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  • 51.
    Atamer Balkan, Büşra
    et al.
    Middle East Technical University, Turkey.
    Menendez III, Hector
    South Dakota State University, USA.
    Nicolaidis Lindqvist, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Odoemena, Kelechi
    Ag-AIM Solutions, Nigeria.
    Lamb, Robert
    Foundation for Inclusion, USA.
    Tiongco, Monique Ann
    Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines.
    Gupta, Stueti
    BlueKei Solutions, India.
    Peteru, Arpitha
    Foundation for Inclusion, USA.
    Resilience for Smallholder Farmers during Pandemic: Model Conceptualization for Agriculture and Food Supply Chain Dynamics2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 52.
    Axell, Monica
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Sikander, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ). RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Ruud, Svein
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Att gå från lågenergihus till aktivhus - hur skapar vi nästa generations energieffektiva byggnader i stadsdelen Kongahälla?2010Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 53.
    Badenes, Borja
    et al.
    Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain.
    Sanner, Burkhard
    UBeG GbR, Germany.
    Mateo Pla, Miguel
    Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain.
    Cuevas, Jose
    Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain.
    Bartoli, Flavia
    SPIN-PET, Italy.
    Ciardelli, Francesco
    SPIN-PET, Italy.
    González, Rosa
    AIMPLAS Plastics Technology Centre, Spain.
    Nejad Ghafar, Ali
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Fontana, Patrick
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Lemus Zuñiga, Lenin
    Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain.
    Urchueguía, Javier
    Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain.
    Development of advanced materials guided by numerical simulations to improve performance and cost-efficiency of borehole heat exchangers (BHEs)2020In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 201, article id 117628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One promising way to improve the efficiency of borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) in shallow geothermal applications is to enhance the thermal properties of the materials involved in its construction. Early attempts, such as using metal tubes in the 1980s or the utilization of thin–foil hoses, did not succeed in being adopted by the market for diverse reasons (cost, corrosion, fragility, etc…). In parallel, the optimization of pipe size, the use of double-U-tubes, thermally enhanced grout, etc. were able to bring the measure for the BHE efficiency, the borehole thermal resistance, from 0.20 to 0.15 K/(Wm) down to 0.08–0.06 K/(Wm) in the best solutions today. A further improvement cannot be expected without development of new, dedicated materials, combining the versatility of plastic like PE with an increased thermal conductivity that matches the respective properties of the rock and soil. This goal was included in the Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda of the European Technology Platform on Renewable Heating and Cooling in 2013. Within an EU supported project, both BHE pipes and grouting materials have been produced prototypically in small amounts, suitable for the first tests in the intended environment. The present work explains the research pathways envisaged and the resulting sensitivity analysis to highlight the influence of some of the most critical parameters that affect the overall performance of a GSHP system. The results have allowed guiding the real development of more efficient new advanced materials for different scenarios representative of different European regions. Finally the developed materials and their properties are discussed, including a comparative assessment about their compliance with reference material properties as currently seen in the BHE market. © 2020 The Author(s)

  • 54.
    Baison, J.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Zhou, Linghua
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Nils
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Mörling, Tommy
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Grahn, Thomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Olsson, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Karlsson, Bo
    Skogforsk, Sweden----.
    Wu, Harry
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Mellerowicz, Ewa
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. IIC, Sweden.
    García-Gil, Maria
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Genetic control of tracheid properties in Norway spruce wood2020In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 18089Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through the use of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) mapping it is possible to establish the genetic basis of phenotypic trait variation. Our GWAS study presents the first such effort in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L). Karst.) for the traits related to wood tracheid characteristics. The study employed an exome capture genotyping approach that generated 178 101 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) from 40 018 probes within a population of 517 Norway spruce mother trees. We applied a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) based association mapping method using a functional multi-locus mapping approach, with a stability selection probability method as the hypothesis testing approach to determine significant Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs). The analysis has provided 30 significant associations, the majority of which show specific expression in wood-forming tissues or high ubiquitous expression, potentially controlling tracheids dimensions, their cell wall thickness and microfibril angle. Among the most promising candidates based on our results and prior information for other species are: Picea abies BIG GRAIN 2 (PabBG2) with a predicted function in auxin transport and sensitivity, and MA_373300g0010 encoding a protein similar to wall-associated receptor kinases, which were both associated with cell wall thickness. The results demonstrate feasibility of GWAS to identify novel candidate genes controlling industrially-relevant tracheid traits in Norway spruce. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • 55.
    Balkan, Büsra Atamer
    et al.
    Middle East Technical University, Turkey.
    Nicolaidis, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Odoemena, Kelechi
    Ag-AIM Solutions, Nigeria.
    Lamb, Robert
    Foundation for Inclusion, US.
    Tiongco, Monique Ann
    Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines.
    Gupta, Stueti
    BlueKei Solutions, India.
    Peteru, Arpitha
    Foundation for Inclusion, US.
    Menendez, Hector Manuel
    South Dakota State University, US.
    Understanding the Impact of COVID-19 on Agriculture and Food Supply Chains: System Dynamics Modeling for the Resilience of Smallholder Farmers2022In: International Journal on Food System Dynamics, E-ISSN 1869-6945, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 255-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    COVID-19 has caused severe agriculture and food supply chain disruptions, significantly affecting smallholder farmers who supply most of the world’s food, specifically their changes in vulnerability, resilience, and food loss and waste. Therefore, the objective of this study was to understand the complex causal and feedback relationships for this system by developing a dynamic hypothesis and causal loop diagrams utilizing the System Dynamics methodology. Results provide a roadmap for dialogue and a framework for case-specific model development and help to guide policy decisions for smallholder farmers’ survival during health crises. 

  • 56.
    Banushi, Gersena
    et al.
    HafenCity University, Germany.
    Vega, Alberto
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Weidlich, Ingo
    HafenCity University, Germany.
    Yarahmadi, Nazdaneh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Kim, Jooyong
    Korea District Heating Corporation, Korea.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Sällström, Jan Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Durability of District Heating Pipelines Exposed to Thermal Aging and Cyclic Operational Loads2021In: Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice, ISSN 1949-1190, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 04020067Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fourth generation district heating networks (4GDH) must be designed for future energy systems, integrating renewable volatile energy sources, with lower operation temperatures, and consequent reduction of heat losses and increased energy efficiency. The lower levels of operating temperature and the greater amount of cyclic loading, influence aging, and the service life of 4GDH pipelines, differently from traditional district heating (DH) networks, and thus require proper investigation of the system response at the cross-sectional level. To evaluate the material durability of 4GDH pipelines, we have analyzed the behavior of the service steel pipe, the insulation foam, and their adhesive interaction, using an innovative analytical and experimental procedure. This paper describes the influence of traditional and future operational loading conditions on the performance of preinsulated bonded single-pipe systems, representing the majority of currently operating DH pipelines. The performed fatigue analysis of the steel service pipe showed that the lifetime of 4GDH pipelines is expected to increase because of the lower operating temperature, and the low impact of thermal loading volatility in the network, compared to conventional DH. The accelerated aging tests of DN 50/160 pipes demonstrated that the combined effect of cyclic mechanical loading and thermal aging accelerates the rate of chemical degradation of the PUR foam, leading to a faster deterioration of the mechanical adhesion strength. The shear strength tests of naturally aged DH pipes revealed that, besides the initial pipe system characteristics and aging period, the residual shear strength of the polyurethane (PUR) foam depends on the temperature history, decreasing with the level of operating temperature and amount of fluctuation. The obtained results give a better understanding of the performance of traditional and 4GDH pipelines in operation that need to be appropriately considered in the engineering design standards of DH networks toward a more sustainable and energy-efficient infrastructure. 

  • 57.
    Becker, K.
    et al.
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Cao, S.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, A.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Hotop, SK
    Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Germany.
    Kuka, J.
    Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis, Latvia.
    Hansen, J.
    Statens Serum Institute, Denmark.
    Haldimann, K.
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Grinberga, S.
    Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis, Latvia.
    Berruga-Fernández, T.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Huseby, D. L.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Shariatgorji, R.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindmark, Evelina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development.
    Platzack, Björn
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development.
    Böttger, E. C.
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Crich, D.
    University of Georgia, USA.
    Friberg, L. E.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Vingsbo Lundberg, C.
    Statens Serum Institute, Denmark.
    Hughes, D.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Brönstrup, M.
    Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Germany.
    Andrén, P. E.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Liepinsh, E.
    Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis, Latvia.
    Hobbie, S. N.
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Antibacterial activity of apramycin at acidic pH warrants wide therapeutic window in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and acute pyelonephritis2021In: EBioMedicine, E-ISSN 2352-3964, Vol. 73, article id 103652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The clinical-stage drug candidate EBL-1003 (apramycin) represents a distinct new subclass of aminoglycoside antibiotics for the treatment of drug-resistant infections. It has demonstrated best-in-class coverage of resistant isolates, and preclinical efficacy in lung infection models. However, preclinical evidence for its utility in other disease indications has yet to be provided. Here we studied the therapeutic potential of EBL-1003 in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infection and acute pyelonephritis (cUTI/AP). Methods: A combination of data-base mining, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, time-kill experiments, and four murine infection models was used in a comprehensive assessment of the microbiological coverage and efficacy of EBL-1003 against Gram-negative uropathogens. The pharmacokinetics and renal toxicology of EBL-1003 in rats was studied to assess the therapeutic window of EBL-1003 in the treatment of cUTI/AP. Findings: EBL-1003 demonstrated broad-spectrum activity and rapid multi-log CFU reduction against a phenotypic variety of bacterial uropathogens including aminoglycoside-resistant clinical isolates. The basicity of amines in the apramycin molecule suggested a higher increase in positive charge at urinary pH when compared to gentamicin or amikacin, resulting in sustained drug uptake and bactericidal activity, and consequently in potent efficacy in mouse infection models. Renal pharmacokinetics, biomarkers for toxicity, and kidney histopathology in adult rats all indicated a significantly lower nephrotoxicity of EBL-1003 than of gentamicin. Interpretation: This study provides preclinical proof-of-concept for the efficacy of EBL-1003 in cUTI/AP. Similar efficacy but lower nephrotoxicity of EBL-1003 in comparison to gentamicin may thus translate into a higher safety margin and a wider therapeutic window in the treatment of cUTI/API. Funding: A full list of funding bodies that contributed to this study can be found in the Acknowledgements section. © 2021 The Author(s)

  • 58.
    Bengtsson, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Foresight in Sweden: Keynote speech on state of the art of foresight in Sweden.2021In: Foresight in the Nordics, webinar, December 16, 2021: Foresight in the Nordics - ett webbinarium med Futures Finland och Vinnova - startskottet för nordiskt framsynssamarbete, 2021Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 59.
    Bengtsson, Felix
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Pehlivan, Ilknur Bayrak
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Alkali ion diffusion and structure of chemically strengthened TiO2 doped soda-lime silicate glass2022In: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, ISSN 0022-3093, E-ISSN 1873-4812, Vol. 586, p. 121564-121564, article id 121564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusion kinetics and structural properties of chemically strengthened titania-doped soda-lime silicate glasses were studied by depth-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and spectrophotometry. The glasses were ion exchanged, whereby Na+ in the glass was replaced by K+ in a molten salt bath, at four different treatment temperatures between 350 and 500 °C. The alkali diffusion coefficient, DK-Na, and corresponding activation energy were calculated to be between 3.26×10−12 and 4.47×10−11 cm2s−1 and between 101.1 kJmol−1 and 105.6 kJmol−1, respectively. DK-Na was observed to decrease as the TiO2 concentration was increased. Raman analysis showed Q3-silicate species with different bond lengths, which was attributed to surface compressive stresses, and increasing Si-O-Si bond angle with increasing ion exchange temperature. Ti3+ ions exist as a minor species in the glasses and its concentration depends on the TiO2 content. Deconvolution of the optical absorption spectra reveals Jahn-Teller compressive distortion of the Ti3+ octahedral coordination.

