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  • 51.
    Blomqvist, Per
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Simonson, Margaret
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Review of Fire Emissions from Products with and without BFRs and the Hazard of Exposure for Fire Fighters and Clean-up Crews2007Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 52.
    Blomqvist, Per
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Simonson, Margaret
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Quantified in Large-Scale Fire Experiments2012In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 513-528Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Mitigation of fire damages in multi-storey timber buildings: Statistical analysis and guidelines for design2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of multi-storey timber buildings has increased during the last twenty years. Recent well-known fires in London, Dubai and Brazil, although not in timber buildings, have increased concerns regarding large fire spread and high damage fires. As timber is a combustible material, concerns have been expressed regarding property safety and it has been questioned whether fire damage is more significant in buildings with timber as the main structural material than in other types of buildings. This report includes a statistical study of data of fires in multi-storey timber buildings in New Zealand and an analysis of high damage fires that occurred in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA. The data from New Zealand showed no significant difference between share of fires that had flame damage out of the compartment of origin in (a) multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992 and (b) other types of multi-storey buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992. Fires in multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed before 1992 spread more frequently to neighbouring compartments than fires in other multi-storey timber buildings constructed before 1992. Data of high damage fires occurring in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA indicated that outdoor fire spread is the most common cause for large fire spread. Additionally, the data indicates that high water damage is most often caused by fire service interference and is significantly less often related to sprinkler activation.

    Based on the analysis of fire spread of high damage fires in the USA, guidelines are given in the report to limit (1) outdoor fire spread, (2) fire spread through cavities, and (3) fire spread directly from a fire compartment to a neighbouring fire compartment. A number of these guidelines were evaluated using a fire test of a two-storey timber structure.

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  • 54.
    Carlsson, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Wadman, Charlotta
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Visualization of Measurement Data from Tunnel Fire2007Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 55.
    Hjohlman, Maria
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    van Hees, Patrick
    Flame Spread Modelling of Complex Textile Materials2011In: Fire Technology, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 85-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flame spread in textile materials was modelled using two different simulation programs: the semi-empirical area-based code ConeTools, and the computational fluid dynamics, CFD, code Fire Dynamics Simulator, FDS, (version 5). Two textile products developed within the EU-project Flexifunbar were selected for study. The two products show a large difference in composition and application area, one material is developed to function as a protecting layer for the underlying structure in case of fire while the other is an insulating material with no requirements on fire performance. The products represent materials for which fire test results indicate a classification on either end of the rating scale for wall materials according to EN 13501. Two FDS-models were developed for the simulations. The first FDS model was a relatively simple model of the small scale Cone Calorimeter test (ISO 5660) which served the purpose of a first preliminary validation of the model for pyrolysis of the material. In the second FDS model, a model of the intermediate scale Single Burning Item, SBI, test method (EN 13823), the fire scenario was expanded to simulate flame spread over a surface. The work included determination of the necessary material properties. In ConeTools, the option to predict an SBI test was used. The results from the two simulation methods were compared to real SBI tests. Neither model was able to fully predict the heat release rate for these complex products. However, the results from both codes were accurate enough to correctly predict the fire rating class for wall linings according to EN13501.

  • 56.
    Huang, Chen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Ramachandra, Vasudev
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Modelling thermal runaway initiation and propagation for batteries in dwellings to evaluate tenability conditions2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal propagation is one of the major challenges when batteries will be used in dwellings in large scale. It means the exothermic reactions in the cell are out of control and can lead to a fast release of flammable and toxic gases. In a system involving a large number of cells, thermal runaway can rapidly propagate from one battery cell to the whole system, which means substantial fire and explosion risks, an event that is important to mitigate and prevent. Multi-physics simulations together with full-scale testing is a cost-effective method for designing safer batteries. This project aims at simulating thermal runaway initiation and propagation using a multi-physics commercial software GT-Suite. 

