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  • 51.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Andersson, Hans
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Vennetti, Daniel
    Sällberg, Sven-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Göteborg (BMg).
    The functioning of flange joints – findings from full scale experiments and FEM analyses2012In: Proceedings of PPXVI, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Christiansson, Rolf
    Martin, Derek. C.
    Experimental determination of spalling initiation in hard rock2010In: Proceedings of Rock Mechanics in civil and Environmental Engineering, CRC press/Balkema , 2010, , p. 327-330Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proceedings of the European Rock Mechanics Symposium (EUROCK) 2010, Lausanne, Switzerland, 15-18 June, 2010, Rock Mechanics in civil and Environmental Engineering, eds J Zhao, V Labiouse, J-P Dudt & J-F Mathier (Extern vetenskaplig bok)

  • 53.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Brzovic, Andres
    de los Santos, Carlos
    Direct shear and tensile test on cemented healed joints from El Teniente mine, Chile2011In: Proceedings of the 12th ISRM International Congress on Rock Mechanics, 2011, , p. 649-654Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Jansson, Thomas
    Christiansson, Rolf
    Measurement of micro crack volume in low porosity crystalline rock2007In: Proceedings of the 11th ISRM Congress, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Grelk, Bent
    Smits, Arwen
    Expert System for Dimensioning of Facade Cladding2010In: Proceedings of Global Stone Congress 2010, 2010, , p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proceedings of the Global Stone Congress 2010, Alicante Spain, 2-5 March 2010 2010 (Extern vetenskaplig bok)

  • 56.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Glamheden, Rune
    Hakami, Eva
    Olofsson, Isabelle
    Rock mechanics laboratory testing in SKB site investigation program2012In: Proceedings of EUROCK 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Karlsson, Linda
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Andersson, Hans
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Are methods for tightness testing fit for purpose?2012In: Proceedings of PPXVI, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Runesson, Kenneth
    Computational modelling of high-cycle deformation of railway ballast2002In: Proceedings  5th World Congress on Computational Mechanics (WCCM V), 2002, p. 12 pp-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 59. Jansson, Anette
    et al.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Löfgren, Ingemar
    Lundgren, Karin
    Gylltoft, Kent
    Experimental investigation of surface crack initiation, propagation and tension stiffening in self-compacting steel–fibre-reinforced concrete2012In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 1127-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate crack initiation and propagation in reinforced, self-compacting, steel–fibre-reinforced concrete (SCSFRC) members, tie elements were tested in tension. Strain and surface crack formation were monitored with an optical strain measurement system based on digital image correlation. In addition, to capture the softening behaviour (s–w) of the material, uni-axial tension testing was performed on SCSFRC cylinders. The results show that, with the optical strain measurement system, it was possible to detect different cracking modes and to follow the crack growth. It was especially of interest to recognize that high fibre amounts tend to change a sudden opening of a crack (as in non-fibrous concrete) into a more stable procedure. It was found that, for a given crack width, the SCSFRC specimens exhibited a noticeably higher tension stiffening than the specimens without fibres. Moreover, at a given load, the crack widths decreased by as much as 65% for the SCSFRC specimens with a nominal fibre content of 1%. For the uni-axial tension tests the results showed that with higher fibre content, for this type of fibre and concrete, both the peak stress and the residual tensile stress were increased. Additionally, it was noted for both specimen types that the scatter in fibre distribution decreased with increasing fibre content.

  • 60.
    Jansson, Robert
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Albrektsson, Joakim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Lindqvist, Jan-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Optisk mätmetod visar hur långt in betongen skadats2011In: Husbyggaren, ISSN 0018-7968, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 4 to 6-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 61.
    Johannesson, Pär
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Rychlik, Igor
    Laplace models for describing road profiles.2014In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Commercial Vehicle Technology Symposium (CVT2014), 2014, , p. 99-108Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Johannesson, Pär
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Rychlik, Igor
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden .
    Laplace processes for describing road profiles2013In: Procedia Engineering, ISSN 1877-7058, E-ISSN 1877-7058, Vol. 66, p. 464-473article id 464-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Gaussian model is frequently used for modelling environmental loads, e.g. sea elevation, wind loads and road profiles. However, the Gaussian model is often only valid for short sections of the load. For example, for roads profiles, short sections of roads, say 100 m, is well modelled by a Gaussian process, whereas longer sections of roads, say 10 km, typically contain shorter sections with high irregularity, and the variability between sections is higher than what can be explained by the stationary Gaussian model. This phenomenon can be captured by a Laplace process, which can be seen as a Gaussian process with randomly varying variance. Thus, the Gaussian process is a special case of the Laplace process. Further, the expected damage can be computed from the parameters of the Laplace process. We will give examples of modelling road profiles using Laplace models. Especially, it will be demonstrated how to reconstruct a road profile based on sparse road roughness measurements, such as a sequence of IRI (International Roughness Index) for 100 metre road sections. Further, IRI data from the Finnish road network will be evaluated.

