Food Colloids, Proteins, lipids and polysaccharides, The Royal Society of Chemistry Cambridge. , 1996Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 62. Larsson, M.
    et al.
    Hjartstam, J.
    Berndtsson, J.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Larsson, A.
    Effect of ethanol on the water permeability of controlled release films composed of ethyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl cellulose2010In: European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics, ISSN 0939-6411, E-ISSN 1873-3441, Vol. 76, no 3, p. 428-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The robustness of controlled release formulations when co-ingested with alcohol is a current concern expressed by regulatory authorities, especially with regard to dose dumping. One such controlled release formulation commonly used is film coating composed of ethyl cellulose (EC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC). The aim of this study was to investigate how the presence of ethanol in the dissolution medium affects the water permeability of such films. Film samples were prepared in various EC-HPC compositions, and the effect of different ethanol concentrations in the dissolution medium on the permeability was studied using a modified Ussing chamber and tritiated water. It was found that the effect of ethanol on the film permeability varied depending on the composition of the films. The results were interpreted in terms of swelling of the EC in the films, where the swelling increased with increasing ethanol concentration. Thus, for films with low HPC content (non-interconnected pores), the water permeability of the films increased with increasing ethanol concentration as the diffusion through the ethyl cellulose increased due to swelling. However, for films with higher HPC content (having interconnected pores through the films), the permeability decreased, likely due to the swelling of the ethyl cellulose blocking the pores. The interpretation of the results was supported by dynamic mechanic analysis and SEM analysis © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  • 63. Larsson, M.
    et al.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Larsson, A.
    Determination of the glass transition temperature of powder samples using Dynamic Mechanic Analysis on compacts2010In: Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, Vol. 18, p. 59-64Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 64. Larsson, M.
    et al.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Larsson, A.
    High performance polysodium acrylate superabsorbents utilizing microfibrillated cellulose to augment gel properties2010In: Soft Materials, ISSN 1539-445X, E-ISSN 1539-4468, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 207-225Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 65. Larsson, M.
    et al.
    Viriden, A.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Larsson, A.
    The influence of HPMC substitution pattern on solid-state properties2010In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 82, no 4, p. 1074-1081Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The solid-state properties were studied for different batches of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). The batches had similar chemical composition, but different degree of heterogeneity with regard to the distribution of the substituents along the polymer chains. The glass transition temperature, Tg, was analysed using a new developed method where dynamic mechanic analysis, DMA, was performed in compression mode on compacts, utilizing a wedge-shaped probe. The method was verified by conventional DMA on films. Molecular interactions were studied using FT-IR. In addition, the water vapour sorption was determined by gravimetric measurements and the plasticization by water vapour was studied on film samples using DMA. The results revealed a linear relationship between increasing Tg and increasing percent glucose liberated after enzyme hydrolysis. The percent glucose liberated can in turn be considered to account for both the heterogeneity of the substituents and the total degree of substitution. The results indicated that more heterogeneously substituted cellulose derivatives and derivates with a lower degree of substitution had stronger interactions between polymer chains. As expected from these results, some small difference in the plasticization by water vapour could be detected. However, no significant differences were found in molecular interactions using FT-IR or in the sorption of water vapour. The correlation between heterogeneity in the distribution of the substituents and Tg is of much interest as heterogeneously substituted batches of HPMC have been previously shown to exhibit very different behaviour in solution and in gelling tablets. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 66.
    Lipia, Albert
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Johansson, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Controlled Foaming of Cereal Protein Foams2010In: Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, Vol. 18, p. 65-70Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 67.
    Lundahl, Meri
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Berta, Marco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ago, Mariko
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Rojas, Orlando
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Shear and extensional rheology of aqueous suspensions of cellulose nanofibrils for biopolymer-assisted filament spinning2018In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 109, p. 367-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shear and extensional rheology of aqueous suspensions of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were investigated under dynamic and steady flow fields. The results were compared to those for two biopolymer solutions, cellulose acetate, CA, and guar gum, GG. Wet-spinning experiments were conducted for each system and the outcome related to the respective rheological profile. The spinnability of the system correlated with strong Newtonian and viscous responses under shear as well as long breakup time in capillary breakup experiments. CA solution was the most spinnable, also displaying the strongest Newtonian liquid behavior and the longest capillary breakup time. In contrast, the most shear-thinning and elastic CNF suspension showed instant capillary breakup and was considerably less spinnable. This is due to the limited entanglement between the rigid cellulose fibrils. In order to enable continuous wet-spinning of CNF without filament breakup, GG and CA were used as carrier components in coaxial spinning. The shear and extensional rheology of the system is discussed considering both as supporting polymers.

