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  • 51.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nordén, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Innemiljö i nytt ljus: Metoder för objektiv bedömning av belysning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nuvarande belysningsstandarder baseras enbart på tekniska krav, såsom ljusstyrka, jämnhet och luminans. Att även inkludera upplevelsebaserade krav skulle troligen främja bättre ljuskomfort, men även mer energieffektiva ljusmiljöer och produkter. Kunskapen om hur upplevda belysningsparametrar kan beskrivas är dock begränsad. Detta hämmar fastighetsägare och brukare att precisera önskvärda ljusmiljöer, liksom belysningstillverkare att utveckla produkter för nya marknader och tillämpningar. Syftet med detta forskningsprojekt var att utveckla och tillämpa sensoriska metoder på belysning. Till skillnad från tidigare metoder möjliggör sensoriska metoder objektiva bedömningar av upplevda belysningsparametrar.

    En analytisk panel bestående av åtta personer som uppfyller särskilda urvalskriterier rekryterades och tränades att bedöma belysningsprodukter i ett multisensoriskt laboratorium på SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut i Borås. Metodutvecklingen fokuserade särskilt på en effektiv träningsprocedur, hantering av ögats adaption, samt bedömning av färg och skuggningar. Förutom laboratorie-försök undersöktes möjligheten att genomföra analytiska bedömningar i en verklig kontext med samma försöksuppställning och panel.

    Resultaten visar att det är möjligt att använda sensorisk metodik för att genomföra objektiva belysningsbedömningar av armaturer; paneldeltagarna kunde skilja mellan attribut och prover. Signifikanta skillnader identifierades mellan de olika armaturerna, både i form av sensoriska och fysikaliska egenskaper såsom läsbarhet och bländning. Fysikaliska och sensoriska parametrar samvarierar dock inte alltid, vilket visar att fysikaliska och sensoriska mätningar ger kompletterande information om belysningskvalitet. Vidare visade bedömningsförsök i en verklig kontext att samma resultat uppnåddes som i laboratoriet, men med lägre signifikans, vilket verifierar metodens tillämpbarhet på belysning.

    Den genererade kunskapen väntas på sikt bidra till utveckling av verktyg som stödjer kommunikationen mellan olika professioner inom ljusdesign och planering och på så vis främja mer önskvärda och energieffektiva ljusmiljöer.

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  • 52.
    Borgqvist, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ågren, Thomas
    ICA Fastigheter, Sweden.
    Westman, Bo
    INCERT, Sweden.
    Swartz, Harry
    Hållbar miljö & strategi, Sweden.
    Certifierad energikonsult livsmedelsbutiker2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna förstudie har undersökt förutsättningarna för en frivillig, ej ackrediterad certifiering av energikonsulter för livsmedelsbutiker. Det långsiktiga målet är att butiker med hjälp av certifierade energikonsulter skall få effektiva och kvalitativa energikartläggningar som innefattar såväl fastighetens som verksamhetens energianvändning och hur de olika delarna kan samverka för största möjliga energieffektivisering.

    Det finns en mycket stor potential att spara energi i butiker. Dagens genomsnittsbutik kan minska sin energianvändning med en tredjedel. Idag finns också en ökad miljömedvetenhet hos svenska livsmedelsbutiker, och med ett större behov av kyld mat har energifrågorna fått en allt större betydelse. Medlemmar i BELIVS Innovationskluster har länge efterfrågat en certifiering av energikonsulter för livmedelsbutiker, som utgår ifrån beställarnas behov. Detta för att öka andelen butiker med låg energianvändning, säker drift och liten miljöpåverkan.

    Förstudiens resultat består av; identifierade behov ur ett beställarperspektiv, en kravspecifikation som beskriver certifieringens kompetenskrav, en beskrivning av hur en certifiering är tänkt att gå till, samt ett exempel på hur ett certifieringsprov kan se ut. Dessutom har fyra stycken testcertifieringar genomförts, där exempelprovet har testats av energikonsulter. Tanken är att förstudiens resultat skall kunna användas som underlag för att ta fram ett färdigt certifieringsprogram.

    Den generella slutsatsen från förstudien är att certifieringen av energikonsulter för livsmedelsbutiker är genomförbar, men beställarna behöver efterfråga certifieringen i sina upphandlingar av konsulter om denna skall slå på marknaden. Baserat på diskussioner med representanter från konsultsidan, bedömer projektgruppen att det finns ett intresse för certifieringen så länge beställarna kommer att efterfråga detta. Att få fler beställare bakom den föreslagna certifieringen är den viktigaste åtgärden i ett nästa steg.

    RISE har drivit projektet tillsammans med INCERT, ICA Fastigheter, Coop och Hållbar Miljö & Strategi. Projektgruppen har haft kontakt med Bergendahls och Axfood vilka har deltagit vid enstaka arbetsmöten.

    Finansiärer av förstudien är Energimyndigheten, INCERT, ICA Fastigheter, Coop samt Bergendahls.

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  • 53.
    Boss, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Sacco, Francesco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Molnar, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Systematisk utvärdering av hållbarhet vid renovering2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det europeiska fastighetsbeståndet är i behov av omfattande renoveringar för att uppnå minskade koldioxidutsläpp, men också för att skapa förbättrade livsvillkor för människor samtidigt som fastighetsägare drivs av ökad ekonomisk bärkraft. Men det är inte alltid lätt att veta hur mål av detta slag ska uppnås och balanseras. Därför har RISE tillsammans med partners i fastighetsbranschen tagit fram Renobuild – en beslutsmetod för att utvärdera renoveringar utifrån ett hållbarhetsperspektiv. I projektet har två versioner av metodiken tagits fram, testats och vidareutvecklats via fallstudier.

    Med hjälp av Renobuild Bostad utvärderas renoveringar av flerbostadshus och deras omgivningar med hänsyn till klimatpåverkan, livscykelkostnader och sociala faktorer så som trygghet, säkerhet, hälsa och sociala relationer. Med Renobuild Skola utvärderas skolrenoveringar och dess effekter på inte bara ekonomi och miljö, utan också med hänsyn till elevers lärande, trygghet och sociala relationer. Metodiken genererar en sammantagen hållbarhetsvärdering som ska ge fastighetsägare och samarbetspartners fördjupad förståelse för möjliga hållbarhetskonsekvenser av olika renoveringsalternativ samt tillfälle att diskutera och göra avvägningar mellan olika mål.

    Renobuild består av en Excelfil och en användarhandbok fritt tillgängliga för vem som helst att använda. Dessa nås via en webbplats, tillsammans med bakgrundsmaterial för den som vill få en djupare förståelse för hur metodiken har utvecklats. Förhoppningen är att metodiken nu ska spridas i fastighetsbranschen och därmed generera en större medvetenhet om hållbarhetsfrågor vid renoveringar.

  • 54.
    Boss, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Sacco, Francesco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Molnar, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Folland, Anna
    Hedén, Alice
    Renobuild 2.0 – verktyg för systematisk hållbarhetsutvärdering vid renovering2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fastighetsbeståndet i Sverige och resten av Europa är i behov av omfattande renoveringar för att uppnå minskade koldioxidutsläpp, skapa förbättrade livsvillkor för människor och öka dess ekonomiska bärkraft. Men det är inte alltid lätt att veta hur dessa mål ska uppnås och balanseras. Därför har RISE tillsammans med partners i fastighetsbranschen tagit fram Renobuild – en beslutsmetod för att utvärdera renoveringar utifrån ett hållbarhetsperspektiv. I projektet har två versioner av metodiken tagits fram, testats och vidareutvecklats via fallstudier. I Renobuild Bostad utvärderas renoveringar av flerbostadshus och deras omgivningar. Analysen tar hänsyn till klimatpåverkan, livscykelkostnader och sociala faktorer så som trygghet, säkerhet, hälsa och sociala relationer. Renobuild Skola utvärderar skolrenoveringar och dess effekter på ekonomi, miljö och sociala aspekter så som elevers lärande, trygghet och sociala relationer. Resultatet ger en sammantagen hållbarhetsvärdering som fördjupar fastighetsägares och samarbetspartners förståelse för möjliga konsekvenser av olika renoveringsalternativ. Renobuild består av ett Excelark och en användarhandbok som är fritt tillgängliga för vem som helst att använda. Dessa nås via en webbsida tillsammans med bakgrundsmaterial. En del av det materialet är den här rapporten som ämnar ge en djupare förståelse för hur metodiken har utvecklats. Rapporten beskriver vad användaren kan utvärdera med hjälp av dessa verktyg, hur verktyget behandlar indata, hur resultatet framställs och visualiseras samt hur den nya version 2.0 skiljer sig från en tidigare version. Här beskrivs också hur bakgrundsdata och teori har används för att utveckla innehållet i verktygen. Dessutom diskuteras det vilka avgränsningar som har gjorts i den miljömässiga, ekonomiska och sociala analysen – alltså reflektioner kring systemgränserna för respektive hållbarhetsdimension. Förhoppningen är att metodiken ska spridas i fastighetsbranschen och därmed generera en större medvetenhet om hållbarhetsfrågor vid renoveringar.