  • 63.
    Johannesson, Pär
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Rychlik, Igor
    Modelling of road profiles using roughness indicators2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vertical road input is the most important load for durability assessments of vehicles. We focus on stochastic modelling of the road profile with the aim to find a simple by still useful model. The proposed non-stationary Laplace model with ISO spectrum has only two parameters, and can be efficiently estimated from a sequence of roughness indicators, such as IRI or ISO roughness coefficient. Thus, a road profile can be stochastically reconstructed from roughness indicators. Further, explicit approximations for the fatigue damage due to Laplace roads are developed. The usefulness of the proposed Laplace-ISO model is validated for eight measured road profiles. Keywords: Road surface profile, road roughness, road irregularity, Laplace process, non-Gaussian process, power spectral density (PSD), ISO spectrum, roughness coefficient, international roughness index (IRI), vehicle durability, fatigue damage.

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  • 64.
    Johannesson, Pär
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Rychlik, Igor
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Modelling of road profiles using roughness indicators2014In: International Journal of Vechicle Design, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 317-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vertical road input is the most important load for durability assessments of vehicles. We focus on stochastic modelling of the road profile with the aim to find a simple but still useful model. The proposed nonstationary Laplace model with ISO spectrum has only two parameters, and can be efficiently estimated from a sequence of roughness indicators, such as IRI or ISO roughness coefficient. Thus, a road profile can be stochastically reconstructed from roughness indicators. Further, explicit approximations for the fatigue damage due to Laplace roads are developed. The usefulness of the proposed Laplace-ISO model is validated for eight measured road profiles.

  • 65.
    Johannesson, Pär
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Svensson, Thomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Reliable fatigue design, by rigid rules, by magic or by enlightened engineering2013In: Procedia Engineering, ISSN 1877-7058, E-ISSN 1877-7058, Vol. 66, p. 12-25article id 12-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses some basic differences between engineering approaches to fatigue reliability assessment. The comparison is based on the fact that mechanical fatigue is a highly empirical science with large uncertainties in prior knowledge, both regarding observed data and model accuracy. It is claimed that the amount of available prior physical knowledge should decide the level of complexity in reliability tools, not computer resources nor mathematical theory. As a result the second moment statistics is put forward as a useful tool in fatigue reliability assessment, either in the regulated form like in Eurocode or in a free engineering form like through the Variation Mode and Effect Analysis. The latter method is outlined in certain detail and its practical usefulness demonstrated for some engineering reliability problems

  • 66.
    Johannesson, Pär
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh). Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Svensson, Thomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh). Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Bergman, Bo
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Martin
    Cochlear BAS, Sweden.
    de Maré, Jaques
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Lönnqvist, Åke
    Volvo Cars, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Barone, Stefano
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Palermo, Italy.
    A Robustness Approach to Reliability2013In: Quality and Reliability Engineering International, Vol. 29, p. 17-32Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliability of products is here regarded with respect to failure avoidance rather than probability of failure. To avoid failures,we emphasize variation and suggest some powerful tools for handling failures due to variation. Thus, instead of technicalcalculation of probabilities from data that usually are too weak for correct results, we emphasize the statistical thinking thatputs the designers focus on the critical product functions.Making the design insensitive to unavoidable variation is called robust design and is handled by (i) identification andclassification of variation, (ii) design of experiments to find robust solutions, and (iii) statistically based estimations of propersafety margins.Extensions of the classical failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) are presented. The first extension consists of identifyingfailure modes caused by variation in the traditional bottom–up FMEA analysis. The second variation mode and effect analysis(VMEA) is a top–down analysis, taking the product characteristics as a starting point and analyzing how sensitive thesecharacteristics are to variation.In cases when there is sufficient detailed information of potential failure causes, the VMEA can be applied in its mostadvanced mode, the probabilistic VMEA. Variation is then measured as statistical standard deviations, and sensitivities aremeasured as partial derivatives. This method gives the opportunity to dimension tolerances and safety margins to avoidfailures caused by both unavoidable variation and lack of knowledge regarding failure processes