  • 68. Löfgren, C.
    et al.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Glass transitions in frozen sucrose solutions.1997In: Annual Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, Vol. 5, p. 18-21Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Martín-Alfonso, Jose
    et al.
    University of Huelva, Spain.
    Cuadri, Antonio
    University of Huelva, Spain.
    Berta, Marco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Relation between concentration and shear-extensional rheology properties of xanthan and guar gum solutions2018In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 181, p. 63-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of concentration on the shear and extensional rheology properties of aqueous solutions of xanthan and guar gums was studied in this work. Shear rheology involved small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS), flow curves and transient flow, while the extensional rheology was analyzed using hyperbolic contraction flow. In addition, the mechanical properties during solutions manufacture were monitored in situ through the evolution of torque with processing time by mixing rheometry. The results showed that the hydrocolloids exert a great influence on the process rheokinetics and on the resulting rheological response. SAOS tests showed that the xanthan gum solutions behaved as weak gels, whereas guar gum solutions suggest the presence of entanglement and the formation of a viscoelastic, gel-like structure. All the systems exhibited shear-thinning behaviour. Guar gum solutions obeyed the Cox-Merz rule, with some divergence at high rates for the more concentrated solutions, while the Cox-Merz rule was not followed for xanthan gum in the range of concentration studied. The extensional viscosity exhibited an extensional-thinning behaviour within the strain range used and all solutions were characterized by a high Trouton ratio.

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  • 70.
    Marucci, Mariagrazia
    et al.
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Andersson, Helene
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hjärtstam, Johan
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Stevenson, Gary
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Baderstedt, Julia
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anette
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    von Corswant, Christian
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    New insights on how to adjust the release profile from coated pellets by varying the molecular weight of ethyl cellulose in the coating film2013In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 458, no 1, p. 218-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The major aims of this work were to study the effect of the molecular weight (Mw) of ethyl cellulose (EC) on the drug release profile from metoprolol succinate pellets coated with films comprising EC and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) with a weight ratio of 70:30, and to understand the mechanisms behind the different release profiles. A broad range of Mws was used, and the kinetics of drug release and HPC leaching followed. The higher the Mw of EC, the slower the HPC leaching and the drug release processes. Drug release occurred by diffusion through the pores created in the coating by the HPC leaching. A novel method was used to explain the differences in the release profiles: the effective diffusion coefficient (De) of the drug in the coating film was determined using a mechanistic model and compared to the amount of HPC leached. A linear dependence was found between De and the amount of HPC leached and, importantly, the value of the proportionality constant decreased with increasing Mw of EC. This suggests that the Mw of EC affects the drug release profile by affecting the phase separated microstructure of the coating and the hindrance it imparts to drug diffusion.

  • 71.
    Moberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rigdahl, Mikael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Levenstam Bragd, Emma
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Extensional viscosity of microfibrillated cellulose suspensions2014In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 102, no 1, p. 409-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extensional properties of micro fibrillated cellulose (MFC)-suspensions at different fibril concentrations and with different amounts of added sodium chloride were evaluated. The MFC-suspensions were obtained by diluting a stock solution consisting of 0.95 wt.% cellulose with either deionized water or sodium chloride solution, giving a series of different concentrations and sodium chloride contents. The extensional viscosities of the suspensions were measured utilizing contraction flow geometry. Here the specimens were forced through a hyperbolic nozzle and the required pressure drop over the nozzle was measured. The extensional viscosity exhibited an extensional-thinning behaviour over the extensional strain rates used. Furthermore the extensional viscosity decreased with decreasing concentration of the suspensions, in similarities with the shear properties of the specimens. For the suspensions containing sodium chloride, the extensional viscosity appeared to increase when the concentration of sodium chloride was increased. But excessive amounts of added sodium chloride promoted an agglomeration of the suspensions.

  • 72.
    Moore, Helene A.
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Marucci, MariaGrazia
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden ; AstraZeneca R&D Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Härdelin, Linda
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hjärtstam, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden ; AstraZeneca R&D Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    von Corswant, Christian
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden ; AstraZeneca R&D Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anette
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    New insights on the influence of manufacturing conditions and molecular weight on phase-separated films intended for controlled release2018In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 536, no 1, p. 261-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to investigate how manufacturing conditions influence phase-separated films of ethyl cellulose (EC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) with different molecular weights of HPC. Two HPC grades, SSL and M, with weight average molecular weights (Mw) of 30 × 103 g/mol and 365 × 103 g/mol, respectively, were combined with EC 10 cps (70:30 w/w EC/HPC) and spray-coated from ethanol solutions onto a rotating drum under well-controlled process conditions. Generally, a low spray rate resulted in a more rapid film drying process and, consequently, in smaller HPC-rich domains in the phase-separated film structure. For EC/HPC films with the low Mw HPC (SSL) the most rapid drying process resulted in a shift from a HPC-discontinuous to a partly bicontinuous structure and an increase in the permeability for water. In contrast, films containing the high Mw HPC (M) all showed bicontinuous structures, which resulted in overall higher water permeabilities and polymer release compared to the low Mw films. Interestingly, a maximum in permeability was observed for the high Mw films at intermediate spray rates. Below this spray rate the permeability decreased due to a lower amount of polymer released and at higher spray rates, the permeability decreased due to a loss of pore connectivity (or increased tortuosity). To conclude, this study shows that different Mw systems of EC/HPC can respond differently to variations in manufacturing conditions.

