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  • 51.
    Haapanen, Janne
    et al.
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Aromaa, Mikko
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Teisala, Hannu
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Tuominen, Mikko
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Stȩpień, Milena
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Saarinen, Jarkko J.
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Heikkilä, Mikko
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Kuusipalo, Jurkka
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Mäkelä, Jyrki M.
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Binary TiO2/SiO2 nanoparticle coating for controlling the wetting properties of paperboard2015In: Materials Chemistry and Physics, ISSN 0254-0584, E-ISSN 1879-3312, Vol. 149, p. 230-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce a flame based aerosol method to fabricate thin films consisting of binary TiO2/SiO2 nanoparticles deposited directly from the flame onto the paperboard. Nanocoatings were prepared with Liquid Flame Spray (LFS) in a roll-to-roll process with the line speed of 50 m/min. Surface wetting behavior of nanocoated paperboard was studied for different Ti/Si ratios in the precursor, affecting TiO2/SiO2 ratio in the coating. Wettability could be adjusted to practically any water contact angle between 10 and 160° by setting the Ti/Si ratio in the liquid precursor. Structure of the two component nanocoating was analysed with FE-SEM, TEM, EDS, XPS and XRD. The porous thin film coating was concluded to consist of ca. 10 nm sized mixed oxide nanoparticles with segregated TiO2 and SiO2 phases. Accumulation of carbonaceous compounds on the surface was seen to be almost linearly dependent on the Ti/Si ratio, indicating of each species being exposed in corresponding amount. However, wetting of the surface was observed to follow merely an S-shaped curve, caused by the roughness of the nanocoated surface. Reasons for the observed superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity of these binary nanocoatings on paperboard are discussed.

  • 52.
    Hansson, Petra M.
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut.
    Hormozan, Yashar
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Brandner, Birgit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Linnros, Jan T.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Schoelkopf, Joachim
    Omya Development AG, Switzerland.
    Gane, Patrick A.C.
    Omya Development AG, Switzerland; Aalto University, Finland.
    Thormann, Esben
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hydrophobic pore array surfaces: Wetting and interaction forces in water/ethanol mixtures2013In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 396, p. 278-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactions between and wetting behavior of structured hydrophobic surfaces using different concentrations of water/ethanol mixtures have been investigated. Silica surfaces consisting of pore arrays with different pore spacings and pore depths were made hydrophobic by silanization. Their static and dynamic contact angles were found to be independent of the pore depth while fewer pores on the surface, i.e. a closer resemblance to a flat surface, gave a lower contact angle. As expected, a higher amount of ethanol facilitated wetting on all the surfaces tested. Confocal Raman microscopy measurements proved both water and ethanol to penetrate into the pores. AFM colloidal probe force measurements clearly showed that formation of air cavitation was hindered between the hydrophobic surfaces in presence of ethanol, and an increase in ethanol concentration was followed by a smaller jump-in distance and a weaker adhesion force. On separation, an immediate jump-out of contact occurred. The measured forces were interpreted as being due to capillary condensation of ethanol between the surfaces giving rise to very unstable cavities immediately rupturing on surface separation.

  • 53.
    Heydari, Golrokh
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sedighi Moghaddam, Maziar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Tuominen, Mikko
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Fielden, Matthew
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Haapanen, Janne
    TUT Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Mäkelä, Jyrki M.
    TUT Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetting hysteresis induced by temperature changes: Supercooled water on hydrophobic surfaces2016In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 468, p. 21-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The state and stability of supercooled water on (super)hydrophobic surfaces is crucial for low temperature applications and it will affect anti-icing and de-icing properties. Surface characteristics such as topography and chemistry are expected to affect wetting hysteresis during temperature cycling experiments, and also the freezing delay of supercooled water. We utilized stochastically rough wood surfaces that were further modified to render them hydrophobic or superhydrophobic. Liquid flame spraying (LFS) was utilized to create a multi-scale roughness by depositing titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The coating was subsequently made non-polar by applying a thin plasma polymer layer. As flat reference samples modified silica surfaces with similar chemistries were utilized. With these substrates we test the hypothesis that superhydrophobic surfaces also should retard ice formation. Wetting hysteresis was evaluated using contact angle measurements during a freeze-thaw cycle from room temperature to freezing occurrence at -7 °C, and then back to room temperature. Further, the delay in freezing of supercooled water droplets was studied at temperatures of -4 °C and -7 °C. The hysteresis in contact angle observed during a cooling-heating cycle is found to be small on flat hydrophobic surfaces. However, significant changes in contact angles during a cooling-heating cycle are observed on the rough surfaces, with a higher contact angle observed on cooling compared to during the subsequent heating. Condensation and subsequent frost formation at sub-zero temperatures induce the hysteresis. The freezing delay data show that the flat surface is more efficient in enhancing the freezing delay than the rougher surfaces, which can be rationalized considering heterogeneous nucleation theory. Thus, our data suggests that molecular flat surfaces, rather than rough superhydrophobic surfaces, are beneficial for retarding ice formation under conditions that allow condensation and frost formation to occur.