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    fulltext
  • 60.
    Bengtsson, Felix
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Pehlivan, Ilknur Bayrak
    Uppsala University.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Dataset: Alkali Ion diffusion and structure of chemically strengthened TiO2 doped soda-lime silicate glass2022Data set
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusion kinetics and structural properties of chemically strengthened titania-doped soda-lime silicate glasses were studied by depth-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and spectrophotometry.

    Chemical strengthening (CS) is frequently used to strengthen thin glasses. CS of glass is based on ion exchange of larger ions from a molten salt into glass. Both the ion and counter ion are conventionally monovalent alkali ions.

    Diffusion kinetics and structural properties of chemically strengthened titania-doped (TiO2) soda-lime silicate (SLS) glasses were studied by depth-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and spectrophotometry. The glasses were ion exchanged, whereby Na+ in the glass was replaced by K+ in a molten salt bath, at four different treatment temperatures between 350 and 500 °C.

    The following samples were prepared and analyzed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS): (1) SLS, (2) 4.7% TiO2, and (3) 9.9% TiO2. The ion exchange procedure was performed for 5 h at four different temperatures below Tg (350, 400, 450 and 500 °C). Before XPS measurements, the samples were wet-etched using hydrofluoric (HF) acid to produce samples with six different etching depths.

    The Raman scattered light was detected in the backscattering configuration employing linear polarization and 2400 lines/mm grating, and a 100x objective lens. Depth profile spectra were collected at six different depths of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 µm for each glass sample, employing 12 scans with a 10 s exposure time for each scan.

    Spectrophotometric measurements were conducted before and after K+/Na+ ion-exchange treatmeatment for 5 h at 500 °C, collected between 300 and 2500 nm.

  • 61.
    Bengtsson, Simon
    et al.
    Promiko AB, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Optimization of Aeration Diffuser System Design: A Simulation Study2023In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 149, no 4, article id 04023003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of aeration diffuser system design on electricity usage, effluent water quality, and life-cycle cost in biological wastewater treatment was investigated. A plant-wide model was implemented, and simulations were carried out with different process configurations and aeration systems. Model-aided design of new aeration diffuser systems could significantly decrease electricity usage and life-cycle cost while at the same time avoiding negative effects on the treatment performance. The optimum distribution of diffuser systems in tanks in series was found to be influenced by process configuration, volumetric loading rate, temperature, and the internal recirculation flow rate. Compared with a conventional design approach, increasing the number of diffusers, up to a critical point, led to higher energy efficiency and lower life-cycle cost. This was despite an increasing limitation of the minimum airflow rate, leading to dissolved oxygen levels significantly exceeding control targets. Aeration systems optimized by simulations were found to, independently of process configuration, exhibit 20% lower electricity usage and 16%-18% lower life-cycle costs compared with systems designed based on a more conventional approach typically applied in practice.

  • 62.
    Berggren, Göran
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    30 år av träbyggande – nedslag kring förvaltningsaspekter2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thirty years of building with wood Sweden has a long tradition of building in wood. Today’s tall wooden buildings, often higher than two stories, are based on completely different technical solutions to the ones used historically. Modern wood construction is rooted in extensive international and national research and development – not on a single national tradition. It began simultaneously across Europe, as the rule change was part of an EU directive. Modern wood construction is also characterized by a high level of industrial prefabrication and short construction times, while modern IT is widely used in the planning and production process. Altogether, these factors entail a very different process from concept to completion, to the one used in the traditional construction industry. A whole host of factors determine the value of a building. It must be fit for purpose, sustainable and attractive. It should be eco-friendly and able to be erected and managed at a reasonable cost. Five different organizations have now been interviewed about their experiences and about the property management. All the interviewees are very positive to build, use and manage wooden buildings. Experience they have gathered by themselves and in cooperation with others give them the confidence to keep building with wood. They can meet every present and predicted demand by customers and governmental rule or regulation. The setbacks are few and easy to solve and interviewees can’t find any reason to not build in wood.

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  • 63.
    Berggren, Göran
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Scharf, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pilotmontage av nytt fasadelementsystem i trä - Fasaden i staden Snabb Snygg Smart2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is about the evaluation of the pilot installation of a new wooden façade element system that was mounted on two four-story timber buildings. Technical solutions were evaluated, mounting time, moisture and deformations were measured, and interviews were conducted with builders on-site. The mounting started in April 2020 and was followed-up with measurements and interviews during 2020. The two buildings were built by Lindbäcks Bygg AB on Porsön in Luleå, Sweden and the developer was Lindbäcks Fastigheter AB. The façade elements were prefabricated by Lindbäcks Bygg AB in the factory at Öjebyn in Piteå Sweden. The mounting work went well, and the builders were positive about the facade system. When the builders had learned how to carry out the work, it took three minutes per façade element, which is equivalent to 0.9 m2/min. This is faster than the traditional installation of a facade on a construction site. The assembly around the windows took about 10 minutes, which is about the same time as in traditional assembly. During 8 months of measurements the average moisture content (MC) behind the façade elements was about 20% during winter (low T, high RH) and about 11% during summer. That is within expected values due to the annual variation in climate. The deformation was measured with laser scanning and gave a deviation of ±1 cm from a perfect plane, indicating a better dimensional stability than traditionally mounted wooden facades. From a working environment perspective, the assembly work was quieter as no nail guns were needed and the builders did not need to handle individual panel boards. Significantly less nails and screws were needed compared to traditional assembly. Experience from the assembly show the possibility for improvements. The construction platform was not optimal for loading elements during assembly. When the builders had gained some experience of the system, the limitation was to get the elements up quickly enough. A fast and efficient assembly requires a detailed planning in the design phase, and the elements should be numbered in a logical way and sufficient packaging needs to be secured. The promising results show the potential for a future way to manufacture and mount wooden facades. “The facade of the city Swift Stylish Smart” is a project within the strategic program Bioinnovation founded by Vinnova (Sweden’s innovation agency), Energimyndigheten (Swedish Energy Agency), Formas (A Swedish Research Council for Sustainable Development), and the industry partners.

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  • 64.
    Bergström, Johan M
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Ziegler, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Persson, Björn
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Mawlayi, Faiz
    IVL, Sweden.
    Holmqvist, Johan
    IVL, Sweden.
    Melolinna, Nelli
    IVL, Sweden.
    IMPLEMENTERING OCH INNOVATIONER FÖR FÄRDPLAN BYGG- OCH ANLÄGGNINGSSEKTORN : Förslag till aktiviteter och projekt för färdplanens genomförandet och måluppfyllelse2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhället och mänskligheten står inför en av de största utmaningar vi har ställts inför någonsin. Klimatet berör oss alla. Aldrig tidigare har vi vetat så mycket om vårt beteende, vår påverkan och konsekvenserna för jordens klimat - samtidigt som vi fortsätter bygga vårt samhälle på ett på många sätt ohållbart vis. Idag står byggsektorn för cirka en femtedel av Sveriges samlade klimatutsläpp (Boverket, 2021). Fossilfritt Sverige bildades på initiativ av regeringen år 2015 inför FN:s klimatmöte i Paris, och lanserade år 2018 ”Färdplanen för bygg- och anläggningssektorn” (”färdplanen”), en av 22 branschspecifika färdplaner - med målsättning om en klimatneutral byggbransch till år 2045 (Fossilfritt Sverige, 2018). Sedan färdplanen lanserades 2018 har utveckling skett inom hållbarhets- och klimatområdet för Bygg- och anläggningssektorn. Exempelvis så har olika initiativ och plattformar startats upp med mål för minskad klimatpåverkan och klimatneutralitet, flertalet projekt med låg klimatpåverkan har genomförts, antal certifierade byggnader ökar, tillgång till betong och stål med lägre klimatpåverkan ökar och lagen om klimatdeklarationer har trätt i kraft. Trots denna utveckling finns det indikationer på att det går för långsamt och risk finns att färdplanens mål missas (Byggindustrin, 2022) (Fosilfritt, 2022) (Klimatpolitiska rådet, 2022). Detta utvecklingsprojekt syftade till att ta fram åtgärder för implementering och innovationer för att uppnå färdplanens mål. Projektets kartläggning, litteraturstudie inklusive enklare utsläppskartläggning förväntades ge en bild om vad som behöver göras framåt för att nå färdplanens mål och ligga till grund för ett förslag till aktiviteter och projekt som kan ligga till grund för en nationell genomförandeplan med en strategi och struktur för färdplanens implementerings- och innovationsarbete. Projektet har genomförts i ett antal arbetspaket med ingående aktiviteter, såsom nulägesanalys, litteraturstudier, utsläppskartläggning, intervjuer och workshops. Nulägesanalys och utsläppskartläggning har bestått att söka information och data i websökningar, litteraturstudier, och i samtal med branschaktörer om vilka genomförda och pågående initiativ och projekt som finns, samt kartlägga och redovisa utsläpp uppdelat på de olika branscherna inom bygg- och anläggningssektorn. Djupintervjuer har gjorts med ett flertal branschaktörer med kunskap, insyn och erfarenhet av klimat- och hållbarhetsarbete i bygg- och anläggningssektorn. I workshops, i projektet, kallade branschdialoger, har likt intervjuerna ställt ett antal frågor till en grupp branschaktörer och diskuterat dessa. I arbetet med gapanalys har bland annat ett framsynsarbete genomförts för att lyfta det som kan påverka och är avgörande för genomförandet av färdplanen. Projektet har samlat tankar och idéer från sektorns och forskarsamhällets både tongivande och engagerade personer. Beroende på vilka personer som har medverkat har detta resulterat det i olika utfall. Det som framkommit från intervjuerna, workshops och dialoger har inte direkt kontrollerats eller förankrats mot fakta och vetenskap, utan det har använts för att ge det underlag som detta projekts arbete vilar på tillsammans med projektets övriga arbete inom nuläges-, önskade- och gapanalyser. I det slutlig syntetiserade arbetet har projektgruppen valt ut det viktigaste, mest relevanta och intressanta ur de olika delaktiviteterna i projektet till åtta förändringsområden. Inom dessa respektive förändringsområde ges förslag till aktiviteter och projekt för färdplanens genomförande och måluppfyllelse. De åtta förändringsområden som projektet rekommenderar att färdplanens arbete framåt är: Flexibel och adaptiv användning samt ökad nyttjandegrad, Digitalisering, Hållbara material, produkter och system, Effektiv resursanvändning och cirkulära flöden, Elektrifiering, Regulatoriska krav och styrning, Hållbar finansiering och prissättning av miljöeffekten samt Energieffektivisering. Alla förslagen vilka var och en, och i kombination, bidrar till att accelerera klimatarbetet och minska klimatpåverkan. Av de resultat och förslag till aktiviteter och projekt till implementeringar och innovationer för färdplanens genomförande kan ett urval av dem återfinnas som uppmaningar i färdplanen. Att iii förslagen uppkommer igen drygt fyra år senare kan ses som ett behov att ytterligare fokusera på färdplanens implementering, då uppmaningarna ännu inte har gett den effekt som efterfrågats, eller inte har omhändertagits tillräckligt. De föreslagna aktiviteterna och projekten i detta arbete behöver vidareutvecklas, paketeras samt hitta finansieringslösningar för det fortsatta arbetet för färdplanens genomförande, så att det skapas ett reellt genomslag i branschen för att nå färdplanens mål. En generell rekommendationen från detta projekt är att skala upp pilot- och demoprojekt samt goda exempel till fullskaleprojekt i högre utsträckning samt att tillgängliggöra och dela resultat och underlag från dessa projekt för att öka transparensen mellan olika initiativ och projekt. De förändringsområde som utmärker sig mest och har i arbetet framhållits som de viktigaste samt anses ha störst påverkan på implementeringen av färdplanen för bygg och anläggningssektorn är: Regulatoriska krav och styrning, Elektrifiering, Flexibel och adaptiv användning samt nyttjandegrad samt Hållbar finansiering och prissättning av miljöeffekten. Projektet har vidare identifierat ett stort behov av sammanhållande och heltäckande klimatdata som är nedbrutna på olika delsektorer och ämnesområden inom bygg- och anläggningssektorn. Projektets rekommendation är därför att påskynda arbetet att kvantitativt beräkna de nationella klimatutsläppen som kan ligga till grund för att göra en nationell väsentlighetsanalys för att ge implementering av färdplanen rätt fokus och prioritering. Dock så visar projektets modulering att och analys är att reduktionen av klimatemissioner från bygg- och anläggningssektorn måste starta omgående. Vidare är utveckling av ett klimatfokuserat upphandlingsförfarande med relevanta och effektiva upphandlingskriterier av största vikt avseende framtida klimatrelaterade funktionskrav på bebyggelse genom hela livscykeln. Slutligen behöver nya affärsmodeller utforskas för att utveckla nya ekonomiska incitament som premierar kvalitet, upcycling, bevarande, återbruk och delande.