  • 73. Naushad, Emmambux
    et al.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    In situ tensile deformation of zein films with plasticizers and filler materials2007In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 1245-1255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Material deformation is a dynamic process. Visualisation of this deformation can help to understand the local deformation and fracture behaviour. Zein (the prolamin protein from maize) films with different amount of plasticizers (0-25%) and different filler materials (maize oil, Dimodan®, Vestosint®, at 25% (w/w) to protein) were deformed under tension and observed at micron scale in real time by a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The addition of plasticizers increased strain and decreased stress of zein films. At low level of plasticizers (6.25% and 12%), zein films deformed and fracture through micro-crack formation and propagation normal the tensile axis. At high Plasticization, only micro-pores were observed during tensile deformation. The filler material oil and Dimodan® increased, but Vestosint® decreased tensile strain in comparison to the control. This shows that the fracture dynamic is affected by the filler materials and is indeed observed by the CLSM. Analysis of local strain by Fluospheres® as particle tracking showed a good linear correlation with the tensile strain of the plasticized zein films. The local strains of filler materials and zein matrix in the films were different from the overall tensile strain. The combination of CLSM with a fluospheres® as particle tracking is a good method to study local deformation in biomaterials to understand the deformation and fracture behaviour of biomaterials. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 74. Nyström, M
    et al.
    Tamaddon Jahromi, HR
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Webster, MF
    Simulation of extensional flow through contractions towards a measuring system for extensional viscosity2011In: Annual Transactionof the Nordic Rheology Society, Vol. 19, p. 195-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Nyström, Magda
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Jahromi, H. R.Tamaddon
    Swansea University, United Kingdom.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Webster, Michael Francis
    Swansea University, United Kingdom.
    Numerical simulations of Boger fluids through different contraction configurations for the development of a measuring system for extensional viscosity2012In: Rheologica Acta, ISSN 0035-4511, E-ISSN 1435-1528, Vol. 51, no 8, p. 713-727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the flow behaviour of Newtonian and Boger fluids through various axisymmetric contraction configurations by means of numerical predictions. A principal aim has been to evaluate the geometrical design choice of the hyperbolic contraction flow. The FENE-CR model has been used to reflect the behaviour of Boger fluids, with constant shear viscosity, finite (yet large) extensional viscosity and less than quadratic first normal stress difference. Numerical calculations have been performed on six different contraction configurations to evaluate an optimized geometry for measuring extensional viscosity in uniaxial extensional flow. The influence of a sharp or rounded recess-corner on the nozzle has also been investigated. Few commercial measuring systems are currently available for measurement of the extensional rheology of medium-viscosity fluids, such as foods and other biological systems. In this context, a technique based on the hyperbolic contraction flow would be a suitable alternative. The pressure drop, the velocity field, the first normal stress difference and the strain rate across the geometry have each been evaluated for Newtonian and Boger fluids. This numerical study has shown that the hyperbolic configuration is superior to the other geometry choices in achieving a constant extension rate. In this hyperbolic configuration, no vortices are formed, the measuring range is broader and the strain rate is constant throughout the geometric domain, unlike in the alternative configurations tested. The difference between sharp and rounded recess-corner configurations proved to be negligible and a rise in excess pressure drop (epd) for increasing deformation rates has been observed.

  • 76.
    Nyström, Magda
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Qazi, Waqas Muhammad
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bulow, Margareta
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Ekberg, Olle
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effects of rheological factors on perceived ease of swallowing2015In: Applied Rheology, ISSN 1430-6395, E-ISSN 1617-8106, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 9-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a contribution to the understanding of how rheological properties of a fluid influences swallowing, especially people suffering from swallowing disorders (dysphagia). Our hypothesis was that fluid elasticity contributes to safe and pleasant swallowing. In the present study three food grade model fluids with specific rheological properties were developed and used: a Newtonian fluid with constant shear viscosity, an elastic Boger fluid with constant shear viscosity and a shear-thinning fluid which was elastic and had rate dependent shear viscosity. By comparing the swallowing of these model fluids the specific rheological effects could be distinguished. Sensory analysis of the perceived ease of swallowing was performed by a panel of healthy individuals, and by a group of dysphagic patients. The swallowing of the latter group was also characterized by videoflouroscopy and the transit times in the mouth and pharynx were determined. The hypothesis was confirmed by dysphagic patients who perceived swallowing easier for the elastic model fluids. A sensory panel of healthy individuals could not distinguish differences in swallowing, likely because their swallowing functions well and is an involuntary process. Quantitative videofluoroscopic measurements of swallowing transit times for the dysphagic patients suggested that fluid elasticity contributed to easy and safe swallowing, but the effect was not statistically significant due to the large spread of type of swallowing disorder.

