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  • 51.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Metrology of categorical data in psychometrics2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Download (pdf)
    presentationsbild
  • 52.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Metrology: time for a new look at the physics of traceable measurement?2006In: Europhysics News, Vol. 37, p. 22-25Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 53.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Neddelning av kilogrammet.1989Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 54.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Nordic metrology: Now and in the future2004Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 55.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Optimised Measurement Uncertainty and Decision-Making in Conformity Assessment2007In: NCSLi Measure, Vol. 2, p. 76-88Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Optimised uncertainty and cost operating characteristics: new tools for conformity assessment. Application to geometrical product control in automobile industry2010In: Int. J. Metrol. Qual. Eng., Vol. 1, p. 105-10Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Translating measurement uncertainty into terms of effective impact associated with manufacture, testing and incorrect assessment gives a more “stakeholder” motivated (and ultimately optimised) approach to decision-making in conformance assessment. Recently developed decision-theory tools include the “optimized uncertainty” methodology and the “operating cost characteristic”. Overall costs, E, consisting of a sum of testing costs, D, and the costs, C, associated with customer risk, where RPV denotes the region of permissible values and s is a measure of dispersion. A complete, 3D surface of overall cost can indicate the optimum level of measurement effort of these two ranges, as recently published by the author in a wide range of applications: optimized acceptance sampling; optimized testing of measurement instruments; and an analysis of optimised calibration intervals and “guard-banding”. This approach is illustrated in the present work for the example of geometrical product control in the car industry, specifically the gap in vehicle closure panels taking account of customer dissatisfaction.

  • 57.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Quantifying Human Response: Linking metrological and psychometric characterisations of Man as a Measurement Instrument2013In: Journal of Physics, Vol. 459, p. 12057-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A better understanding of how to characterise human response is essential to improved person-centred care and other situations where human factors are crucial. Challenges to introducing classical metrological concepts such as measurement uncertainty and traceability when characterising Man as a Measurement Instrument include the failure of many statistical tools when applied to ordinal measurement scales and a lack of metrological references in, for instance, healthcare. The present work attempts to link metrological and psychometric (Rasch) characterisation of Man as a Measurement Instrument in a study of elementary tasks, such as counting dots, where one knows independently the expected value because the measurement object (collection of dots) is prepared in advance. The analysis is compared and contrasted with recent approaches to this problem by others, for instance using signal error fidelity.

  • 58.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Refractive and dielectric properties of helium, argon and nitrogen gases.1993Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 59.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Refractometry and gas density2004In: Metrologia, Special issue "Density Metrology", Vol. 41, no 2, p. S40-S51Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Research network for applied sensor development and measurement2000Report (Refereed)
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    fulltext
  • 61.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Revision of the 'Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement'2012In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 702-705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology, Working Group 1, JCGM-WG1, is currently revising the 'Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement'. In this communication, the motivation for undertaking such a revision is given and the main changes with respect to the current, 2008 edition are outlined.

  • 62.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Scoping Paper on Requirements for Future European Infrastructural Integration and Development2011Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 63.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Strategy for European national (nano)metrology 20202010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 64.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Using measurement uncertainty in decision-making & conformity assessment2014In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 51, p. S206-S218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements often provide an objective basis for making decisions, perhaps when assessing whether a product conforms to requirements or whether one set of measurements differs significantly from another. There is increasing appreciation of the need to account for the role of measurement uncertainty when making decisions, so that a 'fit-for-purpose' level of measurement effort can be set prior to performing a given task. Better mutual understanding between the metrologist and those ordering such tasks about the significance and limitations of the measurements when making decisions of conformance will be especially useful. Decisions of conformity are, however, currently made in many important application areas, such as when addressing the grand challenges (energy, health, etc), without a clear and harmonized basis for sharing the risks that arise from measurement uncertainty between the consumer, supplier and third parties. In reviewing, in this paper, the state of the art of the use of uncertainty evaluation in conformity assessment and decision-making, two aspects in particular—the handling of qualitative observations and of impact—are considered key to bringing more order to the present diverse rules of thumb of more or less arbitrary limits on measurement uncertainty and percentage risk in the field. (i) Decisions of conformity can be made on a more or less quantitative basis—referred in statistical acceptance sampling as by 'variable' or by 'attribute' (i.e. go/no-go decisions)—depending on the resources available or indeed whether a full quantitative judgment is needed or not. There is, therefore, an intimate relation between decision-making, relating objects to each other in terms of comparative or merely qualitative concepts, and nominal and ordinal properties. (ii) Adding measures of impact, such as the costs of incorrect decisions, can give more objective and more readily appreciated bases for decisions for all parties concerned. Such costs are associated with a variety of consequences, such as unnecessary re-manufacturing by the supplier as well as various consequences for the customer, arising from incorrect measures of quantity, poor product performance and so on.