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  • 65.
    Berktas, Ilayda
    et al.
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Chaudhari, Ojas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Ghafar, Ali N
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Menceloglu, Yusuf
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Okan, Burcu
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Silanization of SiO2 decorated carbon nanosheets from rice husk ash and its effect on workability and hydration of cement grouts2021In: Nanomaterials, E-ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rice husk ash (RHA) having a porous sructure and a high amount of amorphous silica nanoparticles (4 nm) decorated on the surface of carbon nanosheets is a suitable and cheap candidate for the use of a grout additive. In this study, neat RHA and functionalized RHA (f-RHA) with three different loadings were successfully incorporated into the cement-bentonite based grouts by adjusting the water to cement ratio. The workability of the developed grouts having RHA-based additives was analyzed in terms of bleeding, density, flow spread, and Marsh cone time. Additionally, the thermal and prolongation of hydration performances of the cementitious grout were enriched by successful attachment of amino-silane functional groups on the RHA surface. The heat of hydration performances of RHA and functionalized RHA introduced cementitious grout composite were assessed by isothermal calorimetry tests, and especially the kinetics of hydration was increased by the addition of RHA. The presence of amino silane groups in f-RHA intensified the heat adsorption by reacting with cement constituents, and thus resulted in the retardation and reduction in the heat flow. Therefore, using an amino-silane coupling agent increased the induction period and hindered the heat of hydration compared to the reference grout. On the other hand, the incorporation of RHA and f-RHA into the cement matrix did not affect the thermal conductivity of the grouts. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 66.
    Berktas, Ilayda
    et al.
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Ghafar, Ali Nejad
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Fontana, Patrick
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Caputcu, Ayten
    Cimsa Cimento Sanayi AS, Turkey.
    Menceloglu, Yusuf
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Okan, Burcu
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Synergistic effect of expanded graphite-silane functionalized silica as a hybrid additive in improving the thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts with controllablewater uptake2020In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, no 14, article id 3561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, a growing demand for geothermal applications has led to the exploitation of energy efficiently by developing grouting materials in the borehole between pipes and the ground. Therefore, the current study developed newly formulated cementitious grouts by the integration of expanded graphite (EG)-based hybrid additives synthesized by building chemical bridges between silica particles and EG in the presence of amino functional silane coupling agents. These produced hybrid additives with controlled EG and silica ratios were utilized in grout mixtures used in borehole heat exchangers to enhance the thermal conductivity. According to the optimization study on the formulation development of grout mixtures with bentonite, silica sands, cement, and superplasticizer by adding neat EG and EG-based hybrids, the relationship between the carbon amount and water demand was found to have a significant impact on thermal conductivity. The highest thermal conductivity value of 2.656 W/mK was achieved by the incorporation of 5 wt% hybrid additive with the ratio silica/EG of 1:5 compared to the reference grout, which showed a thermal conductivity of 2.373 W/mK. Therefore, the enhancement in thermal conductivity was dependent on the increase in the EG content and also the additive loading ratio, resulting in a slight increase in the water demand.

  • 67.
    Berktas, Ilayda
    et al.
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Nejad Ghafar, Ali
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Fontana, Patrick
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Caputcu, Ayten
    Cimsa Cimento Sanayi AS, Turkey.
    Menceloglu, Yusuf
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Okan, Burcu
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Facile synthesis of graphene from waste tire/silica hybrid additives and optimization study for the fabrication of thermally enhanced cement grouts2020In: Molecules, ISSN 1431-5157, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 25, no 4, article id 886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work evaluates the effects of newly designed graphene/silica hybrid additives on the properties of cementitious grout. In the hybrid structure, graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) obtained from waste tire was used to improve the thermal conductivity and reduce the cost and environmental impacts by using recyclable sources. Additionally, functionalized silica nanoparticles were utilized to enhance the dispersion and solubility of carbon material and thus the hydrolyzable groups of silane coupling agent were attached to the silica surface. Then, the hybridization of GNP and functionalized silica was conducted to make proper bridges and develop hybrid structures by tailoring carbon/silica ratios. Afterwards, special grout formulations were studied by incorporating these hybrid additives at different loadings. As the amount of hybrid additive incorporated into grout suspension increased from 3 to 5 wt%, water uptake increased from 660 to 725 g resulting in the reduction of thermal conductivity by 20.6%. On the other hand, as the concentration of GNP in hybrid structure increased, water demand was reduced, and thus the enhancement in thermal conductivity was improved by approximately 29% at the same loading ratios of hybrids in the prepared grout mixes. Therefore, these developed hybrid additives showed noticeable potential as a thermal enhancement material in cement-based grouts. © 2020 by the authors.

  • 68.
    Björkman, Max Bekken
    et al.
    Chalmers Industriteknik, Sweden.
    Heyne, Stefan
    Chalmers Industriteknik, Sweden.
    Hammar, Maria
    Chalmers Industriteknik, Sweden.
    Egilsson, Nils Ólafur
    Chalmers Industriteknik, Sweden.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Vendt, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Karlberg, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Förstudie om resurskartläggning i företag: Att förstå och förändra för en ökad fysisk resurseffektivitet2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna förstudie har syftat till att undersöka potentialen med fysisk resurskartläggning (RKL) inom företag. RKL kan dels höja den interna kunskapen om företagets resursanvändning, dels stödja extern kommunikation av företagets materialeffektivitet, samt fungera som ett underlag för policymakers som vill utreda styrmedel kopplade till resursanvändning.

    Initiativet till förstudien är delvis sprungen ur tanken att delar av det som idag görs inom energikartläggning (EKL) också skulle kunna appliceras på kartläggning av fysiska resursströmmar. I förstudien har därför EKL summerats översiktligt tillsammans med tidigare utvärderingar av EKL. Rapporten lyfter även fram viktiga lärdomar från EKL som kan användas i resurskartläggningssammahang.

    En viktig del av förstudien har bestått i att utforska vad ett koncept som RKL kan inkludera för att uppnå ökad resurseffektivitet. Begreppet RKL kan delas in i två huvudsakliga delar: Förstå och Förändra. Generellt handlar det om att först kartlägga fysiska resursflöden, och därefter agera på resultaten för att nå konkret handling och förändring. Förstudien ger förslag på ett antal befintliga metoder som kan användas för inledande kartläggning, exempelvis materialflödesanalys (MFA) och livscykelanalys (LCA). Kopplat till detta har förstudien undersökt verktyg och indikatorer för att mäta cirkularitet som företag kan använda för att skapa sig en bild av hur cirkulär företagets verksamhet, produkter och tjänster är.

    För att få en bättre förståelse för hur företag och aktörer i Sverige ser på en mer detaljerad kartläggning av fysiska resursflöden i sina verksamheter, genomfördes femton intervjuer och en enkätstudie. Den enskilt största nyttan som de intervjuade personerna uttryckte med RKL var att kunna visualisera och synliggöra fysiska resurser och hur de flödar genom verksamheten. Via kommande lagkrav inom EU i form av CSRD (Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive) och ESRS (European Sustainability Reporting Standards) skruvas kraven på företags hållbarhetsredovisning upp. Detta nya regelverk kräver bland annat redovisning av in- och utflöden av fysiska resurser, samt att företagen ska kunna visa på mål, strategier och planer för hur resursflödena kan effektiviseras.

    De nya EU-kraven kommer troligen vara en av de starkaste drivkrafterna för företag att utföra RKL, i tillägg till externa krav från kunder och samarbetsparter. I rapporten har översiktliga processer skisserats som stöd för genomförande av RKL med hjälp av befintliga metoder och verktyg. RKL i företag är ett brett begrepp och därför kan RKL utföras på olika sätt beroende på syftet med kartläggningen och typ av företag.

    En slutsats från projektet är att det inte är nödvändigt eller lämpligt med en RKL-lagstiftning på samma sätt som dagens lagstiftning för EKL. Detta beror på att RKL innebär en större komplexitet än EKL och är svår att generalisera för alla företag. Den generella metodiken kan dock utformas på liknande sätt för RKL som för EKL, och stöden gällande nätverkande och lathundar skulle kunna erbjudas på liknande sätt för RKL som för EKL för att stötta företag i att uppfylla kommande krav.