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  • 55.
    Boubitsas, Dimitiros
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Tang, Luping
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fridh, Katja
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Utgenannt, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Frost Resistance of Concrete – Experience from Long-Term Field Exposure2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results from a research project financed by Trafikverket, the Swedish Transport Administration, co-financed by Cementa AB.

    The purpose of this project is to investigate concrete specimens exposed to a de-icing salt highway environment at Highway 40 close to Borås after about 20 years. The project work was divided into two parts: Part One for frost resistance of concrete and Part Two for chloride ingress and reinforcement corrosion.

    In Part One, more than 100 types of concrete mixes with different binder types/combinations, water-binder ratios (w/b) and air contents exposed at three field test sites were examined for external and internal frost damage by measurements of the changes in volume of, and in ultrasonic transmission time through, the specimens. Furthermore, some laboratory tests were carried out to supply necessary data for modelling and identify the possible mechanisms causing frost damage.

    The results show clearly that the highway environment is the most aggressive with regard to external frost damage. Further, the results from this study show that the existence of entrained air and the water-binder ratio are the main parameters influencing the resistance of concrete to external salt-frost damage. Furthermore, the concrete mixes with CEM I, CEM I + 5 % silica, CEM II/A-LL, CEM II/A-S and CEM I + 30 % slag as binder with entrained air and a water/binder ratio of 0.4 or below, has good resistance to internal and external frost damage. Results show that concrete containing large amounts of slag as part of the binder (CEM III/B) have the severest scaling, irrespective of its content of entrained air.

    Comparing results from laboratory testing of salt-frost resistance in accordance with SS 13 72 44 (the ‘Slab test’ in CEN/TS 12390-9) with results after nineteen years’ exposure at the highway exposure site shows that the laboratory standard classifies most concrete qualities correctly.

    However, there is an indication that the laboratory test method may overestimate the scaling resistance of concrete containing a medium to high content of slag as part of the binder. This indicates a need to consider a revision of the slab test procedure so that aging processes is better taken into consideration. A somewhat longer preconditioning time with at least partially an increased carbon dioxide content would for example lead to that the effect of carbonation is better reflected.

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  • 56.
    Brolin, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Fahnestock, Jesse
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Rootzen, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Industry’s Electrification and Role in the Future Electricity System: A Strategic Innovation Agenda2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Trends visible today suggest that a transformation of industrial firms’ use of electricity, and a change in their role in the electricity system, could take place as a part of a long-term transition towards a low-carbon Swedish economy. The shape of these changes remains highly uncertain, but electrification, flexible electricity use, and emerging roles in the electricity system for industrial consumers are interdependent developments and should be investigated from a holistic perspective where possible.

    Swedish industry is relatively energy intensive, and has stood for roughly 37% of the country’s electricity use for a decade. The Swedish Energy Agency’s Vivace scenario suggests that this share could expand, despite improved efficiency, to 49% by 2050. The increased use of electricity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and take advantage of market conditions would play out differently in different sectors, and depending on the development of different technologies. However large-scale opportunities may exist in the long-term, such as using electrolysis to produce hydrogen for replacing coke in the iron and steel industry and as a feedstock in the petrochemical industry.

    Smaller-scale but still important options for electrification include electric/hybrid boilers in the pulp and paper industry and a variety of electro-thermal technologies for heating and drying.

    Increased use of electricity in industry is likely to go hand-in-hand with increasingly flexible use of electricity. In some cases, such as the production of hydrogen or process media, this flexibility will be in-built since the storable energy carriers create new production planning options. In other cases, new approaches to planning, process design, and the use of automation may allow firms to match electricity use to favourable market conditions.

    The expected high penetration of intermittent renewable electricity in the power system may create incentives for this flexibility. These incentives should appear on the wholesale market, in the form of high- and low-price periods. They may also appear via new capacity markets, or through markets for new system services needed to support stability in both transmission and distribution networks. The frameworks and regulations needed to create these markets are not yet in place, and firms will also need to develop technical and management capabilities to take advantage of them.

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  • 57.
    Brolin, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Sandels, Claes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Controlling a retailer's short-term financial risk exposure using demand response2019In: IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, ISSN 1751-8687, E-ISSN 1751-8695, Vol. 13, no 22, p. 5160-5170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition of the electric power system to reach sustainability goals leads to new market conditions with larger uncertainties. This constitutes new challenges and opportunities for new as well as for existing market players such as retailers. In a future more volatile and unpredictable market, financial risk management becomes an important element for such actors in order to achieve viable businesses. Different instruments can be applied for this purpose, where demand response can contribute in the short-term to manage risks related to price variations and imbalance costs. This study contributes to the enhancement of retailer's businesses by presenting a stochastic optimisation model exploring the possibility to apply demand response to control financial risk exposure. The model considers trading and demand response scheduling for different customer clusters, generating optimal trading volumes for day-ahead markets while also considering the possibility to trade intra-day. The optimisation considers uncertainties in prices and loads as well as imbalance settlement costs. Risk management is integrated into the model by applying conditional value-at-risk as risk measures. The developed model has also been applied in a case study with data from the Swedish and Nordic electricity market together with simulated load profiles for different customer clusters. 

  • 58.
    Brorström, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ernits, Heiti
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Gränsöverskridande organisering för hållbar utveckling2019In: INNOVATIONOCHSTADSUTVECKLING : En forskningsantologiom organiseringsutmaningarför stad och kommun / [ed] Jessica Algehed, Erica Eneqvist,Christian Jensen & Jenny Lööf, 2019, p. 149-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att skapa en framtida hållbar stad krävs ambitioner, mål och en tydlighet angående vart staden är på väg och hur förvaltningar och bolag tillsammans ska ta sig dit. Över tid har hållbarhetsfrågan mer och mer kommitatt handla om organisation: hur ska våra organisationer se ut och hur skade arbeta för att kunna hantera alla de utmaningar vi står inför? ForskarnaMoldavanova och Goerdel (2018) menar till exempel att en organisationmåste vara ”self-sustainable”, för att kunna hantera stora utmaningar ochhöga ambitioner. Det innebär att en organisation måste ha kapacitet för attkunna hantera en så stor utmaning som hållbarhet är. När vi pratar om organiseringen av hållbarhetsfrågan har diskussionen rört sig till en ”meso-nivå”, det vill säga en organisationsnivå. Det finns idag en kritik mot attmoderna organisationer ofta är kortsiktigt fokuserade, något som förstärksav New Public Management-paradigmet. Att utvärderas och kontrolleras på kort sikt men samtidigt arbeta motlångsiktiga mål är en problematik som vi har stött på i våra studier avsvenska städer och deras hållbarhetsarbete. Vi möter också ofta uttalandensom tyder på att det tar upp mycket tid och kraft för tjänstepersoner attfundera på hur organisationen ska se ut, vem som ska ingå i olika projekt,hur beslut fattas och hur kultur kan förändras. Våra studier visar också attmånga komplexa frågor som handlar om hur staden ska te sig i framtidenbehandlas i gränsöverskridande samverkan. Detta är i sig inte förvånande,många har konstaterat att de samhälleliga utmaningar vi står inför inte kanhanteras av en organisation enskilt, utan måste hanteras över gränser (Williams, 2012). Men förutom att hållbarhetsfrågan är utmanande i sig, finnsdet också flertalet utmaningar som har att göra med själva organiseringen.I det här kapitlet beskriver vi utmaningarna som uppstår i organisationersom har att arbeta med hållbarhetsfrågan. Vi kommer att utgå från två olikastudier av två städer, där organiseringen skiljer sig åt och där man därförhar valt två olika sätt att lösa ett problem, eller snarare att möta en utmaning. Vi inleder med att först kortfattat beskriva de två städernas arbete föratt sedan beskriva utmaningarna.

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  • 59.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Falk, Petter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    What can LCA learnfrom service design: User integration?2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a sustainable society, the use of resources and climate issues needs to be reduced, and the introduction of services seems to be the solution in the new “service” economy. Similar to products, services are designed to fulfill costumer needs. However, customers are seldom involved in the design of products, while they are in the process of service design. Here we look at the leisure service sector to find method concepts for sustainable analysis (Berlin & Brunklaus 2016).

    So far, a literature study and LCA studies on services (Brunklaus 2016) like the opera and theatre (Algehed et al 2010), tourist (Brunklaus et al 2015), and film (Brunklaus et al 2015) has been performed using a producer and consumer perspective, which led to discussion about the reuse of scenes at the opera, and discussion about tourist packages and discussion about film production design. To get this even further, we have looked into the area of service design.

    The purpose of this project is to further develop the various LCA based methods (E-LCA, S-LCA, LCC) in order to integrate user into the design process. The questions are: What can the life cycle methodology learn from service design? What are the similarities and differences?

