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  • 51.
    Bratt, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Johansson, Nichlas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Konstruktion och utvärdering av en miljökammare för kalibrering av temperatur- och tryckgivare till laserinterferometrar.1993Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 52.
    Buker, O.
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Rasmussen, K.
    FORCE Technology, Denmark.
    Kondrup, J. B.
    FORCE Technology, Denmark.
    Lucas, P.
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, The Netherlands.
    Pelevic, N.
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, The Netherlands.
    Stolt, K.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    van der Beek, M.
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, The Netherlands.
    Arrhenius, K.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Li, J.
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, The Netherlands.
    Lucassen, A.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Klare, L.
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Eilts, P.
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Giuliano Albo, P. A.
    INRIM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    Richter, M.
    RUB Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany.
    Gieseking, B.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Nieuwenkamp, G.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Rauch, J.
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, The Netherlands.
    Mortensen, T.
    Justervesenet, Norway.
    Metrological support for LNG custody transfer and transport2016In: Proceedings of the 17th International Flow Measurement Conference (FLOMEKO 2016), 2016, article id E943220FConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the framework of the ongoing EMRP Joint Research Project (JRP) ENG 60 “Metrology for LNG” (2014-2017), co-funded by the European Union, a number of metrological challenges associated with custody transfer and transport of LNG will be faced. The project consists of four technical work packages (WP), whereby the main objective is to reduce the measurement uncertainty of LNG custody transfer by a factor two. The focus in WP1 is the design and development of a traceable mid-scale calibration standard for LNG mass and volume flow. The goal is to provide traceable mass and volume flow calibrations up to 400 m3/h (180000 kg/h). In WP2, the emphasis is on the development and validation of a LNG sampling and composition measurement reference standard, consisting of sampler, vaporizer, gas standards, and gas chromatography (GC), which will be used to  test and calibrate commercially available LNG sampling and composition measurement systems. The priority in WP3 is given to the development and validation of a method for the determination of the methane number, including correlations based on the LNG composition and corrections for traces of nitrogen and higher hydrocarbons. Since physical properties and quantities play an important role in LNG custody transfer, WP4 comprises reference quality density measurements of LNG to validate and improve models for LNG density predictions, the uncertainty evaluation of enthalpy and calorific value calculations and the development of a novel cryogenic sensor for the simultaneous measurement of speed-of-sound and density. The present paper gives an overview of recently achieved objectives within the project and provides an outlook to future activities.

  • 53.
    Börjesson, Lars
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Källgren, Håkan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Simulated loading of vehicle scales.1989Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 54.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Abhängigkeit von der Positionierung: Zur Problematik der Strömungsabhängigkeit von Durchflussensoren (Dependence on the positioning2012In: Euroheat and Power/Fernwärme International, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 60-67Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Calibration of an ultrasonic flow meter for hot water2013In: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, Vol. 30, p. 166-173Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Vergleichsmessungen zwischen Durchfluss-Normalmessanlagen (Comparison Measurements of Flow Standard Test Facilities)2012In:  Technisches Messen, Vol. 79, no 5, p. 282-289Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Büker, Oliver
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Lau, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    An ultra high-pressure test rig for measurements of small flow rates with different viscosities2014In: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, Vol. 40, p. 82-90Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the framework of a research project regarding investigations on a high-pressure Coriolis mass flow meter (CMF) a portable flow test rig for traceable calibration measurements of the flow rate (mass - and volume flow) in a range of 5gmin-1 to 500gmin-1 and in a pressure range of 0.1MPa to 85MPa was developed. The measurement principle of the flow test rig is based on the gravimetrical measuring procedure with flying-start-and-stop operating mode. Particular attention has been paid to the challenges of temperature stability during the measurements since the temperature has a direct influence on the viscosity and flow rate of the test medium. For that reason the pipes on the high-pressure side are double-walled and insulated and the device under test (DUT) has an enclosure with a separate temperature control. From the analysis of the first measurement with tap water at a temperature of 20°C and a pressure of 82.7MPa an extensive uncertainty analysis has been carried out. It was found that the diverter (mainly due to its asymmetric behaviour) is the largest influence factor on the total uncertainty budget. After a number of improvements, especially concerning the diverter, the flow test rig has currently an expanded measurement uncertainty of around 1.0% in the lower flow rate range (25gmin-1) and 0.25% in the higher flow rate range (400gmin-1) for the measurement of mass flow. Additional calibration measurements with the new, redesigned flow test rig and highly viscous base oils also indicated a good agreement with the theoretical behaviour of the flow meter according to the manufacturers' specifications with water as test medium. Further improvements are envisaged in the future in order to focus also on other areas of interest.

