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  • 51.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Hertzberg, Tommy
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Scaling of internal wall temperatures in enclosure fires2015In: Journal of fire sciences, ISSN 0734-9041, E-ISSN 1530-8049, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 113-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical scaling is an efficient and cost-effective modeling tool to be used in fire safety engineering. Scaling of internal wall temperatures was investigated in room fire tests in three different scales, that is, full scale (1:1), medium scale (1:2), and small scale (1:3.5). The fire sources were either placed at the center or in the corner of the enclosures. The measured time-dependent internal wall temperatures, incident heat fluxes, and gas temperatures in different scales are compared and analyzed. Test results show that the proposed scaling method is able to scale the internal wall temperatures (temperatures inside the walls) and incident heat fluxes well, especially in medium scale.

  • 52.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Hertzberg, Tommy
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Scaling of internal wall temperatures in enclosure fires2013Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 53.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Hertzberg, Tommy
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Appel, Glenn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Rahm, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Scaling of internal wall temperatures in enclosure fires2013In: Brandposten, no 48, p. 44-45Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 54.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Huang, Chen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Svensson, Robert
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Husted, Bjarne
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Runefors, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wahlqvist, Jonatan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Verification, validation and evaluation of FireFOAM as a tool for performance design2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The open source CFD code FireFOAM has been verified and validated against analytical solution and real fire tests. The verification showed that FireFOAM solves the three modes of heat transfer appropriately. The validation against real fire tests yielded reasonable results. FireFOAM has not been validated for a large set of real fires, which is the case for FDS. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the user to perform the validation, before using the code. One of the advantages of FireFOAM compared to the Fire Dynamic Simulator is that FireFOAM can use unstructured grid. FireFOAM is parallelised and scales reasonable well, but is in general considerably slower in computation speed than the Fire Dynamic Simulator. Further, the software is poorly documented and has a steep learning curve. At present it is more a tool for researchers than for fire consultants.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 55. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    A new methodology of design fires for train carriages2014In: Proceedings of Sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security., SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut , 2014, , p. 133-142Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Analysis of Muskö tunnel fire flows with automatic sprinkler activation2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of the present study is analyzing the best position of a sprinkler nozzle in a tunnel cross-section in the Muskö tunnel, south of Stockholm, Sweden. Activation of the sprinklers installed along the centerline and along the sidewall is investigated through analysis of full scale experiments and by three dimensional numerical modelling. Then the tunnel velocity is analyzed by one dimensional numerical modelling for various fire locations in the Muskö tunnel. For both activating the automatic sprinklers nearby the fire and avoiding activation of the sprinklers further downstream, the automatic sprinklers are recommended to be installed along the centerline of the tunnel. It has also been found that the tunnel velocity varies significantly with the fire location. When the fire is on the left side of the tunnel, the flow velocity mostly remains in a range of 1 m/s (positive or negative) within the first 10 minutes, which helps early activation of the automatic sprinklers. When the fire is on the right side of the tunnel, the flow velocity mostly remains within a range of -1 m/s and 1 m/s within the first 5 minutes, and the velocity mostly increases to 2 m/s at around 10 min. Therefore, the scenario for fire located on the left side is better than that for fire on the right side, especially when it is located between the middle of the right section and the right portal. As one typical case with fire on the right side, the tunnel velocity maintains at 1 m/s for the first 5 min and gradually increases to 2 m/s at 10 min. Under such conditions, the automatic sprinkler system is expected to perform well. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    RISE Rapport 2017:51
  • 57. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Automatic sprinkler system in tunnel fires2012In: Proceedings from the Fifth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, SP , 2012, , p. 113-122Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Automatic sprinkler systems in tunnel fires2011In: Brandposten, no 44, p. 22-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 59.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Automatid sprinkler systems in tunnel fires2011In: Fire Safety and Fire Protection News & Insight on Fire Safety SearchArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 60.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Design Fires for Tunnels with Water-Based Fire Suppression Systems2016In: Proceedings from the 7th International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, 2016, p. 305-316Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of tests were carried out to investigate design fires for tunnels with water-based fire suppression systems under different conditions in a 1:4 model scale tunnel. The key parameters including fuel load covers, activation time, water flow rate, nozzle type, ventilation velocity, sprinkler section length and tunnel width were tested. Technical information and analyses of test data are presented with a focus on the influence of these different parameters on the design fire in a tunnel with a water-based fire suppression system. Further, guidance for the design fires in tunnels with water-based fire suppression systems is proposed.