    The service design includes several parts: Prepare and define the problem, capture the service and user through ethograpichly oriented research tools, Understand the employee and the user, Improve the working process, and Renew the user function (SP service LABs 2016). The life cycle methodology includes also several parts: Goal and scope including the problem and the system of study, the Inventory includes the technical system and environmental or social or economic data, the Impact Assessment includes indicators, and the Interpretation includes technical solutions and hot spot analysis of various kinds (Bauman and Tillman 2004).

    The results show that the service design is developed close to the customer, including study visits and observation, which the life cycle methodology seems to lack. On the other hand the life cycle methodology gains in the well-structured goal and scope. In order to develop the life cycle methodology further we therefore recommend integrating the user more and focusing on the implementation and visualization, similar to Service design.

  • 60.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Molnar, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Torén, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Choice of social indicators within technology development – the case of mobile biorefineries in Europe2018In: Social LCA: People and Places for Partnership, 2018, p. 162-166Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Røyne, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ulmanen, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Aid, Graham
    Ragnsells, Sweden.
    The value of transdisciplinary perspectives duringtransition to a bio-based economy: The prospect for converting mixed food wasteinto bio-based chemicals2018In: Designing Sustainable Technologies, Products andPolicies: From Science to Innovation / [ed] Enrico Benetto, Kilian Gericke, Mélanie Guiton, Spinger , 2018, p. 327-335Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the current political and industrial transition to a bio-based

    economy, food waste can be an alternative resource for biobased chemicals. This

    chapter describes a case study that evaluates the prospect for Swedish production of

    biobased chemicals such as succinic acid from food waste. The evaluation is

    addressed from multiple systems perspectives. From a technical and resource

    system perspective, the results of the case study show that production seems possible.

    However, from a social system perspective succinic acid production currently

    lacks institutional support and actor commitment and alignment for realizing

    development in Sweden. From an environmental and life cycle perspective, the

    scoping of the analysis is decisive for the results. The study shows that multiple

    perspectives complement each other when seeking a nuanced evaluation of technical

    innovation and give insights for the intended value chain.

  • 62.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Carlsson, Erica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    The future of Swedish food waste: An environmental assessment of existing and prospective valorization techniques2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 202, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the current dominant valorization of food waste is the production of biogas. However, as current production has low profitability, other options are sought to find more valuable uses of food waste, e.g. as the feedstock for bio-based chemicals. One example is the use of food waste in the production of bio-based succinic acid. In this paper, a LCA study is presented in order to highlight whether biogas production or the production of succinic acid has the lowest environmental impact as valorization option for mixed food waste, and if mixed food waste could be an environmentally preferable feedstock to succinic acid production. The LCA study shows that the environmental results depend on the perspective. From a valorization perspective, food waste has the lowest environmental impact the biogas production. From a feedstock perspective, mixed food waste is an environmentally preferable feedstock to succinic acid production. Although many uncertainties exist because production processes are still being developed, it can be concluded that mixed food waste seems to be a promising feedstock for bio-based chemicals from an environmental point of view, and is of interest to be included in future assessments of bio-based chemicals for the emerging bio-economy. © 2018

  • 63.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Riise, Ellen
    SCA, Sweden.
    Bio-based Materials Within the CircularEconomy: Opportunities and Challenges2018In: Designing SustainableTechnologies,Products and Policies : from Science to Innovation / [ed] Enrico Benetto, Kilian Gericke, Mélanie Guiton, 2018, p. 43-48Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a circular society, material consumption should be a circular processwhere renewable resources and waste streams are used for new bio-based materials.In such a society, bio-based materials are also reused, repaired, recycled, andremanufactured. Not only choices on resources, but also other life cycle choicespertaining to circularity must be done based on technological, environmental andeconomic basis. For this session, presentations and discussions regarding life cyclemanagement of bio-based materials were suggested. The session had five oralpresentations and six poster presentations that gave a general picture of a broaderenvironmental and a positive economic result on a life cycle basis when renewableraw materials are used, while further exploration of the technical aspects withincircularity and end-of-life challenges are needed in the future.

  • 64.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Schnurr, Maria
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    8 ton society Sweden: Assessing the material footprint of sharing and circular lifestyles in housing,mobility and food2019In: Life Cycle Management Conference 2019, Poznan, Polen, 2019, Vol. 9, article id 96Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The average Swedish household throws away 480 kg of solid garbage per year. But this amount of material is only a small share of the resource consumption that our lifestylegives rise to. Our homes need to be built, goods produced, we are transported,and food is produced. In today's linear consumption society, every individual inthe EU is estimated to have a material footprint of 29 tons/year on average – afootprint that needs to shrink to 8 tons in order to stay within “planetaryboundaries”. In a circular system, products are recycled and shared leading toless resources and materials needed, but do we know how much? Which resourceand material consumption is generated in Sweden? What could we achieve througha transition to a sharing and circular economy, and how would our consumptionpatterns look like within a sustainable material lifestyle? The goal of thisstudyis to assess the material footprint of sharing and circular lifestyles inhousing, mobility and food system. "8 ton society" takes athree-level method approach: (1) National: assessing the material footprint ofsharing and circular lifestyles in housing, mobility and food systems on anational level. (2) Municipal: Mapping material and waste streams at municipallevel (for the three Swedish municipalities Göteborg, Malmö och Umeå), by whichmunicipalities can identify opportunities for a circular society, for exampleby supplementing existing climate strategies and waste plans with circularaction plans. (3) Household: Combined with a household level analysis ofmaterial footprints, the project contributes to behavioral change at householdlevel as well as strengthened decision making and innovation at national andmunicipal level. The results of the study are material footprints and scenariosthat are used as basis for the development of reduction measures. The scenariosdescribe potential “8t societies” for Sweden, meaning potential policy andsocietal innovations that allow for a drastic reduction of material footprint.These include sharing and circular solutions. Additionally, the project willcontrast the Swedish results to similar projects that have been carried out in Finland and Germany.

  • 65.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Stahl, Selim
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Socio-economic analysis based on a life cycle perspective: The comparison of existing and emerging production process for trimethyl phosphite2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Byrne, Eoin
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kovacs, Krisztyna
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Van Niel, Ed W. J.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Willquist, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Svensson, Sven-Erik
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kreuger, Emma
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Reduced use of phosphorus and water in sequential dark fermentation and anaerobic digestion of wheat straw and the application of ensiled steam-pretreated lucerne as a macronutrient provider in anaerobic digestion2018In: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Current EU directives demand increased use of renewable fuels in the transportation sector but restrict governmental support for production of biofuels produced from crops. The use of intercropped lucerne and wheat may comply with the directives. In the current study, the combination of ensiled lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) and wheat straw as substrate for hydrogen and methane production was investigated. Steam-pretreated and enzymatically hydrolysed wheat straw [WSH, 76% of total chemical oxygen demand (COD)] and ensiled lucerne (LH, 24% of total COD) were used for sequential hydrogen production through dark fermentation and methane production through anaerobic digestion and directly for anaerobic digestion. Synthetic co-cultures of extreme thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor species adapted to elevated osmolalities were used for dark fermentation. Results: Based on 6 tested steam pretreatment conditions, 5 min at 200 °C was chosen for the ensiled lucerne. The same conditions as applied for wheat straw (10 min at 200 °C with 1% acetic acid) would give similar sugar yields. Volumetric hydrogen productivities of 6.7 and 4.3 mmol/L/h and hydrogen yields of 1.9 and 1.8 mol/mol hexose were observed using WSH and the combination of WSH and LH, respectively, which were relatively low compared to those of the wild-type strains. The combinations of WSH plus LH and the effluent from dark fermentation of WSH plus LH were efficiently converted to methane in anaerobic digestion with COD removal of 85-89% at organic loading rates of COD 5.4 and 8.5 g/L/day, respectively, in UASB reactors. The nutrients in the combined hydrolysates could support this conversion. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the possibility of reducing the water addition to WSH by 26% and the phosphorus addition by 80% in dark fermentation with Caldicellulosiruptor species, compared to previous reports. WSH and combined WSH and LH were well tolerated by osmotolerant co-cultures. The yield was not significantly different when using defined media or hydrolysates with the same concentrations of sugars. However, the sugar concentration was negatively correlated with the hydrogen yield when comparing the results to previous reports. Hydrolysates and effluents from dark fermentation can be efficiently converted to methane. Lucerne can serve as macronutrient provider in anaerobic digestion. Intercropping with wheat is promising.