  • 67.
    Johannesson, Pär
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Svensson, Thomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Jacobsson, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Strukturer och Komponenter.
    Bokesjö, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, AstaZero.
    Olsson, L
    VMEA-metoden för bedömning av osäkerheter i bergmekaniska tillämpningar. The VMEA-method for Assessing Uncertainties in Rock Engineering2013Report (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Johannesson, Pär
    et al.
    Chalmers, Goteborg,Sweden.
    Svensson, Thomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Samuelsson, Leif
    Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollhattan, Sweden.
    Bergman, Bo
    Chalmers, Goteborg, Sweden.
    de Maré, Jaques
    Chalmers, Goteborg,Sweden ; Gothenburg University, Goteborg, Sweden.
    Variation mode and effect analysis: an application to fatigue life prediction2009In: Quality and Reliability Engineering International, ISSN 0748-8017, E-ISSN 1099-1638, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 167-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an application of the probabilistic branch of variation mode and effect analysis (VMEA) implemented as a first-order, second-moment reliability method. First order means that the failure function is approximated to be linear around the nominal values with respect to the main influencing variables, while second moment means that only means and variances are taken into account in the statistical procedure. We study the fatigue life of a jet engine component and aim at a safety margin that takes all sources of prediction uncertainties into account. Scatter is defined as random variation due to natural causes, such as non-homogeneous material, geometry variation within tolerances, load variation in usage, and other uncontrolled variations. Other uncertainties are unknown systematic errors, such as model errors in the numerical calculation of fatigue life, statistical errors in estimates of parameters, and unknown usage profile. By treating also systematic errors as random variables, the whole safety margin problem is put into a common framework of second-order statistics. The final estimated prediction variance of the logarithmic life is obtained by summing the variance contributions of all sources of scatter and other uncertainties, and it represents the total uncertainty in the life prediction. Motivated by the central limit theorem, this logarithmic life random variable may be regarded as normally distributed, which gives possibilities to calculate relevant safety margins

  • 69.
    Johansson, J.
    et al.
    Saab, Sweden.
    Belov, Ilja
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Dudek, R.
    Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik.
    Investigation on thermal fatigue of SnAgCu, Cu100C, and SnPbAg solder joints in varying temperature environments2014In: Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 54, no 11, p. 2523-2535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal cycling tests have been performed for a range of electronic components intended for avionic applications, assembled with SAC305, SN100C and SnPbAg solder alloys. Two temperatureprofiles have been used, the first ranging between -20 °C and +80 °C (TC1), and the second between -55 °C and +125 °C (TC2). High level of detail is provided for the solder alloy composition and the component package dimensions, and statistical analysis, partially supported by FE modeling, is reported. The test results confirm the feasibility of SAC305 as a replacement for SnPbAg under relatively benign thermomechanical loads. Furthermore, the test results serve as a starting point for estimation of damage accumulation in a critical solder joint in field conditions, with increased accuracy by avoiding data reduction. A computationally efficient method that was earlier introduced by the authors and tested on relatively mild temperature environments has been significantly improved to become applicable on extended temperature range, and it has been applied to a PBGA256 component with SAC305 solder in TC1 conditions. The method, which utilizes interpolated response surfaces generated by finite element modeling, extends the range of techniques that can be employed in the design phase to predict thermal fatigue of solder joints under field temperatureconditions.

