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  • 51.
    Axegard, P.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Bergnor, E.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Environmental performance of modern ECF bleaching2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Axegård, Peter
    RISE, Innventia.
    The kraft pulp mill bio-refinery2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Axegård, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Berglin, Niklas
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lindgren, Karin
    RISE, Innventia.
    Tomani, Per
    RISE, Innventia.
    Öhman, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    The kraft pulp mill biorefinery platform2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Backlund, Birgit
    RISE, Innventia.
    Nya produkter från skogsråvara2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Backlund, Birgit
    RISE, Innventia.
    Towards increased closure and energy efficiency2009In: Pulping Chemistry and Technology, Walter de Gruyter, 2009, p. 363-390Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Baker, Darren A.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Bäckström, Marie
    RISE, Innventia.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE, Innventia.
    Schweinebarth, Hannah
    RISE, Innventia.
    Tomani, Per
    RISE, Innventia.
    Opportunities in lignin based carbon fibre2015In: NWBC 2015: The 6th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference, Espoo: VTT , 2015, p. 244-251Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innventia AB's LignoBoost process enables the extraction of high purity lignin efficiently from the black liquor in kraft mills. A stream of black liquor is taken from the evaporation plant and the lignin is precipitated by acidification and filtered. The filter cake is redispersed and acidified and the resulting slurry is filtered and washed. High purity lignin can be produced at several scales, namely 10g, 1kg, 10kg and over 1,000kg. Innventia has invested significantly to demonstrate the potential of lignin as a viable feedstock for carbon fibre manufacture. Initially, the fibre melt spinning performance of the lignin is assessed using single filament melt extrusion and then melt spinning is performed at the multifilament scale, where fine fibres can be produced for conversion to carbon fibre. Oxidative thermostabilisation of the lignin fibres is carried out so that carbonisation can proceed. The effects of thermal treatment programmes and tensioning have been studied by using either thermomechanical analysis or by using test equipment specially designed to monitor carbonisation profiles with either stress or strain control. In addition, continuous processes for the conversion of lignin fibre to carbon fibre are being developed.

  • 57. Barbier, C.
    et al.
    Rättö, Peter
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hornatowska, Joanna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Coating models for an analysis of cracking behavior between folded paper and creased board2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Barbier, Christophe
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Rättö, Peter
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hornatowska, Joanna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Coating models for an analysis of cracking behavior between folded paper and creased board2012In: 12th TAPPI Advanced Coating Fundamentals Symposium Proceedings, Co-located with the 16th International Coating Science and Technology Symposium, ISCST 2012, 2012, p. 5-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creasing coated carton board or folding coated magazine paper, result in large strains in the surface layer of the paper product and might result in surface cracks, which decrease the quality of the products. A better understanding of the mechanical properties of coated layers increases the knowledge needed to reduce crack formation in coated fiberbased materials. The crack area on a coated board was measured after creasing and folding and the crack area on a coated copy paper was measured after folding. A clay pigment and a Ground Calcium Carbonate (GCC) pigment were used. The binder was either an S/B latex or an S/B latex combined with starch. The type of pigment seemed to have the greatest influence on the crack area during creasing and folding of thick board. Clay based coatings showed a larger crack area than the GCC based coatings and coatings containing starch showed generally a larger crack area than the coatings that contained only S/B latex. After folding of thin copy papers, the crack area showed a slightly different pattern. Here, it seemed that the binder was of greater importance than the type of pigment. Coatings containing only latex binder showed a considerably lower crack area than the coatings containing both latex and starch binders. The clay based coatings also showed similar crack areas as the GCC based coatings. A micromechanical model was used to estimate the in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical properties of clay based- and GCC based- coating layers. The clay-based coatings showed an anisotropic material behavior with considerably lower stiffness and strength during out-of-plane compared to in-plane. GCC based coatings, on the other hand, showed an isotropic material behavior with similar in-plane and out-of-plane properties. The calculated material behavior of coating layers, together with the data from the literature was used to explain the difference in cracking behavior between Clay- and GCC- based coatings during creasing of thick coated board and folding of thin coated copy paper.

  • 59.
    Bardet, Raphael
    et al.
    Université Grenoble Alpes, France; CNRS, France.
    Reverdy, Charlène
    Université Grenoble Alpes, France; CNRS, France.
    Belgacem, Naceur
    Université Grenoble Alpes, France; CNRS, France.
    Leirset, Ingebjørg
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Bardet, Michel
    Université Grenoble Alpes, France; CEA, France.
    Bras, Julien
    Université Grenoble Alpes, France; CNRS, France.
    Substitution of nanoclay in high gas barrier films of cellulose nanofibrils with cellulose nanocrystals and thermal treatment2015In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 1227-1241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to design a nanocellulose based barrier film. For this purpose, cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are used as a matrix to create an entangled nanoporous network that is filled with two different nanofillers: nanoclay (reference), i.e. the mineral montmorillonite (MMT) and the bio-based TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanocrystal (CNC-T), to produce different types of nanocelluloses and their main physical and chemical features were assessed. As expected, films based on neat CNFs exhibit good mechanical performance and excellent barrier properties at low moisture content. The introduction of 32.5 wt% of either nanofiller results in a significant improvement of barrier properties at high moisture content. Finally, thermal treatment of a dried CNF/CNC-T film results in a decrease of the oxygen permeability even at high moisture content (>70 %). This is mainly attributed to the hornification of nanocellulose. A key result of this study is that the oxygen permeability of an all-nanocellulose film in 85 % relative humidity (RH), is similar to CNF film with mineral nanoclay (MMT), i.e. 2.1 instead of 1.7 cm3 µm m−2 day−1 kPa−1, respectively.

