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  • 51.
    Edwards, Ylva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Tösalt förstör betongen i garage: En lösning på väg2014In: AMA-nytt Hus, ISSN 1404-8973, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Edwards, Ylva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Urban växtkraft2014In: Cementa, ISSN 0346-8771, no 3, p. 13-17Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 53.
    Edwards, Ylva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Workshop - Gröna tak2014In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 9-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk.
    Emilsson, Tobias
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Malmberg, Jonatan
    Scandinavian Green Roof Institute, Sweden.
    Pettersson Skog, Anna
    Sweco Environment, Sweden.
    Capener, Carl-Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Quality-assured solutions for green roof gardens on concrete deck with zero tolerance for leaks2016In: WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment: The Sustainable City XI / [ed] A. Galiano-Garrigos, C.A. Brebbia, WIT Press, 2016, Vol. 204, p. 363-372Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-neighborhoods with gardens on concrete decks are for several reasons increasingly being prescribed today in major Swedish cities. However, there is a lack of knowledge, experience, standards and guidelines as well as collaboration between parties and stakeholders when installing such systems. It is incredibly important to avoid any leakage during the lifetime of a green roof garden but this cannot be completely guaranteed with today’s installation practice and project management. At Sustainable City 2014 in Siena, we presented a paper about a new project aiming at bringing together researchers, government and industry to collaborative development of new and attractive solutions for green roof gardens with consideration to the environment and high requirements for durability, materials, construction and energy efficiency. This paper is a continuation of the paper presented in Siena and reports on the most recent results from the collaborative project which will finalize in November 2016. After that, the project will be further evaluated in a proposed continuation project for another couple of years.

  • 55.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Fjällberg, Leif
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Chemical resistance and wear for concrete protection systems to be used in biological treatment plants: Laboratory testing and results2013In: Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies, International Committee of the SCMT conferences , 2013, p. 371-374, article id e018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a project regarding degradation and corrosion problems for concrete at biological treatment plants in Sweden. An initial study shows that concrete used in such plants cannot resist attack by leachate from food waste, and therefore needs surface protection. In a second project part, requirements specification was developed trying to ensure the function of such protection products and systems, together with concrete, in different parts of a plant. The third part of the project involves laboratory testing of different types of products possibly suitable for the protection of concrete in biological treatment plants. Performance parameters studied and tested in the laboratory are chemical resistance and resistance to wear. Chemical resistance concerns acidic leachate water at temperatures up to 70°C. The laboratory study involves epoxy, polyurea, polyurethane, methyl methacrylate, vinyl ester, bituminous products and silica. Results and experience are reported, showing significant differences between types of material.

  • 56.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Henriksson, Gunilla
    Kartläggning av vittrings­ och korrosionsskador på biologiska behandlingsanläggningar: Etapp II Tätskikt på betong- State of the Art2010Report (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Henriksson, Gunilla
    Kartläggning av vittrings- och korrosionsproblem vid hantering av matavfall: etapp III Verifiering av metodik2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Två inledande studier om vittrings- och korrosionsskador på betong i biologiska_x000D_ behandlingsanläggningar har genomförts under 2009/2010 inom Waste Refinery projekt_x000D_ WR-27 respektive WR-34. Resultaten visar att betong inte har tillräcklig motståndskraft i_x000D_ den aktuella aggressiva anläggningsmiljön. Vidare konstateras att någon form av_x000D_ tätskiktsbeläggning behövs för att säkerställa betongkonstruktionernas funktion, och att_x000D_ beläggningen måste tåla den aggressiva miljön och den trafik som förekommer på plats. Ett_x000D_ förslag till kravspecifikationer för tätskikt på betong i aggressiv matavfallsmiljö har därefter_x000D_ tagits fram och en tredje studie har föreslagits. Syftet med den tredje studien har varit att_x000D_ utvärdera och verifiera föreslagen provningsmetodik genom laboratorieprovning på utvalda_x000D_ produkter och system. Resultat från denna tredje studie redovisas i föreliggande rapport._x000D_ Metoderna avser resistens mot lakvatten i kombination med hög temperatur respektive_x000D_ slitage. Provningen har genomförts i samarbete med tillverkare och entreprenörer, vilka_x000D_ också bekostat sin egen provning. Innan den egentliga provningen kunde genomföras_x000D_ måste emellertid metodiken modifieras och anpassas till applikationen biologiska_x000D_ behandlingsanläggningar genom en förstudie. Målet med laboratoriestudien har varit att_x000D_ kunna leverera:_x000D_  Metodbeskrivning för provning av tätskiktbeläggningars resistens mot lakvatten i_x000D_ biologiska behandlingsanläggningar._x000D_  Metodbeskrivning för provning av tätskiktbeläggningars slitstyrka i biologiska_x000D_ behandlingsanläggningar._x000D_  Specifikation som skall kunna gälla specifikt för tätskikt på betong i biologiska_x000D_ behandlingsanläggningar._x000D_ Dessa mål har uppfyllts._x000D_ Provningsresultat vad gäller resistens mot lakvatten och resistens mot avnötning, enligt_x000D_ föreslagen metodik, redovisas i rapporten för ett stort antal produkter och system._x000D_ Resultaten varierar kraftigt för olika typer av system och anledningar till detta diskuteras_x000D_ relativt ingående._x000D_ Projektet förväntas följas av provläggningar i fält vid lämplig anläggning._x000D_ Slutligen kan nämnas att projektet även ansluter till ett SBUF-projekt (Svenska_x000D_ Byggbranschens Utvecklingsfond) som startats upp av gjutasfaltbranschen för_x000D_ genomförandet av provningar inom det aktuella Waste Refinery projektet, men också för_x000D_ mer ingående studier av ingående komponenter (stenmaterial och bindemedel) i utvalda_x000D_ gjutasfaltprodukter speciellt lämpade för biologiska behandlingsanläggningar, samt för_x000D_ kommande fältprovning. Id för SBUF-projektet är 12553.