  • 77.
    Nyström, Magda
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tamaddon Jahromi, HR
    Swansea University, UK.
    Webster, MF
    Swansea University, UK.
    Hyperbolic contraction measuring systems for extensional flow2017In: Mechanics of Time-Dependent Materials, ISSN 1385-2000, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 55-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper an experimental method for extensional measurements on medium viscosity fluids in contraction flow is evaluated through numerical simulations and experimental measurements. This measuring technique measures the pressure drop over a hyperbolic contraction, caused by fluid extension and fluid shear, where the extensional component is assumed to dominate. The present evaluative work advances our previous studies on this experimental method by introducing several contraction ratios and addressing different constitutive models of varying shear and extensional response. The constitutive models included are those of the constant viscosity Oldroyd-B and FENE-CR models, and the shear-thinning LPTT model. Examining the results, the impact of shear and first normal stress difference on the measured pressure drop are studied through numerical pressure drop predictions. In addition, stream function patterns are investigated to detect vortex development and influence of contraction ratio. The numerical predictions are further related to experimental measurements for the flow through a 15:1 contraction ratio with three different test fluids. The measured pressure drops are observed to exhibit the same trends as predicted in the numerical simulations, offering close correlation and tight predictive windows for experimental data capture. This result has demonstrated that the hyperbolic contraction flow is well able to detect such elastic fluid properties and that this is matched by numerical predictions in evaluation of their flow response. The hyperbolical contraction flow technique is commended for its distinct benefits: it is straightforward and simple to perform, the Hencky strain can be set by changing contraction ratio, non-homogeneous fluids can be tested, and one can directly determine the degree of elastic fluid behaviour. Based on matching of viscometric extensional viscosity response for FENE-CR and LPTT models, a decline is predicted in pressure drop for the shear-thinning LPTT model. This would indicate a modest impact of shear in the flow since such a pressure drop decline is relatively small. It is particularly noteworthy that the increase in pressure drop gathered from the experimental measurements is relatively high despite the low Deborah number range explored.

  • 78.
    Nyström, Magda
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tamaddon Jahromi, Hamid R.
    Swansea University, UK.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Webster, Michael F.
    Swansea University, UK.
    Extracting extensional properties through excess pressure drop estimation in axisymmetric contraction and expansion flows for constant shear viscosity, extension strain-hardening fluids2016In: Rheologica Acta, ISSN 0035-4511, E-ISSN 1435-1528, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 373-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, hyperbolic contraction–expansion flow (HCF) devices have been investigated with the specific aim of devising new experimental measuring systems for extensional rheological properties. To this end, a hyperbolic contraction–expansion configuration has been designed to minimize the influence of shear in the flow. Experiments have been conducted using well-characterized model fluids, alongside simulations using a viscoelastic White–Metzner/FENE-CR model and finite element/finite volume analysis. Here, the application of appropriate rheological models to reproduce quantitative pressure drop predictions for constant shear viscosity fluids has been investigated, in order to extract the relevant extensional properties for the various test fluids in question. Accordingly, experimental evaluation of the hyperbolic contraction–expansion configuration has shown rising corrected pressure drops with increasing elastic behaviour (De=0∼16), evidence which has been corroborated through numerical prediction. Moreover, theoretical to predicted solution correspondence has been established between extensional viscosity and first normal stress difference. This leads to a practical means to measure extensional viscosity for elastic fluids, obtained through the derived pressure drop data in these HCF devices.

  • 79.
    Nyström, Magda
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tamaddon Jahromi, HR
    Swansea University, UK.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Webster, MF
    Swansea University,.
    Extensional Flow through Hyperbolic Contraction Studied Both Numericallyand Experimentally2013In: Annual Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, p. 15-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hyperbolic contraction technique, specially aimed at the medium viscosity range, is presented and evaluated numerically. Experimental measurements of a Boger fluid have been compared to numerical simulations of corresponding mathematical models. Enhanced pressure drop for increasing Deborah numbers was observed for both experimental and numerical results.