  • 61.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Discussions on critical velocity and critical Froude number for smoke control in tunnels with longitudinal ventilation2018In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 99, p. 22-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determination of critical velocity is a key issue for smoke control in any tunnel with longitudinal ventilation. The critical Froude model using single Froude number of 4.5 has for decades been widely used in engineering applications. This value was originally used by Danziger and Kennedy and they argued that the critical Froude number obtained by Lee et al. was in a range of 4.5 and 6.7 and therefore a conservative value of 4.5 was obtained. This paper explores the validity of using single critical Froude number of 4.5 by investigating the original sources and comparing it to recent research results. It was found that the value of 4.5 obtained in the original source corresponds to a large tunnel fire and it correlates well with data from other literature within a narrow range of large fire sizes. Using this value produces a significantly lower critical velocity for a wide range of fire sizes and therefore it is not conservative. The Froude number of 6.7 obtained by Lee et al. corresponds to another Froude number with a different definition and it is therefore not comparable with the value of 4.5. It is found that the use of a single value of 4.5 for the critical Froude number is not reasonable in calculation of the critical velocity for smoke control in tunnels with longitudinal ventilation.

  • 62.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Fire-induced ceiling jet characteristics in tunnels under different ventilation conditions2015Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 63.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Fire-induced ceiling jet characteristics in tunnels under different ventilation conditions2015In: Brandposten, no 52, p. 36-37Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Influence of fire suppression on combustion products in tunnel fires2018In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 97, p. 96-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of model scale tunnel fire tests was carried out to investigate effects of the fire suppression system on production of key combustion products including CO and soot. The key parameters accounted for in the tests include fuel type, ventilation velocity and activation time. The results show that fire suppression indeed has influence on production of combustion products especially for cellulose fuels. In case that the fire is not effectively suppressed, e.g. when the water density is too low or activation is too late, the CO concentration and visibility could be worse than in the free-burn test. From the point of view of production of combustion products, only fire suppression systems with sufficient capability and early activation are recommended to be used in tunnels.

  • 65.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Influence of ventilation on tunnel fires with and without water-based suppression systems2016Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 66.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Maximum Temperature beneath Ceiling in a Tunnel Fire2010Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 67.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Model Scale Tunnel Fire Tests – Automatic Sprinklers2011Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 68. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Model Scale Tunnel Fire Tests - Automatic water spray system2010Report (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Model scale tunnel fire tests on maximum ceiling gas temperature for structural protection2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Model scale tests with varying materials as tunnel structure were carried out to further study the theoretical model of maximum gas temperature for structural protection. New correlation for calculation of air mass flow rate is introduced. Test results showed that the maximum ceiling gas temperatures increases with the increasing heat release rate and decreases with the increasing tunnel width and thermal inertia of the tunnel linings. Higher ventilation velocity may also result in slightly higher temperatures for large fires.

    Comparisons of model scale tests and theoretical models showed that the theoretical models predict the maximum ceiling gas temperature very well. A fire with a fixed heat release rate or a time-varying heat release rate, the effects of tunnel structure, tunnel ventilation, tunnel width and fire size have been well considered by the model. Comparisons of other model and full scale tests with theoretical models further verified this.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 70.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Model scale tunnel fire tests with automatic sprinkler2013In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 61, p. 298-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The study focuses on the performance of an automatic sprinkler system in a model scale tunnel with longitudinal ventilation. A total of 28 tests were carried out in a 1:15 model scale tunnel using an automatic sprinkler system with glass bulbs. The maximum heat release rate, energy content and failure of the automatic sprinkler system were analysed. The results show that high ventilation rates and low water flow rates result in a failure of the automatic sprinkler system in a longitudinal ventilated tunnel fire. The main reason for the failure under the tested water flow rates was the effect of the longitudinal flow on the fire development and the hot gas flow close to the sprinklers. The fire development and the activation heat release rate of the first activated bulb are intimately related to the ventilation velocity. The fire spread to the neighbouring wood crib was investigated and a presentation of tests conducted using a deluge system are given.

