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  • 351.
    Stenarson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Yhland, Klas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    A reformulation of TRL and LRM for S-parameters2009In: proceedings of CPEM 2008, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements. 2008-06-08, 2009, , p. 4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper derives the TRL and LRM calibration algorithms using S-parameters instead of the traditional T-parameters. The advantage of this approach is that they do not need separate solutions. Instead LRM becomes an integral part of the TRL algorithm. The expression for the transmission coefficient of the line standard has the surprising property that in many cases the transmission coefficient is obtained directly without a need for a root choice.

  • 352.
    Stenarson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Yhland, Klas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Uncertainty Propagation Through Network Parameter Conversions2009In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 6-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a simplified procedure to obtain the uncertainties when converting a set of network parameters to another form. The method is based on a general matrix transformation technique. The technique relies on a transformation matrix that describes the relation between two network parameter definitions and two matrix equations. This paper extends the technique with two new matrix equations to also transform the uncertainties in the network parameters by relying on the same transformation matrix. The proposed method is exemplified by the conversion of S-parameter measurements with uncertainty (of a 30-dB attenuator) to G21 with uncertainty. The proposed method for uncertainty conversion is also compared with an analytic expression for S-parameter to G21 conversion.

  • 353.
    Stenarson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Yhland, Klas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Uncertainty Propagation Through Network Parameter Conversions2008In: CPEM 2008, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements. 2008-06-08, IEEE , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a simplified procedure to obtain the uncertainties when converting a set of network parameters to another form. The method is based on a general matrix transformation technique. The technique relies on a transformation matrix that describes the relation between two network parameter definitions and two matrix equations. This paper extends the technique with two new matrix equations to also transform the uncertainties in the network parameters by relying on the same transformation matrix. The proposed method is exemplified by the conversion of S-parameter measurements with uncertainty (of a 30-dB attenuator) to G 21 with uncertainty. The proposed method for uncertainty conversion is also compared with an analytic expression for S-parameter to G 21 conversion.

  • 354.
    Stenarson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Yhland, Klas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Do, Thanh Ngoc Thi
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhao, Huan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sobis, Peter J.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Omnisys Instruments AB, Sweden.
    Stake, Jan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Influence of waveguide width errors on TRL and LRL calibrations2012In: 79th ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference: Non-Linear Measurement Systems, 2012, , p. 6291182article id 6291182Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the impact of the waveguide width tolerance in TE 10 mode waveguide TRL/LRL calibration kits. This is important for vector network analyzer measurements in the THZ range where waveguide tolerances become large compared the wavelength and to cross sectional dimensions. Besides causing reflections in the waveguide interface, the waveguide width tolerance also causes a change in the propagation constant that can shift the reference planes and cause problems in estimating the propagation constant of the Line standard. We conclude that the tolerances may cause a significant uncertainty contribution and may limit the useful band of the calibration kit.

  • 355.
    Stenarson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Yhland, Klas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Wingqvist, Claes
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    An in-circuit, non-contacting, measurement method for S-parameters and power in planar circuits2001In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, Vol. 49, no 12, p. 2567-2572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for measuring the reflection coefficient and absolute power in the propagating waves from a circuit embedded in a planar circuit environment is presented. The method utilizes a pair of inductive and capacitive probes. The standard one-port vector-network-analyzer calibration is extended to allow the measurement of power in the forward and backward waves. Experimental results are presented for measurements between 700 MHz and 20 GHz. Good agreement between the new noncontacting method and a standard coaxial measurement method is demonstrated up to 12 GHz for power and up to 14 GHz for the reflection coefficient. The method is useful for in-circuit testing of open transmission-line structures, e.g., microstrip.

  • 356.
    Stenarson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Yhland, Klas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Wingqvist, Claes
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    An in-circuit, non-contacting, S-para-meter measurement method,2001In: Proceedings of 57th ARFTG Conference, 2001., 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for measuring S-parameters of a circuit embedded in a planar circuit environment is presented. The method utilizes an inductive and a capacitive probe. Experimental results are presented for probe measurements of reflection coefficient from 0.7 to 20 GHz with good agreement to verifying measurements up to 14 GHz. The method shows great promise for in-circuit Sparameter testing that has previously required physical modification or even complete disassembly to test sub-circuits in a microstrip environment.

  • 357.
    Stock, KD Liedquist, Leif et al
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Detector-stabilzed FEL lamps as transfer standards in an international comparison of spectral irradiance2000In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 441-444Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 358. Stoew, B
    et al.
    Elegered, G
    Johansson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    An assessment of estimates of integrated water vapor from ground-based GPS data2001In: Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, Vol. 77, p. 99-107Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 359.
    Stolt, Krister
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Nerijus, Pedisius
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Bilateral intercomparison between Lithuanian Energy Institute (LEI) and Swedish National Testing and Research Institute (SP), in the field of volume of kerosene. Flow rate 150-700 l/min2004Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The result of this bilateral intercomparison between LEI and SP, of calibration of a PD-meter for kerosene, indicate excellent agreement of the calibration results. The resulting En-values range from 0,03 to 0,32, i.e. with very good margins to the limit value of 1.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 360.
    Sundling, Catherine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Emardson, Ragne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Overall accessibility to traveling by rail for the elderly with and without functional limitations: the whole-trip perspective2014In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, Vol. 11, no 12, p. 12938-12968Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elderly persons’ perceived accessibility to railway traveling depends on their functional limitations/diseases, their functional abilities and their travel behaviors in interaction with the barriers encountered during whole trips. A survey was conducted on a random sample of 1000 city residents (65–85 years old; 57% response rate). The travels were perceived least accessible by respondents with severely reduced functional ability and by those with more than one functional limitation/disease (e.g., restricted mobility and chronic pain). Those who traveled “often”, perceived the accessibility to be better than those who traveled less frequently. For travelers with high functional ability, the main barriers to more frequent traveling were travel costs and low punctuality. For those with low functional ability, one’s own health was reported to be the main barrier. Our results clarify the links among existing functional limitations/functional abilities, the barriers encountered, the travel behavior, and the overall accessibility to traveling. By operationalizing the whole-trip concept as a chain of events, we deliver practical knowledge on vulnerable groups for decision-making to improve the transport environment for all.