  • 58.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Henriksson, Gunilla
    Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants: Stage II Protection of concrete - State of the Art2011Report (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Henriksson, Gunilla
    Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants: stage III verification of methodology2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two initial studies on the degradation and corrosion of concrete in biological treatment_x000D_ plants were conducted in 2009/2010 within the two Waste Refinery Projects WR-27 and_x000D_ WR-34. The results show that concrete does not have sufficient resistance in the current_x000D_ aggressive plant environment. Furthermore, it is stated that some form of surface_x000D_ protection coating is needed to ensure the good performance of concrete constructions,_x000D_ and that the coating system must be able to withstand the aggressive environment and the_x000D_ traffic that occurs on site. A proposal for a test program was subsequently developed and a_x000D_ third study proposed with the aim to evaluate and verify the proposed testing methodology_x000D_ based on laboratory testing on selected products and systems. Results from this third study_x000D_ are presented in the report._x000D_ Methods relate to resistance to leachate in combination with high temperature and wear._x000D_ Testing was conducted in collaboration with manufacturers and contractors, who also_x000D_ funded their own testing. Before the actual test was conducted, however, the methodology_x000D_ was modified and adapted to the application biological treatment facilities in a pilot study._x000D_ The aim of the laboratory study was to provide:_x000D_  Methodology for testing the resistance to leachate in biological treatment plants._x000D_  Methodology for testing the resistance to wear in biological treatment plants._x000D_  Specification developed specifically for surface protection of concrete in biological_x000D_ treatment plants._x000D_ These objectives have been met._x000D_ Test results in terms of resistance to leachate and resistance to wear, according to proposed_x000D_ methodology, are presented in this report for a wide range of products and systems. The_x000D_ results vary widely for different types of systems and reasons for this are discussed in some_x000D_ detail._x000D_ The project is expected to be followed by field testing at appropriate plants._x000D_ Finally, the project will also connect to an SBUF project (the construction industry's_x000D_ organization for research and development) initiated by the Swedish mastic asphalt_x000D_ association for the implementation of tests in the current Waste Refinery project, but also_x000D_ for more detailed studies of the components (aggregates and binders) in selected mastic_x000D_ asphalt products particularly suitable for biological treatment plants, and for future field_x000D_ testing. Id of the SBUF project is 12553.

  • 60.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Johansson, Lars
    Garage och p-hus2010In: Betong, ISSN 1101-9190, no 1, p. 32-35Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Kinnmark, Mikael
    Betongens del att undvika blåsor i beläggningen2010In: Betong, ISSN 1101-9190, no 3, p. 38-39Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Kinnmark, Mikael
    Betongens del i att undvika blåsor i beläggningen2010In: Betong, ISSN 1101-9190, no 3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Lycken, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Virkestorkar – Översikt samt Inventering av betongskador vid åtta sågverk i Sverige och Norge2014Book (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Pettersson Skog, Anna
    Systemlösningar för gröna anläggningar/tak2014In: Bygg och Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, E-ISSN 2002-8350, Vol. 106, no 4, p. 31-33Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 65.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Powell, Tor
    Beläggningssystem på betong i parkeringshus och garage: en översikt2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skador i form av rostande armering i olika typer av parkeringshus och garage uppstår enligt CBIs erfarenheter huvudsakligen i bjälklag, ramper och i de nedre delarna av väggar och pe-lare. Men denna typ av skador kan undvikas med rätt betongkvalitet, tillräckligt tjocka täck-skikt över armeringen och väl fungerande tätskiktsbeläggning. _x000D_ _x000D_ Det finns olika typer av beläggningar för parkeringshus. Mest vanligt är polymermodifierad gjutasfalt (PGJA) på tätskiktsmatta, men även betongpågjutningar förekommer. Sedan 2000-talets början har det blivit allt vanligare med olika typer av härdplastbaserade beläggningar. En anledning till detta är att beläggningen kan utformas i valfri färgsättning vilket ger stora estetiska möjligheter. Det är emellertid viktigt att valet av en sådan förhållandevis tunn be-läggning inte görs utan att krav samtidigt ställs på beläggningens egenskaper. Slitage, sprick-bildning och vidhäftningsförluster utgör de största problemen och utmaningarna för parker-ingsdäck. Beträffande beläggningens slitstyrka utsätts denna för dubbdäcksslitage i svenska parkeringshus, vilket inte är fallet i de flesta andra länder. Detta måste beaktas vid val av be-läggning och inte minst provningsmetod för bestämning av nötningsresistens hos belägg¬ningen i fråga. Beständighet mot klorider och andra på ett parkeringsdäck förekommande kemikalier är en annan viktig egenskap som måste redovisas._x000D_ _x000D_ I denna rapport beskrivs bland annat några av de olika typer av härdplastbaserade belägg-ningssystem som marknadsförs till parkeringshus och garage i Sverige, samt ges viss grund-läggande information om uppbyggnad, egenskaper och krav som kan ställas på systemen. Bitumenbaserade system, i huvudsak med tätskiktsmatta och gjutasfalt, behandlas också, lik-som specifikationer. Exempel på beläggningar på marknaden listas och en bilaga med refe-rensobjekt och exempel på förekommande skador avslutar rapporten._x000D_ _x000D_ I slutsatserna konstateras bland annat att:_x000D_ • En relevant och för parkeringsdäck anpassad kravspecifikation bör tas fram för att under-lätta för såväl beställare som tillverkare och entreprenörer. Bestämning av slitstyrka är centralt._x000D_ • Det finns behov av ytterligare forskningsinsatser inom området beläggningssystem på betong i parkeringshus och garage. Val av system, inverkan av betongkvalitet, underhålls- och reparationsåtgärder samt uppföljningar av befintliga system bör tas upp. En annan åt-gärd kan vara att även använda katodiskt skydd.