  • 60.
    Berg, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Söderlund, Magnus
    Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Lindström, Annika
    RISE, Innventia. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Spreading joy: examining the effects of smiling models on consumer joy and attitudes2015In: Journal of Consumer Marketing, ISSN 0736-3761, E-ISSN 2052-1200, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 459-469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine consumer response to pictures of smiling models in marketing, focusing on the roles of emotional contagion from the smiling models and the perceived typicality of marketing with smiling models. Design/methodology/approach – This paper reports the findings from three experimental studies, comparing consumer response to two versions of an advertisement (Study 1) and a packaging design (Study 2 and 3), including either a picture of a smiling or a non-smiling model. To measure consumer response, a combination of self-report questionnaires and eye-tracking methodology was used. Findings – The pictures of smiling models produced more consumer joy and more positive attitudes for the marketing. The positive effects on attitudes were mediated by consumer joy, and the effects on consumer joy were mediated by the perceived typicality of the marketing with smiling models. Originality/value – Despite the ubiquity of photos of smiling faces in marketing, very few studies have isolated the effects of the smile appeal on consumer response to marketing objects. By comparing marketing where the same model is shown smiling or with a neutral facial expression, the positive effects were isolated. The roles of emotional contagion and perceived typicality in this mechanism were also examined and implications of the findings for research and practitioners are discussed.

  • 61. Bergenstråhle-Wohlert, M.
    et al.
    Berglund, L.A.
    Brady, J.W.
    Larsson, P.T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Westlund, P.-O.
    Wohlert, J.
    Concentration enrichment of urea at cellulose surfaces: Results from molecular dynamics simulations and NMR spectroscopy2012In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Berghel, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Frodeson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Granström, Karin Maria
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Renström, Roger
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Ståhl, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Nordgren, Daniel
    RISE, Innventia.
    Tomani, Per E.
    RISE, Innventia.
    The effects of kraft lignin additives on wood fuel pellet quality, energy use and shelf life2013In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, p. 64-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2011, the total consumption of pellets in Sweden amounted to 1.9 million tons, which represents an energy value of 9 TWh. The pellets are used in large-scale as well as in small-scale applications, and increased demands on pellet quality are likely to force pellet producers to improve on the pellet properties. One way of increasing pellet quality is by using additives. The purpose of this article, therefore, is to examine kraft lignin as an additive. Pellets were produced in a small industrial pellet press located at Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden, and 1-4% of kraft lignin was added to the pellets. The results indicate that the addition of an increased amount of kraft lignin to the pellets increases their mechanical durability and their lengths. The results also indicate that dry kraft lignin yields pellets with higher durability as compared to wet kraft lignin. The energy demand was unaffected by the increased use of kraft lignin. The general results presented in this paper are useful for producers of lignin, pellet producers and end-users of pellets, who are interested in developing their products and/or improving the production processes.

  • 63.
    Berglin, N.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lovell, A.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Delin, L.
    Tormala, J.
    The 2010 reference mill for kraft market pulp2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Berglin, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Tomani, Per
    RISE, Innventia.
    Olowson, P.
    Hultberg, T.
    Persson, S.
    Experiences from feeding and co-firing of lignin powder in a lime kiln2010In: International Chemical Recovery Conference, 2010, Vol. 1, p. 175-187Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant part of the fossil fuel oil consumption at a pulp mill today is related to combustion in the lime kiln. Therefore, replacing fuel oil with lignin in this application has been one of the most important issues in the FRAM2 (Future Resource-Adapted Mill) research program coordinated by Innventia (formerly STFl-Packforsk) and funded by Sodra and other partners. A full-scale trial to fire lignin powder in a lime kiln was carried out at the Sodra Cell Monsteras mill, as part of the research program. In total 37 tonnes of lignin was co-fired with fuel oil. For part of the trial the kiln was operated on 100 % lignin. The experiences from the trial imply that it is possible to achieve stable and continuous operation of a lime kiln when lignin is used as the main fuel. The temperature levels in the kiln are of the same order of magnitude as when firing fuel oil or wood powder. Sulfur capture by the lime is very efficient, but there is a threshold above which S02 emissions increase rapidly. In the trial this step change occurred when going from 90 % to 100 % lignin firing. Based on the trial results, it is possible to produce lime with consistent quality when firing lignin, and the temperature reached in the burner zone is sufficient for proper sintering of the lime nodules. White liquor can be produced from the lime with the same causticizing efficiency and at the same rate as during normal operation. The mill operators also commented that it was easier to control the performance of the kiln when co-firing lignin and oil compared to the normal operation with co-firing of bark and oil.