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    fulltext
  • 65.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Weiterentwicklung der nationalen und regionalen metrologischen Infrastruktur in Europa2010In: PTB-Mitteilungen, Vol. 119, p. 335-40Article in journal (Refereed)
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    fulltext
  • 66.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Andersson, Anne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Löfdahl, Gunn-Mari
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Linkova, Marcela
    Ptackova, Katerina
    Henson, Andy
    Lea, Deborah
    Kovrzková, Jana
    Havrlantová, Silvie
    T2.8 - Social and ethical issues of metrology Deliverable D2.11. Recommendations to imporove the gender balance in European metrology.2007Report (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Beges, G
    Drnovsek, J
    Optimising calibration and measurement capabilities in terms of economics in conformity assessment2010In: Accreditation and Quality Assurance, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 147-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calibration measurement capabilities (CMC) are key factors in declaring the metrological performance of national metrology institutes (NMIs). Different countries have different CMC capabilities, reflecting both the existing measurement science competence as well as the perceived national needs for traceable calibration. This paper deals with increasing interest in decision-making in conformity assessment in terms of effective costs associated with measurement, testing and incorrect decision-making. The work examines the CMCs of calibration laboratories and NMIs with economic decision theory, in particular, in terms of customer satisfaction and with respect to conformity assessment issues. Optimal strategies for calibration costs, maintenance of national measurement standards, testing and production costs are illustrated in practical examples. CMCs are an essential instrument to enable conformity assessment both for product safety, legal metrology, quality requirements as well as scientific research. The newly defined term “target measurement uncertainty”, introduced in the latest international metrology vocabulary (VIM), should be therefore always related to appropriate CMCs and related dissemination paths in the whole conformity assessment procedure. These requirements are clear and transparent justification for the development of required national metrological infrastructures, in order to fulfil the requirements of target measurement uncertainty for intended use or application in the particular conformity assessment procedure.

  • 68.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Measurement with persons : Theory, methods and implementation areas2011Book (Other academic)
  • 69. Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mats E
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Sundling, Catherine
    Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Emardson, Ragne
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Psychometric measurement and decision-making of accessibilityin public transport for older persons with functional limitations2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vulnerable travellers face challenges in the transport environment potentially leading to decreased mobility. A research goal is to find out how to improve railway accessibility by reducing barriers for persons with functional limitations. A method for measuring accessibility has earlier been developed where travel barriers are assigned different weights based on persons’ functional ability and travel behaviour. The more weight placed on a certain barrier, the less accessible and thus less probable a particular journey will be. In the present work, these travel-barrier weights are analysed psychometrically based on the replies to questions about ease or difficulty of accessing travel with various barriers in responses given by 162 older long-distance travellers. An invariant measure theory approach (Rasch) is employed that allows (i) transformation of ordinal questionnaire data onto a quantitative interval scale; and (ii) separate measures of barrier level of challenge and person capability. A principal component analysis revealed three main clusters: 1) mainly ergonomically related questions; 2) mainly informational/cognitive; while cluster 3) is a mix of these two. Correlations are investigated between perceived accessibility and functional ability, and between person capability and functional ability. Independent sources of measurement uncertainty (e.g. under-estimation of scores) are distinguished from separate estimates of task challenge and individual travel capability. These independent sources are accounted for in estimates of reliability and validity of the various measures.

