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  • 51.
    Stølen, Reidar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge. SINTEF, Norway.
    Test av filterløysingar til trafogruver: Sammanlinkning av steinfilter, flammelister og flammenett2013Report (Other academic)
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  • 52.
    Stølen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge. SINTEF, Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge. SINTEF, Norway.
    Steensas, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge. SINTEF, Norway.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge. SINTEF, Norway.
    Brann til middag?: Undersøkelse av sikringstiltak mot branner på komfyr2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Feil bruk av komfyrer står for nesten 20 % av alle branner med kjent årsak i Norge. I perioden 1998 – 2007ble det registrert 1240 branner hvor årsaken var tørrkoking på komfyr. Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet ogberedskap (DSB) ønsket med dette prosjektet å kartlegge omfanget og årsakene til at slike branner oppstår,og hva som kan gjøres for å forhindre dem.

    Det er gjennomført et litteraturstudium som gir oversikt over internasjonal forskning og erfaringer påområdet.

    DSBs brannstatistikk fra perioden 1998-2007 er analysert, og et utvalg på 40 av politietsetterforskningsrapporter fra komfyrbranner er gjennomgått.

    En rekke ulike matvarer ble testet i røykkammer med utstyr for gassanalyse, for å prøve å karakteriseresammensetningen av røyken før antennelse. Det viste seg imidlertid at utstyret ikke var egnet for denne typenprøvemateriale, og derfor ikke ga resultater som kunne brukes videre i prosjektet.

    Til sist er 7 komfyrvakter blitt testet i fullskalaforsøk med brann på komfyrtopp. Det er gjennomført i alt 76tester.

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  • 53.
    Sätre Böe, Andreas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Fullskala branntest av elbil2016In: Brandposten, no 55, p. 8-10Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Sæter Bøe, Andreas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Brannsikkerhet og alternative energibærere: Gasskjøretøy i tunneler og parkeringskjellere2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Denne litteraturstudien av brann- og eksplosjonsrisiko for gasskjøretøy i tunneler og parkeringskjellere er en videreføring av et tidligere prosjekt utført ved SP Fire Research, Brannsikkerhet og alternative energibærere: El- og gasskjøretøy i innelukkede rom. I forhold til det tidligere prosjektet, bidrar denne rapporten med referanser til nyere litteratur og fokuserer på kjøretøy med CNG (komprimert naturgass) og hydrogen. Konsekvenser ved en eksplosjon i gasskjøretøy, norsk regelverk og forslag til sannsynlighetsreduserende tiltak diskuteres. Hovedkilden til denne litteraturstudien er en svensk rapport fra 2016.

    Basert på denne studien foreslås det at videre arbeid i første omgang fokuserer på hvilken effekt en hydrogentank- og en hydrogenskyeksplosjon vil ha på typiske, norske parkeringskjellere.

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  • 55.
    Ulfsnes, Mette Kristin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Nye krav til CE-merkning av dører og åpningsbare vindu2015In: Brandposten, no 53, p. 14-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 56.
    Wighus, Ragnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge. SINTEF, Norway.
    Characteristics of water spray nozzels used in deluge systems2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nozzels for water deluge systems are characterized by geometrical factors like spray pattern, spray angle, and by exit velocity, capacity and area coverage. In engineering calculations only the area coverage is needed to fulfil standard requirements, and the other factors are more used as a means to obtain the required application density onto protected surfaces. In assessment of the hazard of gas and liquid fires these characteristics are not sufficient to quantify the effect of water spray on the fire properties.In this report a set of factors and characteristics useful for the calculation of water-fire-interaction is described, together with the possible measurement techniques available to quantify these factors.Based on the present state-of-the-art technology and the best practice at offshore platforms in the North Sea, a set of representative nozzels have been chosen to be used in the MEdium-scalle fire tests of the project "Documentation on active fire fighting systems as a fire safety design parameter".

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  • 57.
    Wighus, Ragnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Droplet size, velocity and area distribution: Deluge nozzels2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report represents a full ser of characteristics for medium- and high-velocity deluge nozzels used in offshore platforms. Detailed information of droplets useful for simulation is presented.Droplet size and velocity, area distribution and k-factor for typical deluge nozzels at different pressure have been examined. Tow types of Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler anemometry have been used, and area distribution has been characterised by a special apparatus (Actual Application Density Apparatus). The examined nozzels have been used in earlier medium-to-large-scale fire tests. The nozzle characteristics are used as an input in simulation of the interaction of water droplet and fire development.The used measurement technique gives a picture of deluge nozzles that produces a large amount of very small water droplets, in contrast to what is earlier reported. The reason for this discrepancy may be the better resolution of the mear´surement technique, but the presented results may also indicate uncertainties connected to the same technique.

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  • 58.
    Wighus, Ragnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge. SINTEF, Norway.
    Effect of deluge water on oil- and gas type fires. Final report_REV2.: Results from experiments and computer simulation.2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report comprises the summary of the results obtained by the project "Effect of deulge water on oil- and gas type fires". It sums up results from major experimental research projects, medium-and-large-scale dedicated experiments with typical deluge systems used in the offshore oil- and gas platforms and simulation of deluge water interacting with fires.The effect of deluge water can be described by two separate mechanisms: 1. Direct effect on heat load to structures and vessels by water hitting objects and 2. Overall effect on flame properties (temperature, radiative heat flux density) by interaction between droplets and gases. The latter effect is specially studied in experimental work and simulation carried out during this research project and in an earlier research programme. Significant overall effect on the levels of heat fluxes to objects is observed especially in situations with mixing and recirculation of combustion products into the combustion zone, so-called enclosure effects.The use of computer model to reproduce experimental results has shown strong and weak points of current-state tood, Kamelon FireEx.The main conclusion from the literature study, the experiments carried out and the smulations is that it is substantial evidence for the statement that overall heat flux densities will be significantly reduced by using ordinary deluge systems in real offshore platform fires. Exceptions may occur locally and will depend on how water penetrates into the fire zones and on droplet characteristics.