  • 65.
    Berglin, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Tomani, Per
    RISE, Innventia.
    Salman, H.
    Svärd, S.H.
    Ąmand, L.-E.
    Pilot-scale combustion studies with kraft lignin in a powder burner and a CFB boiler2010In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 24-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Processes have been developed to produce a solid biofuel with high energy density and low ash content from kraft lignin precipitated from black liquor. Pilot-scale tests of the lignin biofuel were carried out with a 150 kW powder burner and a 12 MW circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. Lignin powder could be fired in a powder burner with good combustion performance after some trimming of the air flows to reduce swirl. Lignin dried to 10% moisture content was easy to feed smoothly and had less bridging tendencies in the feeding system than did wood/ bark powder. In the CFB boiler, lignin was easily handled and cofired together with bark. Although the filter cake was broken into smaller pieces and fines, the combustion was not disturbed. When cof ¡ring lignin with bark, the sulfur emission increased compared with bark firing only, but most of the sulfur was captured by calcium in the bark ash. Conventional sulfur capture also occurred with addition of limestone to the bed. The sulfur content in the lignin had a significantly positive effect on reducing the alkali chloride content in the deposits, thus reducing the high temperature corrosion risk. Application: This research is of interest for pulp and paper and energy and utilities companies that want to understand how kraft lignin can be used to replace fuel oil or coal in many combustion applications.

  • 66.
    Berglin, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    von Schenck, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Alriksson, Björn
    Hörnberg, Andreas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Lindstedt, J
    Östman, J
    POLYNOL - chemical intermediates from renewable sources2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Berglin, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    von Schenck, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hoffstedt, Christian
    RISE, Innventia.
    Co-production of renewable polymers and ethanol from eucalyptus-based pulp mills2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 68. Bergstrm, E.M.
    et al.
    Salmen, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Kochumalayil, J.
    Berglund, L.
    Plasticized xyloglucan for improved toughness: Thermal and mechanical behaviour2012In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, no 4, p. 2532-2537Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Bernstad Saraiva, Anna
    et al.
    COPPE UFRJ, Brazil.
    Valle, Rogerio A. B.
    COPPE UFRJ, Brazil.
    Bosque, A.E.S., Jr.
    Fibria CElulose SA, Brazil.
    Berglin, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    von Schenck, A.
    ÅF AB, Sweden.
    Provision of pulpwood and short rotation eucalyptus in Bahia, Brazil: Environmental impacts based on lifecycle assessment methodology2017In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 105, p. 41-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental impacts from cultivation of eucalyptus pulpwood and short rotation eucalyptus in northeast Brazil were investigated using lifecycle assessment methodology. The assessment considers all relevant inputs and outputs, as well as direct land use changes, assuming conversion of grassland (pasture) to areas for eucalyptus plantation. Results show that production of pulpwood eucalyptus is beneficial compared to short rotation eucalyptus in relation to all assessed impact categories, except for climate change (greenhouse gas emissions = 47 kg CO2-eq. t DM−1 pulpwood eucalyptus and 35 kg CO2-eq. t DM−1 short rotation eucalyptus). Excluding emissions from direct land use changes would increase overall GWP from investigated systems with around 5–6%, and changing the assumed land-use prior to land conversion is of decisive character for overall GWP-results from the assessed eucalyptus production systems. Modeling of nutrient balances in the short rotation production system shows a potential need to increase the input of mineral fertilizer in order to compensate for nutrient losses. This would increase environmental impacts from the short rotation system, making pulpwood eucalyptus preferable in relation to all assessed impact categories.

  • 70.
    Bialik, Marta
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Björklund Jansson, Marianne
    RISE, Innventia.
    Törngren, Per
    RISE, Innventia.
    Influence of wood extractives on calcium balance during kraft cooking2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Bialik, Marta
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hoffstedt, Christian
    RISE, Innventia.
    Björklund Jansson, Marianne
    RISE, Innventia.
    Samuelsson, Åsa
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wadsborn, Rickard
    RISE, Innventia.
    Increasing the availability of the kraft pulp mill by the use of process simulation2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Bialik, Marta
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Jensen, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ahlroth, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    New challenges regarding nonprocess elements in the liquor and lime cycle2015In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 14, no 7, p. 421-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimal performance of the green liquor plant, recausticizing plant, and lime cycle is vital for adequate white liquor availability and quality as well as for a mill's energy efficiency. Recently, various problems in the liquor and lime cycle have been frequently reported by our industrial partners, including poor performance of green liquor filters or sludge filters, decreased filterability of lime mud, increased lime kiln dead load, and poorquality white liquor. Those problems are most likely caused by an accumulation of nonprocess elements in the liquor and lime cycle due to increased mill closure, increased use of biofuels, or both. Data from the literature and earlier studies have been analyzed with regard to the occurrence and concentration of nonprocess elements in various process streams, including filtered green liquor, green liquor sludge, lime mud, and white liquor. The mineral forms in which nonprocess elements often precipitate were also studied, together with the common knowledge and rules of thumb used by mills for dealing with the problems. The literature data are compared with the newest analytical results from a sampling campaign involving several mills with varying process solutions with respect to nonprocess elements. The consequences and possible recommendations for the mills are presented. Application: Kraft pulp mills can use this information to diagnose and possibly solve problems related to nonprocess elements in day-to-day mill operation.