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    fulltext
  • 70.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Cano, Stefan
    Modus Outcomes, UK.
    Barbic, Skye
    University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Fisher Jr, William P
    University of California, USA.
    Patient-Centred Outcome Metrology for Healthcare Decision-Making2018In: IOP Conf. Series: Journal of Physics: Conf. Series, ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 1044, article id 012057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Valid and precise quantification of clinical variables is essential for appropriate interpretation to inform healthcare decision making. The outcomes produced from different measurement procedures and instruments, purporting to quantify the same measurand, should be directly comparable. This ensures the appropriate application and widespread adoption of clinical research findings. Metrology provides a framework for the development of a common language of reference measurement systems, which have the potential to improve the accuracy and comparability of patients' results.However, the practices, procedures and instruments used in social measurement are currently excluded from any formal metrological framework. In this paper, we build on previous arguments, and propose a new international body to bring together metrology, psychometrics, philosophy, and clinical management to support the global comparability and equivalence of measurement results in patient centred outcome measurement to improve healthcare.

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    fulltext
  • 71.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Cano, Stefan
    Modus Outcomes plc, UK.
    Kobe, Theresa
    Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Germany.
    Melin, Jeanette
    Fillmer, Ariane
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Restitution of ability and difficulty from decision-making: The metrology of human-based perceptions2018In: Measurement at the Crossroads: History,philosophy and sociology of measurement, Paris, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fundamental reappraisal of metrology, beyond superficial analogies with traditional measurement instruments, is needed if ordinal properties – such as ‘counted fractions’ (bounded by zero and one), performance metrics for ability tests, customer satisfaction, etc - are to be included in an extended quantity calculus for a new SI. Regarding a human being (or other ‘probe’) as a Measurement Instrument with Rasch measurement theory (i.e., postulating a Generalised Linear Model link function z = θ – δ, of a ‘probe’ attribute θ and a ‘target’ attribute δ) not only handles ordinal properties of the measurement system response, Psuccess, but also attribute separability in restitution; essential to underpinning measurement traceability and uncertainty. Examples from person-centred care (e.g., of Alzheimer ’s disease patients) will demonstrate causal Rasch models relating task difficulty and patient ability to explanatory variables such as test sequence entropy and brain atrophy, thereby enabling novel certified reference materials for traceability.

  • 72.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Davis, R. S.
    Källgren, H
    Neugebauer, L
    Thor, J.-E.
    Traceable measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of weakly-magnetic mass standards2001Report (Refereed)
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    fulltext
  • 73.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Emardson, Ragne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Measurement with Persons: A European Network2010In: NCSLi Measure, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 42-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European ‘Measuring the Impossible’ Network MINET promotes new research activities in measurement dependent on human perception and/or interpretation. This includes the perceived attributes of products and services, such as quality or desirability, and societal parameters such as security and well-being. Work has aimed at consensus about four ‘generic’ metrological issues: (1) Measurement Concepts & Terminology; (2) Measurement Techniques: (3) Measurement Uncertainty; and (4) Decision-making & Impact Assessment, and how these can be applied specifically to the ‘Measurement of Persons’ in terms of ‘Man as a Measurement Instrument’ and ‘Measuring Man.’ Some of the main achievements of MINET include a research repository with glossary; training course; book; series of workshops; think tanks and study visits, which have brought together a unique constellation of researchers from physics, metrology, physiology, psychophysics, psychology and sociology. Metrology (quality-assured measurement) in this area is relatively underdeveloped, despite great potential for innovation, and extends beyond traditional physiological metrology in that it also deals with measurement with all human senses as well as mental and behavioral processes. This is particularly relevant in applications where humans are an important component of critical systems, where for instance health and safety are at stake.