  • 54.
    Heydari, Golrokh
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Thormann, Espen
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Järn, Mikael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Tyrode, Eric C.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Hydrophobic surfaces: Topography effects on wetting by supercooled water and freezing delay2013In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 117, no 42, p. 21752-21762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrophobicity, and in particular superhydrophobicity, has been extensively considered to promote ice-phobicity. Dynamic contact angle measurements above 0 C have been widely used to evaluate the water repellency. However, it is the wetting properties of supercooled water at subzero temperatures and the derived work of adhesion that are important for applications dealing with icing. In this work we address this issue by determining the temperature-dependent dynamic contact angle of microliter-sized water droplets on a smooth hydrophobic and a superhydrophobic surface with similar surface chemistry. The data highlight how the work of adhesion of water in the temperature interval from about 25 C to below -10 C is affected by surface topography. A marked decrease in contact angle on the superhydrophobic surface is observed with decreasing temperature, and we attribute this to condensation below the dew point. In contrast, no significant wetting transition is observed on the smooth hydrophobic surface. The freezing temperature and the freezing delay time were determined for water droplets resting on a range of surfaces with similar chemistry but different topography, including smooth and rough surfaces in either the Wenzel or the Cassie-Baxter state as characterized by water contact angle measurements at room temperature. We find that the water freezing delay time is not significantly affected by the surface topography and discuss this finding within the classical theory of heterogeneous nucleation.

  • 55.
    Heydari, Golrokh
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Tyrode, Erik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Visnevskij, Ceslav
    Vilnius University, Lithuania.
    Makuska, Ricardas
    Vilnius University, Lithuania.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Temperature-dependent deicing properties of electrostatically anchored branched brush layers of poly(ethylene oxide)2016In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 32, no 17, p. 4194-4202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hydration water of hydrophilic polymers freezes at subzero temperatures. The adsorption of such polymers will result in a hydrophilic surface layer that strongly binds water. Provided this interfacial hydration water remains liquidlike at subzero temperatures, its presence could possibly reduce ice adhesion, in particular, if the liquidlike layer is thicker than or comparable to the surface roughness. To explore this idea, a diblock copolymer, having one branched bottle-brush block of poly(ethylene oxide) and one linear cationic block, was electrostatically anchored on flat silica surfaces. The shear ice adhesion strength on such polymer-coated surfaces was investigated down to -25 °C using a homebuilt device. In addition, the temperature dependence of the ice adhesion on surfaces coated with only the cationic block, only the branched bottle-brush block, and with linear poly(ethylene oxide) was investigated. Significant ice adhesion reduction, in particular, at temperatures above -15 °C, was observed on silica surfaces coated with the electrostatically anchored diblock copolymer. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements on bulk polymer solutions demonstrate different thermal transitions of water interacting with branched and linear poly(ethylene oxide) (with hydration water melting points of about -18 and -10 °C, respectively). This difference is consistent with the low shear ice adhesion strength measured on surfaces carrying branched bottle-brush structured poly(ethylene oxide) at -10 °C, whereas no significant adhesion reduction was obtained with linear poly(ethylene oxide) at this temperature. We propose a lubrication effect of the hydration water bound to the branched bottle-brush structured poly(ethylene oxide), which, in the bulk, does not freeze until -18 °C.

  • 56.
    Hulander, Mats
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Anders O.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Faxälv, Lars
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Tomas
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Palmquist, Anders
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berglin, Mattias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Elwing, Hans B.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gradients in surface nanotopography used to study platelet adhesion and activation2013In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 110, no 1, p. 261-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gradients in surface nanotopography were prepared by adsorbing gold nanoparticles on smooth gold substrates using diffusion technique. Following a sintering procedure the particle binding chemistry was removed, and integration of the particles into the underlying gold substrate was achieved, leaving a nanostructured surface with uniform surface chemistry. After pre-adsorption of human fibrinogen, the effect of surface nanotopography on platelets was studied. The use of a gradient in nanotopography allowed for platelet adhesion and activation to be studied as a function of nanoparticle coverage on one single substrate. A peak in platelet adhesion was found at 23% nanoparticle surface coverage. The highest number of activated platelets was found on the smooth control part of the surface, and did not coincide with the number of adhered platelets. Activation correlated inversely with particle coverage, hence the lowest fraction of activated platelets was found at high particle coverage. Hydrophobization of the gradient surface lowered the total number of adhering cells, but not the ratio of activated cells. Little or no effect was seen on gradients with 36. nm particles, suggesting the existence of a lower limit for sensing of surface nano-roughness in platelets. These results demonstrate that parameters such as ratio between size and inter-particle distance can be more relevant for cell response than wettability on nanostructured surfaces. The minor effect of hydrophobicity, the generally reduced activation on nanostructured surfaces and the presence of a cut-off in activation of human platelets as a function of nanoparticle size could have implications for the design of future blood-contacting biomaterials.