  • 73.
    Bialik, Marta
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Jensen, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ahlroth, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    New challenges regarding non-process elements in the liquor/lime cycle2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Bialik, Marta
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Jensen, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Kulander, Ida
    RISE, Innventia.
    Scaling of manganese in kraft pulping process2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Bialik, Marta
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Moosavifar, A.
    Sedin, M.
    Theliander, H.
    Using the pitzer method to estimate the boiling point rise in black liquor solutions2009In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 172-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The boiling point rise (elevation) of aqueous industrial solutions is often of significant importance for the design of process conditions, equipment, heat balances, etc. However, few rigorous methods exist for predicting boiling point elevation in complex, multicomponent, electrolyte solutions. An example of such a solution is the black liquor obtained in kraft pulp production: a complex mixture of organic and inorganic ions including Na +, K + OH -, HS - C0 3 2- S0 4 2- S 20 3 2- CH 3COO - various phenolates and many more. This work shows one application of the semi-empirical Pitzer method to the theoretical prediction of the boiling point rise in industrial black liquor solutions. The values of the boiling point elevation were measured in two series of black liquors from representative Swedish mills, including both the original and lignin-lean black liquor at different solid contents. The results show a good agreement between experimental and predicted values at low to moderate solid content, and good qualitative prediction at high solid content.

  • 76.
    Bialik, Marta
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Sedin, Maria
    Theliander, H.
    Application of the pitzer method in estimating the properties of black liquor solutions: A summary2010In: International Chemical Recovery Conference, 2010, Vol. 2, p. 16-23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Pitzer method for calculating activity coefficients in aqueous electrolyte solutions has been widely applied to modeling the properties of numerous industrial systems. Its use in hot, concentrated solutions, an example being black liquor from kraft pulping process, has nevertheless been limited mainly due to a lack of suitable interaction parameters. This paper summarizes our work in implementing the Pitzer method into modeling of double salt solubilities and boiling point rise in industrial black liquors. Two solubility models: for burkeite, Na 2Co 22Na 2S0 4 and for (sodium sulfate) dicarbonate, 2Na 2CO 3Na 2S0 4 were developed based on literature and experimental data, respectively. Boiling point rise was modeled in two types of black liquor: ordinary and lignin-lean after a lignin precipitation stage. The paper also presents our study on a method for estimating new Pitzer interaction parameters in hot solutions of sodium lactate using the boiling point rise data.

  • 77.
    Bialik, Marta
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wadsborn, Rickard
    RISE, Innventia.
    Karlholm, Ingeli
    RISE, Innventia.
    Berglin, Niklas
    RISE, Innventia.
    Assessment of scaling risk in a pressurized black liquor gasification pilot plant2010In: International Chemical Recovery Conference, 2010, Vol. 1, p. 279-286Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Black liquor gasification is considered as an interesting alternative to the recovery boiler-based process of green liquor production. Although the handling of the smelt in the two separate processes is similar, the final concentration and temperature of the green liquor from gasification might both be higher. This, together with the S/Na split acquired by the gasification unit, may increase the risk of scaling of slightly soluble salts during green liquor handling. This work uses a previously developed solubility model for sodium carbonate, calcium carbonate and pirssonite, CaCO 3·Na 2CO 3·H 20 in order to evaluate the scaling risk in green liquor obtained from the gasification process. The model, originally based on both gasification green liquor and regular green liquor data, was verified against new samples of green liquor from an experimental gasification unit in Sweden. During the conducted sampling campaign, the following process parameters were varied in order to establish their influence on the final liquor composition: temperature and load of the gasifier, mixing rate in the smelt dissolver, and composition of the dilution water. It has been found that varying the process parameters within the normal operational limits has a relatively small influence, on the composition of the green liquor. The risk for pirssonite precipitation in gasification green liquor was estimated as relatively low, which is consistent with earlier findings. The calculated values of the apparent solubility product were also consistent with previous results.