  • 67.
    Cabrero, José Manuel
    et al.
    University of Navarra, Spain.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Jockwer, Robert
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Yurrita, Miguel
    University of Navarra, Spain.
    A probabilistic study of brittle failure in dowel-type timber connections with steel plates loaded parallel to the grain2019In: Wood Material Science and Engineering, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 298-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dowel-type connections in timber structures should be typically designed in a way that, if the load bearing capacity is exceeded, desirable ductile failure should likely occur, i.e. yielding of the metal dowel or embedment of the timber. However, the probability of brittle failures cannot be completely avoided in many cases. If the connection is loaded parallel to the grain direction, splitting, row-shear, plug/block shear and tensile failure are examples of such brittle failure modes. To ensure a beneficial structural performance locally and sufficient structural robustness globally, the probability of such brittle failures should be kept at a sufficiently low level. However, in the current version of EN1995, the probability of such failure is not considered explicitly. The final aim of the presented research study is to develop a rational approach for the consideration of brittle failure in timber connections with dowel-type fasteners and steel plates loaded parallel to the grain, consistently with the partial factor method. As a first step, a probabilistic model has been used to study the susceptibility to brittle failure and provide a rational basis for the calibration of a “brittle overstrength factor”. The results of this study are reported in the current contribution.

  • 68.
    Capener, Carl-Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Anna, Pettersson Skog
    Emilsson, Tobias
    Malmberg, Jonatan
    Jägerhök, Tove
    Edwards, Ylva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Grönatakhandboken: Vägledning2017Report (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Chen, Huijuan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Stensson, Sofia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Energy performance of door solutions2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project aim was to develop knowledge about the energy performance of different door solutions. The door types that we have focused on are automatic sliding doors and revolving doors. Losses through a door depend on its U-value, infiltration leakage through the seal when closed and unintended air exchange when the door is open and in use. It is the last factor, the unintended air exchange when in use, which is mostly addressed in this report and it is also the most significant part when it comes to energy losses through entrance doors.

    To achieve environmental targets, energy use in buildings must be reduced. There is a gap regarding knowledge about the energy losses through the entrances and how it affects the total energy use of the building. The problems regarding entrances are neglected in calculations of low energy buildings, even though they in many cases may have a large impact on the energy use. Meanwhile, the unintended air exchange through the doors is a parameter that has a large uncertainty and that is difficult to predict in energy calculations. To achieve a better accuracy in calculated energy performance, better methods and estimations regarding the unintentional air exchange through the entrances is needed.

    In the project we measured air exchange rates through a revolving door and investigated the effect of temperature difference and door rotation speed in our laboratory, based on a reduced scale revolving door with the scaling 1:2.  Both temperature measurements and tracer gas measurements were performed, and the temperature measurements gave more stable results. The measured air exchange rate was affected more by the door rotation speed than the temperature difference, within the measuring ranges that was tested.

    Further, we have also analyzed and applied existing calculation models for entrance doors. Calculations for estimating the energy losses for a door was made for a simple case study of an office building in Gothenburg, based on a number of different calculation models for sliding doors and revolving doors. The calculation results for this specific study show that the revolving door can prevent up to 60-90% of the losses compared to a sliding door depending on which air flow scenario, i.e., single sided- or cross ventilation, is considered for the sliding door. Better knowledge is needed to understand the actual air flow profile of real cases when the sliding door is installed in a building. Furthermore, additional studies are needed for the revolving door to ensure the results from this study by e.g., extended laboratory measurements and also field tests. Also, how other parameters such as wind (magnitude, direction and incidence angle) and door usage affecting air exchange through a revolving door is needed to be investigated further. Next step to develop a reliable model for revolving doors is to repeat the measurements performed in this project on a full scale revolving door and with a larger test range.

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    Entrance solution
  • 70.
    Choi, Hyunok
    et al.
    University at Albany, USA.
    Schmidbauer, Norbert
    Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway.
    Bornehag, Carl Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Volatile organic compounds of possible microbial origin and their risks on childhood asthma and allergies within damp homes2017In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 98, p. 143-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Risk of indoor exposure to volatile organic compounds of purported microbial origin on childhood symptoms of wheezing, rhinitis, and/or eczema, and doctor-diagnosed asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, respectively, remain unclear. Objective To test hypotheses that total sum of 28 microbial volatile organic compounds (Σ26 MVOCs): 1) poses independent risk on doctor-diagnosed asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, respectively, as well as multiple symptom presentation with a minimum of the two of the above conditions (i.e. case); 2) is associated with significant interaction with absolute humidity (AH) on additive scale. Methods In a case-control investigation, 198 cases and 202 controls were examined during November 2001 – March 2002 period through home indoor air sampling, air quality inspection, and health outcome ascertainment. Results Not only the Σ28 MVOCs but also the global MVOC index were significantly higher within the homes of the cases with a high AH, compared to the controls with a low AH (all Ps < 0.001). Only the cases, but not the controls, were associated with a dose-dependent increase in the exposure variables of interest (Σ28 MVOCs) per quartile increase in AH (P < 0.0001 for the cases; P = 0.780 for the controls). Only among the children who live in a high AH homes, a natural log (ln)-unit of Σ 28 MVOCs was associated with 2.5-times greater odds of the case status (95% CI, 1.0–6.2; P = 0.046), compared to 0.7-times the odds (95% CI, 0.4–1.0; P = 0.074) of the same outcome among the low AH homes. Specifically, joint exposure to a high MVOCs and high AH was associated with 2.6-times greater odds of the doctor-diagnosed asthma status (95% CI, 0.7–8.91; P = 0.137). Conclusion Joint occurrence of high Σ28 MVOCs and AH was associated with a significant increase in the case status and asthma risks in an additive scale.

  • 71.
    Coutiño, Ana Martha
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Wahlberg, Alexander
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    McNamara, Greg
    Dublin City University, Ireland.
    Demonstration project to prove the techno-economic feasibility of using algae to treat saline wastewater from the food industry2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This deliverable is a process report of tasks 7.2 and 7.3 concerning the techno-economic and environmental evaluation of the SaltGae system. It also describes the plan forward to execute task 7.4 and 7.5 regarding the social and integrated sustainability assessments. The last section also includes a process report of the SaltGae Visualisation tool (SVT).

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    fulltext
  • 72.
    Cristescu, Carmen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Guide för att ställa cirkularitetskrav i upphandlingsdokument för nybyggnation2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This guide is a review of the most recent European results from reports which shared experience and knowledge on how to introduce circularity in procurement documents. It also contains the authors’ own conclusions and proposes a business model and a list of possible requirements that could be introduced in procurements by municipalities.

    It refers to the definition of circular building, to the principles behind it. It shows how to use the valuable experience of sustainability and how to pass from a sustainable procurement (Green public procurement) to circular procurement.

    The guide is meant to be a reference, a supporting document for public decisions-makers when choosing criteria for procurement document of new constructions.

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  • 73.
    Crossler Ernström, Tova
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Digitala spel i medborgardialog om stadsutveckling: Tidigare forskning och utvecklingsbehov2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a result of a research review and analysis carried out as a prestudy within RISE:s initiative

    Digilog - Digital games for citizen participation in urban development. The text attempts to map out the field(s) of existing research on the subject; which includes areas as diverse as game studies, urban planning and governance research. It then makes some suggestions for both theoretical and practical aspects to address in future work.

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    Digitala spel i medborgardialog om stadsutveckling - rapport
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    fulltext
  • 74.
    Dahlqvist, Peter
    et al.
    SGU Geological Survey of Sweden, Sweden.
    Sjöstrand, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindhe, Andreas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rosén, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nisell, Jakob
    SGU Geological Survey of Sweden, Sweden.
    Hellstrand, Eva
    SGU Geological Survey of Sweden, Sweden.
    Holgersson, Björn
    SGU Geological Survey of Sweden, Sweden.
    Potential benefits of managed aquifer recharge MAR on the Island of Gotland, Sweden2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 10, article id 2164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Island of Gotland (3000 km2), east of mainland Sweden, suffers from insufficient water availability each summer. Thin soils and lack of coherent reservoirs in the sedimentary bedrock lead to limited reservoir capacity. The feasibility of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is explored by identifying suitable areas and estimating their possible contribution to an increased water availability. MARis compared to alternative water management measures, e.g., increased groundwater abstraction, in terms of costs and water availability potential. Results from GIS analyses of infiltration areas and groundwater storage, respectively proximity to surface water sources and surface water storage were classified into three categories of MAR suitability. An area of ca 7700 ha (2.5% of Gotland) was found to have good local conditions for MAR and an area of ca 22,700 ha (7.5% of Gotland) was found to have moderate local conditions for MAR. These results reveal the MAR potential on Gotland. The water supply potential of MAR in existing well fields was estimated to be about 35% of the forecasted drinking water supply and 7% of the total water demand gap in year 2045. It is similar in costs and water supply potential to increased surface water extraction. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 75.
    Davidsson, Kent
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Stålenheim, Annika
    Vattenfall, Sweden.
    Boman, Katarina
    Vattenfall, Sweden.
    Sotningsmetoder för pannor som använder besvärliga bbränslen2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Erfarenheter samt finansierings- och driftkostnader har tagits fram för en rad

    sotningsmetoder.