  • 57.
    Jafarzadeh, Shadi
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sundell, Per-Erik
    SSAB EMEA AB, Sweden.
    Tyrode, Eric
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Active corrosion protection by conductive composites of polyaniline in a UV-cured polyester acrylate coating2016In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 90, p. 154-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyaniline doped with phosphoric acid (PANI-PA) was synthesized and characterized by impedance and Raman spectroscopy. Exposure to UV-light resulted in a slight decrease in the PANI's electrical conductivity and no significant change in the oxidation state (of an emeraldine salt). Composite coatings containing 0, 1, 3 and 5 wt.% PANI-PA in a UV-curable polyester acrylate (PEA) resin were prepared and applied on polished carbon steel. Closely packed PANI-PA particles of several tens of nanometers were observed inside the composite coating by scanning electron microscopy, and a connected conductive network across the film was detected by Peak Force TUNA atomic force microscopy. The evolution of open circuit potential and impedance data during long-term exposure to 3 wt.% NaCl electrolyte revealed that the short-term barrier-type corrosion protection provided by the insulating PEA coating can be turned into a long-term and active protection by addition of as little as 1 wt.% PANI-PA to the formulation. Stable ennoblement in the corrosive media was observed for the coatings containing conducting polymer up to 3 wt.%. However, higher content of PANI-PA (5 wt.%) led to poorer protective properties, probably due to the hydrophilicity of PANI-PA facilitating water transport in the coating and the presence of potentially weaker spots in the film. An iron oxide layer was found to fully cover the metal surface beneath the coatings containing PANI-PA after final failure observed by electrochemical testing.

  • 58.
    Jansson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Möller, Kenneth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Thermo-oxidative stability of PP waste films studied by imaging chemiluminescence technique2001In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 15-33Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Jansson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Möller, Kenneth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Gevert, Thomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Chemical degradation of a polypropylene material exposed to simulated recycling2004In: J. Polym. Deg. and Stab, Vol. 84, p. 227-232Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Jansson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Möller, Kenneth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Gevert, Thomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Degradation behaviour of post consumer polypropylene material subjected to simulated recycling2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Jansson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Möller, Kenneth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Gevert, Thomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Degradation of PP materials subjected to simulated recycling2002In: Proceeddings of R´02 Recovery Recycling Re-integration Conference, Geneva, Switzerland, February 12-15, 2002, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Jansson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Möller, Kenneth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Gevert, Thomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Possibility to upgrade recycled polymers2000Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Jansson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Möller, Kenneth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Analysis of polymer oxidation using 18O2 and TOF-SIMS2003In: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol. 80, no 80, p. 345-352Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Javed, Asif
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Ullsten, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Study of starch and starch-PVOH blends and effects of plasticizers on mechanical and barrier properties of coated paperboard2016In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 499-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical properties of self-supporting films based on starch-plasticizer and starch-PVOH-plasticizer and the barrier properties of paperboard coated with solutions of these polymers have been studied. The plasticizers used were glycerol, polyethylene glycol and citric acid. It was shown that the addition of a plasticizer and PVOH to starch substantially increases the flexibility of starch films. It was seen that curing the self-supporting films led to a decrease in flexibility. After heat-treatment, a substantial increase in storage modulus was observed only in the starch-PVOH-citric-acid blend films. Tensile tests on the films indicate that citric acid did not cause any noticeable phase separation. Citric acid acted as a compatibilizer for starch-PVOH blends even though a similar enrichment of PVOH at the air-solid interface was observed with both citric acid and polyethylene glycol as plasticizer. The properties of barrier coatings greatly reflected the compatibility of starch-PVOH blends containing citric acid. The only plasticizer that resulted in a lower water vapour transmission rate through the starch and starch-PVOH coatings was citric acid, which suggests that cross-linking took place. With four layers, coatings based of starch-PVOH possessed the same oxygen- transmission rate with citric acid as without citric acid.