  • 66.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Sender, U
    ByggaBAD 20202012In: Badmästaren, no 8, p. 34-35Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 67.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Tasdemir, Yuksel
    Energy saving and environmental friendly wax concept for polymer modified mastic asphalt2010In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 43, no 1(S), p. 123-131Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Edwards, Ylwa
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Optimalt skydd av parkeringsdäck vid nybyggnad Etapp I2013Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    CBI Betonginstitutet och Swerea KIMAB har tillsamman med en rad tillverkare/_x000D_ entreprenörer och fastighetsägare genomfört aktuellt projekt med finansiering från SBUF._x000D_ Finansiellt stöd till projektet har även erhållits från Rebet, NFB (Norsk Forening for_x000D_ Betongrehabilitering) och Ångpanneföreningens Forskningsstiftelse. Rapporten avser en_x000D_ Etapp I (2013) av projektet som helhet._x000D_ Syftet med projektet är att ta fram underlag för hur ett parkeringsdäck bör utformas (med_x000D_ avseende på beläggning och katodiskt skydd), skyddas och underhållas på ett optimalt och_x000D_ ekonomiskt hållbart sätt._x000D_ Det finns idag inga klara riktlinjer för val av beläggningssystem eller katodiskt skydd i_x000D_ parkeringsgarage. Mot bakgrund av inrapporterade skador från förvaltare av_x000D_ parkeringsanläggningar i Sverige samt det stora antal skadeutredningar som genomförts av_x000D_ CBI under lång tid, konstateras att det definitivt finns behov av ytterligare forsknings- och_x000D_ utvecklingsinsatser inom området beläggningssystem och katodiskt skydd på betong i_x000D_ parkeringshus och garage._x000D_ Provläggning med nio olika typer av beläggningssystem har genomförts på ett garageplan i_x000D_ Kville, Göteborg. Provytorna kommer att följas upp, främst med avseende på slitage._x000D_ Provplattor har applicerats för slitageprovning i laboratoriet. Denna provning kommer att_x000D_ genomföras 2014. En kravspecifikation kommer att tas fram._x000D_ Installation av katodiskt skydd med insticksanoder har genomförts på två pelare i ett_x000D_ parkeringsgarage vid Blasieholmen i Stockholm. De katodiska skydden kommer att trimmas_x000D_ in och slutligen driftsättas innan årsskiftet 2013/14. Resultatet av kontrollmätningar av_x000D_ skyddseffektiviteten hos de olika installationerna kommer att följas upp under 2014. En_x000D_ ytterligare installation av katodiskt skydd i ett garage är planerad i Göteborg under 2014._x000D_ Resultat från betonganalyser utförda för borrprov från garage Silvergranen i Stockholm_x000D_ redovisas slutligen i rapporten.

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  • 69.
    Eriksson, Jonny
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sölve
    BKSJAB, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Tillståndsbedömningar.
    Development of mortars in Sweden during the period 1800 to 19502016In: Proceedings of the 4th Historic Mortars Conference: HMC 2016, 2016, p. 204-210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective with the present project was to combine studies of textbooks and masonry constructions with laboratory analyses of historical mortars from the time period 1800 to 1950. The objective was to investigate the development of knowledge and craftsmanship of the mason during this period. The three different sources display the same trends from binder rich to binder poor and to mortars based on cement and lime mixes. There was a change from a complex and varying use of different mortars in the 19th century to a simplified and standardized use in the 20th century. This process also includes a change to a centralised and industrialized production of binders. A consequence of this was that a loss of the craftmans knowledge of how to handle different hydraulic binders and pozzolans. The later part of the period was characterised in a loss of knowledge in this aspect for all actors working with masonry and renders.