  • 58.
    Büker, Oliver
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Lau, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Tawackolian, Karsten
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Reynolds number dependence of an orifice plate2013In: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 30, p. 123-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important process parameters in power plants is the flow rate that is measured in the secondary or feedwater circuit. To improve our understanding of the behaviour of flow instruments for this use, a work package within the European research project JRP "Metrology for improved power plant efficiency" concerning "Flow" was initiated. It comes under the direction of SP, Technical Research Institute of Sweden. Many power plants have to operate below their licensed rating because of the measurement uncertainty of the flow in the feedwater circuit. For that reason - in the field of traceable flow measurement - four European NMIs (PTB, SP, DTI, BEV) investigated four flow sensors based on different measuring principles. The aim is to find a method to extrapolate low temperature calibrations to high temperatures in order to measure feedwater flow with an uncertainty in the range of 0.3%-0.5%. This paper describes the work undertaken at SP on investigations of an orifice plate.

  • 59.
    Büker, Oliver
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Lederer, Thomas
    Tawackolian, Karsten
    Hogendoorn, J
    Investigation of a 10-path Ultrasonic Flow Meter for Accurate Feedwater Measurement.2014In: Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 75304-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 60. Calcatelli, A.
    et al.
    Arrhén, Fredrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Bergoglio, M.
    Greenwood, J.
    Kangi, R.
    Jousten, K.
    Legras, J. C.
    Rantanen, M.
    Verbeek, J.
    Vicente, C. M.
    Szaulich, D.
    Results of the regional key comparison EUROMET.M.P-K1.a in the pressure range from 0.1 Pa to 1000 Pa2005In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 42, no SUPPL., article id 07004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within EUROMET a regional key comparison (EUROMET.M.P-K1.a) was performed in order to compare national vacuum standards in the pressure range from 0.1 Pa to 1000 Pa. The participants were BNM-LNE (France), CEM (Spain), OMH (Hungary), IMGC-CNR (Italy), NPL (United Kingdom), MIKES (Finland), PTB (Germany), NMi (The Netherlands), SP (Sweden) and UME (Turkey). IMGC-CNR acted as pilot laboratory. The measurements were carried out from November 1998 to April 2002. The chosen pressure values (from 0.1 Pa to 1000 Pa) cover the most commonly required range for calibration in low-pressure applications. The transfer standards were commercially available capacitance diaphragm gauges (CDGs): one of them was prepared for the comparison by BNM-LNE (Fr) and two were prepared by IMGC-CNR (It). Two sensors had 133 Pa full scale (one absolute and one relative used as absolute) and one 1333 Pa full scale (absolute). For the two 133 Pa full scale sensors seven pressure steps were generated between 0.1 Pa and 100 Pa; for the 1333 Pa full scale sensor nine pressure steps were generated generally between 0.1 Pa and 1000 Pa. The uncertainty of the generated pressure was reported by each participant in the tables of the results that consisted in the generated pressure value, the uncertainty of the generated pressure, the reading of the gauge and the temperature of the standard at each target pressure. The pilot laboratory has analysed the results, after application of the correction for thermal transpiration, in terms of gauge factors for each gauge, and the combined uncertainty was evaluated by considering, besides the component due to the standards, taking into account the components due to the transfer standards to guarantee a uniform uncertainty analysis for all the participants. At each target pressure a EUROMET reference pressure was calculated; finally the difference between the pressures generated by each laboratory from the reference values was calculated and compared with its expanded uncertainty. The results of most of the laboratories showed a good agreement with the reference values. Only a few values of two laboratories were significantly off the reference values. From the available data a linkage to the CCM.P-K4 key comparison results from 1 Pa to 1000 Pa was possible by means of the results of three laboratories in the (1-30) Pa range and two for the (100-1000) Pa range who took part in both the comparisons. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  • 61. Carlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    Carlsson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Development of reverberation chamber for accurate measurements of mobile phones and mobile phone antennas2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Carlsson, G
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Kastberg, A
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Pendrill, L
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Absolute wave-number measurement of CsD2 resonance line1997In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 387-391Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Carlsson, Jan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Wolfgang, Andreas
    Kildal, Per-Simon
    Numerical Simulations of a Validation Case for Small Antenna Measurements in a Reverberation Chamber2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 64. Cerqueira Bastos, Miguel
    et al.
    Hammarquist, Maria
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Bergman, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    A High-Voltage Testbed for the Evaluation of High-Voltage Dividers for Pulsed Applications.2011In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 60, no 7, p. 2462-2468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design, evaluation and commissioning of a high voltage reference testbed for pulsed applications to be used in the precision testing of high voltage dividers is described. The testbed is composed of a pulsed power supply, a reference divider based on compressed gas capacitor technology and an acquisition system which makes use of the fast measurement capabilities of the HP 3458 DVM. Results of the evaluation of the reference system are presented.