  • 65.
    Jermer, Jöran
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Andersson, Bo-Lennart
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Corrosion of fasteners in heat-treated wood – progress report after nine years’ exposure outdoors2005In: Proceedings IRG Annual Meeting IRG/WP 05., 2005, , p. 8Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Jermer, Jöran
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, AB Trätek.
    Andersson, Bo-Lennart
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Corrosion of fasteners in heat-treated wood - progress report after two years' exposure outdoors2005In: The Second European Conference on Wood Modification, Proceedings, International Research Group on Wood Protection , 2005, , p. 78-82Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 67.
    Jermer, Jöran
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Andersson, Bo-Lennart
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Corrosion of fasteners in heat-treated wood – progress report after two years’ exposure outdoors2007In: Proceedings IRG Annual Meeting, Universität Göttingen , 2007, , p. 7Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Jutengren, Kurt
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Försök med osaltade vägar och gator på Gotland. Korrosionsstudier genom mobil och stationär exponering av provkroppar.1989Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 69.
    Jutengren, Kurt
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Carlsson, Bo
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Vägsaltningens effekt på bilkorrosion. Utveckling av laboratoriemetod för korrosionsprovningar i artificiell vägmiljö.1991Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 70.
    Järn, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Claesson, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Superhydrophilic polyelectrolyte brush layers with imparted anti-icing properties: Effect of counter ions2014In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 6, no 9, p. 6487-6496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of superhydrophilic polyelectrolyte brush coatings for anti-icing applications. Five different types of ionic and nonionic polymer brush coatings of 25-100 nm thickness were formed on glass substrates using silane chemistry for surface premodification followed by polymerization via the SI-ATRP route. The cationic [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride] and the anionic [poly(3-sulfopropyl methacrylate), poly(sodium methacrylate)] polyelectrolyte brushes were further exchanged with H+, Li+, Na+, K+, Ag+, Ca2+, La3+, C16N+, F-, Cl-, BF4-, SO42-, and C12SO3- ions. By consecutive measurements of the strength of ice adhesion toward ion-incorporated polymer brushes on glass it was found that Li+ ions reduce ice adhesion by 40% at -18 °C and 70% at -10 °C. Ag+ ions reduce ice adhesion by 80% at -10 °C relative to unmodified glass. In general, superhydrophilic polyelectrolyte brushes exhibit better anti-icing property at -10 °C compared to partially hydrophobic brushes such as poly(methyl methacrylate) and surfactant exchanged polyelectrolyte brushes. The data are interpreted using the concept of a quasi liquid layer (QLL) that is enhanced in the presence of highly hydrated ions at the interface. It is suggested that the ability of ions to coordinate water is directly related to the efficiency of a given anti-icing coating based on the polyelectrolyte brush concept.

  • 71.
    Li, Jing
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ecco, Luiz
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Fedel, Michele
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    In situ AFM and electrochemical study of a waterborne acrylic composite coating with CeO2 nanoparticles for corrosion protection of carbon steel2015In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 162, no 10, p. C610-C618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The corrosion protection of a waterborne acrylic composite coating with 1 wt% ceria nanoparticles (CeNP) coated on carbon steel in 3 wt% NaCl solution was investigated by ex-situ and in situ as well as electrochemical atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations, combined with open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The synthesized CeNP were stabilized by acetic acid. The transmission electron microscopy characterization showed fine nano-size of as-synthesized CeNP, the ex-situ AFM imaging revealed uniform dispersion of the CeNP in the composite coating and greatly reduced nano-sized pinholes in the coating. The in situ and electrochemical (EC) AFM investigations indicate release of some CeNP and aggregates from the coating surface and then precipitation of some particles and cerium-compounds during the exposure. The OCP and EIS results demonstrated that the addition of 1 wt% CeNP leads to a significantly improved long term barrier type corrosion protection of the waterborne acrylic composite coating for carbon steel in 3 wt% NaCl solution. The beneficial effect of the CeNP is attributed to the blocking of nano-sized defects and inhibition by the cerium compounds originated from the acetic acid stabilized CeNP.

  • 72.
    Li, Jing
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Huang, Hui
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fielden, Matthew
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ecco, Luiz
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Schellbach, Carsten
    Enthone GmbH, Germany.
    Delmas, Grégory
    Arkema Coating Resins, France.
    Claesson, Per Martin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Towards the mechanism of electrochemical activity and self-healing of 1 wt% PTSA doped polyaniline in alkyd composite polymer coating: Combined AFM-based studies2016In: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 6, no 23, p. 19111-19127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A composite solvent-borne alkyd coating with 1 wt% p-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA) doped polyaniline (PANI) was prepared. The mechanisms of electrochemical activity and self-healing properties of the composite coating were investigated by in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM), intermodulation AFM (ImAFM), electrochemical controlled (EC)-AFM combined with cyclic voltammetry (CV), Kelvin force microscopy (KFM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), as well as open-circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. The ImAFM demonstrates the multiphase structure of the composite coating and a high compatibility between the doped PANI and alkyd matrix. The CV and EC-AFM results reveal a high electrochemical activity of the doped PANI in the composite coating as well as reversible redox reactions between the emeraldine salt (ES) and leuco emeraldine base (LB) forms. The Volta potential mapping of KFM demonstrates a strong self-healing ability of the doped PANI in air conditions. The good electrochemical connection between the fine network of PANI in the composite coating and metal surface underneath enable the occurrence of reversible redox reaction between the ES/LB forms of doped PANI and a concomitant release of dopant anions both in air and in 3 wt% NaCl solution as demonstrated by OCP and EIS results. These therefore lead to the strong passivation and self-healing effect of the composite coated on the carbon steel surface.