  • 71. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Model scale tunnel fire tests with automatic sprinkler2013In: Fire Safety Journal, no 61, p. 298-313Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 72. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    New challenges for the safety in submerged floating tunnels2013In: Sixth Symposium on Strait Crossings - Extreme Crossinga and New Technologies, 2013, , p. 850-861Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 73.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    New models for calculating maximum gas temperatures in large tunnel fires2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this report focuses on estimating maximum gas temperatures at ceiling level during large tunnel fires. Gas temperature is an important parameter to consider when designing the fire resistance of a tunnel structure. Earlier work by the authors has established correlations between excess ceiling gas temperature and effective tunnel height, ventilation rate, and heat release rate. The maximum possible excess gas temperature was set as 1350°C, independent of the tunnel structure and local combustion conditions. As a result of this research, two models have been developed to better estimate possible excess maximum gas temperatures for large tunnel fires in tunnels with differing lining materials and structure types (e.g. rock, concrete). These have been validated using both model- and full-scale tests. Comparisons of predicted and measured temperatures show that both models correlate well with the test data. However, Model I is better and more optimal, due to the fact that it is more conservative and easier to use. The fire duration and flame volume are found to be related to gas temperature development. In reality, the models could also be used to estimate temperatures in a fully developed compartment fire.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 74.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Overview of research on fire safety in underground road and railway tunnels2018In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 81, p. 568-589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past two decades, the interest in fire safety science of tunnels has significantly increased, mainly due to the rapidly increasing number of tunnels built and the catastrophic tunnel fire incidents occurred. This paper presents an overview of research on fire safety in underground road and railway tunnels from the perspectives of fire safety design. The main focuses are on design fires, structural protection, smoke control and use of water-based fire suppression systems. Besides, some key fire characteristics, including flame length, fire spread, heat flux and smoke stratification, are discussed.

  • 75.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Parametric study of design fires for tunnels with water-based fire suppression systems2021In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 120, article id 103107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of tests was carried out to investigate the influence of different parameters on design fires for tunnels with water-based fire suppression systems in a 1:4 scale tunnel. The key parameters tested included fuel load covers, activation time, water density, nozzle type, ventilation velocity, sprinkler section length and tunnel width. Analyses of test data are presented with a focus on the influence of these parameters on the design fire. The main findings are that the fuel load covers, activation time and ventilation velocity all play significant roles in the fire development. Further, suggestions on design fires for tunnels with water-based fire suppression systems are proposed. © 2020 The Authors

  • 76. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Position of maximum ceiling temperature in a tunnel fire2014In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 889-905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The position of the maximum ceiling gas temperature indicates how far the fire plum could be blown away by a ventilation flow. It could be applied to estimate the activation of a detection system or a sprinkler system, or to estimate the range of damage to the tunnel structure. An equation for predicting the position of the maximum ceiling gas temperature in a tunnel fire is proposed based on a theoretical analysis and validated using both laboratory test data and full scale test data. A flame angle has been defined based on the position of the maximum ceiling temperature in a tunnel fire. The flame angle is directly related to the dimensionless ventilation velocity, and it becomes insensitive to the heat release rate for a large tunnel fire. Further, it is found that a constant critical flame angle exists, defined as the flame angle under the critical condition when the backlayering just disappears. For a given tunnel and fire source, the flame angle under critical conditions is the same value, independent of heat release rate, and the maximum ceiling temperature under critical conditions always corresponds to the same position. Generally the horizontal distance between the position of the maximum ceiling temperature and the fire source centre is around 1.5 times the effective tunnel height under the critical condition.

  • 77. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Probing the effects of auto sprinklers2011In: World Tunneling, ISSN 1756-4107, no may, p. 29-31Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Scaling of wood pallet fires2017In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 88, p. 96-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    §method for scaling time-resolved burning behaviors of wood pallet fires has been developed. A series of validation tests was carried out in two different scales and the time-resolved heat release rates were obtained and compared. The results show that the scaling method proposed works very well. The scaling method proposed could be applied to general wood pallets.