  • 65. Davis, RS
    et al.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Intercomparison of magnetic properties of mass standards2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Early, Murray
    et al.
    MSL Measurement Standards Laboratory of New Zealand, New Zealand.
    Christian, Lauri
    MSL Measurement Standards Laboratory of New Zealand, New Zealand.
    Andersson, Bengt-Olof
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Gunnarsson, Ove
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    A simple build-up method for the DC voltage scale of a source2012In: Proc of Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, CPEM 2012, 2012, , p. 498-499p. 498-499Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the performance of a simple method, known as the Reference Step Method, to build up the dc voltage scale of a source. The key advantages of this method are that it relies on equipment that is readily available in most high-level laboratories and can be fully automated. The Type A uncertainties achieved by this approach can be less than 0.1 μV/V. This performance is achieved because of the excellent differential linearity of the DMM used in the method. We are validating the accuracy of the method by directly comparing this approach with more traditional resistive divider techniques.

  • 67.
    Early, Murray
    et al.
    MSL Measurement Standards Laboratory of New Zealand, New Zealand.
    Sira, Martin
    Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Christian, Laurie
    MSL Measurement Standards Laboratory of New Zealand, New Zealand.
    Andersson, Bengt-Olof
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Gunnarsson, Ove
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Streit, Jirí
    Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    A Simple Build-Up Method for the DC Voltage Scale of Source2013In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 62, no 6, p. 1600-1607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the performance of a simple method, known as the reference step method, to build up the dc voltage scale of a source. The key advantages of this method are that it relies on equipment that is readily available in most high-level laboratories and can be fully automated. The Type A uncertainties achieved by this approach can be less than 0.1 μV/V. This performance is achieved because of the excellent differential linearity of the DVM used in the method. We have validated the overall accuracy of the method by directly comparing this approach with more traditional resistive divider techniques and have established that the expanded uncertainty is better than 0.2 μV/V up to 1000 V, limited only by the performance of the instruments used.

  • 68.
    Ebenhag, Sven-Christian
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedekvist, Per Olof
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Real-time phase stabilization utilizing two color one-way frequency transfer2012In: 2012 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium, IFCS 2012, Proceedings, 2012, , p. 667-672p. 667-672, article id 6243710Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The two color one-way frequency transfer in optical fiber is an alternative method to two-way time and frequency transfer that is useful if there are unknown asymmetries in the connection. The method is possible to use in existing infrastructure and is able to coexist with data channels for example in WDM systems, which make it possible to broadcast to multiple users and enables the user to be anonymous to the time or frequency transfer. The goal is to develop a stable one-way transfer method comparable with well-established two-way methods, with a precision and accuracy comparable to readily used satellite-based methods. The recent progress in the determination of the error sources introduced by the equipment used for phase comparisons as well as results from increasing the modulation frequency is presented. It is shown how the increase in frequency also enhances the precision, and a result from real time phase stabilization is presented. Furthermore, results from the introduction of a third wavelength are presented, with experimental data over one week periods.