  • 73.
    Li, Shanghua
    et al.
    ABB, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mattias
    ABB, Sweden.
    Liu, Rongsheng
    ABB, Sweden.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Fornara, Andrea
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Johansson Salazar-Sandoval, Eric
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    The effect of ceria nanoparticles on the breakdown strength of transformer oil2015In: 2015 IEEE 11th International Conference on the Properties and Applications of Dielectric Materials (ICPADM), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, p. 289-292Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanotechnologies have potential to be used in transformer industry in enhancing material properties which may lead to a compact design of transformer and reduced manufacturing cost. Effect of adding different nanoparticles such as titania, silica, nano-diamond, etc. has been studied in literatures. In this paper, nano-ceria particles have been successfully added into transformer mineral oil with different content. The suspension is very stable and no segmentation can be observed over several months. The ceria nanoparticles are commercially available, which have a quite narrow size distribution. UV-Vis, TGA and FT-IR are used to characterize the ceria nanofluids. The water content of the ceria nanofluids has been measured by Karl Fisher titration, which is important for the breakdown strength of transformer oil. AC voltage breakdown and lightning impulse voltage breakdown measurements have been performed on the ceria nanofluids. An enhancement of 15% on AC breakdown voltage has been observed on ceria nanofluids with some content compared to reference transformer oil. On the other hand, no clear difference on the lightning impulse breakdown voltage is observed between the ceria nanofluids and reference transformer oil.

  • 74.
    Lindström, Tom
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    On the mechanical and chemical factors governing retention and formation of a fine paper stock: The case of headbox elongational shear2016In: Journal of Science & Technology for Forest Products and Processes, ISSN 1927-6311, E-ISSN 1927-632X, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 30-37Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between formation and retention is of key importance in papermaking. This paper deals with how various variables (mix-to-wire speed difference, softwood/hardwood ratio, pulp consistency, headbox contraction, and various amounts of added two-component retention aid) affect the forming of paper and in turn retention and paper formation. The experiments were conducted using the EuroFEX paper machine at Innventia, which can be operated under steady-state conditions of the white water system.

    It was found that formation is worst when the mix-to-wire speed difference is close to zero or when the oriented shear is lowest. Retention, on the other hand, is to a large extent independent of mix-to-wire speed. Higher consistency during forming is generally associated with an enhanced susceptibility of fibres to flocculate, but a higher consistency in the  headbox is, in this study, also associated with increased headbox contraction, which increases elongational shear. The higher the headbox consistency, the higher will be the first-pass retention because of the closer proximity of particles, which is beneficial for bridging flocculation. It is known that elongational shear is in general more beneficial to fibre dispersion than transverse shear and also that for weaker fibre flocs (higher hardwood pulp content), the effect of high headbox contraction (higher consistency) actually reverses the effect of consistency on sheet formation because elongational shear overcomes the effects of fibre crowding at high headbox consistency on sheet formation.

    In conclusion, we show how the effects of mix-to-wire speed difference, softwood/hardwood ratio, headbox consistency, headbox contraction, and amount of retention aid added (cationic polyacrylamide and colloidal silica) affect retention and formation of paper.

  • 75.
    Liu, Xiaoyan
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yun, Sang Ho
    Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Frictional behavior of micro-patterned silicon surface2015In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 456, p. 76-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A micro-patterned silicon surface, consisting of depressions with walls having a tilt angle of 30°, was created by photolithography followed by etching. The friction forces in single asperity contact acting between such a surface and an AFM tip was measured in air. This allowed elucidation of the validity of some common friction rules for this particular situation where a small tip traces a surface having roughness features that are significantly larger than the tip itself. The rules that was compared with our data were Amontons' first rule of friction stating that the friction force should be proportional to the load; Amontons' third rule stating that the friction force should be independent of sliding speed, and Euler's rule providing a relation between slope angle and friction coefficient. We found that both nanoscale surface heterogeneities and the μm-sized depressions affect friction forces, and considerable reproducible variations were found along a particular scan line. Nevertheless Amontons' first rule described average friction forces well. Amontons' third rule and Euler's rule were found to be less applicable to our system.