  • 80. Olsson, C.
    et al.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Rheological influence of non-gelling amylopectins on ?-lactoglobulin gel structures2000In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 473-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of non-gelling potato amylopectin on the gel properties of a particulate ?-lactoglobulin gel was studied by small and large deformation rheology and by light microscopy. Two different techniques using small deformations, one measuring the modulus in shear and the other measuring the modulus in compression, have been compared. The fracture tests of the gels were performed in tension. The concentration of ?-lactoglobulin was kept constant at 6 wt%, and the amount of potato amylopectin was varied from 0 to 2 wt%. Two preparations of potato amylopectin, with different rheological behaviour, were used. The results illustrate the importance of a full theological characterisation, since small and large deformation tests responded different to the structure. Both the viscoelastic and the failure properties of ?-lactoglobulin gels changed on addition of potato amylopectin even at low concentrations. The effect of the potato amylopectin concentration on the rheological properties of the mixed system varied with the properties of the potato amylopectin. The higher viscosity (HV) potato amylopectin had a shear-thinning behaviour and a small yield stress, while the lower viscosity (LV) potato amylopectin had a lower viscosity with a Newtonian behaviour. The gels containing the LV potato amylopectin increased in the modulus of small deformations with increasing potato amylopectin concentration, while the stress at fracture was constant up to a concentration of 0.5 wt% potato amylopectin and then increased with increasing potato amylopectin concentration. For the gels containing the HV potato amylopectin the modulus of small deformations reached a maximum at 0.25 wt% potato amylopectin and then decreased with increasing potato amylopectin concentration. The stress at fracture was constant up to 0.5 wt% potato amylopectin and decreased at higher concentrations. The state of aggregation of ?-lactoglobulin was influenced both by concentration and properties of potato amylopectin. The higher the potato amylopectin concentration the larger the pores in the ?-lactoglobulin gel. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 81. Oom, A
    et al.
    Edrud, S
    Pettersson, A
    Taylor, J
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Rheological properties of African prolamin systems2006In: Annual Transactionof the Nordic Rheology Society, Vol. 14, p. 237-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 82. Oom, A.
    et al.
    Pettersson, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Taylor, J.R.N.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Rheological properties of kafirin and zein prolamins2008In: Journal of Cereal Science, ISSN 0733-5210, E-ISSN 1095-9963, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 109-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility of forming dough from kafirin was investigated and laboratory prepared kafirin was formed into a viscoelastic dough system. Measurements with Contraction Flow showed that dough systems prepared from kafirin and from commercial zein had the required extensional rheological properties for baking of leavened bread. The extensional viscosity and strain hardening of the kafirin and zein dough systems were similar to those of gluten and wheat flour doughs. The kafirin dough system, however, unlike the zein dough system rapidly became very stiff. The stiffening behaviour of the kafirin dough system was presumed to be caused by cross-linking of kafirin monomers. SDS-PAGE showed that the kafirin essentially only contained ?- and ?-kafirin, whereas the zein essentially only contained ?-zein. Since ?-kafirin contains more cysteine residues than the ?-prolamin it is more likely to form disulphide cross-links, which probably caused the differences in stiffening behaviour between kafirin and zein dough systems. Overall the kafirin dough system displayed rheological properties sufficient for baking of porous bread. Kafirin like zein appears to have promising properties for making non-gluten leavened doughs. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 83. Petersson, M
    et al.
    Gustafson, I
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Rheological Characterization Of Two Petroleum Waxes2006In: Annual Transactionof the Nordic Rheology Society, Vol. 14, p. 239-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 84. Petersson, M.
    et al.
    Hagström, J
    Nilsson, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Kinetics of release from kafirin films2007In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 1256-1264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two separate studies were performed. The first studied release of two different preservatives (lactic acid and calcium propionate) from a biopolymer film to a model food with a water activity of aw=0.95. The second investigated the release of four sugars (fructose, maltose, raffinose and stachyose) with different molecular weights from a biopolymer film to a model food with water activities ranging from 0.85 to 0.95. In both studies, the biopolymer films containing the release components were made from kafirin and placed on the model food, consisting of a gel made of gelatine, sucrose and water with well defined water activity. The amount of preservatives and sugars released from the film to the gel were monitored over time using HPLC at different depths in the model food. The release of preservatives was rapid in both cases, and a gradient of released substances had already formed after 2 h in the model food. The gradients levelled out with time. Calcium propionate had a somewhat faster release than lactic acid. The water activity of the model food had a large impact on the release of sugars. A slow release was observed in the model food with aw=0.85, while a much more rapid release occurred in the model food with aw=0.95. There was a limited diffusion depth in the model food with aw=0.85, probably owing to a limited trial time, while the sugars in the model food with aw=0.95 diffused deeper into the model food until the film was depleted of available sugars. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 85. Petersson, M.
    et al.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Characterization of phase separation in film forming biopolymer mixtures2005In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 932-941Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhanced, tailor-made films can be achieved by combining the good gas barrier of the hydrophilic high amylose maize starch (hylon) with the water resistance of the hydrophobic protein zein. Two polymers are not always miscible in solution, and the phase separation behavior of the mixture is therefore important for the final film structure and its properties. Phase separation of a mixture of these two biopolymers was induced either by cooling, which was observed as growing droplets of the hylon phase which in some cases also formed small aggregates, or by solvent evaporation and studied in real-time in a confocal laser scanning microscope. Solvent evaporation had a much stronger effect on phase separation. During the early stage of phase separation, hylon formed large aggregates and subsequently smaller droplets coalesced with other droplets or large hylon aggregates. The later part of the separation seemed to take place through spinodal decomposition. © 2005 American Chemical Society.