  • 70.
    Ewertson, Cathrine
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Fältprovningsplatser2010In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 71. Falchi, L
    et al.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Influence and effectiveness of water-repellent admixtures on pozzolana-lime mortars for restoration application2013In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 49, p. 272-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pozzolana-lime mortars modified with water-repellent admixtures were designed and studied to obtain mortars for restoration application. Powdered silane and calcium stearates were mixed with pozzolana, lime and sand and the chemical-physical properties of the resulting mortars were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), thermogravimetric analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy. The mechanical behavior, the pore structure and the hygric behavior were measured. The resistance of water-repellent mortars to the salt crystallization was evaluated. Both calcium stearates and powdered silane allowed good water-repellent protection even if the water-repellent agents and their dosage modified some physical properties and the hydration kinetic.

  • 72.
    Falchi, Laura
    et al.
    Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Italy.
    Zendri, Elisabetta
    Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Italy.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Fontana, Patrick
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    The influence of water-repellent admixtures on the behaviour and the effectiveness of Portland limestone cement mortars2015In: Cement & Concrete Composites, ISSN 0958-9465, E-ISSN 1873-393X, Vol. 59, p. 107-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Water-repellent mortars were prepared using different hydrophobic compounds as admixtures. Calcium and zinc stearates, silane/siloxane products (as liquid solution and powder) were mixed into limestone cement mortars for obtaining in-bulk water-repellent mortars suitable for building protection and resistant to the degrading action of water. The influences of the admixtures on the hydration and structure of the designed mortars were investigated by SEM, TG–DSC, FT-IR, XRD, and isothermal calorimetry. The effectiveness of these agents against water action was evaluated by using techniques and methods such as mercury intrusion porosimetry, water absorption tests and contact angle measurements. Siloxane products conveyed good water-repellent effectiveness, without strongly influencing the setting and hydration of the binder, while the zinc stearates slowed down the hydration reactions.

  • 73.
    Fall, David
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Shu, Jiangpeng
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rempling, Rasmus
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Two-way slabs: Experimental investigation of load redistributions in steel fibre reinforced concrete2014In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 80, p. 61-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the design of two-way reinforced concrete slabs, e.g. using the strip or yield line design method, the possibility of redistributing the load between different loading directions is used. The main aim of the present study was to investigate how fibres affect the structural behaviour such as the possibility for redistribution, crack patterns and load-carrying capacity. The investigation was conducted by means of experiments on two-way octagonal slabs, simply supported on four edges, centrically loaded with a point load. The slabs spanned 2.2m in both directions and the reinforcement amount was twice as large in one direction as in the other, in order to provoke uneven load distribution. Three slabs of each reinforcement configuration were produced and tested: conventionally reinforced slabs, steel fibre reinforced slabs and a combination of both reinforcement types. The reaction force on each supported edge was measured on five rollers per edge. A moderate fibre content (35kg/m3) of double hook-end steel fibres was used. The steel fibres affected the structural behaviour significantly by providing post-cracking ductility and by increasing the ultimate load-carrying capacity by approximately 20%. Most significant, the steel fibres influenced the load redistribution in such a way that more load could be transferred to supports in the weaker direction after cracking. Further, more evenly distributed support reactions were obtained in the slabs containing both reinforcement types compared to the case when only conventional reinforcement was used. The slabs reinforced by steel fibres alone did not experience any bending hardening; however, a considerable post-cracking ductility was observed. Furthermore, the work presented in this paper will provide results suitable for use in benchmarking numerical and analytical modelling methods for steel fibre reinforced concrete, as the experimental programme also included extensive testing of material properties.