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  • 59.
    Wighus, Ragnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Firefighting - Challenges in arctic conditions.2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Wighus, Ragnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge. SINTEF, Norway.
    Mathematical correlations for fire suppression and extinguishment2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mathematical correlations for the effect of water based fires suppression systems are presened in this report. Some of the correlations are valid for solid fuels only; some are validated for liquid pool fires, but the most useful ones valid for gas phase fires do not have a large-scale experimental verification. The proposed correlations between fire scenario parameters and the characteristics of water sprays will be validated and quantified through large scale experiments, first in a 3 m diameter 8 m high cylindrical test rig, next in a room configuration with an array of spray nozzels mounted in the ceiling.

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  • 61.
    Wighus, Ragnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge. SINTEF, Norway.
    Parameters influencing upon the heat load of hydrocarbon fires2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Parameters having an influence on the heat load from hydrocarbon fires subjected to water deluge are identified. These are discussed with regards to how an experimental set-up should be organized. The parameters will form the input for correlations to be produced and for planning of experimental measurements.

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  • 62.
    Wighus, Ragnar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Brandt, Are Wendelborg
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Radiation from Large Flames2016In: Proceedings of the Eighth International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Pursiainen, Christer (Editor)
    University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway.
    Rød, Bjarte (Editor)
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Alheib, Marwan (Contributor)
    INERIS, France.
    Baker, Greg (Contributor)
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Bouffier, Christian (Contributor)
    INERIS, France.
    Bram, Staffan (Contributor)
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Cadete, Goncalo (Contributor)
    INOV, Spain.
    Carreira, Elisabete (Contributor)
    INOV, Spain.
    Gattinesi, Peter (Contributor)
    JRC, Greece.
    Guay, Fanny (Contributor)
    DBI.
    Honfi, Daniel (Contributor)
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Strukturer och Komponenter.
    Eriksson, Kerstin (Contributor)
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Lange, David (Contributor)
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Lundin, Emma (Contributor)
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Urban Water Management.
    Malm, Annika (Contributor)
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Urban Water Management.
    Melkunaite, Laura (Contributor)
    DBI.
    Merad, M (Contributor)
    INERIS, Frances.
    Mira da Silva, Miguel (Contributor)
    INOV, Spain.
    Petersen, Laura (Contributor)
    EMSC.
    Rodrigues, John (Contributor)
    INOV, Spain.
    Salmon, Romuald (Contributor)
    INERIS, France.
    Theocharidou, Marianthi (Contributor)
    JRC.
    Willot, Adrien (Contributor)
    INERIS, France.
    IMPROVER D2.2 Report of criteria for evaluating resilience2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent years, the focus has moved from critical infrastructure protection to that of resilience. But how do we know whether a critical infrastructure is resilient or not, how can it be evaluated, measured and enhanced?

     

    Drawing on, combining and developing the ideas of the existing literature and practices, the current report develops a holistic, easy-to-use and computable methodology to evaluate critical infrastructure resilience, called Critical Infrastructure Resilience Index (CIRI). The methodology is applicable to all types of critical infrastructure, including a possibility to tailor it to the specific needs of different sectors, facilities and hazard scenarios. The proposed methodology is especially suitable for organizational and technological resilience evaluation, but permits including also elements of societal resilience indicators to the evaluations.

     

    The methodology is based on four levels of hierarchically organized indicators. Level 1 consists of the phases well known from the so-called crisis management cycle. Under these phases, we find sets of Level 2 rather generic indicators. Thus under level 1 ‘Prevention’, for instance, we may find a Level 2 indicator such as ‘Resilient design’, further divided into Level 3 more detailed indicators such as ‘Physical robustness’, ‘Cyber robustness’, ‘Redundancy’, ‘Modularity’, and ‘Independency’. The task is to study these indicators on Level 4 in the context of concrete critical infrastructure facilities and hazard scenarios, that is, applying Level 3 indicators into concrete circumstances.

     

    The methodology then permits to transfer quantitative, semi-quantitative and qualitative evaluations of individual sector-specific resilience indicators into uniform metrics, based on process maturity levels. This in turn makes it possible to give a specific critical infrastructure, or its part, a resilience value on the scale 0-5.

     

    While the real resilience value becomes clear only when one engages in the analysis of several indicators, the methodology can be used also as a step-by-step measurement and development tool for resilience, without necessary immediately engaging in time-consuming total resilience analysis.

     

    The user of this methodology is supposed to be the operator of critical infrastructure, or part of it, in the spirit of self-auditing. In case it would be implemented in a wider scale, in cooperation between the operators and authorities, it would give the authorities a holistic picture about the respective society’s critical infrastructure resilience.

     

    In this report, we draw a concise picture of the methodology and illustrate how this methodology could be applied to a specific infrastructure and hazard scenario.

    Download full text (pdf)
    IMPROVER D2.2
12 51 - 63 of 63
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