    Resultatet visar att av de studerade anläggningarna finns det ingen metod som generellt

    bara fungerar bra, eller generellt inte fungerar alls. Alla har sina för och nackdelar och

    fungerar olika bra på olika pannor. Kostnadsmässigt är det också stor spridning men det

    beror delvis på ett ganska litet underlag. I vissa fall blir kostnaderna väldigt höga om

    bristande funktion leder till mycket stilleståndstid eller att man exempelvis får minska

    lasten under sotningssekvensen, medan det i andra fall är relativt låga kostnader för

    samma metod.

    Ett trettiotal anläggningar av rost- och fluidbäddtyp, vilka eldades med avfall eller

    biobränsle har ingått i undersökningen.

  • 76.
    de Fine Licht, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hostile urban architecture: A critical discussion of the seemingly offensive art of keeping people away2017In: Etikk i praksis, ISSN 1890-3991, E-ISSN 1890-4009, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 27-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, some urban architecture has aimed to exclude unwanted groups of people from some locations. This type of architecture is called “defensive” or “hostile” architecture and includes benches that cannot be slept on, spikes in the ground that cannot be stood on, and pieces of metal that hinder one’s ability to skateboard. These defensive measures have sparked public outrage, with many thinking such measures lead to suffering, are disrespectful, and violate people’s rights. In this paper, it is argued that these views are difficult to defend and that much more empirical research on the topic is needed.

  • 77.
    de Fine Licht, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Justifying Antibiotic Resistance Interventions: Uncertainty, Precaution and Ethics2018In: Ethics and Drug-Resistant Infections:  Collective Responsibility for Global Public Health / [ed] Jamrozik E. och Selgelid M.J, Springer, 2018, 5Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter charts and critically analyses the ethical challenge of assessing how much (and what kind of) evidence is required for the justification of interventions in response antibiotic resistance (ABR), as well as other major public health threats. Our ambition here is to chart and briefly discuss main issues, and point to ways in which these need to be further advanced in future research. This will result in a tentative map of complications, underlying problems and possible challenges. This map illustrates that the ethical challenges in this area are much more complex and profound than is usually acknowledged, leaving no tentatively plausible intervention package free of downsides. This creates potentially overwhelming theoretical conundrums when trying to justify what to do. We therefore end by pointing out two general features of the complexity we find to be of particular importance, and a tentative suggestion for how to create a theoretical basis for further analysis.

  • 78.
    de Fine Licht, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Russell Hardin: Trust and trustworthiness2017In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 52-61Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 79.
    de Fine Licht, Karl
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Molnar, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    PRISMA: Processverktyg för social hållbarhet i stadsdelsomvandling2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett verktyg som kan användas av små och mellanstora kommuner som ett processtöd i stadsplaneringsprocesser.

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    fulltext
  • 80.
    de Fine Licht, Karl
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Munthe, Christian
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nijsingh, Niels
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    TESTING INTERVENTIONS FOR DRASTICPUBLIC HEALTH THREATS: "SOCIAL VALUE", PRAGMATIC RISKS AND THE CHALLENGE OF HEALTH-RELATED RESEARCH ETHICS THE CASE OF DRUG RESISTANCE2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 81.
    de Jong, Sierk
    et al.
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Hoefnagels, Ric
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; IIASA International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Faaij, Andre
    University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Junginger, Martin
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Cost optimization of biofuel production – The impact of scale, integration, transport and supply chain configurations2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 195, p. 1055-1070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses a geographically-explicit cost optimization model to analyze the impact of and interrelation between four cost reduction strategies for biofuel production: economies of scale, intermodal transport, integration with existing industries, and distributed supply chain configurations (i.e. supply chains with an intermediate pre-treatment step to reduce biomass transport cost). The model assessed biofuel production levels ranging from 1 to 150 PJ a−1 in the context of the existing Swedish forest industry. Biofuel was produced from forestry biomass using hydrothermal liquefaction and hydroprocessing. Simultaneous implementation of all cost reduction strategies yielded minimum biofuel production costs of 18.1–18.2 € GJ−1 at biofuel production levels between 10 and 75 PJ a−1. Limiting the economies of scale was shown to cause the largest cost increase (+0–12%, increasing with biofuel production level), followed by disabling integration benefits (+1–10%, decreasing with biofuel production level) and allowing unimodal truck transport only (+0–6%, increasing with biofuel production level). Distributed supply chain configurations were introduced once biomass supply became increasingly dispersed, but did not provide a significant cost benefit (&lt;1%). Disabling the benefits of integration favors large-scale centralized production, while intermodal transport networks positively affect the benefits of economies of scale. As biofuel production costs still exceeds the price of fossil transport fuels in Sweden after implementation of all cost reduction strategies, policy support and stimulation of further technological learning remains essential to achieve cost parity with fossil fuels for this feedstock/technology combination in this spatiotemporal context. © 2017 The Authors

  • 82.
    During, Otto
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Bhochhibhoya, Silu
    Univeristy of Twente, Netherlands.
    Kunar Maskey, Ramesh
    Kathmandu University, Nepal.
    Joshi, Rajendra
    Kathmandu University, Nepal.
    Rice Husk Resource for Energy and Cementitious Products with Low CO2 contributions2018In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 45-58Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rice Husk Ash (RHA) is a well-known supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) that can be used for concrete with reduced CO

    2 contributions. In 2016, only Nepal produced 5.2 million tonnes rice that gave about 1.14 million tonnes rice husk. The rice husk can also be used directly in a cement kiln as a fuel. This study analysis the potential CO2 reductions from three scenarios and emphasis strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and treats in the production systems for initiate a decision process with possibilities to get an industry project financed from the green climate found. The highest CO2 benefits were from rice husk used in a cement kiln were half of the yearly rice husk production in Nepal could reduce the climate impact with 808000 tonnes CO2.

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  • 83.
    Eder, Gabriele
    et al.
    OFI, Austria.
    Peharz, Gerhard
    Joanneum Research, Austria.
    Trattnig, Roman
    Joanneum Research, Austria.
    Bonomo, Pierluigi
    SUPSI University of Applied Sciences and Art of Southern Switzerland, Switzerland.
    Saretta, Erika
    SUPSI University of Applied Sciences and Art of Southern Switzerland, Switzerland.
    Frontini, Francesco
    SUPSI University of Applied Sciences and Art of Southern Switzerland, Switzerland.
    Polo López, Cristina S.
    SUPSI University of Applied Sciences and Art of Southern Switzerland, Switzerland.
    Wilson, Helen Rose
    Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Germany.
    Eisenlohr, Johannes
    Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Germany.
    Chivelet, Nuria Martin
    CIEMAT, Spain.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Jakica, Nebojsa
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Zanelli, Alessandra
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Coloured BIPV : Market, Research and Development2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the building sector, net-zero energy performance targets and reduction of CO2 emissions are the main drivers for building integrated photovoltaics. Recent market studies [10,18,19] show the history and perspective of the global market in the BIPV sector and calculate a global compound annual growth rate of ~ 40 % from 2009 up to 2020.

    In Europe, the BIPV market is in a transition. The past decades of a slowly emerging BIPV market have been characterized by the original dominant value of BIPV: a building that communicates an image of sustainability and innovation. Payback time or "return on investment" have not been the major parameters in the decision process for applying BIPV. This is changing now. In most European countries, the new regulations on energy performance in buildings (derived from the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive and the Directive on energy efficiency) have been translated in national regulations/laws, stating that all new (and freshly refurbished) buildings of the EU member states should be nearly zero energy buildings (nZEBs) by 2020. Thus, the time for the regulations to become mandatory is very near. It is expected that the energy performance regulations are now taking over as the main driving factor for the BIPV market and that should have huge consequences in removing the difference between a conventional building component and a BIPV component both in aesthetical and construction terms. This has led to intensified research and development aiming to create BIPV products that come in a variety of colours and sizes, while at the same time being as close as possible to existing building components, to its requirements and how it is considered by the construction industry.

    The given market overview of state-of-the-art coloured BIPV products clearly reveals that for all parts of a BIPV module (glass, polymers, PV-active layers), there are technical solutions available for colouring. Pilot projects utilizing coloured BIPV products have been built in numerous (mainly European) cities clearly demonstrating the maturity of these solutions.

    The key aspect that has been slowing down the progress of implementation of these aesthetically appealing and technically sophisticated new products into a wider market are the costs. In this respect, a lot of effort has been made to improve and optimize the relationship between colour and efficiency/power generation of BIPV elements. The results of the past and on-going innovative research and intensified fundamental considerations are also summarized in this report.

    Besides the colour perception of the coloured BIPV elements under solar irradiation which is essential for the acceptance of the exterior appearance of a building, also transparency and inside visual comfort of BIPV – windows and façade elements are essential for the users and inhabitants.