  • 74.
    Fjällberg, Leif
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Nanosilikans accelerande effekt i portlandcement2009In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 75.
    Fjällberg, Leif
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Självläkande betong2014In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 2-3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Fjällberg, Leif
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    Tidig hydratation.: Försök med acceleratorer inklusive nanosilika2008Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The reactions of the cement with water are a time dependent complicated interaction between dissolution of cement, forming of cement hydrates and the pore solution chemistry. When an accelerator is added above all the pore solution chemistry is affected, which in turn will affect the other reactions._x000D_ _x000D_ Concerning the early cement hydrations one must distinguish between what controls the start of the acceleration period and what controls the intensity of the acceleration period. In the project to begin with different salts and their functions were studied but this was extended with nanosilica as it proved to be a very interesting accelerator._x000D_ _x000D_ Concerning the salts it is known that CaCl2 is very effective both to shorten the induction period and to accelerate the hardening. Experiments with different salts showed that one must distinguish between cat- and anions. Basically calcium and the other alkali earth metals barium and strontium shorten the induction period independently of anion. Also some aluminate cations may give this effect. This depends probably on the fact that these ions are incorporated in the cement hydrates and thereby accelerate the forming of the hydrate shell so that the induction period can be finished and the acceleration period can start. The anions affect mainly the intensity of the acceleration period (the hardening). The chlorides are the most effective, but also nitrates and thiosulfates are effective. Also alkali hydroxides intensify the acceleration rate._x000D_ _x000D_ Silica specifically in form of nanosilica showed to be an effective accelerator both regarding the shortening of the induction period and as a hardening accelerator. Nanosilica is chemically precipitated amorphous silica in suspension with particles in the nano size. The experiments showed that its effect as accelerator depends on the particle size and pH in the pore solutions. Smaller particles and higher pH are more effective. Higher pH is achieved with a high alkali cement or by introducing alkali during mixing of the cement paste or concrete. An effective additive to achieve this without getting alkali silica reactions is lithium hydroxide._x000D_ _x000D_ The effect of nanosilica was different in different Portland cements but increased generally by adding alkali or calcium based products. In a coarser low alkali cement a greater amount of nanosilica is needed to get a clear acceleration effect than in a finely ground cement with higher alkali content._x000D_ _x000D_ Calorimetric measurements were made also at 10°C. BaCl2 gave a strong acceleration effect. Also nanosilica accelerated and the effect was stronger by adding alkali or calcium based products even at this temperature._x000D_ _x000D_ Some concretes were mixed to see the effect of accelerators of the early strength. A concrete with high amount of rapid hardening cement was casted in heat insulated moulds to utilise the hydration heat. After six hours 2 % CaCl2 and 1.5 % nanosilica respectively gave a compressive strength of about 33 MPa. 1.0 % nanosilica + 0.5 % LiOH gave a compressive strength of about 35 MPa after six hours. The concrete containing LiOH gave a much lower 28 day compressive strength than the reference concrete without accelerator._x000D_ _x000D_ Nanosilica gave for ordinarily cured concretes containing a class II cement with much lower cement content only a marginal effect at the compressive strength._x000D_

  • 77.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Vennetti, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Wlasak, Lech
    Mostostal Warszawa SA, Poland.
    Strutural performance of GFRP connectors in Composite sandwich facade elements2016In: Journal of Facade Design and Engineering, ISSN 2213-302X, Vol. 4, no 1-2, p. 35-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A systematic testing and modelling program has been developed for the verification of the structural performance of facade sandwich elements to take structural aspects into consideration in the SESBE research project, focusing on the development of “smart” facade elements.

    The present paper mainly focuses on the verification of the mechanical performance of the glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) connectors of the novel type of facade element composed of reactive powder concrete (RPC) panels with foam concrete insulation between them. Because of the reduced thickness of the large facade elements, the performance of the connectors is critical for the entire structural concept. The first series of the testing and modelling programme concerning connector performance are presented here. The results suggest that sufficient strength and ductility of the connectors can be ensured using GFRP in the proposed thin light-weight facade elements.

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  • 78.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Vennetti, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Własak, Lech
    Mostostal Warszawa SA, Poland.
    Structural Concept of Novel RPC Sandwich Façade Elements with GFRP Connectors2016In: IABSE Congress Stockholm 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment. Report, IABSE c/o ETH Hönggerberg , 2016, p. 2164-2171Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The SESBE research project aims to develop novel smart sandwich façade elements with high insulating capabilities while providing a reduced thickness in conjunction with superior mechanical and durability properties. The present paper mainly focuses on the verification of the mechanical performance of the glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) connectors in the façade element composed of reactive powder concrete (RPC) panels with foam concrete insulation between them. Because of the reduced thickness of the large façade elements, the performance of the connectors is critical for the entire structural concept. A description of structural performance and results based on experimental methods and finite element (FE) analysis are presented.

  • 79. Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Metoder för detaljerade studier av sprickbildning2010In: Bygg och Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, E-ISSN 2002-8350, Vol. 102, no 7, p. 42-46Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Lindqvist, Jan-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Johansson, Gabriel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Löfgren, Michael
    Port of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mechanical behaviour of concrete piles affected by sulphate attack2013In: Proceeding of the International IABSE Conference:, 2013, , p. 4p. 389-392Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing the remaining service life is vital for the planning of maintenance of concrete constructions in aggressive environments. Here we present results from testing of two concrete piles affected by sulphate attack in marine environment. A multi-method approach going from micro scale to structural level has been applied. The crack propagation was monitored during loading by means of DIC and AE. After the test crack patterns was studied using fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, non-linear finite element analysis at the structural level was used to study the influence of the chemical attack on the response of concrete piles.

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  • 81.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Petersson, Örjan
    Strängbetong, Sweden.
    Textile reinforced concrete sandwich panels2012In: fib Symposium 2012: Concrete Structures for Sustainable Community - Proceedings, 2012, , p. 169-172p. 169-172Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main reason for the thickness of a concrete sandwich element is the requirement for the protective concrete cover for the steel reinforcement. By changing the steel reinforcement to non-corrosive textile fibre net this requirement could be strongly reduced. Use of textile reinforced concrete (TRC) makes it possible to produce much thinner and slimmer concrete facades in the future without changing their mechanical properties. This article presents selected results from Tekocrete project (Formas-BIC) concerning pilot production, modelling and full-scale testing of new light weight sandwich elements reinforced with AR glass and carbon fibre nets.

