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  • 51.
    Stølen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. NTNU, Norway.
    Li, Tian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Wingdahl, Trond
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. NTNU, Norway.
    Large- and small-scale fire test of a building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) facade system2024In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 144, article id 104083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of installed photovoltaic (PV) modules has increased significantly over the last years, and using available building surfaces to generate electricity by integrating PV modules in the construction is an attractive option. Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) or other vented claddings can spread fires rapidly to large parts of a building if the fire is allowed to propagate. To investigate this hazard, a large-scale SP FIRE 105 façade fire test was conducted. A façade measuring 4000 mm × 6000 mm covered with BIPV modules was exposed to flames that represent the fire plume from a window in a room at flashover. The results from the test show that critical failures, like falling objects and vertical flame propagation, can be expected in such constructions. These results highlight the importance of details in mounting of BIPV-façades and to require proper documentation from relevant fire tests of such systems. Small-scale cone calorimeter tests were conducted on the studied BIPV module to provide material properties of the combustible parts of the installation. These aspects should be considered when planning new or when retrofitting façades, to prevent escalation of fires. The results presented are, however, only valid for the configuration that was tested. Other BIPV-façades should also be investigated to study how these constructions can be built safely in the future with regard to critical details.

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  • 52.
    Sæter Bøe, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. NTNU, Norway.
    Friquin, Kathinka Leikanger
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. NTNU, Norway.
    Ertesvåg, Ivar S.
    NTNU, Norway.
    Fire spread in a large compartment with exposed cross-laminated timber and open ventilation conditions: #FRIC-02 - Exposed wall and ceiling2023In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 141, article id 103986Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is becoming increasingly popular due to its many advantages. However, it has been shown that exposed CLT can have a significant effect on fire dynamics and spread rates. Further studies are therefore needed to better understand the impact of CLT to fire safety. Two large-scale CLT compartment fire experiments (95 m2) representing a modern office building have been performed, #FRIC-01 and #FRIC-02. This paper presents the second experiment, #FRIC-02, with exposed CLT on the back wall and the ceiling. The fire developed fast and spread across the room in less than 3.5 min from ignition of the wood crib on the floor and in 1.5 min after the ignition of the ceiling. Large external flames were observed, despite the compartment being well-ventilated. The 5-layer CLT, which comprised a 40 mm thick exposed outer layer and was face-bonded using a common European polyurethane adhesive, exhibited glue-line integrity failure and led to a second flashover after a significant period of decay. Subsequent layers of 20 mm also delaminated before the fire was manually extinguished after 3 h. Compared to #FRIC-01, the fire spread rate was faster, and temperatures, charring rates, heat release rates and external flames were higher. 

  • 53.
    Sæter Bøe, Andreas
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Friquin, Kathinka Leikanger
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway; SINTEF, Norway.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Ertesvåg, Ivar
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Fire spread in a large compartment with exposed cross-laminated timber and open ventilation conditions: #FRIC-01 – Exposed ceiling2023In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 140, article id 103869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposing cross-laminated timber (CLT) structures in buildings is increasingly popular in modern buildings. However, large timber surfaces, window facades, and different geometries can change the fire dynamics in a compartment. The effect of those parameters, therefore, needs to be studied. Two large-scale CLT compartment fire experiments (95 m2) have consequently been performed. The experiments were designed to represent a modern office building with an open-plan space and large window openings. In this experiment, #FRIC-01, the ceiling was exposed. The wood crib fire developed slowly and travelled approximately 1.5 m before the ceiling ignited at 32.5 min. Thereafter the fire spread rapidly across the ceiling and wood crib before it shortly after retracted. Three such cycles of rapid spread followed by a retraction occurred within 13 min, whereby the wood crib fire grew larger for each cycle. After the flames extended through the compartment for the fourth time, the fire remained fully developed. After a short period of intense burning, the CLT self-extinguished while the wood crib fire was still burning. The compartment withstood full burnout, and no reignition occurred despite some delamination and using an adhesive that lacks a demonstrated resistance against glue-line integrity failure. © 2023 The Authors