  • 79. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Scaling of wood pallet fires2014Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 80.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Scaling of wood pallet fires2014In: Brandposten, no 51, p. 20-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 81. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    The Fire Growth Rate in a Ventilated Tunnel Fire2011In: Fire Safety Science proceedings of the tenth international symposium, International Association for fire safety science , 2011, , p. 347-358Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 82. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    The maximum ceiling gas temperature in a large tunnel fire2012In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 48, no Febr, p. 38-48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 83. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    The Maximum temperature of buoyancy-driven smoke flow beneath the ceiling in tunnel fires2011In: Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 204-210Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 84. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Tunnel Effect2012In: Fire Risk Management, ISSN 1757-1324, no Dec-Jan, p. 36-38Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Tunnel fire safety: editorial2018In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 97, p. 85-86Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 86.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Appel, Glenn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Nyman, Hans
    Water-based fire suppression systems found to be effective in model scale tunnel tests2014In: Brandposten, no 50, p. 34-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 87.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Blom, Joel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Mechanisms and performance of different fixed fire fighting systems in tunnels – summary of laboratory and tunnel fire tests2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents both small scale laboratory tests and tunnel fire tests carried out in a FORMAS project. Four series of small scale laboratory tests were conducted to obtain the material properties, burning properties, water spray distributions, and spray droplet size distributions. The main efforts were, by adopting the Froude scaling, seven series of tests conducted in a about 50 m long container tunnel with a scale of 1 to 3. This report presents results on the influence of low pressure, medium pressure and high pressure water-based fixed fire fighting systems (FFFSs) on fire development, fire spread to adjacent vehicles, structural protection, tenability, smoke control, spray deflection and spray resistances. The focus is to compare the performance of three default FFFSs and to evaluate the efficiency of each of the FFFS. The results show that the default low pressure FFFS performs well in term of suppressing the fire development, preventing the fire spread to nearby vehicles, providing tenable conditions for evacuation and rescue service, protecting tunnel structure and easing the problem with spray deflection due to tunnel ventilation. The default high pressure FFFS is usually on the opposite side while the default medium pressure FFFS usually lie in between.

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  • 88.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jiang, Lei
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Influence of tunnel slope on smoke control2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The critical velocity and backlayering length in sloped tunnels are investigated by numerical simulations using FDS. Simulation in two full-scale tunnels, with negative slopes ranging up to -18 % and heat release rates from 5 to 100 MW were carried out.

    The results show that NFPA 502 equation significantly overestimates the effect of negative slopes.

    The equation proposed by Atkinson and Wu is found to be in closer agreement with the results. A simplified correlation, i.e. Eq. (12), is proposed and recommended for practical use.

    The previous correlation for dimensionless backlayering length, Eq. (3), is valid for tunnels of various slopes and aspect ratios, and can be used for prediction of backlayering length.

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    fulltext
  • 89.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Correlations between different scales of metro carriage fire tests2013Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 90.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Correlations between different scales of metro carriage fire tests2013In: Brandposten, no 48, p. 28-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 91. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Effect of longitudinal ventilation on fire growth rate and flame height in a tunnel fire2011In: Papers presented at 14th International Symposium on Aerodynamics and Ventilation of Tunnels : [proceedings], 2011, , p. 375-385Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 92. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Fire development in different scales of train carriages2014In: Sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security. New Zealand. 2014-03-12--14, 2014, Vol. 11, p. 203-15p. 302-315Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A fire development analysis of three series of train carriage fire tests in different scales was carried out. These train carriage fire tests included 1:10 model scale tests, 1:3 model scale tests and 1:1 full scale tunnel tests. The heat release rate (HRR) correlations between different scales of carriage fire tests were carefully investigated. The mechanism of fire development is very similar in different scales of tests involving fully developed fires. After the critical fire spread, the fire travelled along the carriage at an approximately constant speed. The maximum heat release rate obtained for a fully developed fire is dependent on the ventilation conditions and also the type and configuration of the fuels, and a simple equation has been proposed to estimate the maximum heat release rate. A global correction factor of the maximum heat release rate is presented and examined.