  • 86. Petersson, M.
    et al.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Water vapour permeability and mechanical properties of mixed starch-monoglyceride films and effect of film forming conditions2005In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 123-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect on water vapour permeability (WVP) and mechanical properties of an addition of various amounts of an acetylated monoglyceride (Acetem) to native potato starch (NPS) films was studied. Phase separation was also evaluated by drying the films at different temperatures, since phase separation between starch and Acetem is affected by temperature. Films were gel-cast from a heated solution of NPS (3%). Five different concentrations (0-10%) of Acetem based on NPS were added to the solution and the films were dried at three different temperatures (23, 35 and 50°C). The film properties were evaluated by measuring thickness, moisture content (MC), WVP and mechanical properties and the results were then evaluated with multivariate analysis. The MC was slightly reduced in the films dried in higher temperatures, despite reconditioned samples, and the film thickness increased with an increasing amount of Acetem. The WVP of a pure NPS film was decreased by 27 and 37% with addition of 10% Acetem or high drying temperature, respectively. The mechanical properties were affected mainly by changes in Acetem concentration. A greater amount of Acetem decreased Young's modulus, stress at break and strain at break. Micrographs showed extensive phase separation in the films, but pure bilayer films were not formed. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 87.
    Petersson, Maria
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik. SCA Hygiene Products AB, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gustafson, Inger
    SCA Hygiene Products AB, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Comparison of microstructural and physical properties of two petroleum waxes2008In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1869-1879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microstructural and physical properties of two petroleum waxes, petrolatum and microcrystalline wax, were characterized in this work. Petroleum waxes are known to be hydrophobic and can be used in applications where a good moisture barrier is needed. In order to achieve a better understanding of different inherent properties of a wax, the two waxes in this work were characterized with infrared spectroscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, rheology and X-ray diffraction. It was concluded from the results of infrared spectroscopy that the two waxes consisted only of saturated alkanes. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that the petrolatum sample had a more open microstructure with coarse crystals separated from each other than the microcrystalline wax, which appeared to have a more network-like crystalline structure consisting of somewhat finer crystals. Both waxes crystallized over a broad temperature range. Their crystallization characteristics were quite different, however, probably owing to a different oil content. According to modulated differential scanning calorimetry and rheological measurements the microcrystalline wax crystallized through a two-step process, whereas the petrolatum crystallized through only one step. 

  • 88.
    Petersson, Maria
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik. SCA Hygiene Products AB, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gustafson, Ingrid
    SCA Hygiene Products AB, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ageing of two petroleum waxes2008In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1859-1868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of ageing at different storage conditions on the microstructure and melting properties of two petroleum waxes, petrolatum and microcrystalline wax, were investigated. The two waxes were stored for a maximum of 50 weeks at different temperatures. Samples were analysed before storage and removed from storage and analysed after different storage times. The effect of storage time and temperature was analysed with confocal laser scanning microscopy and modulated differential scanning calorimetry. Some alteration in the microstructure occurred with longer storage time. The amount of fine and irregular structures seen in the initial petrolatum samples decreased with storage time, and some shadowy, grey areas appeared. The microstructure of the microcrystalline wax stored at 23 °C became more diffuse and more, shadowy, grey areas appeared with time compared to samples stored at 50 °C. These showed coarser crystalline structures and fewer shadowy, grey areas. The results of confocal laser scanning microscopy and modulated differential scanning calorimetry analyses indicated that recrystallization occurred in both waxes during storage. The proposed recrystallization processes taking place during storage were most likely the same in all samples, but the recrystallization occurred to a greater extent in the microcrystalline wax samples stored at 50 °C.

  • 89.
    Qasi, Waqas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ekberg, Olle
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Shear and extensional rheology of commercial thickeners used for dysphagia management2017In: Journal of texture studies, ISSN 0022-4901, E-ISSN 1745-4603, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 507-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People who suffer from swallowing disorders, commonly referred to as dysphagia, are often restricted to a texture-modified diet. In such a diet, the texture of the fluid is modified mainly by the addition of gum or starch-based thickeners. For optimal modification of the texture, tunable rheological parameters are shear viscosity, yield stress, and elasticity. In this work, the flow properties of commercial thickeners obtained from major commercial suppliers were measured both in shear and extensional flow using a laboratory viscometer and a newly developed tube viscometry technique, termed Pulsed Ultrasound Velocimetry plus Pressure Drop (PUV+PD). The two methods gave similar results, demonstrating that the PUV+PD technique can be applied to study flow during the swallowing process in geometry similar to that of the swallowing tract. The thickeners were characterized in relation to extensional viscosity using the Hyperbolic Contraction Flow (HCF) method, with microscopy used as a complementary method for visualization of the fluid structure. The gum-based thickeners had significantly higher extensional viscosities than the starch-based thickeners. The rheological behavior was manifested in the microstructure as a hydrocolloid network with dimensions in the nanometer range for the gum-based thickeners. The starch-based thickeners displayed a granular structure in the micrometer range. In addition, the commercial thickeners were compared to model fluids (Boger, Newtonian and Shear-thinning) set to equal shear viscosity at 50s−1 and it was demonstrated that their rheological behavior could be tuned between highly elastic, extension-thickening to Newtonian. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 90.
    Qazi, Waqas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ekberg, Olle
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Johan
    Incipientus Ultrasound Flow Technologies AB, Sweden.
    Kotze, Reinhardt
    Incipientus Ultrasound Flow Technologies AB, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Assessment of the Food-Swallowing Process Using Bolus Visualisation and Manometry Simultaneously in a Device that Models Human Swallowing2019In: Dysphagia (New York. Print), ISSN 0179-051X, E-ISSN 1432-0460, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 21-833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The characteristics of the flows of boluses with different consistencies, i.e. different rheological properties, through the pharynx have not been fully elucidated. The results obtained using a novel in vitro device, the Gothenburg Throat, which allows simultaneous bolus flow visualisation and manometry assessments in the pharynx geometry, are presented, to explain the dependence of bolus flow on bolus consistency. Four different bolus consistencies of a commercial food thickener, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 Pa s (at a shear rate of 50 s −1 )—corresponding to a range from low honey-thick to pudding-thick consistencies on the National Dysphagia Diet (NDD) scale—were examined in the in vitro pharynx. The bolus velocities recorded in the simulator pharynx were in the range of 0.046–0.48 m/s, which is within the range reported in clinical studies. The corresponding wall shear rates associated with these velocities ranged from 13 s −1 (pudding consistency) to 209 s −1 (honey-thick consistency). The results of the in vitro manometry tests using different consistencies and bolus volumes were rather similar to those obtained in clinical studies. The in vitro device used in this study appears to be a valuable tool for pre-clinical analyses of thickened fluids. Furthermore, the results show that it is desirable to consider a broad range of shear rates when assessing the suitability of a certain consistency for swallowing. © 2019, The Author(s).