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  • 84.
    Edo Gimenez, Mar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Manual för plockanalyser av brännbart bygg- och rivningsavfall2019Report (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Edo Giménez, Mar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jensen, Carl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rapp, Magnus
    Ragn-Sells Recycling AB, Sweden.
    Radlert, Åke
    Swerock AB, Sweden.
    Sahlin, Jenny
    PROFU, Sweden.
    Weiss, Monika
    SRV återvinning AB, Sweden.
    Manual för plockanalyser av brännbart bygg- och rivningsavfall2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This manual provides instructions on how to perform sorting analyses of combustible construction and demolition waste studied in the project Framtidens avfallsbränsle – Uppströmsarbete och kvalitet.The sorting strategy described in this manual recommends sorting out the content of the waste sample based on its composition (referred to as main fractions) and functionality (referred to as subfractions). In this way, four material fractions are identified and sorted out (i.e. plastic, paper, wood and “others combustible and non-combustible materials”), and up to 48 different subfraction (i.e. plastic pipes, wooden furniture, packaging paper, cables, metal pieces etc.).It is important to mention that the subfractions listed in this report are indicative: not all of the subfractions listed are always found in the combustible construction and demolition waste. Additions or substitutions may be necessary to ensure the best outcomes from the sorting analyses depending on the aim and goals of the project.The way the waste sample is handled before a sorting analysis is performed is essential. For that reason, this manual also includes instructions about sample collection, identification and storage once the sample is received at the sorting waste plants; as well as brief recommendations about how to perform a pre-sorting of those materials with a potential for recycling and waste which can be easily removed.

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  • 86.
    Edo, Mar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Profu, Sweden.
    Engman, Martin
    Skanska, Sweden.
    Jensen, Carl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Sahlin, Jenny
    Profu, Sweden.
    Solis, Martyna
    Profu, Sweden.
    Reduktion av mängden brännbart bygg- och rivningsavfall2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I övergången mot en cirkulär ekonomi är nyttiggörande av avfall och att använda detta som resurser en viktig hörnsten. Bygg- och rivningsavfall är en av de största avfallsströmmarna i Europa och uppskattas till omkring 800 miljoner ton per år inom EU (Europeiska kommissionen, 2019). I Sverige uppkommer omkring 10 miljoner ton bygg- och rivningsavfall varje år (Naturvårdsverket, 2018). Bygg- och rivningsavfall anses vara en avfallsström med stor potential till en förbättrad avfallshantering genom materialåtervinning jämfört med idag. Samtidigt har underlaget om vad det brännbara bygg- respektive rivningsavfallet innehåller varit väldigt knapphändigt.

    Projektets ambitioner har varit dels att öka kunskapen kring sammansättningen av brännbart bygg- respektive rivningsavfall och dels att med hjälp av diskussioner och intervjuer mellan/med olika led i värdekedjan ta fram rekommendationer till åtgärder för att säkerställa att det avfall som går till energiåtervinning bara består av sådant som inte kan återvinnas effektivare på annat sätt. Ett visst fokus har också varit kring plast som har en viktig inverkan på miljöavtrycket både för bygg- och rivningssektorn såväl som på energisektorn.

    I projektet gjordes plockanalyser på byggavfall och på rivningsavfall. Som ett resultat av detta arbete utvecklades en manual tillsammans med aktörerna som utförde plockanalyserna. Denna manual finns publicerad som en separat SBUF rapport för att underlätta användandet av den.

    Även om mängden plockanalyser var begränsat och inte kan sägas utgöra ett medel för respektive avfallstyp kunde fortfarande intressant observationer göras. Analyserna visade att det finns en hel del material i de brännbara fraktionerna som borde ha sorterats ut för materialåtervinning. I snitt utgjordes det brännbara byggavfallet till drygt 30 % av pappers och plastförpackningar. Detta är strömmar som omfattas av producentansvar och där det redan idag finns fungerande processer för materialåtervinning. Plast i sig stod för nästan 30% av det brännbara byggavfallet och av det utgjordes 50% av förpackningar. När det gällde rivningsavfallet fanns det exempel där mer än 50% av den så kallade brännbara fraktionen utgjordes av icke-brännbart material (främst gips).

    De förbättringsåtgärder som identifierats i projektet är en mix från komplexa åtgärder för normändring, ny affärslogik och kommunikation i värdekedjan till konkret om antal containrar vid sortering, förbättrade möten vid projektuppstart, och behov av ett utökat återtagande av förpackningar.

    Några av de största hindren för en ökad återvinning idag är:

    • Huvudsakligen kostnadsdrivna processer där avfall och resurshushållning får en underordnad betydelse

    • Otydlighet om miljönyttan – representanter för byggföretag påtalar att man saknar en tydlig information, kvantifiering och kommunikation om miljönyttan av att materialåtervinna istället för att energiåtervinna de brännbara avfallsfraktionerna.

    • Företagsledningarnas prioriteringar - de är avgörande för att bryta normer och ställa om till ett mer cirkulärt tänk

    • Tidsbrist vid inventeringar samt brist på utrymme för källsortering

    • Att sorteringsanläggningarna idag snarast är optimerade för bränsletillverkning än för att sortera ut så mycket återvinningsbart material som möjligt

     

    Projektet drar följande slutsatser, grupperade inom olika delar:

    Sammansättning:

    • Studien ger ett unikt, offentligt dataunderlag kring sammansättningen av brännbart bygg- och rivningsavfall, som tidigare saknats. Underlaget ger en indikation på framförallt vad som finns i byggavfallet och kan användas när avfallsstrategier uppdateras/tas fram.

    • Byggavfall och rivningsavfall måste separeras när man diskuterar åtgärder för såväl minimering som återvinning och återbruk eftersom förutsättningarna avsevärt skiljer sig åt mellan de två avfallsströmmarna.

    • Resultatet visar att brännbart rivningsavfall kan innehålla en betydande andel icke brännbart avfall, en andel som i vissa fall uppgått till så mycket som 50 procent varav gips utgjort den största andelen.

    • Den genomsnittliga koncentrationen av klor i både byggavfall och rivningsavfall är i samma storleksordning som den i RDF-avfall. Hårdplast är den fraktion som bidrar mest till klorinnehållet i båda avfallsströmmarna.

    • Byggavfall visade högre kvicksilverinnehåll jämfört med rivningsavfall och RDF och SRF. Det var inte möjligt att identifiera källan till kvicksilver i de analyserade proverna.

     

    Potential för materialåtervinning

    • Det brännbara byggavfallet skulle kunna minskas med upp till 33 procent enbart genom en väl fungerande källsortering och insamling av förpackningar (plast, papper och kartong).

    • Det finns en stor potential att öka återvinningen av plast från det brännbara byggavfallet - plockanalyserna visade att av plasten är det upp till 49 procent mjukplastförpackningar, som ingår i producentansvaret och har befintliga system för materialåtervinning

     

    Beteende, policies och prioriteringar

    • Den största utmaningen för minskade avfallsmängder och förbättrad avfallsbehandling är att företagsekonomisk rationalitet driver företagens dagliga verksamhet, och att avfall och avfallsbehandling ofta är en underordnad fråga.

    • Det pågår arbete för förbättrad resurshushållning och avfallshantering inom bygg- och rivningssektorerna för att utbilda och sprida kunskap, samt få branschaktörer att i praktiken agera efter befintlig kunskap.

    • Företagsledningens prioriteringar har stor potential att förändra normer och prioriteringar för inköpsprocesser för avfallsförebyggande, kvalitetssäkring för återanvändning och ökad källsortering. Dessa insatser upplevs medföra en större arbetsinsats, som innebär högre kostnader, än dagens norm med överbeställningar och avfallsgenerering.

    • Det finns ett stort behov av att sprida kunskapen om vikten av återvinning och avfalls-minskning längs hela värdekedjan.

    • Det finns ett stort behov av tidig och detaljerad planering av bygg- och rivningsprojekt, som inkluderar plan för avfallshantering genom hela projektet. I de nya avfallsriktlinjerna från Sveriges Byggindustrier rekommenderas att inventering ska göras även på återanvändbart och återvinningsbart material

    • Utökad sortering och återvinning av rivningsavfall hindras huvudsakligen av brist på tid för inventering och selektiv rivning, samt brist på utrymme för sortering.

    • Det finns ett behov av att förändra ordningen att dagens sorteringsanläggningar av blandat bygg- och rivningsavfall primärt syftar till att ta fram en bränslefraktion, snarare än att sortera avfallet för materialåtervinning

     

    Några rekommendationer från projektet till aktörer i byggsektorn:

    • Skapa strategi och samarbete för normförändring genom hela kedjan från tillverkare, byggherre och byggentreprenör som alla måste prioritera arbetet med att minimera och sortera avfall, för att nå en förändring. En väg kan vara att öka utbildning om resurshushållning som också prioriteras högt vid projektering, planering och implementering av byggprojekt.

    • Förtydliga och utöka samarbete mellan olika affärsenheter såsom ledning, hållbarhet, teknik, särskilt i stora organisationer. Hållbarhetsavdelningen är vanligen väl insatt i frågorna om avfallsförebyggande och hanteringen, men kan ha svårt att nå ut och nå förändring i praktiken.

    • Ökad kunskap om sammansättningen på avfallsströmmar genom systematiska plockanalyser och hantera avfallsströmmar från byggnation respektive rivning olika, med skilda behov av åtgärder för förbättring.