  • 70.
    Johansson, J.
    et al.
    Saab, Sweden.
    Belov, Ilja
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik.
    A computational method for evaluating the damage in a solder joint of an electronic package subjected to thermal loads2014In: Engineering Computations, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 467-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to introduce a novel computational method to evaluate damage accumulation in a solder joint of an electronic package, when exposed to operating temperature environment. A procedure to implement the method is suggested, and a discussion of the method and its possible applications is provided in the paper. Design/methodology/approach- Methodologically, interpolated response surfaces based on specially designed finite element (FE) simulation runs, are employed to compute a damage metric at regular time intervals of an operating temperature profile. The developed method has been evaluated on a finite-element model of a lead-free PBGA256 package, and accumulated creep strain energy density has been chosen as damage metric. Findings-The method has proven to be two orders of magnitude more computationally efficient compared to FE simulation. A general agreement within 3 percent has been found between the results predicted with the new method, and FE simulations when tested on a number of temperature profiles from an avionic application. The solder joint temperature ranges between +25 and +75 °C. Practical implications-The method can be implemented as part of reliability assessment of electronic packages in the design phase. Originality/value-The method enables increased accuracy in thermal fatigue life prediction of solder joints. Combined with other failure mechanisms, it may contribute to the accuracy of reliability assessment of electronic packages.

  • 71. Johansson, J
    et al.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Belov, Ilja
    An approach to life consumption monitoring of solder joints in operating temperature environment2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Ekstrand-Tobin, Annika
    Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Svensson, Thomas
    Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Bok, Gunilla
    Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Laboratory study to determine the critical moisture level for mould growth on building materials,2012In: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, Vol. 73, p. 23-32Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 73.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Svensson, Thomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Ekstrand-Tobin, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Validation of critical moisture conditions for mould growth on building materials2013In: Building and Environment, Vol. 62, p. 201-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Materials that are stored or used in damp conditions may be subject to mould growth. However, all materials are not equally susceptible; for each specific material, there is a critical moisture level for mould growth. If this is exceeded, there is a risk that mould fungi will develop on the material. This level can be determined in accelerated laboratory tests, at constant temperatures and relative humidity (RH) favourable to mould growth. Within a building however, these parameters are expected to vary from one part of the construction to another, and are seldom constant; there is fluctuation in temperature and RH due to seasonal or shorter-term variations. In this study, test pieces of the same materials tested in a laboratory environment were placed in three outdoor ventilated crawl spaces and three outdoor ventilated attics, where the temperature and RH varied, and mould growth on the test pieces was studied over 2.5 years. Material-specific mould growth curves were produced based on critical moisture levels, as determined in laboratory experiments under constant temperature and RH. When the actual conditions of RH and temperature exceeded these curves, there was mould growth on the test pieces if the time was sufficiently long. The conclusion from the study is that although conditions in laboratory studies are simplified and accelerated, the results serve well to indicate mould growth within a building construction.

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  • 74.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    A method for assessment of the survival time of a ship damaged by collision2011In: Transactions - Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, ISSN 0081-1661, Vol. 119, p. 603-619Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Analysis of Mooring Lines for Wave Energy Converters: A Comparison of De-Coupled and Coupled Simulation Procedures2014In: ASME 2014 33rd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, 2014, , p. Paper No. OMAE2014-23377, pp. V04AT02A034Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Measurement of forces and neutral temperatures in railway rails - an introductory study2004Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Railway business (both in Sweden and internationally) is in need of efficient and non-destructive methods for convenient measurements of the neutral temperature. Banverket has hitherto made some investigations of different such methods and this analysis aims in this perspective to · Identify different techniques and methods that are possible to use for measuring the neutral temperature and sort out those that are not useful for rail applications. · Give the theoretical basis for each method in order to obtain a firm base for further investigations and judgements. · Perform critical examinations of the development potential, cost and time consumption for each of the methods and identifying those methods and equipments that are of most interest for further investigations. · Identify additional actions to be taken in combination with efficient neutral temperature determinations for reduction of the heat distortion risk in CWR-tracks. The following methods are possible candidates for further investigations: Ultrasonic methods Based on either the longitudinal wave principle or the birefringence principle with methods developed by, for example, NIST and RIPL. Deformation methods Based on measurements of either strains or of positions with commercial methods as the Pfender device, the MS-02 device, the MP method or the geodesic method. Magnetic methods The Barkhausen noise principle seems to be more promising than the magnetic parameter method with developed testing methods by Railscan, Railtest and Rollscan. X-ray diffraction method Based on diffraction of X-rays in crystal planes, portable equipment exists although the method has traditionally been used under laboratory conditions. Rail vibration techniques method Based on the relation between stiffness and force in combination with an accurate laser measurement system, this method is a promising alternative. In parallel to improved measurement techniques for neutral temperature, a list of possible additional actions has been identified. These are additional logical ways to reduce the risk for rail heat distortions and they do not have any technical solutions today. The author is currently not aware of all possible efforts that have been made regarding these issues but they should be kept in mind during future work. For example: · Could rail cooling be performed by heat conduction to the cooler regions below the track? · Should the neutral temperature be increased (cf. chapter 3)? · Could rail grinding improve the mechanical integrity? · Are there possible modifications of the CWR-concept itself that could reduce the thermal stress build up? · One obvious action is to improve the lateral resistance of the track region. This is the main focus of the accompanying report within this preliminary study. This preliminary study shows that there exist promising methods that would improve the measurements of neutral temperature. When this preliminary study is completed, it is therefore proposed that actions are taken for more detailed investigations of the one or two most promising methods. This should be done through field studies and laboratory studies in Sweden but also, where appropriate, through visits to places in Europe where the methods have been evaluated. It would also be of interest to study additional ways of reducing the risk for rail heat distortions.