  • 78. Bjurhager, I.
    et al.
    Olsson, Anne-Mari
    RISE, Innventia.
    Zhang, B.
    Gerber, L.
    Kumar, M.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    Burgert, I.
    Sundberg, B.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ultrastructure and mechanical properties of populus wood with reduced lignin content caused by transgenic down-regulation of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase2010In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 11, no 9, p. 2359-2365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several key enzymes in lignin biosynthesis of Populus have been down-regulated by transgenic approaches to investigate their role in wood lignification and to explore their potential for lignin modification. Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase is an enzyme in the early phenylpropanoid pathway that has not yet been functionally analyzed in Populus. This study shows that down-regulation of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase reduced Klason lignin content by 30% with no significant change in syringyl to guaiacyl ratio. The lignin reduction resulted in ultrastructural differences of the wood and a 10% decrease in wood density. Mechanical properties investigated by tensile tests and dynamic mechanical analysis showed a decrease in stiffness, which could be explained by the lower density. The study demonstrates that a large modification in lignin content only has minor influences on tensile properties of wood in its axial direction and highlights the usefulness of wood modified beyond its natural variation by transgene technology in exploring the impact of wood biopolymer composition and ultrastructure on its material properties.

  • 79.
    Bjurhager, Ingela
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Halonen, Helena
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lindfors, Eva Lisa
    RISE, Innventia.
    Iversen, Tommy
    RISE, Innventia.
    Almkvist, Gunnar
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Gamstedt, Erik Kristofer
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; University of Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    State of degradation in archeological oak from the 17th century vasa ship: Substantial strength loss correlates with reduction in (holo)cellulose molecular weight2012In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, no 8, p. 2521-2527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1628, the Swedish warship Vasa capsized on her maiden voyage and sank in the Stockholm harbor. The ship was recovered in 1961 and, after polyethylene glycol (PEG) impregnation, it was displayed in the Vasa museum. Chemical investigations of the Vasa were undertaken in 2000, and extensive holocellulose degradation was reported at numerous locations in the hull. We have now studied the longitudinal tensile strength of Vasa oak as a function of distance from the surface. The PEG-content, wood density, and cellulose microfibril angle were determined. The molar mass distribution of holocellulose was determined as well as the acid and iron content. A good correlation was found between the tensile strength of the Vasa oak and the average molecular weight of the holocellulose, where the load-bearing cellulose microfibril is the critical constituent. The mean tensile strength is reduced by approximately 40%, and the most affected areas show a reduction of up to 80%. A methodology is developed where variations in density, cellulose microfibril angle, and PEG content are taken into account, so that cell wall effects can be evaluated in wood samples with different rate of impregnation and morphologies.

  • 80.
    Bjärestrand, Annika
    RISE, Innventia.
    Upgrading of recycled pulp quality by fractionation and selective refining2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Bjärestrand, Annika
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    RISE, Innventia.
    Upgrading recycled pulp quality by fractionation and selective refining2016In: International Paperworld IPW, ISSN 1615-1720, Vol. 2016-January, no 12, p. 40-44Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As recycling rates increase and the consumption of graphic papers decrease it becomes more and more difficult to maintain the recycled fibre quality. Also, increasing ash content in the recycled pulp contributes to the strength challenge ahead for the paper and board producers. The fractionation of recycled fibre in this study was made in order to investigate possible routes for upgrading the recycled pulp strength. A recycled pulp for containerboard was fractionated in pilot scale using a pressure screen and hydrocydones. The pulp was first fractionated using a micro-perforated screen basket into a short fraction, with high ash and fines content, and a long fibre fraction. The following hydrocyclone fractionation of the screen short fraction resulted in a fine fraction with fibrillar fines and a coarse fraction containing low bonding fines and fibre fragments together with most of the ash. The short coarse fraction also had a high dirt content. When the screen long fibre fraction was split in the hydrocyclone fractionation, a fine fibre fraction containing good bonding fibres and fines and a coarse fibre fraction with coarse low bonding fibres were obtained. The coarse long fibre fraction was upgraded, to a strength level comparable to the good bonding fine fraction, by refining with an energy input of only 24 kWh/t calculated on the whole pulp. This selective refining of the coarse long fibre fraction resulted in an improvement of the pulp strength by 20 % when the pulp fractions were mixed back together in the same proportion as they had been separated. Further strength was gained when the low bonding short coarse fraction with high ash content was removed. This study showed that a recycled pulp can be upgraded by selective and appropriate treatment of the different streams, with different properties, produced in a fractionation process.

  • 82.
    Björk, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Athley, Karin
    RISE, Innventia.
    Thomsson, Lars
    RISE, Innventia.
    Advanced techniques to study filler flocs in high shear environments2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Björk, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    RISE, Innventia.
    Bouveng, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    Production of a fine fraction using micro-perforated screens2015In: Paper Conference and Trade Show (PaperCon 2015), TAPPI Press, 2015, Vol. 1, p. 543-560Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 84.
    Björk, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Lindgren, Margareta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Single-stage hydrocyclone fractionation of refined bleached softwood pulp2017In: Paper Conference and Trade Show, PaperCon 2017: Renew, Rethink, Redefine the Future, 2017, Vol. 2, p. 878-905Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Refined bleached chemical softwood was fractionated using a hydrocyclone in a fine and a coarse fraction. The trials were done at three inject concentrations, three coarse fraction volume ratios, and with pulps refined with two refining levels.