  • 54.
    Vermina Lundström, Frida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety. Lund University, Sweden.
    Quintiere, James G.
    University of Maryland, USA.
    van Hees, Patrick
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Analysis of extinction and sustained ignition2019In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 105, p. 51-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The limiting conditions for sustained burning of materials are studied experimentally using gas burners. Small pool fire configurations are examined to determine the mass flux for a sustained surface diffusion flame (fire point) and the subsequent extinction limit of that flame. The burner results are compared to material data for sustained ignition, and are found to be lower. Material reported values of a critical mass flux are disparate, and burner data show that the critical mass flux can range from about 1 to 50 g/m2s. Previous studies have indicated the results depend on the convective heat transfer coefficient and the heat of combustion of the gases, but until this work no study has been presented to systematically show these dependencies. Three porous gas burners of diameters 25, 50 and 100 mm were used with fuel gases including methane, propane, isobutene, and ethylene mixed with nitrogen to precisely change the mixture heat of combustion. Diffusion flame theory based on a critical flame temperature at extinction is used to explain and correlate data for both limits. It was found that there is no statistical difference between the sustained ignition and extinction limits. A correlation for the critical mass flux is produced with heat of combustion and fuel diameter as sole dependent variables for all the fuels except methane. The results show that no burning is possible below a heat of combustion of 3–4 kJ/g. This is consistent with the European classification system for non-combustibility where the corresponding limit is set at 2 kJ/g.

  • 55.
    Wickström, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Letter to the Editor2006In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 491-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comments on Franssen's article on calculation of temperture in fire-exposed bare steel structures

  • 56.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Pushp, Mohit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Uncertainties in the use of oxygen consumption calorimetry for heat release measurements in lithium-ion battery fires2024In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 143, article id 104078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate measurement of the heat release from a battery fire is vital for risk management, product development and construction of accurate models. Oxygen consumption calorimetry is the most common method for heat release measurements in experimental fire tests. The strength of the method is that it can be applied to unknown compositions of fuel with sufficient accuracy. Despite that this method is used to estimate heat release from battery fires, the method is subject to discussion. In this work, the method is studied in-depth, and potential errors are structured and quantified. Uncertainties associated with self-generated oxygen and internal heat generation, total gas release from the battery and impact on the heat release calculations, as well as the assumed E-factor (i.e., heat release per unit mass of oxygen consumed), are thoroughly discussed. For a Li-ion battery fire, it is concluded that oxygen consumption calorimetry will exclude internal heat generation and underestimate the total heat released from the external flaming fire by up to 10 %. In addition, high rate of combustion reactions can result in that the measured peak heat release rate is underestimated much more, up to 100 %. 

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  • 57.
    Yao, Yongzheng
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Cheng, Xudong
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Scale effect of mass loss rates for pool fires in an open environment and in tunnels with wind2019In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 105, p. 41-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the influence of wind on mass loss rate per unit area (MLRPUA) of fuel-controlled pool fires both in an open environment and inside tunnels and the scale effect of pool fires is also investigated. Large pool fires with a diameter D greater than 1 m (D > 1 m) are of key concern but small pool fires (D < 1 m) are also considered for comparison. This is done by analyzing large amounts of experimental data from the literature. Results show that for small pool fires (D < 1 m) in an open environment, increasing wind speed tends to increase the MLRPUA, especially for pools with D < 0.2 m, where the MLRPUA could increase significantly with the increase of wind speed. But when small pool fires occur in tunnels, the results are more complex. When the ratio of effective tunnel height to pool diameter is less than 3, increasing wind speed tends to decrease the MLRPUA. When this ratio is greater than 3, the influence of wind on MLRPUA of pool fires in tunnels is similar to that in an open environment. The influence of wind on the MLRPUA decreases for larger pool diameters, no matter whether the pool fire occurs in an open environment or in a tunnel. For large pools with D > 1 m, the MLRPUA is not affected significantly by increasing wind speed and most likely varies within 30% for a wide range of wind speeds based on the test data collected. This influence is far less than the values concluded by previous studies based on small pool fire experiments. The outcome of this study contributes to improving the understanding of burning characteristics of pool fires under windy conditions, especially large pool fires, which are much more meaningful than small pool fires from the perspectives of fire protection engineering and fire hazard assessment.