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    fulltext
  • 74.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Emardson, Ragne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Farbrot, Anne
    Abbas, Shabira
    Nihlstrand, Anna
    Measurements with persons: a European network. Case study healthcare products2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Emardson, Ragne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Jarlemark, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Björkdahl Sundling, Catherine
    Nilsson, Mats
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Measurement of Accessibility to rail transport systems2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Fisher Jr., William P.
    University of California, USA; LivingCapitalMetrics Consulting, USA.
    Counting and Quantification: Comparing Psychometric and Metrological Perspectives on Visual Perceptions of Number2015In: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 71, p. 46-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In gaining a better understanding of how to characterise human response, essential to improved person-centred care and other situations where human factors are crucial, recent work has attempted to link metrological (resolution, classification effectiveness) and psychometric (Rasch) characterisation of Man as a Measurement Instrument. The present work offers a more detailed account of these investigations following our first preliminary conference report, continuing a study of elementary tasks, such as counting dots, where one knows independently the expected value because the measurement object (collection of dots) is prepared in advance. The analysis is compared and contrasted with recent approaches to this problem by others, for instance using signal error fidelity and loss functions. Independent sources of measurement uncertainty, such as under-estimation of scores, are distinguished from separate estimates of task challenge and individual counting ability, and accounted for in estimates of reliability of the various measures.

  • 77.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Flys, Olena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    European Consultation on Metrological Traceability, Standards and Dissemination of Metrology in Industrial Nanotechnology2011Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 78.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Glebe, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    A survey of noise disturbance in Swedish farms of large wind turbines2019In: INTER-NOISE 2019 MADRID - 48th International Congress and Exhibition on Noise Control Engineering, SOCIEDAD ESPANOLA DE ACUSTICA - Spanish Acoustical Society, SEA , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2015, a project was initiated to investigate what factors were dominating the perception of wind turbine noise in the vicinities of seven wind farms in Sweden with relatively large wind turbines. The project included, besides two listening tests, a survey of perceptual and socioeconomic factors. In a questionnaire to habitants in the vicinity of the investigated wind farms, questions were asked regarding their housing situation, living conditions, the bedroom's orientation towards wind turbines, noise disturbance, visual impact from wind turbines, economic incentive models, ownership structures, general attitudes about wind power, and more. The purpose was to provide a holistic basis for a future synthesis model for disturbance, and this project focused on the correlation between noise disturbance and visual impact from wind turbines, ownership structures and financial compensation models from the wind farm. The questionnaire was analysed with psychometric methods, including logistic regression and multivariate techniques as principal component regression. The results of the psychometric analyses showed a large spread in sensitivity to disturbances (both visual and acoustic) from wind power plants, but the most difficult elements could be identified for various factors in the questions, including e.g. audial and health factors, and the quality of financial compensation.

  • 79.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Hedlund, Emma
    ADDENDUM to "Improved determination of the gas flow rate for UHV and leak metrology with laser refractometry"2007In: Meas. Sci. Technol., Vol. 18, p. 3661-3663Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 80.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Kärn, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Least-squares calibration of laser frequency differences.1991Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 81.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Lea, Deborah
    Kovrzková, Jana
    T2-8 Social and ethical issues of metrology EU iMERA Deliverable D2.10 Recommendations on ethical issues2007Report (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Löfdahl, Gunn-Mari
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Magnusson, Bertil
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Oorganisk kemi (Kmoo).
    Sacconi, A.
    Metrology needs and measurement priorities in the Environmental sector2007Report (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Melin, Jeanette
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Measuring counted fractions in healthcare2019In: TMQ Techniques, Methodologies and Quality, ISSN 2183-0940, no NÚMERO ESPECIAL, p. 60-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In establishing metrological quality assurance in healthcare, one major hurdle is the correct treatment ofordinal data typical of questionnaires, performance tests and other categorical data collected widely in care.Despite being known well over a century, there are still many examples of measurements in healthcare – forexample, (i) on-line tables of percentage performance indicators (e.g. fraction of patients seeing a doctorwithin seven days) and (ii) correlation plots for Alzheimer sufferers of cognitive scores against biomarkerconcentration – where the ‘counted fraction’ distortion of scales is not compensated for. The Rasch form ofgeneralised linear model not only handles counted fraction ordinality but also enables separation of objectand instrument attributes (such as task difficulty and patient ability) essential for metrological restitutionin measurement systems in healthcare. A perspective is given of a new kind of certified reference materialemploying causal Rasch models in terms of construct specification equations for metrological item bankingin the social sciences. This is part of the response to a recent call for: ‘a new international body to bringtogether metrology, psychometrics, philosophy, and clinical management to support the global comparabilityand equivalence of measurement results in patient centred outcome measurement to improve healthcare’.