  • 76.
    Lobov, Gleb S.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhao, Yichen
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Marinins, Aleksandrs
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yan, Max
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Jiantong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Toprak, Muhammet Sadaka
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Thylen, Lars
    Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, US; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Electric field induced optical anisotropy of P3HT nanofibers in a liquid solution2015In: Optical Materials Express, ISSN 2159-3930, E-ISSN 2159-3930, Vol. 5, no 11, p. 2642-2647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nanofiber morphology of regioregular Poly-3- hexylthiophene (P3HT) is a 1D crystalline structure organized by π - π stacking of the backbone chains. In this study, we report the impact of electric field on the orientation and optical properties of P3HT nanofibers dispersed in liquid solution. We demonstrate that alternating electric field aligns nanofibers, whereas static electric field forces them to migrate towards the cathode. The alignment of nanofibers introduces anisotropic optical properties, which can be dynamically manipulated until the solvent has evaporated. Time resolved spectroscopic measurements revealed that the electro-optical response time decreases significantly with the magnitude of applied electric field. Thus, for electric field 1.3 V ·μm-1 the response time was measured as low as 20 ms, while for 0.65 V ·μm-1 it was 110-150 ms. Observed phenomenon is the first mention of P3HT supramolecules associated with electrooptical effect. Proposed method provides real time control over the orientation of nanofibers, which is a starting point for a novel practical implementation. With further development P3HT nanofibers can be used individually as an anisotropic solution or as an active component in a guest-host system.

  • 77.
    Lobov, Gleb S.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhao, Yichen
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Marinins, Aleksandrs
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yan, Max
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Jiantong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Toprak, Muhammet Sadaka
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Thylen, Lars
    Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, US; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Electro-optical response of P3HT nanofibers in liquid solution2015In: Asia Communications and Photonics Conference 2015, Optical Society of America, 2015, article id ASu1A.5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AC electric poling introduces in P3HT nanofibers anisotropic electro-optical response and birefringence. Along with birefringence, such material exhibits strong amplitude modulation which makes it more efficient alternative to liquid crystals.

  • 78.
    Lobov, Gleb S.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhao, Yichen
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Marinins, Aleksandrs
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yan, Min
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Jiantong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Thylén, Lars
    Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, US; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Size impact of ordered P3HT nanofibers on optical anisotropy2016In: Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, ISSN 1022-1352, E-ISSN 1521-3935, Vol. 217, no 9, p. 1089-1095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) nanofibers are 1D crystalline structures with semiconductor properties. When P3HT nanofibers are dispersed in nonconducting solvent, they react to external alternate electric field by aligning along the field lines. This can be used to create layers of ordered nanofibers and is referred to as alternating current poling method. P3HT nanofibers with three different size distributions are fabricated, using self-assembly mechanism in marginal solvents, and used for the alignment studies. Anisotropic absorption of oriented 2 μm long nanofibers exponentially increases with the magnitude of applied field to a certain asymptotic limit at 0.8 V μm-1, while 100-500 nm long nanofibers respond to electric field negligibly. Effective optical birefringence of oriented 2 μm long nanofibers is calculated, based on the phase shift at 633 nm and the average layer thickness, to be 0.41. These results combined with further studies on real-time control over orientation of P3HT nanofibers in liquid solution or host system are promising in terms of exploiting them in electroabsorptive and electrorefractive applications.

  • 79.
    Lobov, Gleb S.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhao, Yichen
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Marinins, Alexandrs
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yan, Min
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Jiantong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Thylén, Lars
    Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, US; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dynamic manipulation of optical anisotropy of suspended Poly-3-hexylthiophene nanofibers2016In: Advanced Optical Materials, ISSN 2162-7568, E-ISSN 2195-1071, Vol. 4, no 10, p. 1651-1656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) nanofibers are 1D crystalline semiconducting nanostructures, which are known for their application in photovoltaics. Due to the internal arrangement, P3HT nanofibers possess optical anisotropy, which can be enhanced on a macroscale if nanofibers are aligned. Alternating electric field, applied to a solution with dispersed nanofibers, causes their alignment and serves as a method to produce solid layers with ordered nanofibers. The transmission ellipsometry measurements demonstrate the dichroic absorption and birefringence of ordered nanofibers in a wide spectral range of 400–1700 nm. Moreover, the length of nanofibers has a crucial impact on their degree of alignment. Using electric birefringence technique, it is shown that external electric field applied to the solution with P3HT nanofibers can cause direct birefringence modulation. Dynamic alignment of dispersed nanofibers changes the refractive index of the solution and, therefore, the polarization of transmitted light. A reversible reorientation of nanofibers is organized by using a quadrupole configuration of poling electrodes. With further development, the described method can be used in the area of active optical fiber components, lab-on-chip or sensors. It also reveals the potential of 1D conducting polymeric structures as objects whose highly anisotropic properties can be implemented in electro-optical applications.​.