    I det fortsatta arbetet med resurskartläggningar i företag är det viktigt att beakta: (1) Fokusera på att använda redan existerande metoder, verktyg och indikatorer för att mäta resurser och cirkularitet; (2) Samarbeta med organisationer som tillhandahåller och utvecklar metoder, verktyg och indikatorer för en ökad cirkularitet för att tillsammans med dem öka kunskapen och förståelsen hos företag; (3) Utveckla den skisserade RKLprocessen, så att den bättre kan visa vilka typer av metoder och indikatorer som passar särskilt bra för olika syften; (4) Testa och utveckla processerna och guiderna tillsammans med ett antal pilotföretag; (5) Integrera RKL-processen och guiden med pågående utveckling av standarder för rapportering inom EU och ISO-samarbetet.

  • 69.
    Björner Brauer, Hanna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Khan, Jamil
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Diffusion of biogas for freight transport in Sweden: A user perspective2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 312, article id 127738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current freight transport is highly dependent on fossil fuels and there is a need for a transition to alternative fuels and technologies. Biogas is a type of biofuel that has the potential to reduce climate emissions from freight transport, while providing additional benefits such as recycling of nutrients and increased energy security. This paper uses theories on the diffusion of green technologies to analyse the barriers and drivers for the increased use and diffusion of biogas in freight transport. The empirical focus is on the region of Västra Götaland in Sweden, and qualitative interviews have been conducted with demand-side actors such as transport buyers, haulage companies and vehicle manufacturers. The results confirm the important barriers observed in previous research, such as the higher costs of biogas, financial uncertainties and lack of infrastructure, as well as the interplay between barriers. The main drivers are an increased focus on sustainability both within the sector and from wider society, as well as the environmental properties of biogas. Specific barriers have also been identified such as a fragmented freight market structure with a mix of large and small transport companies, tight profit margins and reduced capacity for investments. There is also a division of labour and responsibilities between transport companies and transport buyers, which makes it unclear who will drive the transition to alternative fuels. In general, the study shows that the different types of uncertainty are perceived by the actors as being a significant barrier that needs to be better conceptualised in diffusion theory. © 2021 The Authors

  • 70.
    Björner Brauer, Hanna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Ryberg, Karl
    Monocrom, Sweden.
    Wallin, Kjell
    Fagerhult Stockholm, Sweden.
    Linde, Mattias
    Sahlgrenska Hospital, Sweden.
    Laike, Thorbjörn
    Environmental Psychology, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Bodil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Pain Relieving Light - (How) Is it Possible?2024In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Institute of Physics , 2024, Vol. 1320, no 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    About 15% of the population suffer from migraines and it is estimated that about 40% of all people with migraines would benefit from preventive treatment, but only 3-13% use it. Migraine is a huge burden for society and individuals. Migraines can be intensified by light, and some patients need to stay in a dark room until the attack is over. People with this type of photosensitivity show a clear preference for light color, specifically green, which has been shown to be more comfortable and even pain relieving in some cases. We will present a feasibility study with the aim of preparing a series of experiments to investigate if regular short-term green-light-exposure can prevent migraines. We will present findings from the literature, developed light equipment, and plans for future testing of migraine friendly light solutions.

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  • 71.
    Björnsson, Lars-Henrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Edvall, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Persson, Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Strandberg, Ted
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Emmanouilidis, Dimitris
    Axess Logistics, Sweden.
    Envik, Christel
    Axess Logistics, Sweden.
    Löfqvist, Jonas
    Axess Logistics, Sweden.
    Örn, Mattias
    Axess Logistics, Sweden.
    Renström, Håkan
    CTEK, Sweden.
    Svedlund, Jerry
    CTEK, Sweden.
    Laddinfrastruktur och frekvensreglering: en fallstudie2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att elnätet ska fungera måste frekvensen hållas inom snäva gränser och därför handlar Svenska Kraftnät upp olika typer av stödtjänster för frekvensreglering. De senaste åren har kostnaderna för dessa tjänster ökat kraftigt, bland annat till följd av en allt högre andel intermittent elproduktion. Behoven är prognostiserade att öka ytterligare under de kommande åren. Detta har skapat ett ökat intresse för batterier och deras möjligheter att stödja elnätet. Men batterier och tillhörande kraftelektronik är kostsamt. Samtidigt finns en stor och alltjämt växande batterikapacitet i landets elbilar och med hjälp av dubbelriktad laddning, så kallad vehicle-to-grid öppnas nya möjligheter att komma åt denna potential för att på ett mer resurseffektivt sätt balansera elnätet. Projektets övergripande mål har varit att utreda hur standardisering kan användas för att påskynda och öka användandet av elbilar som resurs för flexibilitetstjänster till elnätet. Bland annat har en fallstudie genomförts av Axess Logistics anläggning i Malmö hamn och möjligheterna för att deras långtidsparkerade elbilar ska kunna leverera frekvensreglering till elnätet har studerats. Resultaten visar på att studerade standarder i stort inte utgör ett direkt hinder för användandet av elbilar för frekvensreglering men att förändringar av exempelvis ISO15118 skulle kunna öka möjligheterna att använda elbilar för att leverera frekvensreglering. Till exempel genom införande av krav på mätnoggrannhet på aktiv effekt, förkortning av tillåtna svarstider, krav på lokal frekvensmätning med god noggrannhet. För långtidsparkerade bilar vore det framförallt värdefullt att arbeta fram, och i standard beskriva, en funktion där elbilens BMS kan uppmanas av EVSE att hålla batteriet i ett tillstånd där det kan användas för att snabbt svara på en begäran om i-/urladdning. Detta så att elbilen kan vara förberedd för frekvensreglering även om den för stunden inte aktivt laddar eller matar effekt till elnätet. Detta en åtgärd som skulle kunna ha stor positiv påverkan på möjligheterna för långtidsparkerade elbilar att leverera frekvensreglering. Exemplifierande användarcykler för långtidsparkerade bilar har studerats för FCR-N och FCR-D. Resultaten visar att den förväntade cyklingen skiljer stort mellan dessa olika frekvensregleringstjänster och antyder att valet av frekvensregleringstjänst behöver studeras utifrån både förväntad ekonomi och eventuellt batterislitage. Överslagsräkningar på eventuella intäkter från deltagande i frekvensreglering har genomförts och de preliminära resultaten visar att investering av dyrare laddinfrastruktur som klarar Vehicle-to-Grid skulle kunna återbetalas inom ett år med 2022 års nivåer av ersättning för frekvensreglering. I en framtid där nya elbilar antas ha stöd för Vehicle-to-Grid har potentialen för att använda långtidsparkerade elbilar på logistikanläggningar till frekvensreglering preliminärt bedömts ligga mellan 110 och 165 MW för svenska förhållanden. Detta motsvarar ca 5-8% av den nordiska FCR-marknaden. På sikt kan också långtidsparkerade bilar hos återförsäljare, flygplatser med mera att utgöra en betydande potential.

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  • 72.
    Björnsson, Lars-Henrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Morell, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    van Noord, Michiel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Pettersson, Ida
    Ecogain, Sweden.
    En kartläggning av solcellsparker i Sverige 20212022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to map the largest groundbased solar farms in Sweden to better understand how they are usually designed; on what type of land they are built and how they can interact with other types of activities such as agriculture and measures to improve conditions for biodiversity. Mid-2021, the typical solar farm with at least 1 MW installed power is built on arable land, can be restored and, as a rule, avoids protected and designated natural areas according to this study, which is mainly based on survey responses. Solar panels are typically directed to the south with a 30-35 degree tilt and are anchored with piles. Generally, the distance between the rows is greater than 3 meters. The most common factors determining the location of the park are the costs for land purchases/leases and proximity to electricity grid. About half of the facilities surveyed are combined with some measure intended to benefit biodiversity. Combining the photovoltaic system with grazing (25%) or cultivation (10%) is still relatively uncommon. The results show that there is an awareness of issues related to biodiversity and opportunities to combine photovoltaic installations with other activities. The increasing pace of expansion of photovoltaic capacity suggests that a deeper understanding of how photovoltaic systems are best adapted to their surroundings will increase in importance.

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  • 73.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Crocetti, Roberto
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, August
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ben Osmane, Zakaria
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ziethén, Rune
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL ANALYSES OF A CONNECTION FOR CLT STRUCTURES2023In: Proceedings of the 2023 World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE), Oslo, Norway, 2023, p. 1154-1159Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although building systems made of cross-laminated timber (CLT) have become common in Sweden in the past 20 years and they have developed rapidly during the same period, steps remain to be taken to simplify the assembly of such systems, especially at construction sites. Current construction methods, however, remain labour-intensive and thus show room for improvement.

    This paper describes a novel connection for the assembly of building elements made of CLT. Simple and inexpensive, the connection is fairly insensitive to manufacturing tolerances and enables rapid, more efficient construction than the connections for CLT structures currently used. Test results show the excellent strength and stiffness of the connection, which also allows the replacement of numerous fasteners, including nails and screws, with only a single steel rod. 

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  • 74.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Honfi, Daniel
    Ramboll, Denmark.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Ziethén, Rune
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Crocetti, Roberto
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL STRUCTURAL CONNECTIONS –INSPIRATION FROM FURNITURE INDUSTRY2021In: World Conference onTimber Engineering (WCTE) 2021, Santiago, Chile, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presented project aims to develop prototypes for building connections inspired by the furniture and interior industry and explore them with representatives from the timber construction industry. The long-term vision is that actors from furniture and building industry together develop a smart system for assembly of building elements, which provide higher precision, faster and more efficient assembly than what is available today. The prototype connectiondeveloped in this project shows that the idea is ripe for full-scale investigation. Laboratory tests showed promising results due to the high failure loads obtained with very high stiffness.

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  • 75.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Jarnerö, Kirsi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Framtidens resurseffektiva KL-trä – en spaning2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) for house construction is a product that was developed in Central Europe in the mid-1990s. The purpose of this study is to collaboratively explore proposals for how a more efficient CLT product can be designed for the future. The goal is to produce a basis for development and generate a consensus around the issue. There is an awareness of the environmental factors that affect design with CLT. In addition, an increased demand for wood in the building sector has resulted in a dynamic mindset to replace concrete with CLT. Increased use of forest raw materials, global warming and reduced access via restrictions in forestry raise questions such as: What raw materials will we have in the future? Which tree species will be available? How large will the supply of raw materials be? The resulting material has been analysed based on the different perspectives represented by the stakeholder groups in the value chain for building with CLT. The report concludes with project ideas that emerged during the work on the feasibility study.