  • 84.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Petersson, Niclas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Metrology of human-based and other qualitative measurements2016In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 27, no 9, article id 094003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The metrology of human-based and other qualitative measurements is in its infancy - concepts such as traceability and uncertainty are as yet poorly developed. This paper reviews how a measurement system analysis approach, particularly invoking as performance metric the ability of a probe (such as a human being) acting as a measurement instrument to make a successful decision, can enable a more general metrological treatment of qualitative observations. Measures based on human observations are typically qualitative, not only in sectors, such as health care, services and safety, where the human factor is obvious, but also in customer perception of traditional products of all kinds. A principal challenge is that the usual tools of statistics normally employed for expressing measurement accuracy and uncertainty will probably not work reliably if relations between distances on different portions of scales are not fully known, as is typical of ordinal or other qualitative measurements. A key enabling insight is to connect the treatment of decision risks associated with measurement uncertainty to generalized linear modelling (GLM). Handling qualitative observations in this way unites information theory, the perceptive identification and choice paradigms of psychophysics. The Rasch invariant measure psychometric GLM approach in particular enables a proper treatment of ordinal data; a clear separation of probe and item attribute estimates; simple expressions for instrument sensitivity; etc. Examples include two aspects of the care of breast cancer patients, from diagnosis to rehabilitation. The Rasch approach leads in turn to opportunities of establishing metrological references for quality assurance of qualitative measurements. In psychometrics, one could imagine a certified reference for knowledge challenge, for example, a particular concept in understanding physics or for product quality of a certain health care service. Multivariate methods, such as Principal Component Regression, can also be improved by exploiting the increased resolution of the Rasch approach.

  • 85.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Poulsen, Ove
    Ramanujam, PS
    Simonsen, Harald
    Comparison of I2-stabilised He-Ne lasers. 2.1990Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 86.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Poulsen, Ove
    Simonsen, Harald
    Comparison of I2-stabilised He-Ne lasers.1989Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 87.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Quaglia, Milena
    Laboratory of the Government Chemist Limited, UK.
    Cano, Stefan
    Modus Outcomes, UK.
    Melin, Jeanette
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Innovative measurements forimproved diagnosis and management of neurodegenerative diseases – EMPIRNeuroMet 15HLT042017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Neurodegeneration is an incurable, debilitating process which presents a growing medical and economic challenge due to our aging population. Alzheimer’s disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Objectives: Currently, there are no minimally invasive diagnostic tools which allow for early diagnosis or monitoring of the progression of disease in patients. Methods: The European EMPIR NeuroMet 15HLT04 project (2016 – 9) is helping to address these objectives by exploring innovative techniques for early diagnosis and monitoring, based on non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging approaches, and developing improved clinical assessment protocols focused on monitoring declining cognitive functions. Results: As a case study, the person-centred measurement of cognitive ability is examined, where better analysis of correlations with brain atrophy is enabled thanks to the Rasch metrological approach. A new model of the metrology of ordinal data, including performance metrics and restitution is presented. Conclusions: An example is given of how the Rasch invariant measure theory can improve contemporary studies of possible correlations between neurodegeneration in patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease – specifically failing cognitive ability – and brain atrophy. It is the first time to our knowledge that the known distortions - revealed by the Rasch psychometric model - of measurement scales in common clinical instruments for cognitive assessment have been corrected for in correlation studies. Possibilities of higher resolution and more reliable clinical decisions open up. Acknowledgments The European Metrology Programme for Innovation & Research (EMPIR, Horizon2020, Art. 185) is jointly funded by the EMPIR participating countries within EURAMET (www.euramet.org) and the European Union in this EMPIR 15 HLT04 NeuroMet project (coordinator: LGC (UK)). Thanks are due, particularly, to Members of the EMPIR NeuroMet consortium. PROJECT WEBSITE http://www.lgcgroup.com/our-science/national-measurement-laboratory/european-metrology-programme-for-innovation-and-re/neuromet/#.WRHEO2dYrcs