  • 80.
    Lundgren, Anders
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Munktell, Sara
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lacey, Matthew
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berglin, Mattias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Björefors, Fredrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Formation of gold nanoparticle size and density gradients via bipolar electrochemistry2016In: ChemElectroChem, E-ISSN 2196-0216, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 378-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bipolar electrochemistry is employed to demonstrate the formation of gold nanoparticle size gradients on planar surfaces. By controlling the electric field in a HAuCl4-containing electrolyte, gold was reduced onto 10nm diameter particles immobilized on pre-modified thiolated bipolar electrode (BPE) templates, resulting in larger particles towards the more cathodic direction. As the gold deposition was the dominating cathodic reaction, the increased size of the nanoparticles also reflected the current distribution on the bipolar electrode. The size gradients were also combined with a second gradient-forming technique to establish nanoparticle surfaces with orthogonal size and density gradients, resulting in a wide range of combinations of small/large and few/many particles on a single bipolar electrode. Such surfaces are valuable in, for example, cell-material interaction and combinatorial studies, where a large number of conditions are probed simultaneously.

  • 81.
    Lundgren, Anders O.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hulander, Mats
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Brorsson, Joakim
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Malte
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Elwing, Hans B.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Olof
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berglin, Mattias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gold-nanoparticle-assisted self-assembly of chemical gradients with tunable sub-50 nm molecular domains2014In: Particle & particle systems characterization, ISSN 0934-0866, E-ISSN 1521-4117, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 209-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple and efficient principle for nanopatterning with wide applicability in the sub-50 nanometer regime is chemisorption of nanoparticles; at homogeneous substrates, particles carrying surface charge may spontaneously self-organize due to the electrostatic repulsion between adjacent particles. Guided by this principle, a method is presented to design, self-assemble, and chemically functionalize gradient nanopatterns where the size of molecular domains can be tuned to match the level corresponding to single protein binding events. To modulate the binding of negatively charged gold nanoparticles both locally (<100 nm) and globally (>100 μm) onto a single modified gold substrate, ion diffusion is used to achieve spatial control of the particles' mutual electrostatic interactions. By subsequent tailoring of different molecules to surface-immobilized particles and the void areas surrounding them, nanopatterns are obtained with variable chemical domains along the gradient surface. Fimbriated Escherichia coli bacteria are bound to gradient nanopatterns with similar molecular composition and macroscopic contact angle, but different sizes of nanoscopic presentation of adhesive (hydrophobic) and repellent poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) domains. It is shown that small hydrophobic domains, similar in size to the diameter of the bacterial fimbriae, supported firmly attached bacteria resembling catch-bond binding, whereas a high number of loosely adhered bacteria are observed on larger hydrophobic domains. Chemical gradients with the resolution needed to address complex biological binding events at the single protein level are prepared using surface-deposited gold nanoparticles as a versatile template for orthogonal chemicalmodifications. The effect of hydrophobic domain arrangement on the sub-50 nm scale is shown to influence binding of fimbriae carrying E. coli bacteria. 

  • 82.
    Lyne Laurell, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wallqvist, Viveca
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Adhesive surface characteristics of bitumen binders investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy2013In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 113, p. 248-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bitumen is a complex hydrocarbon whose composition-structure-property relationship is not well-understood. In this paper, microphase-separated topographic morphologies of unaged penetration grade 70/100 bitumen binders have been visualized by means of AFM QNM, and the relationship to local mechanical properties has been demonstrated. AFM QNM is a surface force mapping technique which measures parameters such as topography, adhesion and elastic modulus simultaneously. The resulting data can then be presented as images representing individual or overlaid parameters, e.g. topographic images with an adhesion overlay or topographic images with a modulus overlay. AFM QNM results show that the adhesive forces measured in the region surrounding (peri phase) the periodic topographic features resembling 'bees' (catana phase) and the region in the 'bee' areas are lower than the adhesive force measured in the smooth matrix (para phase). Likewise it was observed that Young's moduli in the region surrounding (peri phase) the 'bees' (catana phase) and in the 'bees' are higher than Young's modulus of the smooth matrix (para phase).

  • 83.
    Lyne Laurell, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wallqvist, Viveca
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Rutland, Mark
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Claesson, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Surface wrinkling: The phenomenon causing bees in bitumen2013In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 48, no 20, p. 6970-6976Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The so called "bee phenomenon" in bitumen has been investigated by means of AFM quantitative nanomechanical property mapping. Bees are a phenomenon that can be observed by topography measurements using AFM. The characteristic "bee" appearance comes from regions with alternating higher and lower bands in the surface topography of bitumen, which are surrounded by a flat area. The proposed mechanism for bee formation is phase separation and differential contraction during cooling from melt temperatures leading to wrinkling due to differences in the elastic modulus of the material phases. Using a laminate wrinkling model, the thickness of the bee laminate was calculated from the wavelengths and Young's moduli of the bee laminate and the matrix. It was found to vary between 70 and 140 nm for the five bitumen samples that contained significant amounts of wax.