  • 69.
    Ebenhag, Sven-Christian
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Hedekvist, Per Olof
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Jaldehag, Kenneth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Active detection of propagation delay variations in single way time transfer utilizing dual wavelengths in an optical fiber network2011In: Proceedings of 5th Joint Conference of the 65th IEEE International Frequency Control, 2011, , p. 5977328Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Ebenhag, Sven-Christian
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Hedekvist, Per Olof
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Jaldehag, Kenneth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    One way time transfer utilizing active detection of propagation delay variations of dual wavelenghts in an optical fiber network2011In: 43rd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Systems and Applications Meeting 2011, 2011, , p. 9-16Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Ebenhag, Sven-Christian
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Hedekvist, Per Olof
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Jaldehag, Kenneth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Two-color One-Way Frequency Transfer in a Mtetropolitan Optical Fiber Data Network.2013In: NCSLI International Measure, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 10-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Ebenhag, Sven-Christian
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedekvist, Per Olof
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Jaldehag, Kenneth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Two-Color One-Way FrequencyTransfer in a Metropolitan OpticalFiber Data Network2013In: NCSLI Measure, ISSN 1931-5775, Vol. 8, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-color one-way frequency transfer through one strand of optical fiber is an alternative method to two-way frequencytransfer, and is useful if unknown asymmetries exist in the link due to different paths for each direction. The term “twocolor”refers to the ability to send signals at two different wavelengths utilizing the same fiber in one direction. The methodis suitable for implementation in existing urban Single Mode Fiber networks, for instance in networks that are utilized for dataand television communication. It is therefore able to coexist with data channels in wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM)systems. It performs as a dynamical control of transit time and simultaneously enables a real-time phase stabilized output signal.This paper presents results from a comparison of two cesium beam frequency standards separated by about 3 km over an opticalfiber network located in a metropolitan area in Sweden. The cesium standards were simultaneously compared to each other witha Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite link and over optical fibers, so that the optical fiber technique could be evaluatedwith respect to the GPS technique. The difference in frequency stability between the two methods is shown to be about 3 × 10-15over an averaging interval of 10 000 s.1. IntroductionThe need for high accuracy time and frequencytransfer has significantly increased over thelast decade. Users with the most demandingrequirements for the characterization of remotelylocated time and frequency standardsare investigating the use of optical fibers, asthe accuracy and stability of methods based onGNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems)such as Global Positioning System (GPS) appearto be reaching their limits. Recent workin the field of optical frequency transfer showsresults with potential accuracies below 10-17obtained in less than a day, demonstrating thatthe technique is useful for the comparison ofoptical frequency standards [1, 2]. Most of theoptical frequency transfer methods or laserstabilizations [3] focus on two-way frequencytransfer [4], whether it uses the optical phase[5-10] or intensity modulation at microwavefrequencies [11], dark fiber, or data protocolsutilized for timing in wavelength division multiplexingchannels [12-14]. When two-wayfrequency transfer methods are used, there is apresumption that the signals delays are equivalent(symmetrical) in both directions, but inmost cases the two counter wise transmissionpaths are asymmetrical and this introduces a

  • 73.
    Ebenhag, Sven-Christian
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Hedekvist, Per Olof
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Jaldehag, Kenneth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Rieck, Carsten
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Jarlemark, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Time transfer between UTC(SP) and UTC(MIKE) using frame detection in fiber-optical communication networks2011In: 43rd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Systems and Applications Meeting 2011, 2011, , p. 431-441Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Ebenhag, Sven-Christian
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Hedekvist, Per Olof
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Jarlemark, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Emardson, Ragne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Jaldehag, Kenneth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Rieck, Carsten
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Löthberg, Peter
    Measurements and Error Sources in Time Transfer Using Asynchronous Fiber Network2010In: IEEE Transactions on instrumentation and measurement, Vol. 59, no 7, p. 1918-1924Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Ebenhag, Sven-Christian
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wingqvist, Claes
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Hedekvist, Per Olof
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Real-time phase stable one-way frequency transfer over optical fiber2012In: EFTF 2012 - European Frequency and Time Forum, Proceedings, 2012, , p. 206-210p. 206-210, article id 6502368Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fundamental and most straightforward method for high performance time and frequency transfer is the two-way technique, which is suitable when the user has access to the whole system, and when both transmission paths are equal or with a known and predictable asymmetry. Furthermore it is most practical when the numbers of users are limited and when no security concerns limit the bidirectional connectivity.