  • 58.
    Yao, Yongzheng
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. China University of Mining and Technology, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Cheng, Xudong
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Zhang, Heping
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Theoretical and numerical study on influence of wind on mass loss rates of heptane pool fires at different scales2021In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 120, article id 103048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents an investigation of the influence of wind on the mass loss rate per unit area (MLRPUA) of heptane pool fires at different scales. This work was done by a theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. Correlations are developed to show how results from a small-scale pool fire might be used to estimate MLRPUA for a large-scale pool fire. The calculated results demonstrate that in the presence of wind, the MLRPUA in large-scale pool fires (side length>1 m) does not increase several times as the small-scale tests have revealed, and the 1.5 m heptane square pool fire only varies within a range of −20% and 30% of that in the free burn. Numerous heptane pool fires with different pool scales and wind speeds were simulated using FDS (Fire Dynamics Simulator). Results indicate that within a certain range of Froude number (0–2.5), the overall variation trend of MLRPUA with wind speed varies from increasing significantly to decreasing as the pool scale increases gradually (0.15 m–6 m). For large-scale heptane pool fires, the MLRPUA most likely fluctuates within ±40% for a wide range of Froude number. The outcomes of this study could contribute to improving the understanding of burning characteristics of different scales of pool fires under windy conditions in an open environment. 

  • 59.
    Zeinali, Davood
    et al.
    Université de Lorraine, France.
    Mehaddi, Rabah
    Université de Lorraine, France.
    Ingold, Florian
    Université de Lorraine, France.
    Parent, Gilles
    Université de Lorraine, France.
    Acem, Zoubir
    Université de Lorraine, France.
    Collin, Anthony
    Université de Lorraine, France.
    Torero, Jose Luis
    University College London, UK.
    Boulet, Pascal
    Université de Lorraine, France.
    Experimental study of fire containment using water mist curtains in a reduced-scale deck of a ro-ro ship2023In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments have been conducted to evaluate the containment of smoke and heat using water mist curtains in a model setup of a ro-ro ship's cargo deck with a scale of 1:13, providing practical insights into the application of such fire protection systems in the cargo deck as well as valuable data for future numerical simulations. In this regard, the requirements of the international convention of Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) are studied for the side openings of so-called ‘open decks’ in comparison with ‘closed decks’, especially to examine the feasibility of using water mist curtains for creating isolated subdivisions in the ro-ro space as a fire management strategy. The water mist curtains are created with one or two rows of water mist nozzles at pressures ranging from 3 to 8 bar, while the source of smoke and heat is a liquid pool fire, and inert cargo items are used in some experiments. Correspondingly, the interaction between the water mist curtain(s) and the fire is evaluated in terms of its heat release rate, and the containment effect is quantified via measurements of smoke flow through the deck and through the windows, concentrations of gaseous species, as well as gas temperatures at various key locations. The study shows that water mist curtains have a strong effect on fire dynamics and smoke propagation, but containment is dependent on the configuration of side openings and the location of fire, among other important factors.

  • 60.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linneaus University, Sweden.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fire safety engineering in timber buildings2017In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 91, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combustibility of timber is one of the main reasons that many building regulations strictly limit the use of timber as a building material. Fire safety is an important contribution to feeling safe, and an important criterion for the choice of building materials. Historically, the combustibility aspect of wood has been a disadvantage for using timber as a construction material. The main precondition for an increased use of timber in buildings is providing adequate fire safety. This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges to reach this goal by implementing Fire Safety Engineering and Performance Based Design principles.

  • 61.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek..
    Tsantaridis, Lazaros
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek..
    Smoke production in the cone calorimeter and the room fire test1991In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 17, p. 27-43Article in journal (Other academic)
12 51 - 61 of 61
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