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    Framtidens resurseffektiva KL-trä – en spaning
  • 76.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Ormarsson, Sigurdur
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Ziethén, Rune
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Stress distribution in veneers under lamination and simultaneously bending: an experimental and numerical investigation2023In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 995-1002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laminated veneer products (LVPs) are veneers glued together into a predetermined shape. Experimental and numerical investigations were performed under lamination and simultaneously bending of veneer laminate to study the stress distribution in the laminate. Laminates of different thicknesses were made of peeled veneers of European beech. The veneers were coated with adhesive, inserted in a mould which had the shape of a semicircle, and finally pressed at 20°C to a laminate. Two Teflon-polymer films including sensors for measurement of the contact pressure were placed on both sides of the laminate to measure the local contact pressure (contact stress) between the laminate and the mould. At the beginning of the bending process, the contact stresses were locally distributed over the laminate in a similar pattern as in a three-point bending; after the laminate was further bent, the stress distribution rearranged to be as in four-point bending. In the end of the moulding, the local contact stresses increased over the entire laminate and reached a ‘peak-value’ over bent area in the middle part of the mould. A finite-element model was created to study the bending process. Regarding the overall development of the contact stress variations, the experimental and the numerical results agreed.

  • 77.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Formstabilitet i underlägg för dukning2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a coaster intended for table setting has been investigated regarding shape stability in relation to the surrounding climate. The coaster was made up of paper, some of which was printed, and a fibreboard that was bonded together.

    Symmetry in a construction is desirable for high shape stability, which is known since before. The fact that the surfaces have a similar moisture absorption contributes to the symmetry. Boards that have a harder surface than the opposite should be sanded so that both surfaces of the board have a similar moisture absorption. The orientation of the components in a laminate can reduce or increase the asymmetry if the surfaces have different moisture absorption capacity. Symmetrical construction as well as symmetrical moisture absorption are beneficial for high shape stability.

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  • 78.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health.
    Influence of pressure on bond-line shear strength in laminated veneer products2022In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 1020-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the bond-line strength of different bonding pressure of veneers in dry (9% moisturecontent) and wet (immersed in water) conditions was investigated. The results show that peeledEuropean beech veneers need approximately 0.5– 1.2 MPa pressure to achieve a proper bond-linewhen a urea-formaldehyde adhesive was used. The pressure variation within this range did notsignificantly affect the strength of the dry veneer, but the strength of the wet veneers decreasedas the bonding pressure increased. The type of failure varied, especially for the wet veneers. Athigh pressure, the wood were stronger than the cohesive strength of the adhesive and thestrength of the adhesion between the adhesive and the wood. High pressure, however, caused acompression of the bond-line and resulted in a lack of adhesion.

  • 79.
    Bloom, Erica
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Bok, Gunilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Theorin, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Mögel och hälsa i byggnader, en litteratursammanställning för träbyggnadsindustrin2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mikroorganismer kan växa på alla material om förutsättningarna är de rätta. Fukt är alltid den begränsande faktorn men andra faktorer, till exempel temperatur, kan påverka kritisk fuktnivå med avseende på start och etablering av mikrobiologisk påväxt. Mikrobiologisk påväxt på byggnadsmaterial är därför inte materialfråga utan snarare en hanterings- eller byggnadsteknisk fråga. 2009 konstaterar WHO i sin rapport Guidlines for indoor air quality att negativa hälsoeffekter motverkas effektivast genom att fukt och mikrobiella skador på och i byggnader förhindras. Nya studier har adderats sedan 2009 och ett antal vetenskapligt granskade artiklar i ämnet har publicerats. I arbetet med denna sammanställning har ingen artikel påträffats som motstrider den idag, på empiri, grundade uppfattningen att fukt och mögelskador i byggnader kan påverka innemiljön. En påverkan som i sin tur kan leda till negativa hälsoeffekter för människor. I nordiska länder så är det vanligast att fukt- och mögelskador finns inuti konstruktioner. För trähus som ofta är konstruerade av flera olika byggnadsmaterial finns en problematik som dels uppstår genom att mikroorganismer kan växa på dessa material dels genom att det finns risk att emissioner från påväxten sprids till innemiljön. För att bättre förstå när och hur människor exponeras för dessa ämnen behövs mer kunskap inhämtas om: - Hur och när emissioner från skador inuti konstruktioner når innemiljön. - Emissionernas sammansättning. - Skador på trä och hälsa specifikt - Kunskap om mögelarter och deras förekomst på olika byggnadsmaterial inklusive trä. - Vilka åtgärder behöver sättas in för att förhindra att påväxt uppstår vid fukt- och vattenskador (tid, temperatur, material mm)?

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  • 80.
    Bloom, Erica
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Bok, Gunilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Theorin, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sanering av mikrobiella skador på trä i byggnader - en sammanställning av nuläget i branschen, lagar, metoder och användningsområden2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trä i byggnader som exponeras för fukt eller fritt vatten blir med tiden utsatt för mikrobiell påväxt. När detta ska åtgärdas kallas det sanering vilket innebär att trä rengörs från påväxten, om inte materialet byts ner helt. Oavsett nyproduktion eller befintliga byggnader så säger lagen genom Miljöbalken och Plan- och bygglagen att påväxt som kan orsaka skada eller olägenhet för människors hälsa ska tas bort. Kemikalielagstiftningen betonar att skador som uppkommer så att kemiska produkter och bekämpningsmedel behöver användas ska undvikas om kunskap och tekniker för detta finns. När bekämpningsmedel väl används är det enbart den avsedda användningen enligt instruktionerna som tillåts. Detta gäller allt trä i byggnader där godkännande krävs. Vetenskapliga studier och myndigheter avråder från användning av kemiska medel för att sanera påväxt på trä. Anledningen är att de verkar ha begränsad effekt och att användningen innebär en risk för att det ökar mängden föroreningar i luften inomhus. Dessutom finns en risk att metoderna eventuellt bara dödar den mikrobiella påväxten, utan att den tas bort, och att även död/inaktiv påväxt kan innebära hälsorisker Aktörer inom bygg och företag som sanerar fuktskador efterlyser ett övergripande regelverk och riktlinjer för hantering av fuktskadat trä i byggnader. Sanering av mikrobiella organismer på trä utförs i stor omfattning vid nyproduktion av byggnader om de utsatts för nederbörd eller om skydd mot fukt och vattenskador varit bristfälligt. Fuktsäkerheten behöver prioriteras i större utsträckning i många fall. Redan vid planering av budget och projektering behövs relevanta strategier för att hantera fuktsäkerheten. Áv intervjuerna framgår att slipning av träytor är den vanligast använda saneringsmetoden, följt av isblästring och användning av kemiska medel för att rengöra och bleka virkesytan. Byggnader som utsätts för fritt vatten eller höga fukthalter kan efter längre tid få rötskador och insektskador. Röt- och insektskador åtgärdas genom att skadat material byts ut och/eller genom att behandling utförs med godkända bekämpningsmedel.

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  • 81.
    Boddaert, S.
    et al.
    CSTB, France .
    Bonomo, P
    SUPSI, Switzerland .
    Eder, G
    OFI, Austria .
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Ishii, H
    LIXIL Corporation, Japan .
    Kim, J-T
    Kongju National University, Republic of Korea .
    Ko, Y
    National Research Council Canada, Canada .
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Li, Tian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Olano, X
    Tecnalia, Spain .
    Parolini, F
    SUPSI, Switzerland .
    Qi, D
    Université de Sherbrooke, Canada .
    Shabunko, V
    SERIS, Singapore .
    Slooff, L
    TNO, Netherlands .
    Stølen, Reidar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Valencia, D
    Tecnalia, Spain .
    Villa, S
    TNO, Netherlands .
    Wilson, H R
    Fraunhofer, Germany .
    Yang, R
    RMIT, Australia.
    Zang, Y
    RMIT, Australia.
    Fire safety of BIPV: International mapping of accredited and R&D facilities in the context of codes and standards 20232023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of Task 15 of the IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to create an enabling framework to accelerate the penetration of BIPV products in the global market of renewables, resulting in an equal playing field for BIPV products, BAPV products and regular building envelope components, respecting mandatory issues, aesthetic issues, reliability issues, and financial issues.

    Subtask E of Task 15 is focused on pre-normative international research on BIPV characterisation methods and activity E.3 is dedicated to fire safety of BIPV modules and installations.

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  • 82.
    Bok, Gunilla
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Microbial growth behind tiles in bathrooms2020In: E3S Web of Conferences. Vollyme 172, 2020., EDP Sciences , 2020, article id 20003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies investigating microbial diversity in buildings have been performed mainly through the study of dust collected from e. g. floors and door frames and on moisture damaged building materials. A great diversity of mould fungi has been found and the fungus flora is dominated by the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. The building materials targeted in this specific study were sampled on the back of ceramic tiles from bathroom walls and floors. Furthermore, two different analyses were used to investigate to which degree this specific environment was supportive of microbial growth. Microbial findings were detected in 48 % of the specimens from the spots exposed to liquid water in the bathrooms. To our knowledge, the microbial occurrence in this type of environment has not previously been investigated.. © The Authors.

  • 83.
    Bolmsvik, A.
    et al.
    Skanska, Sweden.
    Eriksson, O.
    Skanska, Sweden.
    Tengberg, C Svensson
    Skanska, Sweden.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Weather protection at the construction site: Work environment and conditions for moisture and mould growth on massive timber2023In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 2654, no 1, article id 012042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, the use of timber (especially massive timber) has increased worldwide, mainly driven by anticipated environmental benefits. However, there is debate on how to handle the susceptibility against microbial growth for wooden constructions, especially during the construction phase. Sometimes full weather protection is used to avoid exposing the wooden material to outdoor conditions, but oftentimes the structures are fully exposed to precipitation. In an earlier study, one construction site using a full weather protection was studied, and the results showed promising results on the improved hygrothermal conditions and reduced risk of mould growth. Moreover, the site contractor also indicated improved work environment and productivity, however, this was not included in that study. This present study aims to investigate the effects of using full weather protection during construction in seven different construction projects to follow-up and broaden the earlier single project study. The studied aspects include the hygrothermal conditions, potential of mould growth, and influence on the work environment. Temperature and relative humidity were measured and analysed. Samples of cross-laminated timber (CLT) were analysed using a microscope, and the results are compared to theoretical mould growth potential. This is measured both inside the weather protection and outside at the seven construction projects. Furthermore, a work environment questionnaire is distributed to workers at the sites to collect the perceived work environment using a full weather protection. The results of the study partly confirm the conclusions from the earlier study, i.e., reducing the risk of mould growth and causing a slightly warmer and dryer conditions than outside. In addition, the results indicate an improved work environment. The majority of the interviewees wishes a weather protection in their next project regarding the work environment.