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  • 77.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Modelling approaches for reliability estimations of fibre-reinforced plastic laminates2014In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering - OMAE 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous methodologies for estimating the reliability of composites have been published in the past few decades. This paper presents the experiences and findings by the authors regarding an assessment of different mechanical and probabilistic models for the calculation of reliability estimates of fibre-reinforced plastic laminates. The assessment was performed to determine the manner by which the models influence the reliability estimations. This knowledge is used to determine the most suitable combination of models for reliability-based design optimization of marine structures made out of fibre-reinforced plastics. The assessment consists of a brief overview of a number of probabilistic and mechanical models as well as the computation of reliability estimates for a number of fibre-reinforced laminates through Monte Carlo simulations. Among some of the findings, it was found that the definition of matrix cracking and the choice of mechanical model (description of damage initiation and development) influence significantly the reliability estimations of fibre-reinforced plastic laminates.

  • 78.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Simulations of microcracking in the process region of ceramics with a cell model2001In: International journal of fracture, Vol. 111, no 4, p. 36-380Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Johnson, Erland
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Högström, P
    Schreuder, M
    Jansson, E
    A method for assessment of the survival time of a ship damaged by collision.2011In: Journal of Ship Research, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 86-99Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 80.
    Johnson, Erland
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Högström, P
    Schreuder, M
    Jansson, E
    Survivability analysis of a struck ship with damage opening - influence from model and material properties uncertainties2011In: Ships and Offshore Structures, ISSN 1744-5302, E-ISSN 1754-212X, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 339-354Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 81.
    Johnson, Erland
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Johansson, Klas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Svensson, Thomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Holmgren, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Reflections regarding uncertainty of measurement, on the results of a Nordic fatigue test interlaboratory comparison2005In: Accreditation and Quality Assurance, ISSN 0949-1775, E-ISSN 1432-0517, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 208-213Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Johnson, Erland
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Kjell, Gunnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Ultrasonic monitoring of a fiber reinforced plastic - Steel composite beam during fatigue2012In: Proceedings of the 6th European Workshop - Structural Health Monitoring 2012, EWSHM 2012, 2012, , p. 1254-1260Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Johnson, Erland
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Svensson, Thomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Choice of complexity in constitutive modelling of fatigue mechanisms2005Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The uncertainties in the virtual design stages of the product development chain are considered. The current computer capacity enables the processing of complex models to handle these steps. However, in the present work it is shown that the prediction capacity is not always favoured by an increased model complexity. In fact, it is observed that the prediction capacity deteriorates when the complexity exceeds a certain level. An example is shown and its implication for fatigue design are discussed. Key words: fatigue, model complexity, prediction uncertainty