    A battery thermal runaway model containing 12 prismatic cells based on 3-D Finite Element approach was built using GT-Suite. The computed thermal runaway time instants versus thermal runaway cell number were compared with full-scale experimental data with reasonable agreement. Quantitative sensitivity study on the model input parameters and model space and time resolutions on the computed start time instant and time duration of thermal runaway were performed. The thermal runaway model was then extended with an electric equivalent sub-model to simulate the short circuit. With the electrical model acting as the input to the thermal model, the most interesting output of the simulation is the change in temperature of the cells, dependent on the current in the cells, with respect to time. The current is determined by the value of the external resistance through which the short takes place and the voltage level of the battery pack. The obtained results from the above short circuit simulations can only be used as a starting point and not as absolute values for neither triggering the thermal model nor for accurately simulating a battery under an electrical load. Furthermore, GT-Suite was applied to simulate the gas dispersion inside a room. A comparative study of the dispersion of toxic gases during thermal runaway, utilising an arbitrary release of HCN to represent the battery gases, in a small compartment with natural ventilation was investigated and the results compared the same situation simulated in FDS. The pipe based modelling supported by GT-Suite has limited applicability and overestimated the concentrations close to the ceiling whereas the lateral concentrations where underestimated. 

    The multi-physics model for battery thermal runaway process is promising and worth to be applied with care for designing safer batteries in combination with full-scale testing. 

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  • 57.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Quant, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Pramanik, Roshni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Olofsson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Electric Vehicle Fire Safety in Enclosed Spaces2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lately, concerns regarding fires in electric vehicles in enclosed spaces such as in road tunnels and parking garages have been raised and there are indications that parking of electric vehicles may be prohibited in some spaces. For the success of electromobility and the transition from fossil to renewable fuels, it is important to understand the risks and consequences of fires in electric vehicles and to provide technical solutions if necessary, so as not to hinder the widespread adoption of electric vehicles.

    In this work, a literature review on fires in vehicles has been conducted. The focus was on fires in enclosed spaces involving electric vehicles. A comprehensive risk assessment of electric vehicle fires was performed using systematic hazard identification. In addition, a workshop with representatives from three Swedish fire and rescue services was carried out to evaluate the emergency rescue sheets/response guides.

    The main conclusions are; That statistics regarding vehicle fires need to be improved, as of today the root causes of fires are missing in the data, which could potentially result in non-fact based regulations; The data studied in this work does not imply that fires in electric vehicles are more common than fires in internal combustion engine vehicles; Fires in electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles are similar in regards to the fire intensity and peak heat release rates. 

    The most effective risk reductions measures on vehicle level, to decrease the number of fires in EVs, could not be defined based on that relevant data on the root causes of fires in EVs are currently not publicly accessible. The most effective risk reduction measures, to limit fire spread, on infrastructure level were the use of fire sprinkler systems, fire detection systems (early detection) and increased distance between parked vehicles.

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    Electric Vehicle Fire Safety in Enclosed Spaces
  • 58.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Analysis of combustion gases from large-scale electric vehicle fire tests2023In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 139, article id 103829Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fires involving electric vehicles have attracted considerable attention in the media. In particular, the toxic gases released upon combustion of electric vehicles and lithium-ion batteries has been a major concern. In this study, the results of six large-scale vehicle fire tests are presented including three electric vehicles, two internal combustion engine vehicles, and one electric vehicle with the battery pack removed. Additionally, separate battery component tests were performed. In two of the vehicle fire tests a sprinkler system was used to assess the effect of water application on the combustion gases. Furthermore, calculations of the heat release rate, peak heat release rate and total heat release were performed, as well as chemical analysis of gas and soot. Peak heat release rate and total heat release were affected by the fire scenario and vehicle model, but not significantly by the type of powertrain. Regarding the combustion gases, hydrogen fluoride represented the largest difference between electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. Additionally, battery specific metals such as manganese, nickel, cobalt and lithium were found in higher concentrations in the electric vehicle tests than in the internal combustion vehicle tests, in which larger quantities of lead were found.