    A large difference in sheet properties between fine and coarse fraction was observed. Compared with the feed pulp, the relative change in the sheet properties increased more in the fine fractions than it decreased in the coarse fractions. Increased fines proportion had a positive effect on all properties up to a certain level when a further improvement could not be observed. Interestingly, the fine fractions of both refining levels reached the same absolute strength level, both for the tensile properties and z-strength. The fine fractions at the highest coarse fraction mass ratios contained more fines, and the mean fibre was shorter and narrower. This led to higher density but also a decrease of the stretch-at-break and z-strength values.

    When comparing these results with previous fractionation results for unrefined pulp, it was found that inject concentration did not have a large effect on thickening in the present study. As for the refined pulp, the tensile index increased with fines proportion for the unrefined pulp, however, only up to a certain fines proportion where a maximum values was reached. The increase was larger for the refined pulps which had higher fines proportion.

  • 85.
    Björklund Jansson, Marianne
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Bialik, Marta
    RISE, Innventia.
    Törngren, Per
    RISE, Innventia.
    New insights into soap solubility and separation during kraft cooking2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Björklund Jansson, Marianne
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Nilvebrant, N. -O
    Wood Extractives2009In: Wood Chemistry and Wood Biotechnology, Walter de Gruyter, 2009, p. 147-171Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 87.
    Blell, Rebecca
    et al.
    CNRS Institut Charles Sadron, France.
    Lin, Xiaofeng
    CNRS Institut Charles Sadron, France.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Ankerfors, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Pauly, Matthias
    CNRS Institut Charles Sadron, France; Université de Strasbourg, France.
    Felix, Olivier
    CNRS Institut Charles Sadron, France.
    Decher, Gero
    CNRS Institut Charles Sadron, France; Université de Strasbourg, France; International Center for Frontier Research in Chemistry, France.
    Generating in-Plane Orientational Order in Multilayer Films Prepared by Spray-Assisted Layer-by-Layer Assembly2017In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 84-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a simple yet efficient method for orienting cellulose nanofibrils in layer-by-layer assembled films through spray-assisted alignment. While spraying at 90° against a receiving surface produces films with homogeneous in-plane orientation, spraying at smaller angles causes a macroscopic directional surface flow of liquid on the receiving surface and leads to films with substantial in-plane anisotropy when nanoscale objects with anisotropic shapes are used as components. First results with cellulose nanofibrils demonstrate that such fibrils are easily aligned by grazing incidence spraying to yield optically birefringent films over large surface areas. We show that the cellulosic nanofibrils are oriented parallel to the spraying direction and that the orientational order depends for example on the distance of the receiving surface from the spray nozzle. The alignment of the nanofibrils and the in-plane anisotropy of the films were independently confirmed by atomic force microscopy, optical microscopy between crossed polarizers, and the ellipsometric determination of the apparent refractive index of the film as a function of the in-plane rotation of the sample with respect to the plane of incidence of the ellipsometer.

  • 88. Bohlin, E.
    et al.
    Coppe, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Johansson, C.
    Edström, P.
    Modelling of brightness decrease of coated cartonboard as an effect of calendering: Microroughness and effective refractive index aspects2010In: 11th Advanced Coating Fundamentals Symposium Proceedings: The Latest Advances in Coating Research and Development, 2010, p. 51-65Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calendering of coated paper leads to a brightness decrease. The mechanism for this is not clear, although it has been discussed in the past. One common explanation is that the porosity of the coating layer decreases and hence scattering. By comparing simulated and measured results this paper shows that modifications of the surface properties account for the brightness decrease of GCC coated substrates with calendering. The effect of a deformable cartonboard substrate is investigated here and compared to a less deformable plastic film substrate. From simulations based on a two-layer Kubelka-Munk model, it is shown that the brightness decrease of the cartonboard due to calendering has a negligible contribution to the brightness decrease of the coated cartonboard. The brightness decrease was similar for coated plastic film and coated cartonboard. The thickness of GCC coated plastic films was not affected by calendering irrespectively of the pigment and latex size distribution. Monte Carlo light scattering simulations, taking into account the measured decrease of surface microroughness and increased effective refractive index, showed that surface modifications accounted for most of the observed brightness decrease of the GCC coated substrate, whereas the bulk scattering and absorption coefficients were not affected by calendering. It is also shown that the scattering coefficient is significantly dependent on the coat weight whereas the physical absorption coefficient is not.

  • 89.
    Borodulina, Svetlana
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Östlund, Sören
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Trost, Thomas
    RISE, Innventia.
    Digital Analysis of Deformed Corrugated Boxes Using 3D Speckles2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During transportation from the manufacturer to the retailer packages are affected by vibrations, shocks, staticand dynamic loads, as well as by changes in temperature and humidity. In order to improve the quality of the packaging towithstand stresses during transportation it is important to know the parameters that characterize the deformation state inthe package. Corrugated boxes are affected by a phenomenon known as mechanosorptive creep, the basics of which arestill not well understood. That is why it is interesting to know how changes in moisture content affect corrugated boxesand how it is possible to prolong the lifetime of transportation packages. This paper presents an attempt to use the whitelight digital photography method for a three-dimensional analysis of the deformation states near collapse of a corrugatedbox during varying humidity, and attempts to obtain characteristic parameters that can be used to describe deformationstates close to collapse. A series of tests using an optical non-destructive testing method are reported and the results fordifferent test configurations are presented. Comparison is made between tests performed at different load levels andclimate conditions. The optical deformation measurement system used for analysis was ARAMIS® (GOM mbH,Braunschweig, Germany). Advantages and disadvantages of working with this system are also described and suggestionsfor future work are discussed.