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  • 82.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Tammo, Kristian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Alternative anchorage systems for textile reinforced concrete elements.2013In: First International Conference on Concrete Sustainability. Tokyo. 2013-05-27--29, JCI , 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 83.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    Dias Ferreira Da Silva, Nelson
    Mueller, Urs
    Larraza, Inigo
    Chozas, Valle
    Vera, Jose
    Reactive powder concrete for facade elements – A sustainable approach2015In: VII International Congress on Architectural Envelopes. San Sebastian-Donostia, Spain. 2015-05-27--29, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 84.
    Frogner-Kockum, Paul Christian
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Tillståndsbedömningar.
    Long-term performance of MSWI Bottom ash in a test road construction2016In: International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2180-3242, Vol. 7, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on long-term performances of MSWI bottom ash used as a reinforcement layer in a 8 years old road-construction. Long term properties may change under the combined effects of loading, climate- and chemical conditions. Characterization of the chemical changes in aged MSWI bottom ash is thus of prime interest as secondary alteration is a key process for the ageing of these kind of materials. The MSWI bottom ash in this study comprises a 60 meter-long segment of a test road, which was sampled eight years after construction. The objective of the sampling was to obtain a very low degree of disturbance to the application’s in-situ properties. Access to the sub-base was achieved by removing the surface course and unbound base course, leaving the top surface of the unbound sub-base reachable.  Epoxy impregnated slabs were also used for a micro textural and chemical characterization by SEM/EDS of the bottom ash sub-base layer. No cracks that imply movements or rotation of particles in the road construction or other disturbances as due to the sampling process were found. This undisturbed material made it possible to study chemical processes and structural changes that have been ongoing in the test road since it was constructed. The SEM/EDS analysis showed that most particles had reacted to some extent and that reaction-products surrounding aluminum particles were undisturbed. Partly decomposed particles indicate that the reaction (that has been ongoing since the road was constructed) has been slow and incomplete because of the coexistence of metallic aluminum and aluminum hydroxide. It also shows that the material not has been subjected to any physical influence during these 8 years that otherwise would have moved the reaction products from the particles that originally have reacted. Clay mineralization that indicates long-term ageing of the ash material was also detected by XRPD. The pH of the material was lower than 8.5, indicating a mature degree of carbonization. It is also concluded from the study that chemical reactions consistent with this maturity have been taking place in the road construction as indicated by textural relationships.

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  • 85. Garcia, Oihana
    et al.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Definition of the procedure to determine the suitability and durability of an anti-graffiti product for application on cultural heritage porous materials2012In: Journal of Cultural Heritage, ISSN 1296-2074, E-ISSN 1778-3674, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 77–82-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Gram, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    SKB utvecklas inom teori och praktik2009In: Betong, ISSN 1101-9190, no 5, p. 43-45Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 87.
    Gram, Annika
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Obtaining rheological parameters from slump flow test for self-compacting concrete2013In: Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies, International Committee of the SCMT conferences , 2013, article id e244Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rheological computer simulations of the Abrams cone are introduced in this paper. A Computational Fluid Dynamics software called OpenFOAM (https://www.openfd.o.uk) was used for the calculations. An easy-to-use model for obtaining yield stress and plastic viscosity of concrete on e.g. the building site is developed. Promising results show that both yield stress as well as plastic viscosity can be determined by this simple test.

  • 88.
    Gram, Annika
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Applications for numerical simulation of self-compacting concrete2010In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 143-154Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 89.
    Gram, Annika
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Obtaining rheological parameters from flow test: analytical, computational and lab test approach2014In: Cement and Concrete Research, ISSN 0008-8846, E-ISSN 1873-3948, Vol. 63, p. 29-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the mix design process of cementitious suspensions, an adequate rheology of the cement paste is crucial. A novel rheological field test device for cementitious fluids is presented here and investigated theoretically, by computer simulation and by lab tests. A simple flow stoppage test with a timed spread passage point provides accurate rheological parameters according to the Bingham material model. Values for yield stress and plastic viscosity are obtained for a test specimen of no more than 19.75 · 10- 6 m3 of fluid. This volume is equivalent to 19.75 g of water at room temperature. Such a small volume allows reliable tests even for small amounts of fillers. Promising results show that both yield stress and plastic viscosity can be determined by this simple test. This novel rheological test method also enables the correlation of different rheological equipment used by different laboratories.

  • 90.
    Gram, Annika
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Particle motion in fluid: Analytical and numerical study2016In: Applied Rheology, ISSN 1430-6395, E-ISSN 1617-8106, Vol. 26, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Particle motion in fluid is discussed for one-particle systems as well as for dense suspensions, such as cementitious materials. The difference in large particle motion between larger particles and behaviour of fines (<125 μm) is explained, motion of one particle is shown by numerical simulation. It is concluded and highlighted that it is the particular motion of the fines that to a large extent contribute to the rheological properties of a suspension. It is also shown why larger ellipsoidal particles do not necessarily contribute to the increase of viscosity.