  • 59.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Van Hees, Patrick
    Lund University, Sweden.
    McNamee, Margaret
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Jansson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Strömgren, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Technical measures to prevent and mitigate the consequences of arson in school buildings2014In: Fire Safety Science, International Association for Fire Safety Science , 2014, p. 531-543Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fires in school buildings caused by arson are a major problem in Sweden and in particular are the costs of these fires disproportionately high compared to the costs of fires in buildings in general. The Swedish Research Board initiated a multidisciplinary project in order to reduce the number and consequences of arson fires in schools. Both technical and social aspects have been dealt within this project. In this paper an overview of the findings of the sub-project related to technical issues are presented. The goal and purpose of it has been to evaluate technical systems and engineering solutions to prevent and reduce the consequences of arson in school buildings. As part of this has a number of issues been considered including: identification of typical fire scenarios and design fires, an inventory of available technical systems and solutions, small- And real-scale experiments and an extensive cost-benefit analysis of a selection of technical systems.

  • 60.
    Klason, Lars-Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Johansson, Nils
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    van Hees, Patrick
    Design fires for fire protection engineering of Swedish School Buildings2011In: Conference proceedings from Fire and materials 2011, Interscience Communications , 2011, , p. 159-170Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Safer battery systems in electrified vehicles – an electrified bus perspective2016In: Eurotransport, ISSN 1478–8217, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 50-53Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries offer great energy and power densities accompanied with long battery life time. However, if a mechanical fault occurs or the batteries over-heat, the flammable electrolyte of the Li-ion battery may pose a  risk. For Eurotransport, colleagues  from  the SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden (SP) and Chalmers University of Technology explore further, identifying the risks involved with electric buses.

  • 62.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thermal Modelling of Cell-to-Cell Fire Propagation and Cascading Thermal Runaway Failure Effects for Lithium-Ion Battery Cells and Modules Using Fire Walls2016In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 163, no 14, p. A2854-A2865Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model is presented for predicting the cell-to-cell propagation of a thermal runaway/fire in a lithium-ion battery cell to neighboring cells by simulating the temperature development in neighboring cells. The modelling work comprises of two major steps; setting up a model of the cells including the thermal properties of the cells, and then validating the model through experiments where the boundary conditions in the validation test must be determined carefully. The model is developed to allow a fast evaluation of several different preventive means of thermal insulation, it is not modelling the pack and cells to a great detail. Still the experimental validation indicates that the model is good enough to fulfil its purpose of the model. A feasibility study using the model is conducted assessing two different types of fire walls between battery modules of 10 cells. The results show that there is a substantial risk for a cascading of thermal events in a battery pack, although cooling systems and fire walls may mitigate these risks

  • 63.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Loren, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Mellander, Bengt Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Characteristics of lithium-ion batteries during fire tests2014In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 271, no Dec, p. 414-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial lithium-ion battery cells are exposed to a controlled propane fire in order to evaluate heat release rate (HRR), emission of toxic gases as well as cell temperature and voltage under this type of abuse. The study includes six abuse tests on cells having lithium-iron phosphate (LFP) cathodes and, as a comparison, one test on conventional laptop battery packs with cobalt based cathode. The influence of different state of charge (SOC) is investigated and a limited study of the effect of water mist application is also performed. The total heat release (THR) per battery energy capacity are determined to be 28-75 kJ Wh-1 and the maximum HRR values to 110-490 W Wh -1. Hydrogen fluoride (HF) is found in the released gases for all tests but no traceable amounts of phosphorous oxyfluoride (POF3) or phosphorus pentafluoride (PF5) are detected. An extrapolation of expected HF emissions for a typical automotive 10 kWh battery pack exposed to fire gives a release of 400-1200 g HF. If released in a confined environment such emissions of HF may results in unacceptable exposure levels.