  • 90. Brelid, H.
    et al.
    Bogren, J.
    Dang, B.
    Lundqvist, F.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Saltberg, A.
    Theliander, H.
    Kraft delignification: Recent findings regarding the impact of non-reacting ions in the cooking liquor2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 91.
    Brodin, Fredrik Wernersson
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Eriksen, Øyvind
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Preparation of individualised lignocellulose microfibrils based on thermomechanical pulp and their effect on paper properties2015In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 443-451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although mechanical pulp can be considered as a potential raw material for preparation of microfibrils, suitable pre-treatment methods have been missing. Consequently, the objectives of this study were firstly to find a suitable procedure to prepare lignocellulose microfibrils (LCMF) from fractionated thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP) and secondly to evaluate if these TMP-based materials could be used as paper additives to increase paper strength. Carboxymethylation was found to be a suitable pretreatment for both TMP fines and TMP fibres to enable preparation of individualised LCMF after subsequent homogenisation treatment. After air drying, this material formed dense continuous films in conformity with films prepared from cellulose microfibrils (CMF) originating from chemical pulp. Homogenisation only or sulphonation followed by homogenisation did not fibrillate the TMP samples into individualised LCMF. Analysis of paper properties showed that addition of 20% LCMF to a standard TMP furnish improved tensile strength index by 15%. The LCMF-containing papers were also more brittle (less elongation) than the other paper sheets in this study. Similar tensile strength index was also obtained for TMP fines treated by sulphonation followed by homogenisation.

  • 92.
    Brodin, Fredrik Wernersson
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sonavane, Yogesh
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Sedin, Maria
    RISE, Innventia.
    Displacement washing of TEMPO-oxidized softwood kraft pulp: Effects of change in fiber properties2013In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, no 3, p. 366-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bleached softwood kraft pulp fibers were treated using TEMPO oxidation at two different dosages of NaClO. A batch of non-oxidized reference pulp was also prepared with a concentration of the tracer (Na) similar to the oxidized batches. A total of 15 washing experiments were conducted and the dispersion model was used to characterize washing behavior. TEMPO oxidation resulted in a major increase in the amount of carboxylate groups in the pulps and a considerable decrease in fiber/particle size in relation to the reference pulp fibers. Oxidized fibers also had less fiber curl than reference fibers. Water retention values were greater in the oxidized pulps and the oxidized fibers exhibited major swelling during the washing operation, while reference fibers had only minorswelling. The amount of sodium in the filter cakes after washing corresponded to the amount of carboxylate groups in the pulps. Swelling of oxidized pulp fibers needs to be considered in order to describe filtration and washing. The average specific filtration resistance for all pulps in this study was in the order of 1010-1011 m/kg, i.e. moderately easy to filter. The most oxidized pulp had the highest average specific filtration resistance and the lowest value for the estimated effective longitudinal dispersion coefficient, in agreement with theory.

  • 93.
    Brodin, Ida
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Gellerstedt, Göran
    RISE, Innventia.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE, Innventia.
    Oxidative stabilisation of kraft lignin for carbon fibre production2012In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, no 2, p. 141-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the aim of investigating kraft lignin as a raw material for carbon fibre production, different lignins have been stabilised in air at conditions varied according to a full factorial experimental design. The lignins under examination were purified kraft lignin powders originating from birch, spruce/pine and Eucalyptus globules, as well as lignin fibres originating from birch with 5 poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) added as a plasticiser. The influence of temperature, time and heating rate on yield and glass-transition temperature (Tg) was investigated. The highest yield was achieved after stabilisation at 280°C during 2h with a heating rate of 0.2°C min -1. The Tg of all lignin powders was increased when stabilisation occurred under harsher conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis (XPS) of both the outer surface and the cleaved cross-section of individual lignin/PEO fibres showed a clear gradient in the degree of chemical modification, with the major change occurring on the surface resulting in the appearance of a skin-core structure after stabilisation. The behaviour of the lignin fibres during stabilisation is similar to that of pitch-based fibres, indicating good possibilities for lignin as raw material for carbon fibre production.