    • Sätt branschgemensamma mål och identifiera vägar för uppföljning för ökad resurshushållning och att nå bättre avfallsbehandling. Men ett gemensamt mål kan företag sporra varandra att prestanda mot samma mål.

    • Gör medvetna resursstyrda inköp.

    • Skapa ett forum för samverkan mellan aktörerna i värdekedjan från ägare av byggnader/infrastruktur hela vägen uppströms till producenterna av materialen/produkterna som används och nedströms till avfallsmottagarna.

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  • 87.
    Edo, Mar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    International perspectives of energy from waste: Challenges and trends2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Energy from waste technologies (EfW) constitute a meeting point for waste management and energy sectors to work together and benefit from each other in the most efficient manner. EfW technologies provide a solution for waste management; while generate energy (e.g. electricity, heat or fuel transport) to meet the actual fossil-free fuels high demand. Selection of the most suitable technology is based on social, economic and technical factors and environmental strategies to ensure the best outcomes.

    This paper describes the importance of EfW in today´s society, gives a picture of the situation of the EfW market in different regions all over the world and discuss the main challenges that the EfW market is facing.

  • 88.
    Ekman Nilsson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Macias Aragones, Marta
    Fundación Corporación Tecnológica de Andalucía, Spain; University of Seville, Spain.
    Arroyo Torralvo, Fatima
    University of Seville, Spain.
    Dunon, Vincent
    ARCHE Consulting, Belgium.
    Angel, Hanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Komnitsas, Konstantinos
    Technical University of Crete, Greece.
    Willquist, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    A review of carbon footprint of Cu and Zn production from primary and secondary sources2017In: Minerals, ISSN 2075-163X, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 7, no 9, p. 168-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) with their unique propertiesare central for economic growth, quality of life and creation of new jobs. The base-metalproducing sector is, however, under growing public pressure in respect toenergy and water requirements and needs to meet several challenges, includingincreased demand and lower ore grades generally associated with larger resourceuse. The development of technologies for metal production from secondarysources is often motivated by increased sustainability and this paper aims to providefurther insights about one specific aspect of sustainability, namely climatechange. The paper presents a review of carbon footprints (CF) for Cu and Znproduced from primary and secondary raw materials, by analyzing data taken fromscientific literature and the Ecoinvent database. Comparisons are carried outbased on the source of data selected as reference case. In the case of Cu,reduced CF of secondary production is indicated, although there is large datavariation. As for Zn, production of this metal from secondary sources seems to bebeneficial but the number of data and cases to be compared is much smallercompared to Cu. The general variation of data suggests that standardization ofcomparison is needed when assessing the environmental benefits of production inline with the principles of waste valorization, zero waste approach andcircular economy.

  • 89.
    Ekström, Daniel
    et al.
    WSP, Sweden.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Simonsson, Peter
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Rempling, Rasmus
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Climate impact optimization in concrete bridge construction2017In: IABSE Conference, Vancouver 2017: Engineering the Future - Report, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) , 2017, p. 1161-1168Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimates indicate that the total climate impact, from a lifecycle perspective, generated by Swedish construction processes reaches the same magnitude as emissions from all passenger cars in Sweden. A large part of the emissions from construction of roads and railways arise from production of steel and concrete used in bridges and other infrastructure structures. In this research, several cases of existing concrete bridges have been investigated. The case studies are in a very firm way analyzed, and then opportunities for reducing climate gas emissions are described and elaborated upon. Accordingly, design and dimensioning through the use of today's technology and material selection are discussed. Without developing new ways to construct bridges, or comparing concrete with other materials, a useful guide on how to use technology and opportunities that are available for constructing climate smarter versions of standard bridges today is developed and described.

  • 90.
    Eneqvist, Erica
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ernits, Heiti
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jahnke, Marcus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Lööf, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Stoltz, Anna-Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Innovationskapacitet för att leda och organisera hållbar samhällsutveckling - erfarenheter och rekommendationer från innovationsplattformarna2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet Nationell samverkan mellan innovationsplattformar för hållbara attraktiva städer har sedan november 2016 arbetat med kunskapsutbyte och lärande mellan de sex städerna Borås, Göteborg, Kiruna, Lund, Malmö och Stockholm som ingår i Vinnovasatsningen “Utveckling av innovationsplattformar för hållbara attraktiva städer”. Alla städer har, på lite olika sätt, tagit sig an utmaningen att bygga innovationskapacitet och hitta vägar runt hinder för innovation för hållbar stadsutveckling.Tillsammans har städerna utvecklat unik kunskap om lokala samhällsutmaningars komplexitet och på vilket sätt innovationsarbete kan främja en hållbar utveckling. Fokus för arbetet har varit gränsöverskridande samarbete och på vilket sätt gränsgångare, ledarskap, organisationskultur och stödjande strukturer kan bygga kapacitet och mobilisera en omställning för hållbar utveckling. Med andra ord hur man kan utveckla innovationskapacitet och innovationsledning för hållbar samhällsutveckling i städer.Redan i halvtidsrapporten Leda och organisera innovation för hållbara städer och samhällen -erfarenheter från innovationsplattformarna 2017, redovisades viktiga erfarenheter med konkreta exempel från de olika städernas innovationsplattformar. I rapporten beskrivs också några av de samhällsomvälvande hållbarhetsutmaningar som gör behovet av radikalt nya lösningar ocharbetssätt akut. Rapporten argumenterade för att många av utmaningarna är så komplexa att det behövs ett helhetsperspektiv som inkluderar samverkande aktörer från både regionala instanser, den statliga nivån och nationella och internationella nätverk, för att möjliggöra innovation och förändring på det lokala planet. Den här rapporten bygger vidare på dessa erfarenheter, med en rad slutsatser och exempel som kan användas på kommunal nivå, men den innehåller också ett förslag på en agenda för nationella och regionala aktörer.Under det senaste året, med bland annat alarmerande klimatrapporter, fortsatt ökade sociala klyftor, en extrem värmebölja som stressade samhällssystemen och politisk turbulens både nationellt och internationellt har vår övertygelse stärkts än mer; innovationsplattformar är centrala för att utifrån sina unika lokala förutsättningar utforska och utveckla lösningar för hur vi ska klara av samhällets hållbarhetsutmaningar.

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  • 91.
    Eneqvist, Erica
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    KTH Royal oinstitute of Technology, Sweden.
    Projekt och testbäddar: två alternativa vägar för hållbar stadsutveckling2019In: INNOVATIONOCHSTADSUTVECKLING : En forskningsantologiom organiseringsutmaningarför stad och kommun / [ed] Jessica Algehed, Erica Eneqvist,Christian Jensen & Jenny Lööf, 2019, p. 77-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Malmö har sedan 1990-talet genomgått en stor förändring, från att i ett globalt perspektiv ha varit en relativt okänd stad i södra Sverige, till att numeravara en förebild för hållbar stadsutveckling. Varvsindustrins kollaps i mittenav 1980-talet katalyserade gemensamma krafter och en vilja att transformera staden och ekonomin i en postindustriell riktning. En rad faktorer drevpå den snabba omvandlingen av staden, men två stadsutvecklingsinitiativkan sägas stå i centrum för utvecklingen. Västra Hamnen, den högprofilerade ombyggnationen av tidigare industrimark till en stadsdel med genomgående hållbarhetsprofil som initierades i samband med Bomässan 2001och som fortfarande vidareutvecklas med flera etapper, och EkostadenAugustenborg, en stadsdelsomvandling av ett befintligt bostadsområde från1940-talet som påbörjades i slutet av 1990-talet och som fortsätter än idag.De båda initiativen representerar två olika tillvägagångssätt, som leder tillolika konsekvenser och möjligheter.Syftet med detta kapitel är att jämföra och kontrastera Västra Hamnenoch Ekostaden Augustenborg som alternativa vägar till innovativ hållbarstadsutveckling. Vi presenterar två olika sätt att stadsutveckla, som kan sessom idealtyper, projekt respektive testbädd. Vi använder därefter dessa tvåidealtyper och exemplifierar med hjälp av Västra Hamnen och Augustenborg och diskuterar för- och nackdelar med de olika tillvägagångssätten.Kapitlet bygger på data som samlats in genom platsbesök i de båda områdena, intervjuer med kommunföreträdare och konsulter som varit involverade i de två stadsutvecklingsprojekten samt dokumentstudier.