  • 84.
    Möller, Kenneth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    An analysis of the composition and metal contamination of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment2013In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 915-922Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Möller, Kenneth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Correlation between colour and temperature of LDPE stretch film used in silage bales.1999Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 86.
    Möller, Kenneth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Durability of Polymeric Materials for Solar Applications2005In: Solar Energy, Vol. 79, no 6, p. 618-623Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 87.
    Möller, Kenneth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Qualification of polymeric components for use in PV modules2011In: SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. Reliability of Photovoltaic Cells, Modules, Components, and Systems IV, 2011, , p. 81120BConference paper (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Möller, Kenneth
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Carlsson, Bo
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Advanced procedure for the assessment of the life time of solar absorber coatings2004In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 84, p. 275-289Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 89.
    Möller, Kenneth
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Carlsson, Bo
    Comparison between predicted and actually observed in-service degradation of a nickel pigmented anodized aluminium absorber coating for solar DHW systems2000In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 61, p. 223-238Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 90.
    Möller, Kenneth
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Carlsson, Bo
    Qualification test procedure for solar absorber surface durability2000In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 61, p. 255-275Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 91.
    Möller, Kenneth
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Carlsson, Bo
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Qualification test procedure for solar absorber surface durability2000In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 255-275Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Möller, Kenneth
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Carlsson, Bo
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Round robin on accelerated life testing of solar absorber durability2000In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 239-253Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 93.
    Möller, Kenneth
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Carlsson, Bo
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    The applicability of accelerated life testing for assessment of service life of solar thermal components2004In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 84, p. 255-274Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 94.
    Möller, Kenneth
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Gevert, Thomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Holmström, Arne
    Examination of low density polyethylene (LDPE) after 15 years in service as air and water vapour barrier2001In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 69-74Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 95.
    Möller, Kenneth
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Jansson, Anna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Analysis of oxidative polymer degradation using 18O and TOF-SIMS spectrometry2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 96.
    Möller, Kenneth
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Jansson, Anna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Degradation of post-consumer polypropylene materials exposed to simulated recycling – mechanical properties2003In: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol. 82, p. 37-46Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 97.
    Möller, Kenneth
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Boldizar, Antal
    Processing and thermo-oxidative aging of high impact polystyrene containing flame retardant2000In: American Chemical Society Division of Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering..ACS 220th meeting in Washington, D.C., 20-24 August, 2000, 2000, , p. 101Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 98.
    Möller, Kenneth
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Lyvén, Benny
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Oorganisk kemi (Kmoo).
    Chemical and topographical analyses of tooth surfaces after Carisolv treatment2002In: Journal of Dentistry, ISSN 0300-5712, E-ISSN 1879-176X, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 67-75Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 99.
    Nyman, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Lacintra, Michael G.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Westman, Johan O.
    University of Borås, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berglin, Mattias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Lundin, Magnus
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Pellet formation of zygomycetes and immobilization of yeast2013In: New Biotechnology, ISSN 1871-6784, E-ISSN 1876-4347, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 516-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pelleted growth provides many advantages for filamentous fungi, including decreased broth viscosity, improved aeration, stirring, and heat transfer. Thus, the factors influencing the probability of pellet formation of Rhizopus sp. in a defined medium was investigated using a multifactorial experimental design. Temperature, agitation intensity, Ca2+-concentration, pH, and solid cellulose particles, each had a significant effect on pelletization. Tween 80, spore concentration, and liquid volume were not found to have a significant effect. All of the effects were additive; no interactions were significant. The results were used to create a simple defined medium inducing pelletization, which was used for immobilization of a flocculating strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the zygomycetes pellets. A flor-forming S. cerevisiae strain was also immobilized, while a non-flocculating strain colonized the pellets but was not immobilized. No adverse effects were detected as a result of the close proximity between the filamentous fungus and the yeast, which potentially allows for co-fermentation with S. cerevisiae immobilized in pellets of zygomycetes.

  • 100.
    Oko, Asaf
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Brandner, Birgit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bugner, Douglas E.
    Eastman Kodak Company, USA.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor. Eastman Kodak Company, USA.
    Claesson, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Aggregation of inkjet ink components by Ca and Mg ions in relation to colorant pigment distribution in paper2014In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 456, no 1, p. 92-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Papers coated with salts containing divalent cations exhibit superior inkjet print quality, which has been suggested to be due to fast aggregation of the colorant pigments close to, or even on, the surface of the paper. In this work we show the pivotal role of the carboxylic acid containing dispersing polymer. We report a series of aggregation and sedimentation experiments with commercial inks, generic ink formulations and specific ingredients comprising these formulations, and find differences in their response to the presence of MgCl2 or CaCl2. In particular, flocs and sediments formed in the presence of MgCl2 are denser than those formed in the presence of CaCl2. These differences are not predicted by the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. We suggest that ion specific interactions occurring between Mg2+ or Ca2+, and charged carboxylate groups residing on the dispersing polymers, provoke the observed behavior.

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