  • 91.
    Qazi, Waqas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ekberg, Olle
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Johan
    Incipientus Ultrasound Flow Technologies AB, Sweden.
    Mansoor, Rashid
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Simultaneous X-ray Video-Fluoroscopy and Pulsed Ultrasound Velocimetry Analyses of the Pharyngeal Phase of Swallowing of Boluses with Different Rheological Properties2020In: Dysphagia (New York. Print), ISSN 0179-051X, E-ISSN 1432-0460, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 898-906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ultrasound Velocity Profiling (UVP) technique allows real-time, non-invasive flow mapping of a fluid along a 1D-measuring line. This study explores the possibility of using the UVP technique and X-ray video-fluoroscopy (XVF) to elucidate the deglutition process with the focus on bolus rheology. By positioning the UVP probe so that the pulsed ultrasonic beam passes behind the air-filled trachea, the bolus flow in the pharynx can be measured. Healthy subjects in a clinical study swallowed fluids with different rheological properties: Newtonian (constant shear viscosity and non-elastic); Boger (constant shear viscosity and elastic); and shear thinning (shear rate-dependent shear viscosity and elastic). The results from both the UVP and XVF reveal higher velocities for the shear thinning fluid, followed by the Boger and the Newtonian fluids, demonstrating that the UVP method has equivalent sensitivities for detecting the velocities of fluids with different rheological properties. The velocity of the contraction wave that clears the pharynx was measured in the UVP and found to be independent of bolus rheology. The results show that UVP not only assesses accurately the fluid velocity in a bolus flow, but it can also monitor the structural changes that take place in response to a bolus flow, with the added advantage of being a completely non-invasive technique that does not require the introduction of contrast media. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • 92.
    Qazi, Waqas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ekberg, Olle
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Johan
    Incipientus Ultrasound Flow Technologies AB, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rheology of the bolus during pharyngeal transport2019In: Annual Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, p. 47-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human swallowing taking place in the pharynx is a complex process demanding precise co-ordination amongst the organs involved. People suffering from swallowing disorders are restricted to texture altered foods/drinks which are shear thinning necessitating the knowledge of shear deformation during pharyngeal transport. In this work, the shear rate during bolus transport using shear thinning boluses was measured and reported both during in-vivo and in-vitro experiments.

  • 93.
    Qazi, Waqas Muhammad
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rheological modification of fluid foods for patients with dysphagia2016In: Annual Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, 2016, Vol. 24, p. 75-76Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swallowing disorders, or dysphagia, is a growing problem especially as the population gets older. Fluid thickening is a well-established strategy for treating dysphagia, but the effects of thickening on the physiology of impaired swallowing are not fully understood and the relations to basic rheology are scarce. Commercial thickeners studied showed different behavior in both shear thinning, yield stress and first normal stress difference, and even larger differences in extensional viscosity.