  • 84.
    Bolognesi, C. M.
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Andersson, Per
    CGI Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Digital Tools for Fast Mapping of Buildings2022In: SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2022, p. 51-62Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While the construction sector embraces digitalization, new technologies related to it are spreading benefits. The need of creating a 3D model of a building, a digital copy of something existing, is not new. Mediated by the advent of photographic and laser instrumentation, the construction of a digital model has crossed the fields of surveying with increasing accuracy and precision, imposing standards of capturing the existing first and modelling then ever higher. But while the Building Information Modelling allows a virtual representation of the existing asset enriching its geometry with precious and significant information related to its properties, advanced survey has always faced the impossibility to break the surface of the building, surveying what is inside walls, thus excluding what necessary should be contained within a BIM model. Also, BIM models do not consider the real-time component and do not report the real-time behaviour of the building. In this chapter we will investigate several technologies and instruments exploited till now for the surveying and positioning of existing buildings, plants included, and a new toolkit based on AR that, coupled with sensors and visualisation tools developed by BIM4EEB, offers many advantages when surveying the whole building. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 85.
    Bom, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Bedömning av restprodukter från gjutning 2023 – Scania CV AB2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of residual products from casting in 2023 – Scania CV AB

    This study is part of the project GRETA, Cast products with resource-efficient manufacturing processes and business models. The purpose of the study is to compare two different analytical methods as tools for classifying filter dust from processing of cast components. Two fractions have been analyzed and the material's impurity content evaluated based on an established method for characterization and classification based on EU legislation and EU directives that have been implemented in Swedish law through national regulations, regulations and manuals from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Based on the analyzes carried out, it is shown that the method of leaching does not affect the final assessment for the material. Shake tests generally show higher levels than percolation tests, but do not affect the final assessment.

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  • 86.
    Bontekoe, Eelke
    et al.
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Capener, Carl-Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Eriksson, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Schade, Jutta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Svensson, Inger-Lise
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Tsarchopoulos, Panagiotis
    CERTH, Greece.
    Kamadanis, Nikos
    CERTH, Greece.
    Koutli, Maria
    CERTH, Greece.
    Deliverable 9.5: Report on monitoring framework in LH cities and established baseline2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The IRIS project has defined goals and targets in the project proposal, and the monitoring and evaluation work package (WP) 9 will analyse to what extent the project reaches these goals and objectives. The monitoring and evaluation will also provide information concerning the performance of the different solutions demonstrated in the Lighthouse (LH) cities in IRIS which is important for the replication of the solutions both in the LH cities and in other cities. This is of importance for the replicability of the solutions, both in the LH cities (Utrecht, Nice and Gothenburg) and in other cities. The project consists of several demonstration projects which are divided by 5 transition tracks (TTs): TT1; Smart renewables and closed- loop energy positive districts, TT2; Smart Energy Management and Storage for Grid Flexibility, TT3; Smart e-Mobility Sector, TT4; City Innovation Platform (CIP) Use Cases, TT5; Citizen engagement and co-creation.

    D9.5 is the result of 2 years of work with several iterative processes involving the LH cities and their partners with the ultimate goal to:

    Define a set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) which evaluate the effectiveness and impact of the cities proposed measures.Setup monitoring plans for each IS to define how each parameter is being measured to ensure that the KPIs can be calculated.Define how the baseline and the targets are defined and measured.This work started as described in D9.2 (Report on monitoring and evaluation schemes for integrated solutions) [1] with:The definition of the initial list of KPIs and how to calculate them, based on Smart Cities Information System (SCIS) [2], the CITYKeys Project [3] and the IRIS project itself .The assignment of KPIs to relevant measures within the project.An evaluation plan to measure performance on project level, including aggregation of KPIs.

    The process has continued with D9.3 (Report on data model and management plan for integrated solutions) [4] and D9.4 (Report on unified framework for harmonized data gathering, analysis and reporting) [5], which define the basis of the methodologies used to come to the results written in this report.

    Feedback from several workshops on this topic has led to a guideline that supports the partners responsible for implementation of the demonstrators in setting up their projects such that:KPIs that are being measured are well understood.KPIs give a meaningful result.The right data is being measured to calculate the required KPIs during the implementation of the measures.

    An important part of this process is to have a close look at the KPIs that are projected for each demonstrator, the calculation method of the KPIs, and the expected results. By means of KPI interpretation forms. By doing so:

    • KPIs are defined and calculated such that only one way of interpretation is possible. This way results from different projects and cities are homogenized.

    • It is well understood what result the measurement of a KPI leads to.The method and results of this process are described in this report, which is a revised KPI list where KPIs are added, removed or adapted.

    In addition to this, the KPI interpretation forms created the basis for the formulation of detailed monitoring plans for all measures within the project. Together with template forms for reporting these plans and a common data structure, which were provided to the affiliated partners, these plans are obtained and described for all measures per Transition Track and per Lighthouse city in this report.

    Another essential part of measuring the performance of the IRIS project is the establishment of the baseline measurements and review if targets are met. Tables with KPI data requirements, consisting of the associated parameters, data sources, baseline and (possible) targets for all measures are incorporated.

    An important part of the monitoring strategy of the IRIS project is the KPI tool, which is described in detail in report D9.4 [5]. This tool is established to collect all relevant monitoring data from the IRIS project in order to calculate and visualize the performance of the project. The tool partly obtains it’s data by means of the City Information Platforms (CIP). The monitoring details combined with the updated KPIs, result in an inventory containing an overview of all data sources with as main objective:

    • To make sure that all data sources are known and will be measured by the responsible partners.

    • To know what kind of data needs to be collected by the KPI tool.

    • To know when monitoring in each demonstrator starts and data can be expected.

    • To have a clear overview for all responsible partners what to deliver.

    Besides setting up the collection of the indicators data, D9.5 also continues the work on aggregation of KPIs. For each city a revised list is made that indicates which KPIs will be aggregated to Transition Track-, City- and IRIS-level.

    In the conclusion the challenges that where met during the process of setting up the monitoring framework are described. Because of delays within the IRIS project, not all monitoring plans have been obtained yet. Therefore, a future update of this report will be submitted as soon as this information is available. Further on a perspective is described for future work to start gathering the data and visualize results of the IRIS project.

    The target group for this report is mainly people who:

    -  Are interested in how to apply a unified monitoring and evaluation scheme into a large Smart City project with many different partners and stakeholders. For example, people working on comparable (Smart City) projects, or the follower cities within the IRIS project.

    -  Are interested in how the performance of several different Smart city projects can be evaluated.

    -  Are interested in the implementation of KPIs from projects such as SCIS and CITYkeys.

    -  Want to learn from project partners from within the IRIS project who work on similar projectsabout their monitoring. For example, partners from different cities affiliated with the same transition track or transition track leaders.

    - Want to find out what kind of data can be expected from the IRIS project. For example, external researchers interested in the results of Smart City projects, but also partners working on WP4 (CIP) and WP9 (monitoring and evaluation).Want to learn what the current state is of the monitoring and evaluation of the IRIS project.

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  • 87.
    Bontekoe, Eelke
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Schade, Jutta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Tsarchopoulos, Panagiotis
    CERTH, Greece.
    Isaioglou, George
    CERTH, Greece.
    Tsompanidou, Eleni
    CERTH, Greece.
    Agelakoglou, Komninos
    CERTH, Greece.
    Apostolopoulos, Vasilios
    CERTH, Greece.
    Zestanakis, Panagiotis
    CERTH, Greece.
    Nikolopoulos, Nikolaos
    CERTH, Greece.
    Deliverable 9.6: Intermediate report after one year of measurement2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present document is the Deliverable D9.6 “Intermediate report after one year of measurement”. The document describes the work carried out within the task 9.5 entitled “Overall evaluation and impact analysis for impact enhancement”. The focus of this task is to provide intermediate results of the demonstration activities in the three Lighthouse (LH) cities and to present the data currently transferred to the IRIS Key Performance Indicators (KPI) tool.

    The deliverable D9.6 is based on the work done in the Work Package (WP) 9, in particular the work in task 9.4 and task 9.5 (presented previously in D9.4 and D9.5). In this deliverable, the monitoring framework and established baselines developed in D9.5 are used to collect the data needed for the calculation of the KPIs. The KPIs are in turn used to evaluate the outcome and impact of the implemented measures. The collected data is transferred to the KPI tool, which was created and presented in D9.4. The tool processes and calculates the KPIs and visualizes the results. Data can be transferred to the KPI tool automatically, through a CIP, or manually through a template. A process which is described in this deliverable.

    This deliverable was intended to be an intermediate report to provide an initial insight to the results for all measures in the IRIS project. However, due to the lack of data from measures, which in part is due to the Covid-19 pandemic, this report focuses more on providing information about the process of collecting data and transferring it into the KPI tool. This process is collaborative and has been carried out within the IRIS LH cites with support from the technical partners and the WP9 team. Complexity of APIs and the lack of standards have made data extraction and transfer into the KPI tool more difficult. Furthermore, not all measures in IRIS are connected to CIP which means that manual data collection was required and a systematic procedure for this collection needed to be developed and introduced to the partners.

    There are several different reasons for lack of data and the resulting exclusion of some measures from this deliverable. A few measures are not yet in operation, while for other data collection have not started or the data transfer to the KPI tool has not been established yet. However, the work done in task 9.5 has provided new knowledge on issues and errors that can occur in the process of transferring data and establishing KPIs. Through dialogues with the project partners, the need to clarify some KPI cards with i.e. units, formulas or use cases has been highlighted. The close cooperation with the project partners has led to continued work on the definitions of the KPIs and what KPIs to include, taking steps in the direction of clearer interpretation and more consistent use. Further adaptation of several KPI-cards was done by the WP9 team. In the process of adjusting KPIs, the effect these adjustments would have on all measures that use them were considered. The process of developing KPIs involves a balance between finding indicators that can be used more generally and indicators that are more specific and thus better capture the purpose of a specific measure.

    The improvements of KPIs and lessons learned in task 9.5 will be of great use in the continued work of WP9. Focus will be on transfer of data from all measures into the KPI tool. A continuous dialogue with responsible project partners to ensure this data transfer and discussions on deviation and errors in the initial results will be established.

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  • 88.
    Bontekoe, Eelke
    et al.
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Schade, Jutta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Tsarchopoulos, Panagiotis
    CERTH, Greece.
    Lampropoulos, Ioannis
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Deliverable 9.10 : Third update of the Data Management Plan (DMP)2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of this document is to provide the procedure to be adopted by the project partners and subcontractors to produce, collect and process the data from the IRIS demonstration activities. The adopted procedure follows the guidelines provided by the European Commission in the document Guidelines on FAIR Data Management in Horizon 2020.

    This document is based on the Horizon 2020 FAIR Data Management Plan (DMP) template (Version: 26 July 2016) [1], which provides a set of questions that the partners should answer. Furthermore, the Horizon 2020 template from DMP online [2] is utilized to expand the questions and provide more detailed explanations. This fourth report on DMP, submitted at M48 (Autumn 2021) of the project, describes a plan for data production, collection and processing, and the first input from the different lighthouse cities. It will be continuously updated until the end of the project, as part of work package 9, WP9 Monitoring and evaluation, activities. Specifically, DMP will be updated again in M60 (D9.11: Fourth and final update on the Data management plan).

    The development of the DMP is part of the work undertaken in T9.2 Defining the data model and the data management plan for performance and impact measurement (M4-M60). Since the DMP development started in M4 (spring of 2018) of the project, this third report of the DMP provides templates for data reporting and emphasises on the interactions of task 9.2, T9.2 Defining the data model and the data management plan for performance and impact measurement, with other work packages.