  • 76.
    Ebenhag, Sven-Christian
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Zelán, Martin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Hedekvist, Per Olof
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Börje
    SUNET Swedish University Computer Network, Sweden.
    Two-way coherent frequency transfer in a commercial DWDM communication network in Sweden2015In: 2015 Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium & the European Frequency and Time Forum, 2015, p. 276-279, article id 7138840Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental fiber link is being established between SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden in Boras and Chalmers University of Gothenburg in Sweden. The one way fiber length is about 60 km and implemented in SUNET (Swedish University Network). The aim of the project is to evaluate the signal quality when sending a stable optical frequency utilizing a wavelength in a DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing) system fiber pair. The experiment uses a channel in the DWDM with the wavelength of 1542.14 nm. This wavelength is within the C band and is therefore compatible with common Erbium doped amplifiers in this network. Another aim of the system is to be ultra-stable which corresponds to a stability of 1×10-13 for τ = 1 s as well as providing the ability to distribute monitored ultra-stable frequency with a future traceability to UTC (SP) (National realization of Universal Time Coordinated within Sweden) to multiple users within the network. Measurements of an optical frequency transfer using a fiber-link based on unidirectional light signals in parallel fibers have shown promising results in a free-running setup and in a lab environment. The fractional frequency stability, analyzed as the Overlapping Allan deviation, is approximately 3×10-13 at τ = 10 s and almost 1×10-14 at 105 s.

  • 77.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Realisering av induktansenheten.1992Report (Refereed)
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  • 78.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Tarasso, Valter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Determination of transition error corrections for low frequency stepwise-approximated Josephson sine waves.2011In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 60, no 7, p. 2399-2403Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Tarasso, Valter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Low frequency characterization of a planar multijunction thermal converter using a programmable Josephson voltage standard2012In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, CPEM 2012, 2012, , p. 62-63p. 62-63, article id 6250661Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe high accuracy low-frequency ac-dc transfer determinations performed with a programmable Josephson voltage standard. The ac-dc difference characteristic of a planar multijunction thermal converter is determined indirectly by comparison via a high input impedance thermal transfer standard at 0.8 V in the frequency range 10 Hz to 110 Hz. 

  • 80.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Gunnarsson, Ove
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    EUROMET.EM-S18 supplementary comparison of 1 ohm and 10 kohm resistance standards2005In: Metrologia: Technical Supplement 1A (01009), Vol. 42Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Pajander, Hannu
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    The SP Josephson array voltage standard.1995Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
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  • 82.
    Emardson, Ragne
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Hedekvist, Per Olof
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Nilsson, Mattias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Ebenhag, Sven-Christian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Jaldehag, Kenneth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Jarlemark, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Rieck, Carsten
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Johansson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Löthberg, Peter
    Nilsson, Håkan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Time Transfer by Passive Listening over 10 Gb/s Optical Fiber2008In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 57, no 11, p. 2495-2501Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Emardson, Ragne
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Jarlemark, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Optimering av referensstationskonfiguration2011Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Real Time Kinematic (RTK) is a system that uses the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) for accurate positioning in real time. The idea of RTK is to receive GNSS signals with a stationary reference at a known position and using these measurements to correct the positioning data for a rover on another site where you want to determine the coordinates. The Swedish National Transport Administration operates the Project “Stomnät i Luften (SIL)”. The project aims to create a national strategy for the RTK-based core network to achieve a more efficient process for the Transport Administration's commitments to construction projects. Within the National SWEPOS network, the distance between reference stations is typically 70 km. For example, at construction work, additional reference stations are deployed around an actual working area. The purpose of this report is to answer three main questions on how performance is affected by the combination of dense and sparse reference networks, how an optimal densification of the reference network should be designed and how accuracy is affected by the construction project spatial scale We show by simulations that the best locations of reference stations to minimize the measurement error is next to the road. A denser network means we can combine large and small triangles in the network. The best measurements are achieved when the inner triangle is given in principle all weight. In practice it may be reasonable to add some weight to even the outer triangle for robustness reasons. For small construction projects, around 5 km, the simulation shows that the vertical measurement error from the RTK system is 3 mm and an expected total vertical measurement error is around 8 mm when including the contribution from the local rover. For large construction projects, about 70 km, the corresponding values are 5 mm and 9 mm respectively For these situations, there is much to gain in accuracy if the installation of the rover can be done in a way that the “local effects”, such as reflections and partial blockage is minimized . The contributions from the local effects will, however, vary greatly depending on the particular position and assembly. For regional construction projects the vertical measurement error from the RTK system is 10 mm and an expected total vertical measurement error is around 12 mm.