  • 88.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Tellett, G
    Study of Metrology Knowledge Transfer in the European Research Area2006Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 89.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Zelan, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Det nya internationella måttsystemet: – tid för ett nytt måttsystem2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag kan alla måttenheter härledas från SI-systemets sju basenheter (meter, kilogram, sekund, kelvin, candela, ampere, mol). Genom nya forskningsframsteg planeras nu en reformering av SI-systemet. Förändringen förväntas att bli beslutad 2018, och forskare på alla länders olika Nationella Metrologiinstitut jobbar nu med förberedelserna för att införa det nya SI-systemet.

  • 90.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Åman, Johan
    Development of a grating cavity laser.1992Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 91.
    Quaglia, Milena
    et al.
    LGC, UK.
    Bellotti, V.
    Cano, S.
    Deane, K.
    Divieto, C.
    Köbe, T.
    Flöel, A.
    Lehmann, S.
    Martos, G.
    Pang, S.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Schubert, F.
    Parkes, H.
    The EMPIR project: Innovative measurements for improved diagnosis and management of neurodegenerative diseases (NeuroMet)2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An initial review of previous studies relating to Alzheimer disease state indices was carried out at RI.SE with the aim to identify additional data to be included in this study and provide generic guidelines for metrological quality assurance of clinical neuropsychological data.

    Work to utilise new cognitive data to re-analyse correlation studies between MMSE and MRI estimates of grey-matter volume has in this first report of the EMPIR NeuroMet project mainly be done at RI.SE using initially data from earlier studies. Rasch analysis reveals significant distortion of MMSE scales. That in turn leads to a re-evaluation of correlations and decisions (e.g. about health) based on those correlations.

  • 92.
    Quaglia, Milena
    et al.
    LGC, UK.
    Bellotti, Vittorio
    University College London, UK.
    Cano, Stefan
    Modus Outcomes, UK.
    Cyrar, Adam
    LGC, UK.
    Deane, Katherine
    University East Anglia, UK.
    Divieto, Carla
    Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    Fillmer, Ariane
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Giangrande, Chiara
    Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais, France.
    Köbe, Theresa
    Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany ; Berlin Institute of Health, Germany.
    Lehmann, Sylvain
    CHU Montpellier, France.
    Melin, Jeanette
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Pang, Susan
    LGC, UK.
    Parkes, Helen
    LGC, UK.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    BETTER MEASUREMENT FOR IMPROVED DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: UPDATE ON THE EMPIR NEUROMET PROJECT2018In: Alzheimer's & Dementia, ISSN 1552-5260, E-ISSN 1552-5279, Vol. 14, p. P759-P760, article id 7Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of novel therapies for Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is constrained by the lack of available methods for preclinical diagnosis, despite extensive research on biomarker identification. Here, we present an update of progress from EMPIR NeuroMET, a project combining diverse expertise from five National Measurement Institutes (NMIs), with clinicians and academics, to overcome limitations in measurement methods in neurodegenerative disease diagnosis and treatment.