    An important part of this document is the data management template (DMP template). This template is supposed to be used by all partners who produce or handle datasets within the IRIS project. For example, the partners responsible for the implementation of the measures in the Lighthouse cities. By making use of this template, it is ensured that the project research data will be 'FAIR', that is findable, accessible, interoperable and re-usable. This is achieved by:

    • Making data Findable, including provisions for metadata
    • Making data openly Accessible
    • Making data Interoperable
    • Increase data Re-use (through clarifying licences)

    The template is accompanied by a chapter which describes all topics that are required to be filled in. Further on, 3 DMP examples are added to illustrate what is expected, in order to facilitate the task of providing the data.

    Besides the Ethical aspects as defined in the DMP template for all ‘sub’-projects, a separated chapter is written on these aspects on IRIS level.

    The aggregation of data within the IRIS project has started after M30. Which means that data was generated within several measures. For this reason, the template as presented in D9.9 could be filled in as far as possible for 27 datasets. The resulting information about these datasets can be found in the DMP Excel sheet on EMDESK and as tables in Appendix 0.

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  • 89.
    Bontekoe, Eelke
    et al.
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Schade, Jutta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Tsarchopoulos, Panagiotis
    CERTH, Greece.
    Lampropoulos, Ioannis
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Deliverable 9.9 : second update of the data management plan2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of this document is to provide the procedure to be adopted by the project partners and subcontractors to produce, collect and process the data from the IRIS demonstration activities. The adopted procedure follows the guidelines provided by the European Commission in the document Guidelines on FAIR Data Management in Horizon 2020.

    This document is based on the Horizon 2020 FAIR Data Management Plan (DMP) template (Version: 26 July 2016) [1], which provides a set of questions that the partners should answer. Furthermore, the Horizon 2020 template from DMP online [2] is utilized to expand the questions and provide more detailed explanations. This third report on DMP, submitted at M30 (spring 2020) of the project, describes a plan for data production, collection and processing, and will be continuously updated until the end of the project, as part of work package 9, WP9 Monitoring and evaluation, activities. Specifically, the DMP will be updated again in M42 (D9.10: Third update on the Data management plan), and in M60 (D9.11: Fourth and final update on the Data management plan).

    The development of the DMP is part of the work undertaken in T9.2 Defining the data model and the data management plan for performance and impact measurement (M4-M60). Since the DMP development started in M4 (spring of 2018) of the project, this third report of the DMP provides templates for data reporting and emphasises on the interactions of task 9.2, T9.2 Defining the data model and the data management plan for performance and impact measurement, with other work packages.

    An important part of this document is the data management template (DMP). This template is supposed to be used by all partners who produce or handle datasets within the IRIS project. For example the partners responsible for the implementation of the measures in the Lighthouse cities. By making use of this template, it is ensured that the project research data will be 'FAIR', that is findable, accessible, interoperable and re-usable. This is achieved by:

    • Making data Findable, including provisions for metadata
    • Making data openly Accessible
    • Making data Interoperable
    • Increase data Re-use (through clarifying licences)

    The template is accompanied by a chapter which describes all topics that are required to be filled in. Further on, 3 DMP examples are added to illustrate what is expected, in order to facilitate the task of providing the data.

    Besides the Ethical aspects as defined in the DMP template for al ‘sub’-projects, a separated chapter is written on these aspects on IRIS level.

    After M30 the aggregation of data in the IRIS project will start to take place. Meaning that D9.10 (the third update of the data management plan) will be a version where the templates presented in this document will be largely filled in. Further on D9.10 will include the final template of data collection, which will be mainly defined by the experience built up during the collection of data during the project.

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  • 90.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Nordén, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Sweden; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sensory Evaluation of Lighting: A Methodological Pilot2022In: LEUKOS The Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, ISSN 1550-2724, E-ISSN 1550-2716, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 66-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current standards for light environments are based on technical requirements, e.g. luminance, uniformity, and illuminance, and do not necessarily describe all parts of the light experience to ensure visual comfort from a user perspective. Including experience-related requirements would most likely yield better lighting comfort. To do that, new methods for specifying and measuring the user experience are needed. This paper describes a pilot study exploring a new method to analytically assess perceived lighting properties by using a trained human panel and thus make human assessments more objective. The methodology is built on established sensory methods, where the human senses are used in product assessments, traditionally applied within e.g. the food, packaging, and car industries. An analytical panel comprising eight persons fulfilling specific selection criteria were recruited and trained to assess lighting products in a multi-sensory laboratory. The results show that the panelists were able to assess lighting by distinguishing between attributes and products. Significant differences were identified between the different luminaires, both in terms of sensory and physical properties, e.g. readability and glare. Conclusively, analytical sensory methods can be applied to lighting to assess luminaires in a non-subjective way. Physical and sensory attributes do not, however, always co-vary, which shows that data from physical and sensory measuring methods provide complementary information about light quality. This knowledge may in turn be applied in tools supporting the communication between different professions in lighting design and procurement to promote light environments that are both energy efficient and desirable from an end-user perspective.

  • 91.
    Boss, Annika
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Jansson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Emanuelsson, Viktor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Venkatesh, Abhijit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Sustainable Vehicles with Recycled Plastics2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of vehicles is one of the most resource-intensive industries. 10 % of the overall consumption of plastics, 6 million tonnes/year is used by the European vehicle industry1. Increase the use of recycled plastics in vehicles is one of the key challenges for sustainable transformation of the vehicle industry as it plays an important role in saving resources and reducing greenhouse emissions. The main goal of this project was to contribute to increased use of recycled plastic in the Swedish vehicle industry. Volvo Cars goal is that 25 % of the plastic used in cars should be recycled or biobased by 2025. The goal will most probably be reached according to Volvo Cars. Volvo group has the goal to be fossil neutral, which requires recycled material in the truck components. The recycled plastics evaluated in the project came from both post industrial waste (PIR) and post consumer waste (PCR). Rondo Plast, Polykemi, Albis, Mocom, Biesterfield, Borealis, Sabic, Total and LG Chem have supplied recycled and virgin plastics tested in the project. The plastics we have focusing on in this project were polypropylene (PP) plastics (homo- and copolymer) and PC/ABS plastic compounds. Thus, these plastics are most used in vehicle components and recycled PP plastics are more accessible than the other plastics that can be used in vehicles. Analysis and evaluation of recycled plastics have been performed by RISE. Also, long term ageing and recyclability studies have been performed. A study to upgrade PP plastic recycled from packaging (PCR) with additives from DOW and Rondo Plast were performed.

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  • 92.
    Bour, Agathe
    et al.
    Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Budde Christensen, Thomas
    Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Hunka, Agnieszka D.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Palmqvist, Annemette
    Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Skjold, Else
    Royal Danish Academy, Denmark.
    Syberg, Kristian
    Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Implications of circular textile policies for the future regulation of hazardous substances in textiles in the European Union2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 896, article id 165153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The textile industry's business model is currently unsustainable and systemic changes must be made. The transition to a circular textile economy can be a major lever for this. However, it faces multiple issues, including the (in)ability of current legislations to provide sufficient protection regarding hazardous chemicals in recirculating materials. It is therefore crucial to identify legislative gaps that prevent the implementation of a safe circular textile economy, and to identify which chemicals could jeopardize this process. With this study, we aim to identify hazardous substances that could be found in recirculated textiles, to identify and discuss gaps in current regulations covering chemicals in textiles, and to suggest solutions to ensure better safety of circular textiles. We compile and analyze data on 715 chemicals and their associated functions, textile production stage, and hazard data. We also present how chemicals have been regulated over time and discuss regulations' strengths and weaknesses in the perspective of circular economy. We finally discuss the recently proposed Ecodesign regulation, and which key point should be included in the future delegated acts. We found that most of the compiled chemicals present at least one recognized or suspected hazard. Among them, there were 228 CMR (carcinogenic, mutagenic, reprotoxic substances), 25 endocrine disruptors, 322 skin allergens or sensitizers, and 51 respiratory allergens or sensitizers. 30 chemicals completely or partially lack hazard data. 41 chemicals were found to present a risk for consumers, among which 15 recognized or suspected CMR and 36 recognized or suspected allergens/sensitizers. Following the analysis of regulations, we argue that an improved risk assessment of chemicals should consider chemicals specific hazardous properties and product's multiple life cycles, instead of being limited to the product's end-of-life stage. We especially argue that implementing a safe circular textile economy requires that chemicals of concern are eliminated from the market.

  • 93.
    Boyer, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Hunka, Agnieszka
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Linder, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Whalen, Katherine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Habibi, Shiva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Product Labels for the Circular Economy: Are Customers Willing to Pay for Circular?2021In: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, Vol. 27, p. 61-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While existing research has probed consumer responses to products of different recirculation pathways (recycling, reuse, refurbishment, etc), little work has examined consumer responses to an explicit “circular economy” product label or how willingness to pay is influenced by a continuum of circularity levels. This paper reports on the results of an online survey experiment that tests whether customers are willing to pay more for products with a theoretical multi-level Circular Economy score. Conjoint analysis was used on 800 respondents in the United Kingdom to test their willingness to pay for mobile phones and robot vacuum cleaners at different levels of circularity alongside other product attribute combinations. Results indicate that the average customer almost always prefers a more “circular” product when compared to products with otherwise identical attributes, and that customers are consistently willing to pay more for products with low or moderate levels of circular content. However, analysis suggests that willingness to pay more for products disappears, and in some cases declines, as the proportion of recirculated content increases. Results offer evidence that applying a numerical circular economy label at low levels of recirculated content could be a profitable strategy for producers of mobile phones and robot vacuum cleaners. Such a strategy is less certain for heavily refurbished products, fully reused products, or other product types. © 2020 The Authors

  • 94.
    Boyer, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Hunka, Agnieszka
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Whalen, Katherine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Consumer demand for circular products: Identifying customer segments in the circular economy2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 22, article id 12348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding consumer preferences in the circular economy can help producers develop profitable strategies, lowering the risk involved in transitioning to circular business models and circular product design. This study uses a choice experiment to identify customer segments for mobile phones and robot vacuum cleaners at different levels of circularity. The experiment observes how a product’s theoretical Circular Economy Score (ranging from 0 to 100) influences consumer preferences as compared to other product attributes like price, appearance, warranty, battery life, reseller type, or ease of repair. Drawing from 800 UK respondents, the results indicate the presence of three customer segments that are sensitive to a product’s Circular Economy Score, including two that appear willing to purchase recirculated items and one that expresses a preference against them. The results offer initial evidence that a market for recirculated consumer electronics exists and that circularity labeling is a marketable option. The results also present a strong rationale for further research that probes a greater variety of products and contexts. © 2021 by the authors

  • 95.
    Boyer, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Linden, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Norefjäll, Fredric
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Vanacore, Emanuela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Three dimensions of circularity : A systematic approach to circular procurement: Discussion material2020Other (Other academic)
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  • 96.
    Boyer, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Linden, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Norefjäll, Fredric
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Vanacore, Emanuela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Tre dimensioner av cirkularitet: Ett systematiskt förhållningssätt till cirkulär upphandling: Diskussionsmaterial2020Other (Other academic)
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  • 97.
    Boyer, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Williander, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Nyström, Thomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Linder, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Algurén, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Vanacore, Emanuela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Hunka, Agnieszka
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Whalen, Katherine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Three-dimensional product circularity2021In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 824-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Understanding product circularity as ?three-dimensional? could anchor the Circular Economy to common principles while affording its followers flexibility about how to measure it in their specific sectors and disciplines and within their organization's means. Inspired by a heuristic developed for the urban planning profession to cope with the inherent conflicts of Sustainable Development, this article argues that measuring product-level circularity should consider ways to achieve (1) high material recirculation, (2) high utilization, and (3) high endurance in products and service offerings. Achieving all three dimensions ensures that material flowing through the economy is recovered from prior use phases, that it is used intensely, and that it retains its value in spite of exogenous changes. The article argues further that these three dimensions ought to be measured and reported separately rather than as a composite metric and that certain applications will have opportunities to improve circularity through certain dimensions better than others. The article also explains how researchers at RISE (Research Institutes of Sweden AB) are working with industry and government partners to measure the three dimensions and how diverse actors interested in the Circular Economy can use the three dimensions to take the first steps in their transition to circularity.