  • 91. Gram, Hans-Erik
    et al.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk.
    Westerholm, Mikael
    Betong med krossat bergmaterial som ballast: Kvalitetskriterier och proportionering2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden there is a local shortage of natural aggregate. Moreover, for environmental reasons remaining natural aggregate should be preserved. Crushed rocks are the only economically realistic alternative. Aggregate from crushed rocks is different from natural aggregate as regard particle distribution, grain shape and particle surface. Crushed rocks mostly generate a larger amount of filler. That will affect the workability of concrete. In part it is possible to change the particle distribution and particle shape but in general with present rules for concrete proportioning crushed rocks and especially the fine material from crushed rocks will increase the cement demand at a given quality.  Aggregate from crushed rocks is, however, not a uniform product. There are several methods for crushing and different types of rocks that will give different products with different degree of suitability for concrete production.  Different types of granites have since long been the prime source of rock for aggregate in Sweden. Earlier, however, only the coarse aggregate has been from crushed rocks but today Sweden has to learn also to use fine aggregate from crushed rocks. Crushed granites often give bad fine aggregate mainly due to that it contains flaky minerals and generate large amount of filler. The variation is, however, large and some crushed granites give aggregates that is good while other give fine aggregates that con not be used in concrete production. 7(119)  The analysis and tests in this report show how it is possible to characterize crushed rocks. The material characterization is correlated to substitute methods for practical testing. These are in turn correlated to rheological measurements and workability tests. The material characterization can be used to select rock, optimizing processes and to find more cost-effective methods for sustainable concrete optimization.  Granites are composed of a certain set of minerals, mainly quartz, alkali feldspar, plagioclase and micas (muscovite and biotite). In the finer fractions the micas become free and free mica is flaky. Free mica affects the rheology and workability negatively.  Basically, concrete proportioning is about finding an optimized particle size distribution that considers the particle shape. A fresh concrete is a particle slurry where the different grains interfere. A flaky and angular particle needs finer material and water to flow than a round one. This is the case from the course down to the finest material. To find the appropriate distribution curve a computer based proportioning tool has been developed. The difference between this program and earlier similar programs is that it also considers the particle shape. Basically, it calculates the void volume needed to be filled with micro mortar (< 125 μm) to allow flow. Less void demands less cement for the same strength. In the second step the micro mortar is optimized.  Analysis and tests show that the crushing technique is important. With VSI (Vertical Shaft impact) crushing it is possible to get more cubic grains down to the mineral limit, i.e. the size where free minerals dominate over rock particles. Free mica is common in sizes less than 0.5 mm but it depends on the coarseness of the rock. It is possible to lower the amount of micas and filler by wind sieving that separates light and fine particles from coarser but this demands that the fine fraction is replaced. The amount of free micas in the fine fraction varies from almost nothing up to 20-30 % in granites. Thus, it is important to find and use rocks with low contents of mica in aggregate production. Carbonate and basic rocks generally give better fine aggregates than granitic rocks but they can give other problems.  To be able to reduce the amount of cement the properties of the micro mortar have to be considered. Tests have shown that it is possible to lower the strength by increasing the amount of filler and keeping the water/cement ratio constant. This, however, demands a filler of good quality and the use of efficient superplasticizer. Like with the other particles good quality filler is made up of round or cubic particles.  Concrete production demands a uniform and good quality of the aggregate. One of the major problems is inhomogeneities of the rock. As different rocks give different products this demands a geological characterization of the rock. As different rocks give different products it is difficult to give a specific test procedure. Especially the properties of fine aggregate are correlated with rheology and workability. Different methods for testing and describing both rock and products are given in this report. Each quarry has to be characterized and an appropriate quality test procedure has to be established. With data given in this report it is possible to characterize and evaluate different products and from this to find ways to improve the properties.

  • 92. Grelk, Bent
    et al.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Deterioration of thin marble cladding: a major international study2008In: Construction journal of India, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 36-41Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 93. Groot, Caspar
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    RILEM TC 203-RHM: Repair mortars for historic masonry: Performance requirements for renders and plasters2012In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 45, no 9, p. 1277–1285-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article gives a summary of functional_x000D_ and performance requirements for renders and plasters_x000D_ for historic masonry (design, execution and maintenance)._x000D_ Specific attention has been paid to degradation_x000D_ effects, such as caused by salt crystallization and_x000D_ freeze–thaw cycling. Traditional as well as designed_x000D_ prefab mortars are considered for repair intervention.