  • 94.
    Brodin, Ida
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE, Innventia.
    Gellerstedt, Göran
    RISE, Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The behavior of kraft lignin during thermal treatment2010In: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, ISSN 0165-2370, E-ISSN 1873-250X, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 70-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purified kraft lignin fractions from technical pulping liquors of softwood and hardwood have been subjected to step-wise analytical pyrolysis in the temperature interval 200-900 °C. The heterogenic structure of kraft lignin was revealed by the formation of pyrolysis products throughout the entire temperature interval although the majority of products were formed at 500-600 °C. Beyond 700 °C, no further pyrolysis products could be detected but a substantial portion of the lignin was shown to be converted into thermally stable products (char) not accessible by analytical pyrolysis. With pre-oxidation of the lignin with air at 250 °C prior to pyrolysis, a shift towards higher pyrolysis temperature was observed with a concomitant change in product composition. Thermal gravimetric analysis on such lignins also showed an improved stability against degradation. Methylation of the lignin prior to pyrolysis did not induce any significant changes in behavior, except for much lower Tg values.

  • 95.
    Brännvall, Elisabet
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    The limits of delignification in kraft cooking2017In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 2081-2107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The perspective of the article is to explore kraft cooking at the limits of delignification, i.e. what degree of delignification is needed to obtain fibre liberation and what is the maximum degree of delignification possible in the kraft pulping stage. The reasons for the quite narrow boundaries for sufficient and maximum delignification are explained, and the differences between the behaviour of hardwood and softwood kraft pulping are clarified.

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  • 96.
    Brännvall, Elisabet
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Marie
    RISE, Innventia.
    Improved impregnation efficiency and pulp yield of softwood kraft pulp by high effective alkali charge in the impregnation stage2016In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 70, no 11, p. 1031-1037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A pulp yield increase up to 2% can be achieved by impregnation with a liquor containing 2 M effective alkali (EA) concentration instead of 1 M. The yield increase is due to higher cellulose and glucomannan contents in the pulp, which can be rationalized by less yield loss by peeling, as impregnation is more effective at an elevated EA level. A rapid loading of chips with alkali can be realized due to a high diffusion rate. When the temperature becomes higher in the cooking stage, enough alkali is available for delignification reactions without the risk of alkali depletion in the chip core, so that the delignification is more homogeneous.

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  • 97.
    Butchosa, Nuria
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Brown, Christian J.L.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE, Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bulone, Vincent
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhou, Q.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nanocomposites of bacterial cellulose nanofibers and chitin nanocrystals: Fabrication, characterization and bacterial activity2013In: Green Chemistry, ISSN 1463-9262, E-ISSN 1463-9270, no 12, p. 3404-3413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An environmentally friendly approach was implemented for the production of nanocomposites with bactericidal activity, using bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers and chitin nanocrystals (ChNCs). The antibacterial activity of ChNCs prepared by acid hydrolysis, TEMPO-mediated oxidation or partial deacetylation of α-chitin powder was assessed and the structure of the ChNC nanoparticles was characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and solid-state 13C-NMR. The partially deacetylated ChNCs (D-ChNC) showed the strongest antibacterial activity, with 99 ± 1% inhibition of bacterial growth compared to control samples. Nanocomposites were prepared from BC nanofibers and D-ChNC by (i) in situ biosynthesis with the addition of D-ChNC nanoparticles in the culture medium of Acetobacter aceti, and (ii) post-modification by mixing D-ChNC with disintegrated BC in an aqueous suspension. The structure and mechanical properties of the BC/D-ChNC nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and an Instron universal testing machine. The bactericidal activity of the nanocomposites increased with the D-ChNC content, with a reduction in bacterial growth by 3.0 log units when the D-ChNC content was 50%. D-ChNC nanoparticles have great potential as substitutes for unfriendly antimicrobial compounds such as heavy metal nanoparticles and synthetic polymers to introduce antibacterial properties to cellulosic materials.

  • 98.
    Bäckström, M.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Bolivar, S.
    Paltakari, J.
    Effect of ionic form on fibrillation and the development of the fibre network strength during the refining of the kraft pulps2012In: O Papel, ISSN 0031-1057, no 7, p. 57-65Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 99.
    Bäckström, Marie
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hammar, Lars-Åke
    RISE, Innventia.
    The influence of the counter-ions to the charged groups on the refinability of never-dried bleached pulps2010In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 2751-2764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Refining of bleached hardwood pulps and bleached softwood pulps having different counter-ions to the charged groups within the fibres was studied. The results show that an energy reduction of 50% for the hardwood pulps and 20% for the softwood pulp can be achieved if 1he fibres are converted into the Na +-form prior to refining. The results also show that the amount of charged groups in the fibres is important for the refinability, which explains why the refining efficiency is much lower for bleached softwood fibres, which have a much smaller amount of charged groups than the bleached hardwood pulp.

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  • 100.
    Bäckström, Marie
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Jensen, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Brännvall, Elisabet
    RISE, Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Influence of chip presteaming conditions on kraft pulp composition and properties2016In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 70, no 5, p. 393-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presteaming is a well-established technique in pulp mills, which improves cooking liquor impregnation by removing air from within and between chips. The aim of the study was to investigate how conditions during steaming affect the subsequent kraft cook and properties of the obtained pulp. It was found that higher pressure and temperature during chip presteaming led to increased degradation and dissolution of hemicelluloses. Lower refinability and tensile index was obtained for pulps cooked after presteaming at high pressure and for a long time.

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