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  • 92.
    Eriksson, Jonny
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Lime render, shrinkage cracks and craftsmanship in building restoration2019In: Journal of Cultural Heritage, ISSN 1296-2074, E-ISSN 1778-3674, Vol. 37, p. 73-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present project concerns early shrinkage cracks in renders. This problem relates to the type of lime and rendering methods used in Sweden during the 19th and early 20th century as well as in current restoration practice. Results from different render restoration projects have indicated that a high frequency of shrinkage cracks could be related to the slaking procedure and the reworking of the slaked lime putty. The aim of the project was to investigate whether there is a connection between different handling procedures for wet-slaked lime putty and early shrinkage cracks in render. An investigation involving practical application and a laboratory test programme was initiated to examine the problem of early shrinkage cracks in renders based on wet-slaked sub-hydraulic lime. This type of lime was commonly used in Sweden in the 19th century. The laboratory work in the project included 3 different mix proportions based on reworked and non-reworked lime putty. The renders were applied after 1, 8, 15, 32 and 68 days storage of the lime putty. This gave 30 mortar mixes applied as rendered test surfaces. The flow number of the fresh mortars was determined and the workability, mixability and open time were assessed. The frequency of shrinkage cracks in the rendered surfaces was measured. The results showed that the frequency of shrinkage cracks was related to the methods applied in the slaking process and the storage time. Reworking and storage of the lime putty increased the frequency of shrinkage cracks. The properties of the fresh mortar were also influenced.

  • 93.
    Eriksson, Lina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Morandin, Matteo
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A feasibility study of improved heat recovery and excess heat export at a Swedish chemical complex site2018In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 1580-1593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New ambitious targets for reduced greenhouse gas emissions and increased energy efficiency in industry and in the stationary energy sector provide incentives for industrial plants to investigate opportunities for substantially increasing recovery and use of excess heat from their operations. This work investigates the economic feasibility of recovering industrial excess heat at a Swedish chemical complex site for increased site internal heat recovery or export to a regional district heating (DH) network. The work is based on investment cost data estimated in previous work by the authors. A site-wide heat collection and distribution system based on circulating hot water was envisioned, which is also connected to a regional DH network. With the help of multiobjective optimization, the optimal heat contributions from the individual plant sites were identified that minimize the total system cost for a large range of options involving different quantities of internally recovered heat and heat export to the DH system. A payback period analysis was conducted together with a risk assessment to take into account uncertainty regarding utility steam production cost and heat sale price. The results of the study indicate that a payback period of around 3 years can be achieved for a number of cases in which 30% to 50% of the total excess heat produced by the site plants is recovered. Although it seems more profitable to recover heat at the site rather than exporting heat to the DH system only, profitability appears to be maximized by hybrid solutions that allow a share of the excess heat to be sold to the DH system and some heat to be recovered at the site simultaneously.

  • 94.
    Ernits, Heiti
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    PROJEKTSTUDIO : En miljö och ett arbetssätt förgränsöverskridande problemlösning,lärande och samarbete2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektstudion är ett arbetssätt som underlättar för professionen att tackla problem och genomföra projekt som kräver samverkan över förvaltningsmässiga, organisatoriska eller kunskapsmässiga gränser. Projektstudion som arbetssätt nyttjas när frågor eller problem är komplexa, tvetydiga eller gränsöverskridande; eller där det krävs involvering av intressenter eller fler kunskapsperspektiv. Projektstudion kan användas för att hantera händelser och situationer där det av någon anledning saknas organisatoriska rutiner, förhållningssätt, procedurer eller kompetens för att hantera. Projektstudion kan användas för att skapa en robust samsyn i organisationen kring en viss fråga, hitta kompromisser, lösa uppgifter på ett snabbare sätt, öka det organisatoriska lärandet eller för att skapa ett bättre beslutsunderlag genom att inkludera en bredare kunskapsbas.

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  • 95.
    Fahnestock, Jesse
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Hasselqvist, Märta
    Tekniska Verken i Linköping AB, Sweden.
    Mirata, Murat
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Charlotte
    Fortum Waste Solutions, Sweden.
    Persson, Anders
    Sysav Utveckling, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Anders
    Vattenfall, Sweden.
    Sahlen, Jakob
    Avfall Sverige, Sweden.
    Waste Incineration for the Future: Scenario analysis and action plans2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a deliverable from a project within the Swedish Strategic Innovation Program RE:Source, financed by the Swedish Energy Agency, Formas and Vinnova. The project, Waste Incineration for the Future, aims to produce a knowledge base for the development of energy recovery from waste that suits the future circular economy. In order to identify and prioritize relevant innovations, a scenario process has been undertaken with stakeholders from the energy, waste and recycling, and manufacturing industries. The result is two distinct, complementary scenarios for the circular economy in Sweden, each with different implications for innovation in waste incineration and energy recovery.

    With these scenarios as a starting point, the project has defined prioritized areas for innovation and produced action plans for promoting innovation.

  • 96.
    Fahnestock, Jesse
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Talalasova, Elena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Göteborgs stads Innovationsprogram : scenarioanalys 20352019Report (Other academic)
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    fulltext
  • 97.
    Fahnestock, Jesse
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Talalasova, Elena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    P-to-Product: Analys av eventuella marknader, drivkrafter och hinder2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en leverans från arbetspaket 1 inom Vinnova projektet Återvinning av fosfor från slam till produkter.

    Analysen som följer syftar till en utvärdering av potentialen av återvunnen fosfor (P) i gödselprodukter, samt en kartläggning av eventuella drivkrafter/barriärer/hinder för en lyckad utveckling av dessa produkter. Analysen bygger på interaktioner med projektintressenter, som är bland de viktigaste aktörerna för innovationssystemets uppbyggnad. Intressenterna har bidragit bland annat genom att svara på en enkätundersökning och delta i två workshops.

    Baserade på dessa interaktioner har potentialen för gödselprodukter uppskattats genom konstruktion av ett enkelt scenario. Scenariot beskriver en utveckling av en ’grön nisch’ som ett första kundsegment och fosforn försörjs av enkla tillämpningar av tekniker för utvinning ur rejektvatten på ett fåtal stora och medelstora reningsverk. Denna tidiga utveckling är beroende på premier och/eller andra incitament, men bygger upp trovärdighet i värdekedjan och innovationssystemet. Uppskalningen sker några år senare genom en mer integrerad utvinning ur rejektvatten och förbränningsbaserade metoder, som tillämpas som svar på ett återvinningskrav för större verk. För att ta emot dessa volymer måste gödselprodukter med återvunnen fosfor sedan ta en ökande andel på massmarknaden.

    Eventuella drivkrafter och barriärer för en sådan utveckling analyseras ur ett innovationssystemsperspektiv. De viktigaste hinder är kopplade till sökriktningen, dvs brist på en tydlig nationell strategi för hantering av fosfor från återvunnen slam; marknadsformation, dvs skapande av incitament och verktyg som hjälper återvunnen fosfor att nå ut på marknaden; och legitimering, dvs acceptans för återvunnen fosfor i gödselprodukter bland nyckelintressenterna.

    Den allra viktigaste åtgärden för att få igång utvecklingen anses vara ett lagkrav på utvinning, men det är inte heller tillräckligt, då det kan leda till återvinning utan en fungerande marknad för fosforn som återvinns. Istället betonar vi vikten av att skapa en policymix som består av kompletterande styrmedel. Förslag till styrmedel, förutom ett centralt instrument som främjar utvinning, innefattar kvalitetssäkringsarbete längst värdekedjan och införandet av ekonomiskt stöd för återvunnen fosfor. Vikten av systemperspektivet och av att ta hänsyn till lokala förutsättningar betonas i sammanhanget.

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  • 98. Falchi, Laura
    et al.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Fontana, Patrick
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Balliana, Eleonora
    Izzo, Francesca
    Zendri, Elisabetta
    Artificial weathering of water-repellent mortars suitable for restoration applications2014In: Hydrophobe VII / [ed] Mimoso, J.-M., Charola, A.E., 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 99.
    Falk, Krister
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Bozic, Katarina
    OBOS AB, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Josefin
    Tengbomgruppen AB, Sweden.
    Pereira, Joao
    Tengbomgruppen AB, Sweden.
    Janerö, Kirsi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Hansén, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Kartläggning av marknadens flexväggar för det anpassningsbara boendet2017Report (Other academic)
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    fulltext
  • 100.
    Fallde, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Torén, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Energy system models as a means of visualising barriers and drivers of forest-based biofuels: An interview study of developers and potential users2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 1792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest-derived biofuels have been on the agenda for several decades. Despite extensive research and development efforts, forest biofuel concepts have nevertheless not yet been realized on any significant scale. The discrepancy between the expectations from the research community and the lack of momentum regarding biofuel production raises the question of if and how research results can be used to achieve such goals. Here, we report results from an interview study with the aim of evaluating how energy system models can be used to illustrate barriers and drivers for forest biofuels, with focus on Swedish conditions, using the BeWhere model as case. The study is framed as an example of expertise, and problematizes how energy system models are interpreted among expected users. While the interviews revealed some general scepticism regarding models, and what kinds of questions they can answer, the belief was also expressed that increased complexity might be an advantage in terms of being able to accommodate more barriers against forest biofuels. The study illustrates the complexity of this policy area, where an energy system model can answer some, but never all, 'what if.?' questions. The results reveal a need for reformation in energy system modelling in order to more explicitly make society the subject of the work, and also illustrate that the belief in expertise as a tool for consensus-building in decision-making should be questioned.

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