  • 64.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gas Emissions from Lithium-Ion Battery Cells Undergoing Abuse from External Fire2016In: Proceedings from the 4th International Conference on Fire in Vehicles - FIVE 2016, 2016, p. 253-256Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 65.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Battery Aspects on Fires in Electrified Vehicles2014In: Proceedings from 3rd International Conference on Fire in Vehicles - FIVE 2014, 2014, , p. 209-220Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Electronics. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lithium-Ion Battery Aspects on Fires in Electrified Vehicles on the Basis of Experimental Abuse Tests2016In: Batteries, ISSN 2313-0105, Vol. 2, no 9, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety issues concerning the use of large lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in electrified vehicles are discussed based on the abuse test results of Li-ion cells together with safety devices for cells. The presented abuse tests are: overcharge, short circuit, propane fire test and external heating test (oven). It was found that in a fire, cells with higher state of charge (SOC) gave a higher heat release rate (HRR), while the total heat release (THR) had a lower correlation with SOC. One fire test resulted in a hazardous projectile from a cylindrical cell. In the fire tests, toxic gas emissions of hydrogen fluoride (HF) were measured for 100%, 50% and 0% SOC.

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    fulltext
  • 67.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Björklund, Anders
    CFD-simulation of under-ventilated fires - Comparison to experimental results2009In: Proceedings pof SMIRT 20, Gesellschaft für Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit , 2009, , p. 1-9Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Modin, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Brandt, Jonas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    SP Brandteknik arrangerar seminarium och kurs om fordonsbränder2013In: Brandposten, no 49, p. 8-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 69.
    Simonson, Margaret
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Bliss, Don
    Fire performance of selected IT equipment2004In: Fire Technology, no 40, p. 27-37Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Simonson, Margaret
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Environmental Assessment of fires in products using the fire LCA model2005In: Proceedings of 8th International Symposium on Fire Safety Science., IAFSS , 2005, , p. 1071-1082Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Simonson, Margaret
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Rosell, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Fire-LCA Model: Furniture Case Study2004In: Flame Retardants, 2004, p. 15-26Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 72.
    Simonson, Margaret
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Emanuelsson, Viktor
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Stripple, Håkan
    A Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) Model for Cables based on the Fire-LCA Model2003In: Fire and Materials, Vol. 27, p. 71-89Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Simonson, Margaret
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Evaluating the Impact of Fires on the Environment2011In: 10th International Symposium on Fire Safety Science, International Association for fire safety science , 2011, , p. 43-59Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Simonson, Margaret
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Fire emissions from products with and without BFRs and the hazard of exposure for fire fighters and clean-up crews2010In: Proceedings of Interflam 2010 12th international Fire Science & Engineering Conference, Interscience Communications Ltd , 2010, , p. 1399-1410Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Simonson McNamee, Margaret
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Application of a Cost–benefit Analysis Model to the Use of Flame Retardants2014In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 67-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the past 30 to 40 years, regulation of the environment has been governed by Environmental Protection Agencies worldwide. During this time we have learned that regulations have significant costs, not just benefits, and that analysis of the cost and benefit of proposed rules is an indispensable component of responsible regulation. Despite present-day recognition of the importance of cost benefit analysis prior to enacting regulations, this is still a controversial issue, especially in light of moral issues such as establishing the value of a statistical life and whether net benefit is always necessary before invoking regulation. In this paper, real and perceived risks associated with exposure to flame retardants and to fires are discussed and a monetary value placed on the costs and benefits associated with these chemicals. The model developed has been called the Fire-CBA model and is applied to a case study comparing CRT TV sets where one model contains flame retardant in the outer enclosure and the other does not. In all, a total of 9 scenarios were tested for the TV set application of the Fire-CBA model. In all cases, the benefits of a high level of fire performance in a TV set far outweigh the costs associated with obtaining that high level of fire safety. The net benefit is a function of the choices made in the various scenarios but ranges from US$49 to 1073 million per year. The various scenarios were chosen to illustrate the significance of the parameters included in the study, as the specific value chosen for each parameter can vary depending on the assumptions made in the model.