  • 94.
    Qazi, Waqas Muhammad
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Ekberg, Olle
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A swallowing model for efficient food product development2016In: The Materials Science Graduate Student Days 2016, 2016, p. 38-, article id P20Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dysphagia refers to difficulties in swallowing, caused by conditions ranging from trauma to neurological disorders such as dementia. People suffering from dysphagia cannot adequately transfer food from the mouth to the stomach especially low viscosity, fluid foods. Texture modification is imperative to ensure safe passage of food from mouth into the stomach. Food products with elastic properties, i.e. high extensional viscosity, have been identified as helpful in promoting safe swallowing. However, this hypothesis is difficult to prove by clinical studies due to ethical issues and availability of suitable patients. Moreover, the problems of individual patients vary largely in nature and extent which further complicates the matter as identified in our previous research (1). We are currently constructing an in vitro human swallowing apparatus mimicking swallowing through the pharynx to the esophagus. The apparatus will have the pressure and ultrasound sensors to monitor real time flow properties of the bolus as it travels along the swallowing tract. This will enable us to measure relevant parameters during swallowing such as residence times and bolus velocity along the way. The model can be adjusted to different dysphagic conditions such as abnormal epiglottis closure. The goal of the project is to develop food products for safe swallowing and currently we are determining the rheological properties of commercial dysphagia thickeners, as well as model fluids. Two companies active in dysphagia foods are contributing (Fresenius Kabi and Findus). The shear and extensional properties have been shown to vary significantly, which has been correlated with fluid microstructure.

  • 95.
    Qazi, Waqas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Nyström, Magda
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Bulow, Margareta
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Ekberg, Olle
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Model Fluids for Safe Swallowing: A Rheological Perspective2014In: ANNUAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE NORDIC RHEOLOGY SOCIETY, Vol. 22, p. 41-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dysphagia refers to the difficulty in swallowing. An innovative approach to manage dysphagia is designing the rheological properties of foods and drinks. Non-Newtonian fluids have been highlighted as helpful for safe swallowing and it has also been pointed out that the elastic properties of the food may help improve the swallowing process. However, literature lacks any consistent set of results which relates the food elasticity to swallowing. In the present project we created three food grade model fluids with Newtonian (constant shear viscosity), Boger (constant shear viscosity and elastic) and shear thinning (shear rate dependent and elastic) behavior to elucidate the individual effects of elasticity and shear thinning.

  • 96.
    Qazi, Waqas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Nyström, Magda
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Ekberg, Olle
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Edible Boger fluid and its rheology at human physiological conditions2015In: Annual Transactions - The Nordic Rheology Society, ISSN 1601-4057, Vol. 23, p. 195-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that patients suffering from dysphagia have a slower oropharyngeal transit times than the healthy individuals. Therefore, elastic properties of liquids foods are hypothesized to be imperative for safe swallowing in those suffering from dysphagia. This makes the consideration of body temperature necessary while studying elastic fluids. Our result indicated that the elastic and viscous properties of the liquids products are considerably reduced when studied under the actual physiologic temperature conditions on the oral cavity and pharynx.

  • 97.
    Qazi, Waqas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    In vitro models for simulating swallowing2019In: Dysphagia: Diagnosis and Treatment, 2019, p. 549-562Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter gives an overview of the in vitro models that are currently used for studying swallowing. The focus is on the construction, geometry, and performance of mechanical models. Swallowing simulations and mathematical modeling are also considered. The in vitro models that are concerned with the oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal phases of swallowing linked to bolus properties are discussed. The pharyngeal phase is given special consideration, as it is involved in both food transport to the stomach and air transport to the lungs, and therefore constitutes the most critical phase of swallowing.

  • 98.
    Qazi, Waqas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rheological modification of fluid foods for patients with dysphagia2016In: Annual Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, Vol. 24, p. 77-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 99.
    Qazi, Waqas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Ekberg, Olle
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    VALIDATION OF INLINE RHEOMETRY WITH THICKENER BASED LIQUIDS FOR DYSPHAGIA2016In: 6th ESSD Congress, 2016, article id 16.06Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 100. Richardson, G.
    et al.
    Bergenstahl, B.
    Langton, Maud
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    The function of ?-crystalline emulsifiers on expanding foam surfaces2004In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 655-663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expanding capacity and the stabilizing function of an ?-crystalline emulsifier on the bubble surfaces during and after expansion of a sugar foam were examined by volume measurements, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), freeze-etching and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and oscillatory rheological measurements. 0.2-10% (w/w) emulsifier, either a polyglycerol ester mixed with monoglycerides (PGE/MG) in ?-gel form or sodium oleate in micellar form, was mixed into a 65% sucrose solution in a specially designed vessel at a pressure of 1-5 bar. The foam produced was expanded to ambient pressure before measurements were made. The total volume of the foam was shown to increase proportionally to the expansion with both emulsifiers. With PGE/MG, small bubbles were produced (1-4 ?m). With oleate, the bubbles became much larger (5-25 ?m) and more coalescence could be observed. The storage modulus of the foam was shown to depend on the bubble sizes, the volume fraction of air and also the emulsifier. The foam stabilized with PGE/MG was stiff at a high concentration of emulsifier, while the micelle forming emulsifier remained more liquid-like. A possible explanation was that the ?-crystalline PGE/MG emulsifier formed aggregates and caused an attractive bridging interaction between the bubbles, which resulted in a higher storage modulus. The micellar oleate did not cause any bubble bridging. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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