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  • 84.
    Karlsson, Linda
    Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Grävskydd och djupförläggning som riskreducerande åtgärder vid förläggning av 10 bars PE-rörsystem2011Report (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Karlsson, Linda
    et al.
    Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Andersson, Hans
    Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Metoder för täthetsprovning av trycksatta polyetenledningar2011Report (Refereed)
  • 86. Karlsson, U
    et al.
    Ringsberg, J
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Hoseini, M
    Ulfvarsson, A
    Experimental and numerical investigation of bulb impact with a ship side-shell structure.2009In: Marine Technology, Vol. 46, p. 16-26Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 87. Karlsson, U
    et al.
    Ringsberg, J
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Hoseini, Mohammed
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Ulfvarsson, A
    Experimental and numerical investigation of bulb impact with a ship side-shell structure2009In: Marine Technology, ISSN 0025-3316, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 16-26Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 88. Karlsson, U
    et al.
    Ulfvarsson, A
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Kjell, Gunnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Stress and Fatigue Analysis of a Bow-Door Arm2007In: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment, no 221, p. 125-136Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 89.
    Kjell, Gunnar
    Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Jordbävningsprovning2008In: Electronics environment, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 28-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 90.
    Kjell, Gunnar
    Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Utbildning i miljötålighetsteknik2008In: Electronic environment, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 91.
    Kjell, Gunnar
    Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Vad menas med miljötålighet?2011In: electronic - environment, no 1, p. 8-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 92.
    Kjell, Gunnar
    Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Vibrationsprovning av batterier till el- och hybridbilar2011In: Electronic environment, no 3, p. 26-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 93.
    Kjell, Gunnar
    et al.
    Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Lang, Jenny
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, Miljötålighet.
    Comparing different vibration tests proposed for li-ion batteries with vibration measurement in an electric vehicle2013In: EVS 2014. 27th World Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition, 2013, , p. 1-11Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 94. Larsson, Dan
    et al.
    Sjögren, Torsten
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Svensson, Ingvar L
    Modelling the plastic deformation behaviour of cast irons,2008In: International Foundry Research, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 08:16-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 95.
    Li, Z.S.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mao, W.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ringsberg, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Storhaug, G.
    Det Norske Veritas, Norway.
    A comparative study of fatigue assessments of container ship structures using various direct calculation approaches.2014In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 82, p. 65-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is common practice today to carry out fatigue assessments of ship structures using direct calculation procedures to compute fatigue loads. Many numerical codes are available for use in such fatigue load analyses. In addition to the various degrees of computation complexity associated with fatigue estimation methods, such methods also have large inherent uncertainties. In this investigation, a comparative study was carried out for two container ships using various typical direct fatigue calculation methods. The fatigue damage amounts calculated using these methods were compared with those obtained from full-scale measurements. Most of the direct calculation approaches investigated yielded similar fatigue damage estimates. The approach that employs nonlinear time-domain hydrodynamic analysis and the finite element method yields reasonable and conservative fatigue damage results and is therefore recommended. In addition, the results of this study confirm that various measures of wave environments and of the variation in wave models are important sources of uncertainty in fatigue life prediction.

  • 96.
    Lillbacka, Robert
    Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Mot ett virtuellt laboratorium för materialutveckling2008In: Bergsmannen, Vol. 192, no 5, p. 26-28Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 97.
    Lillbacka, Robert
    et al.
    Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Ekh, Magnus
    Runesson, Kenneth
    A model framwork for anisotropic damage coupled to crystal (visco) plasticity2004In: International Journal of Plasticity, Vol. 20, no 12, p. 2143-2159Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 98.
    Lillbacka, Robert
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Cyclic Stress-Strain Behavior and Load-sharing in duplex Stainless Steels - Aspects on Modeling and Experiments2007In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 55, no 16, p. 5359-5368Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 99.
    Lillbacka, Robert
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Bellander, Magnus
    Rubber component fatigue life evaluation based on FE-modelling and material testing2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 100.
    Lillbacka, Robert
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Ekh, Magnus
    A model for short crack propagation in polycrystalline materials.2006In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, Vol. 73, no 2, p. 223-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model for microstructurally short crack propagation in a grain structure of a polycrystalline material is developed. The crack propagation model is based on a crystal plasticity model and a microstructurally short crack propagation model in the spirit of the model by Navarro and de los Rios [A model for short fatigue crack propagation with an interpretation of the short–long crack transition. Fatigue Fract Eng Mater Struct 1987;10:169–86]. Numerical examples, where the combined crystal plasticity and crack propagation model is implemented in a model of a microstructure representing a duplex stainless steel, concludes the paper. Results showing how the misorientation of the crack- and slip-directions between two adjacent austenitic grains influences the crack propagation rate, as the crack propagates across their common grain boundary, are given.

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