  • 93.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Vylund, Lotta
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Appel, Glenn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Influence of fire suppression on combustion products in tunnel fires2015In: Brandposten, no 52, p. 22-23Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 94. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Lei, B.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Scale Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Smoke Control for Rescue Stations in Long Railway Tunnels2012In: Journal of Fire Protection Engineering, ISSN 1042-3915, E-ISSN 1532-172X, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 101-131Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 95. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Lei, B.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Study of critical velocity and backlayering length in longitudinally ventilated tunnel fires.2010In: Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 45, no 6-8, p. 361-370Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Southwest Jiaotong University, China.
    Lei, Bo
    Southwest Jiaotong University, China.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Theoretical and Experimental Study of Critical Velocity for Smoke Control in a Tunnel Cross-Passage2013In: Fire Technology, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 435-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretical analyses and model-scale experiments have been conducted to investigate the critical velocity in a tunnel cross-passage which is defined as the minimum ventilation velocity through the fireproof door to prevent smoke from flowing into a cross-passage. The effect of the fireproof door geometry, heat release rate, ventilation velocity and fire source location were taken into account. The critical velocity in a tunnel cross-passage varies approximately as 3/2 power of the fireproof door height, as one-third power of the heat release rate and as exponential law of the ventilation velocity, almost independent of the fireproof door width. The critical Froude Number mainly ranges from 5 to 10 and consequently as it is not a constant value it is not very suitable to predict the critical velocity in a tunnel cross-passage. A dimensionless correlation that can correlate well with the experimental data was proposed.

  • 97.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Lönnermark, AndersRISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.Gehandler, JonatanRISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.Ingason, HaukurRISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Proceedings from the Tenth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security2023Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This publication includes the Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security (ISTSS) held in Stavanger, Norway, April 26-28, 2023. The Proceedings include 45 papers and 16 posters. The papers were presented in 16 different sessions, i.e., Keynote sessions, Alternative Fuel Vehicle Safety, Risk Management & Explosion, Digitization, Explosion, Poster Corner, Ventilation 1&2, Fixed Fire Fighting Systems, Tenability and Evacuation, Emergency Management, Evacuation, Safety Management, Fire Dynamics and Resistance. Each day was opened by invited Keynote Speakers (in total five) addressing broad topics of pressing interest. The Keynote Speakers, selected as leaders in their field, consisted of Ove Njå (University of Stavanger, Norway), Vladimir Molkov (Ulster University, UK), Ulf Lundström (Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden), Mirjam Nelisse (TNO, The Netherlands), and Gunnar Jenssen (SINTEF, Norway). We are grateful that the keynote speakers were able to share their knowledge and expertise with the participants of the symposium.

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  • 98.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Svensson, Robert
    Wahlqvist, Jonathan
    Van Hees, Patrick
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Numerical modelling of water sprays and fire suppression in tunnels2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work aims to validate numerical modelling of water sprays against experiments carried out in this project. The focus has been on the influence of ventilation on water distributions on the tunnel floor, the influence of water sprays on control of smoke flow, and the modelling of pool fires and crib fires. Besides, full scale tunnel fires with FFFS in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation and point extraction ventilation systems are simulated and compared, as well recommendations for numerical modelling of such scenarios.

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    fulltext
  • 99.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Vylund, Lotta
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Appel, Glenn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Influence of fire suppression on combustion products in tunnel fires2015Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 100.
    Liu, Yongqiang
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research. Chongqing University, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Liu, Fang
    Chongqing University, China.
    Control of thermal-driven smoke flow at stairways in a subway platform fire2021In: International journal of thermal sciences, ISSN 1290-0729, E-ISSN 1778-4166, Vol. 165, article id 106937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To manage thermal-driven smoke from fires in a subway station, a mechanical ventilation system is usually installed. Such a system normally consists of an air supply system and a smoke exhaust system. In case of a platform fire, the ventilation systems will be activated to control the smoke and to provide better environmental conditions for personnel evacuation. This paper conducted a theoretical analysis and a series of CFD simulations to study the critical velocity (minimum air velocity) at the stairways for preventing smoke propagating from the platform to the upper floor through the stairways in case of a platform fire. Correlations for critical velocities are established for two typical types of stairways (i.e., with and without side slabs). It is found that the critical velocity is well correlated with the heat release rate by a 1/3 power law function for both types of stairways, but it varies with the height of the smoke curtain at the stairway by a 1.375 and a 2.55 power law function for stairways with and without side slabs, respectively. The results may serve as a useful reference for smoke control in subway platform fires.

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