  • 76.
    Sjöström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Brandrisker vid tankstationer för flytande naturgas2014In: Brandposten, no 50, p. 14-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 77.
    Strömgren, Michael
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Dwelling and fire scenario characteristics in fatal residential fires - a review2016In: Book of Abstracts Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2016, 2016, p. 37-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Tuovinen, Heimo
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Persson, Henry
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Råd för installation av värmedetektionskablar2006Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 79.
    Vermina Lundström, Frida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Faktorer som påverkar en bostadsbrands storlek – analys av försäkringsbolagens data2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, the insurance sector reports 23 000 fire incidents in Sweden. Of these, the fire rescue service are called into 6 000. Since there is little knowledge on the fires that the fire rescue service is not involved in, incident data from insurance companies has been analyzed.

    One limitation to the results in this report is that the insurance sector’s definition of fire is broad; e.g. short-circuit is regarded a fire incident.

    Still, the data complies with the statistics from the fire rescue service: Kitchen fires and fire in electric equipment are the most common sources of fire in residential buildings.

    The cost (property damage) of a fire is also presented. It is seen that the most common fires sources commonly lead to a relatively low economical loss.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 80.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Gehandler, JonatanRISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.Andersson, PetraRISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Proceedings from the Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles: STAVANGER, NORWAY, APRIL 24-25, 20232023Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    These proceedings include papers and extended abstracts from the 7th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles – FIVE 2023, held in Stavanger, Norway, April 24-25, 2023. The proceedings include an overview of research and regulatory actions coupled to state-of-the-art knowledge on fire related issues in vehicles, such as passenger cars, buses, trucks and trains, or related infrastructure, such as car parks or vehicle transport at sea. Fires in transport systems are a challenge for fire experts. New fuels that are efficient and environmentally friendly are rapidly being introduced, with emphasis on high energy density batteries. This rapid development, however, introduces new fire risks not considered previously and we risk getting a situation where we do not have enough knowledge to tackle them. In this context FIVE represents an important forum for discussion of the fire problem and for exchange of ideas. Fire protection in road, rail, air, and sea transport is based on international regulations since vehicles cross borders and the safety requirements must be the same between countries. Therefore, understanding of safety and regulations must be developed internationally and the FIVE-conference has a significant role to play as a place to exchange knowledge. FIVE attracts researchers, operators, manufacturers, regulators, rescue services and other key stakeholders. Of particular value is the mix of expertise and the international participation in the conference. The conference is unique as it includes fires in different types of vehicles. In recognition of the fact that many of the fire problems faced by these vehicles are the same, the solutions to them can also be similar. In the proceedings you will find papers on vehicle fire development, bus fires, alternative fuel and electric vehicles, and car park fires. We are grateful to the renowned researchers and engineers presenting their work and to the keynote speakers setting the scene. We sincerely thank the scientific committee for their expert work in selecting papers for the conference.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 81.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Pushp, Mohit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Impact of different Li-ion cell test conditions on thermal runaway characteristics and gas release measurements2023In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 68, article id 107785Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing use of lithium-ion batteries requires further efforts in safety testing and evaluation. It is of utmost importance that the effects of different test conditions are understood, particularly for validation of computer models. While plenty of data from thermal runaway tests are available in literature, few are from large test series. The missing systematic approach to evaluate the impact of different test conditions implies uncertainty when comparing test results. In addition, the fast pace in cell development, including an increasing utilization of larger cells, necessitate the validation of previously published results. This work presents thermal runaway data from 37 tests on one type of large format prismatic lithium-ion cell (157 Ah). The tests are conducted in a closed pressure vessel with inert atmosphere as well as in an open setup below an exhaust collector hood. Further, six different thermal runaway trigger methods are employed as well as four different states of charge. Emphasis is put on the gases produced, a key aspect for safety evaluation. The results are compared with literature data and a new modified method is proposed for calculating the characteristic venting rate in a closed pressure vessel. It is concluded that the trigger method affects the gas production rate, mass loss, and maximum temperature of the cell as much as its state of charge. The large cell format potentially impacts the specific total gas production and enhances the effects of different trigger methods, but has a small impact on other evaluation parameters. No significant differences were observed in the test results due to the different test setups, apart from differences due to potential combustion of the released gases in ambient atmosphere. 

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