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  • 84.
    Emardson, Ragne
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Jarlemark, Per
    Uncertainty evaluation in multivariate analysis - a test case study.2004In: Proceedings of the International conference on computational and mathematical methods in science and engineering, CMMSE-2004, Uppsala, June 4-8., 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Emardson, Ragne
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Jarlemark, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Bergstrand, Sten
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Johansson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Ionospheric Effects on Network-RTK2011Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A part of the atmosphere is ionized by the UV radiation from the Sun. This part is often referred to as the ionosphere. The resulting free electrons influence the GNSS signals as they propagate through the ionosphere. We have studied how the spatial variations of electron density in the ionosphere affect measurements with network-RTK. The aim is to predict what we can expect from measurements during the next solar maximum that is expected to occur around 2012. In order to perform a spatial characterization of the ionosphere, we have used archived GPS data from SWEPOS from a five year period, 1999-2004, around the previous solar maximum. We find that the effect of the ionospheric spatial variability on network-RTK measurements is greater during night time than during day time. It is also clear that the effect is larger for northern Sweden than for the southern part. This is especially true during night time. The effect is also largest in the months October and November and smallest in June and July. Also the number of cycle slips is larger in northern Sweden than in southern Sweden. We find that when monitoring the ionosphere and its influence on network-RTK performance it is desirable to have several different geographical regions under observation. The effects in northern Sweden may, for example not be that relevant for a user in southern Sweden. In this report we define the ionospheric delay errors as the standard deviation of the difference between the ionospheric delay at L1 at one location and the estimated value of this based on the three surrounding reference stations with 70 km separation. Using GNSS equipment that is state-of-the art around 2010, we find that when conditions are such that the ionospheric delay error is below 10 mm, which occurs some 70% of the time, a rover is able to fix the ambiguities more than 90% of the time. This ability decreases with increasing ionospheric variability and when the ionospheric delay error is larger than 25 mm, which occurs some 10% of the time, the rover ability to fix is less than 50%. When measuring with network-RTK during the next solar maximum, approximately, 80% of the time, we have conditions such that a rover has at least 75% chance of fixing the solutions. Overall the probability to find a correct fix solution when performing RTK measurements during the next solar maximum is approximately 85% and the mean time to fix is 55 seconds.

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  • 86.
    Emardson, Ragne
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Jarlemark, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Floberg, P
    Uncertainty Evaluation in Multivariate Analysis - A Test Case Study2005In: Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms, Vol. 4, p. 289-305Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 87.
    Emardson, Ragne
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Jarlemark, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Johansson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Bergstrand, Sten
    Ionospheric corrections for accurate positioning in real time.2005In: Proceedings: Radiovetenskap och kommunikation 05 - RVK 05, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Emardson, Ragne
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Jarlemark, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Johansson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Bergstrand, Sten
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Nilsson, Tobias
    Measurement accuracy in Network-RTK2009Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 89.
    Emardson, Ragne
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Jarlemark, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Sebastian, Schäfer
    Jotun, Norway.
    Spatial variability in the ionosphere measured with GNSS networks2013In: Radio Science, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 646-652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs) appear as Medium-Scale TIDs at mid-latitudes and as polar cap patches at high latitudes. Both can have a negative impact on GNSS measurements although the amplitude is of tenths of a TECU. Due to their spatial extension they affect GNSS measurements using receivers separated with distances up to ~1000 km. We present statistical measures of the ionospheric spatial variability as functions of time in solar cycle, annual season, and time of day for different geographical locations in Europe. In order to perform this spatial characterization of the ionosphere, we have used archived GPS data from a thirteen year period, 1999-2011, covering a complete solar cycle. We find that the ionospheric spatial variability is larger for the northern areas than for the southern areas. This is especially pronounced at solar maximum. For the more northern areas, the ionospheric variability is greater during night time than during day time, while for central Europe the variability is larger during day time. At solar maximum, the variability is larger during the months October and November and smaller in June and July.