  • 93.
    Sundling, Catherine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Emardson, Ragne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Overall accessibility to traveling by rail for the elderly with and without functional limitations: the whole-trip perspective2014In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, Vol. 11, no 12, p. 12938-12968Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elderly persons’ perceived accessibility to railway traveling depends on their functional limitations/diseases, their functional abilities and their travel behaviors in interaction with the barriers encountered during whole trips. A survey was conducted on a random sample of 1000 city residents (65–85 years old; 57% response rate). The travels were perceived least accessible by respondents with severely reduced functional ability and by those with more than one functional limitation/disease (e.g., restricted mobility and chronic pain). Those who traveled “often”, perceived the accessibility to be better than those who traveled less frequently. For travelers with high functional ability, the main barriers to more frequent traveling were travel costs and low punctuality. For those with low functional ability, one’s own health was reported to be the main barrier. Our results clarify the links among existing functional limitations/functional abilities, the barriers encountered, the travel behavior, and the overall accessibility to traveling. By operationalizing the whole-trip concept as a chain of events, we deliver practical knowledge on vulnerable groups for decision-making to improve the transport environment for all.

  • 94.
    Sundling, Catherine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Emardson, Ragne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Two models of accessibility to railway traveling for vulnerable, elderly persons2015In: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 72, p. 96-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public transport mobility is restricted for the vulnerable travelers, e.g., those with functional limitations. By removing barriers, a more flexible and independent travel behavior is accomplished. For whole-trip traveling, we model accessibility as a three-way reciprocal relationship among travelers’ functional ability, barriers met and resulting travel behaviors. For every journey and destination, an accessibility measure is constructed from all barriers’ weights and the probabilities of encountering each of them in traveling to specific destinations. The accessibility to whole-trip traveling is then modeled by travelers’ individual weightings of sets of barriers and the probabilities of encountering them. By using specific reference values, as in master scaling, we estimate the measurement error for each participant’s perceived effort to overcome a certain barrier, and thus obtain a calibrated measure of accessibility. We conclude that customized abatement procedures must accomplish better accessibility for all, especially for the vulnerable travelers.

  • 95.
    Sundling, Catherine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hellqvist, Sara
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Emardson, Ragne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Travel behaviour change in old age: the role of critical incidents in public transport2015In: European Journal of Ageing, ISSN 1613-9372, E-ISSN 1613-9380, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 75-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Older people’s travel behaviour is affected by negative or positive critical incidents in the public transport environment. With the objective of identifying such incidents during whole trips and examining how travel behaviour had changed, we have conducted in-depth interviews with 30 participants aged 65–91 years in the County of Stockholm, Sweden. Out of 469 incidents identified, 77 were reported to have resulted in travel behaviour change, 67 of them in a negative way. Most critical incidents were encountered in the physical environment on-board vehicles and at stations/stops as well as in pricing/ticketing. The findings show that more personal assistance, better driving behaviour, and swift maintenance of elevators and escalators are key facilitators that would improve predictability in travelling and enhance vulnerable older travellers’ feeling of security. The results demonstrate the benefit of involving different groups of end users in future planning and design, such that transport systems would meet the various needs of its end users.

  • 96.
    Zelan, Martin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Arrhén, Fredrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    Silander, Isak
    Axner, Ove
    Optical measurement of the gas number density in a Fabry–Perot cavity2013In: Meas. Sci. Technol., Vol. 24, p. art nr 105207-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An optical method for measuring the gas density by monitoring the refractive index inside a high-finesse Fabry–Perot cavity is presented. The frequency of a narrow linewidth Er:fiber laser, locked to a mode of the cavity, is measured with the help of an optical frequency comb while the gas density inside the cavity changes. A resolution of 1.4 × 10-6 mol m-3 is achieved in 3 s for nitrogen, which allows measurement of a relative gas density change of 3.4 × 10-8 at atmospheric pressure.

  • 97.
    Zelan, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Vikten av ett nytt kilogram2018In: Fysikaktuellt, no 3, p. 16-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 98. Zerrouki, S
    et al.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Comparative study of several roughness measurement techniques: application to the characterisation of mass standards’ surface quality2001Conference paper (Other academic)
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