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  • 98.
    Boyer, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Sarasini, Steven
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    D6.1 : STRONGER COMBINED MaaS IN 2020 : A REVIEW OF EXISTING RESEARCH AND ROUTES FOR THE FUTURE2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report was composed as part of Stronger Combined – an international R&I project funded by Interreg to explore the role of combined mobility, primarily within rural regions and areas. As such, this report examines the academic literature on Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) to investigate the geographical and conceptual areas that are covered by existing MaaS research and those which have been overlooked, aiming to deliver insights that can 1) spur developments in rural areas; and 2) inform future R&I programming within the broader MaaS field. Hence in addition to the above aims, this report also identifies gaps and shortcomings in academic scholarship, making recommendations for future research. The main findings of this report are summarized as follows: - MaaS is a concept forming in real-time. There is still much debate about the ‘true meaning’ of MaaS and the steps necessary to fully realize it. - MaaS research is overwhelmingly focused on urban places and populations. Rural and suburban areas are severely underrepresented in existing peer-reviewed research. MaaS for special populations and purposes like riders with disabilities or tourists is also underrepresented. - Authors of MaaS scholarship come from institutions in multiple countries, but 80% of articles come from seven countries: Sweden, Australia, UK, Netherlands, Switzerland, and Finland. These countries also tend to be the focus of MaaS research, although a sizeable number of articles are context-free (e.g. theoretical or conceptual). - Existing experimental and pilot-based research shows that access to MaaS has a measurable influence on individuals’ use of different travel modes, including a decline in personal vehicle use. However, multiple studies cast doubt on the ability of MaaS to displace personal vehicles completely. - The individuals most likely to adopt MaaS are mode agnostic – they already use multiple transportation modes for daily travel and are not strongly committed to any single mode. - Stated-preference surveys reveal that 10-15 percent of surveyed individuals are enthusiastic about adopting MaaS while another 30-40 percent are at least open-minded to the concept. The remainder are unlikely to adopt MaaS as currently conceived, for a variety of reasons. - Subscription-based MaaS with multiple bundled transportation services faces many obstacles including the complexity of service agreements and low stated-preferences for mobility bundles (albeit with exceptions). Several papers recommend that MaaS initiatives advance incrementally by including a small number of service providers and/or pay-as-you-go rather than subscription payment. - The governance of MaaS (i.e., the approach that different government entities take to making MaaS work) is critical. Different cities and public transit systems have approached MaaS governance in different ways. While there is no apparent “one-size-fits-all” approach, there is some consensus in the governance literature that enhanced data sharing, standardization, and participatory visioning processes have been and will continue to be important to the success of MaaS in the coming years. - The COVID-19 pandemic presents challenges to MaaS as conventionally envisioned, but some experts see opportunities for MaaS with expanded service offerings or as a tool for transportation resilience.

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  • 99.
    Boyer, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Sarasini, Steven
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    D6.2 STRONGER COMBINED : SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stronger Combined is a research and innovation project co-funded by the Interreg North Sea Region Programme. The overarching goal of the Stronger Combined project is to support experimentation with multimodal and intermodal passenger travel solutions in rural, small-town, and tourist (RUSTT) regions. The project consists of nine independent experimental sites, or living labs, in seven Interreg North Sea Region countries. Living labs are administered by either regional public transit authorities or municipalities with support from research institutes, universities, or private consultancies. Each living lab conducted at least one transportation pilot that attempted, through various means, to encourage alternatives to the personal motor vehicle. In all living lab contexts, the personal motor vehicle is the single dominant mode of transportation, which presents environmental, social, and economic challenges that Europe and the world must begin to address. The purpose of this report is to summarize and assess the performance of each pilot with special attention to increases in use of public transportation and decreases in carbon dioxide (equivalent) emissions. Communities in RUSTT regions face special transportation challenges largely because they lie outside dense transportation networks that tend to make multimodal transportation more efficient in larger cities. The Stronger Combined project aims to address these special challenges by piloting alternatives to the personal motor vehicle that allow travellers to more easily transition among multiple modes of transportation on a single journey. The piloted solutions vary enormously across living labs. They include several bikeshare programs that serve unique purposes in each context, a ridesharing service, a contractual restructuring that affords populations with special needs easier access to traditional public transit, a technical pilot testing a new national ticketing-and-payment standard, and a demand-responsive bus program in a mountainous tourist region. The pilots targeted user groups in very different ways and tested solutions over different time scales, making of pilots very challenging. At the beginning of the Stronger Combined project, the authors of this report endeavoured to apply the KOMPIS framework a series of data collection tools designed to evaluate mobility-as-a-service (MaaS) to each pilot. In most living labs this framework had to be adapted and downscaled to fit the capabilities and time scale of individual pilots. As a brief example, the full KOMPIS framework involves travellers completing travel diaries every day for a full week. Such a task is well suited for a pilot in which the key goal is for travellers to adopt multimodal travel habits, but it is unnecessarily detailed for a pilot that involves endusers renting a cargo bike for one or small number of specific trips. The COVID-19 pandemic also meant that several pilots were delayed or overhauled, requiring the relatively rapid development of new data collection strategies tailored to each pilot. The report below summarizes each pilot􀂶s contribution to public transit ridership and carbon savings, yet the most important and perhaps ironic finding in this report is that the context-specific nature of piloted solutions does not lend itself well to a one-size-fits-all evaluation framework. Substantial Stronger Combined D6.2 5 increases in public transit ridership were apparent in several pilot projects, however calculating the number of individuals that shifted to public transit modes was either irrelevant or impossible in most of the pilots. Similarly, we calculate substantial CO2 savings due to shifts in travel modes across many of the pilots, but it is arguably unfair to compare shifts across living labs. Living labs collected data in a variety of ways at a variety of time scales in pilots of varying size. Some pilots achieved relatively large absolute carbon savings (due in part to a larger number of participants) while others achieved impressive per person- or per kilometre savings relative to a baseline scenario (due in large part to a focus on transitions from personal vehicles to bicycles). Improving person-transportation in RUSST regions is it is effectively a set of unique problems that resist being solved at scale. A bike sharing program that works well as a first/last mile solution for hospital employees in a semi-rural Swedish region would not offer much value to a Danish village where many households have access to personal bicycles for local trips and where transportation outside the village by bicycle is practically impossible. The different pilots presented in this report each present unique and useful findings beyond the reported target KPIs. A sample of these findings include:  Introducing e-bikes as a mode of transportation makes the biggest difference for utility trips (e.g. trips to work or school), but is associated with relatively little change in individuals leisure travel or short trips around the neighbourhood (Genk pilot).  Elderly and disabled travellers will use public buses when offered for free or when given lowcost access (Groningen Drenthe pilot). Ridesharing in small towns is already rather common but tends to occur among family, friends, and familiar neighbours. Encouraging the use of ridesharing mobile apps will require enhancing drivers sense of familiarity with potential co-riders (Skive pilot).  Experts project that ID-based ticketing will be most useful to individuals that already use public transportation uncertain. These findings reflect existing academic research on MaaS, which shows that the most likely users of combined mobility offerings those without strong loyalties to any particular mode (Hallandstrafiken pilot). A sizeable majority (87.5 percent) of registered uses of a bikeshare service appear to use their subscription at least once a month, suggesting they are integrating bikeshare as a part of their routines rather than as a one-time solution (HiTrans pilot). Subscribers to an e-cargo bike pilot tended to be individuals that use a standard bicycle for travel several times a week and have positive attitudes toward bicycles. Thus, familiarity and positive attitudes about non-cargo bicycling may influence willingness to adopt cargo bikes as an option for transporting heavier loads or children (Rinteln pilot).

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  • 100.
    Brander, Linus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Boubitsas, Dimitrios
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Gabrielsson, Ida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Rivningsobjekt – från kostnad till resurs: Pilotstudie återbrukspotential för tunga stomdelar i två rivningsobjekt2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I projektet ”Rivningsobjekt – från kostnad till resurs” undersöks återbrukspotentialen i rivningsobjekt. Målet är att skapa förutsättningar för återbruk (återanvändning) av befintliga funktionella byggnadsdelar och material, som idag förstörs under rivningen. I projektets arbetspaket 6 har två pilotobjekt studerats utifrån olika aspekter som är av intresse vid ett potentiellt återbruk, tex teknisk kvalitet, demonterbarhet, hanterbarhet, materialtyper och arkitektoniskt värde. Utgångspunkten för att skapa en process som hanterar och värderar dessa aspekter är en kombination av två olika tjänster som redan idag tillhandahålls av olika aktörer: tillståndsbedömning och materialinventering i samband med rivning. Den tänkta processen är avsedd att ge indata till en urvalsmatris med olika kriterier som är viktiga för värderingen av hur man går vidare (ekonomiskt värde, värde minskade utsläpp av klimatpåverkande gaser, osv). För att testa och revidera den initiala processen för kvalitetsbedömning valdes två olika byggnader ut som pilotobjekt: Kv. Herrnhutaren i Göteborg (NCC) och Kv. Yrket i Solna (Fabege). De två rivningsobjekten kompletterar varandra med avseende på ålder, typologi, användning, byggnadsteknik och materialval. Kv. Herrnhutaren 2 är från 1800-talet och är platsbyggd, med stålstomme och bärande tegelväggar, men med väldigt lite betong. Byggnaden är ombyggd och tillbygg i flera omgångar. Användningen har varit främst affärs- och restauranglokaler, samt kontor och vindslager. Som kontrast är Kv. Yrket från 1980, till största delen byggd med Prefabelement i betong och har använts till kontor och lagerlokal.

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