  • 90.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, Pålitliga system.
    Skarin, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, Pålitliga system.
    Strandén, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, Pålitliga system.
    Jarlemark, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Emardson, Ragne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Svensson, Åse
    Trafik och Väg.
    Smartphones as Wireless Reflector Tags?2014Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report investigates the feasibility of using smartphones as wireless reflector tags. A smartphone communicates its GNSS positioning data via peer-to-peer connections to nearby road users to notify its presence. Appropriate use cases are studied based on accident data. Different communication protocols and a pseudo differencing positioning technique are evaluated. Possibilities and obstacles are presented.

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  • 91.
    Falk, Roland et al
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Blackbody radiators for calibration wide-looking IR-thermometers. Nordtest 1595-022003Report (Refereed)
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  • 92.
    Falnes Olsen, Åge Andreas
    et al.
    Norwegian Metrology Service, Norway.
    Karlsson, Helge
    Norwegian Metrology Service, Norway.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Conformance assessment of electrical energy meters investigated by risk analysis – a case study2016In: OIML Bulletin, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 5-20Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a case study of more effective decision rules for the conformance assessment of electrical energy meters in private households in Norway, and proposes how to use a specific risk analysis in order to set the time for the next meter test. The MID regulation today prescribes conformance assessment of electrical energy meters based on ISO standards for attribute sampling where decision rules are purely statistical decision rules and economic consequences are not explicitly taken into account. The risk analysis we introduce calculates the risks involved for erroneous decisions, either rejecting a conforming batch of meters (the producer risk) or accepting a non-conforming batch (the consumer risk). The consumer risk is sensitive to the period until the next test which becomes a quality characteristic of each batch. This time interval can be optimized by balancing the consumer risk against the producer risk. When the quality drops, the period until the next test will need to become shorter. But at a certain level of quality, the energy net supplier would rather replace the complete batch, than continue testing at such short intervals.

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  • 93. Fang, H
    et al.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Optical heterodyne refractometry of water vapour in the microwave range”2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Fires, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Karlsson, Jonas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Dynamisk vägning - principer och metoder för checkweighers2003Report (Refereed)
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  • 95.
    Flys, Olena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Källberg, Stefan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Ged, Guillaume
    LNE Laboratoire national de métrologie et d'essais, France.
    Silvestri, Zaccaria
    LNE Laboratoire national de métrologie et d'essais, France.
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Characterization of surface topography of a newly developed metrological gloss scale2015In: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 3, no 4, article id 045001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the European Joint Research Project “Multidimensional reflectometry for industry”, a new gloss scale has been developed with the aim to represent different levels of gloss, hue, roughness and refractive indices. In this paper, the surfaces of six selected samples have been thoroughly investigated using various measuring techniques in order to verify the outcome of the novel manufacturing processes in terms of distinct levels as well as types of surface roughness. The aim of the evaluation was to capture surface structures in different wavelength intervals utilizing a confocal microscope, a coherence scanning interferometer and an atomic force microscope. Also, PSD functions calculated from the measurements have been used to determine suitability of techniques for different roughness scales. Measurements show the expected surface characteristics as well as different rms roughness values intimately connected to the perceived glossiness.

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  • 96.
    Frennberg, M, Sacconi A
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    International comparison of high-accuracy roundness measurements1996In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 539-544Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 97.
    Frennberg, M
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Sacconia, A
    Intercomparison of high accuracy roundness measurements.1996Report (Refereed)
  • 98.
    Frennberg, Mikael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Kalibrering av rundhetsnormaler.1991Report (Refereed)
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  • 99.
    Frennberg, Mikael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Rekommendationer för kalibrering och kontroll av ytjämnhetsmätare.1996Report (Refereed)
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  • 100.
    Frennberg, Mikael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Upprustning av interferometer för passbitar.1988Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
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