  • 94.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Kraft, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Silwerbrand, Johan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wear and particle generation of three pavement alternatives, a referenceconcrete, an experimental photocatalytic concrete, and a standardasphalt pavement2015In: Proc of IBRACON, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares the wear and the generation as well as the properties of inhalable wear particles fromdifferent types of pavements; a reference white topping, a white topping modified by a photocatalytic additiveand a standard asphalt. Tests were made using a circular road simulator (CRS) equipped with studded tyresat the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI). In the road simulator the contributionfrom other sources are minimized as the whole test rig and the analysis equipment are kept isolated as avery large cell. The wear is measured directly upon the pavements, and the particles generated aremeasured and analyzed using standard aerosol instrumentation. The generated particles are characterizedby mass concentration of PM10 in air, size distributions and by size segregated element composition. Thereference concrete was the same as used in a 20 km long highway pavement in the central part of Sweden.The photocatalytic modified concrete was based on the same mix, but part of the fines and the cement wasreplaced by a photocatalytic binder product. The asphalt was a SMA 16 with the same rock material as in theconcretes, but with a slightly higher volume fraction. In earlier laboratory tests both concrete blends hadproven to have the same physical properties (compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus,shrinkage, thermal expansion coefficient, frost resistance and abrasive resistance). The results from the testsconducted showed that the photocatalytic white topping concrete had the largest wear and generated mostPM10 particles. The reference concrete wore less than the asphalt, but generated more PM10, which wasattributed to a PM10 contribution from the cement matrix. On the other hand, both the concretes resulted in alower production of ultrafine particles compared to the asphalt pavement. Analysis in microscope of themicrostructure in thin sections showed that the photocatalytic binder structure in this test was more porousand inhomogeneous than the reference concrete’s microstructure.

  • 95.
    Hansson, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Trafikklassning för markbeläggningsplattor av natursten2009Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    This report describes the combined results from a test program aiming to find the best results and requirements to a classification table for traffic classes in the use of slabs made of natural stone. One of the objectives of this report is to give contractors and engineers a better knowledge about the complexity of natural stone and from this find a better and easier way to dimension hard surfaces. Properties that were considered most important and investigated for this report are the following: Dimensions, test methods, flexural strength and wet or dry specimens. Of significant importance is also practical experience collected from contractors around Sweden. The conclusion is that there is a great complexity in the use of natural stone and that there is not always an easy way to determine what dimension is required for a specific traffic class. However, the results point in the same direction and the large number of tests being done with evaluations makes great assurance for the proposed classifica-tion table. Several suggestions for the road to future improvements of the testing and evaluation procedure, including the standard are also given.

  • 96.
    Hassanzadeh, Ghassem
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Tillståndsbedömning och reparation av dykdalb2010In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 97. Hedebratt, J
    et al.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Lessons learned: Swedish design and construction of industrial concrete floors2012In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 45, p. 75-92Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 98.
    Hedebratt, Jerry
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Tyréns AB, Sweden.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Full-scale test of a pile supported steel fibre concrete slab2014In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 647-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the short-term studies is to investigate the structural behaviour of pile supported slabs made of steel fibre concrete (SFC) only and combined reinforced steel fibre concrete. The studies include tests on an elevated slab where a combination of reinforcement bars and steel fibres have been used in one half of the slab and SFC only in the other half. The tests were performed on a column-supported elevated slab that simulates a half scale model of an industrial pile-supported floor slab. The short-term tests showed considerable structural and crack arresting performance that also increased with a higher dosage of fibres. A small addition of conventional reinforcement bars further increased the ultimate load capacity PMax. PMax was in the range of 125-298 kN for the two types of slab. The results indicate that SFC can be used with verifiable results in structural applications for elevated slabs and pile-supported floor slabs despite that the material testing from the ordered SFC showed a larger scatter in properties and that the calculated load capacities were only 40-220 kN. Main causes of deviance are arch and membrane effects.

  • 99. Hellers, B G
    et al.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Svenska Betongföreningen 100 år2012In: Samhällsbyggaren, ISSN 2000-2408, no 2, p. 8-11Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 100.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Appelquist, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Undersökning av mekanisk nedbrytning av obundna material vid tung trafik under byggnation av vägar: HVS (Heavy Vehicle Simulator) tester av olika typer bergmaterial2013Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige bestäms bergkvalité i huvudsak med mekaniska analyser såsom Kulkvarn, Mikrodeval (MDE) och Los Angeles (LA) tester. En av frågeställningarna i detta projekt är huruvida dessa tester är tillräckliga för att bestämma bergmaterialkvalitet. HVS:en (Heavy Vehicle Simulator) är en fordonssimulator i full skala som kan undersöka nedbrytning och deformation av vägkonstruktioner. Vägen kan testas för en stor väldefinierad trafikbelastning under en kort tid. I detta projekt har nedbrytningen och spårdjupsutvecklingen av obundna bärlager studerats. Resultaten från denna undersökning visar att:_x000D_ Inget tydligt samband mellan bergmaterial (bärlager) med höga LA värden eller höga MDE värden och stor spårdjupsutveckling kunde påvisas. Mineralogin på bergmaterialet påverkar spårdjupsutvecklingen på de testade vägytorna._x000D_ Resultatet visar att kompakteringen krossar ner ballastkornen. Det finns ett visst samband mellan graden av denna nedkrossning och bergartens LA-värde och MDE. Viss nedkrossning ger ökad stabilitet och mindre spårdjupsutveckling på de obundna trafikerade lagren.

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