  • 361.
    Sundling, Catherine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Emardson, Ragne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Two models of accessibility to railway traveling for vulnerable, elderly persons2015In: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 72, p. 96-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public transport mobility is restricted for the vulnerable travelers, e.g., those with functional limitations. By removing barriers, a more flexible and independent travel behavior is accomplished. For whole-trip traveling, we model accessibility as a three-way reciprocal relationship among travelers’ functional ability, barriers met and resulting travel behaviors. For every journey and destination, an accessibility measure is constructed from all barriers’ weights and the probabilities of encountering each of them in traveling to specific destinations. The accessibility to whole-trip traveling is then modeled by travelers’ individual weightings of sets of barriers and the probabilities of encountering them. By using specific reference values, as in master scaling, we estimate the measurement error for each participant’s perceived effort to overcome a certain barrier, and thus obtain a calibrated measure of accessibility. We conclude that customized abatement procedures must accomplish better accessibility for all, especially for the vulnerable travelers.

  • 362.
    Sundling, Catherine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hellqvist, Sara
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Emardson, Ragne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Travel behaviour change in old age: the role of critical incidents in public transport2015In: European Journal of Ageing, ISSN 1613-9372, E-ISSN 1613-9380, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 75-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Older people’s travel behaviour is affected by negative or positive critical incidents in the public transport environment. With the objective of identifying such incidents during whole trips and examining how travel behaviour had changed, we have conducted in-depth interviews with 30 participants aged 65–91 years in the County of Stockholm, Sweden. Out of 469 incidents identified, 77 were reported to have resulted in travel behaviour change, 67 of them in a negative way. Most critical incidents were encountered in the physical environment on-board vehicles and at stations/stops as well as in pricing/ticketing. The findings show that more personal assistance, better driving behaviour, and swift maintenance of elevators and escalators are key facilitators that would improve predictability in travelling and enhance vulnerable older travellers’ feeling of security. The results demonstrate the benefit of involving different groups of end users in future planning and design, such that transport systems would meet the various needs of its end users.

  • 363.
    Svensson, Malin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Utveckling av mätmetoder för verifiering av avstämbara lasrar1999Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 364.
    Svensson, S
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Verification of a calibration system for power quality instruments1998In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 1391-4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 365.
    Svensson, Stefan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    A precision wattmeter for non-sinusoidal conditions : based on an analysis of common measuring problems due to harmonics1996Report (Refereed)
  • 366.
    Svensson, Stefan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Comparison of nonsinusoidal calibration systems at NRC Canada and SP Sweden2001In: IEEE transactions on instrumentation and measurements, Vol. 50, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 367.
    Svensson, Stefan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    On the design of a class 0.2 HVDC electricity meter2012In: CPEM Digest ; Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, CPEM 2012, 2012, , p. 240-241p. 240-241, article id 6250891Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A class 0.2 electricity meter for d.c. applications is being designed at SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden. The aim is to verify that suggested requirements for HVDC electricity meters can be fulfilled within a reasonable design and production cost. The suggested design is built on a high-resolution ADC and hi-impedance low-offset input circuits. This paper contains an analysis of how to implement the requirements for HVDC metering in a meter design.

  • 368.
    Svensson, Stefan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Phase angle errors applying dual channel sampling.2005In: Inmetro (Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrila) 2005: proceedings, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 369.
    Säljö, A.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Arrhén, Fredrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Bolouri, H.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mayorga, M.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hamberger, A.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Neuropathology and pressure in the pig brain resulting from low-impulse noise exposure2008In: Journal of Neurotrauma, ISSN 0897-7151, E-ISSN 1557-9042, Vol. 25, no 12, p. 1397-1406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military personnel are exposed to occupational levels of blast overpressure during training. This study characterizes the pressure-time histories of air, underwater, and localized blast, and correlates blast parameters with neuropathology. Blast overpressure was produced by a howitzer, a bazooka, an automatic rifle, underwater explosives, or a shock tube. Anesthetized pigs were exposed in positions that simulated real training scenarios. Underwater exposures were performed using explosives at distances recommended by safety requirements. In other experiments, rats were exposed via a shock tube. The pressure changes were recorded with a hydrophone sensor in the brain of the pig and in rats with an optical fiber sensor. Histological examination of porcine brains revealed small parenchymal and subarachnoid hemorrhages, predominately in the occipital lobe, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata. Relative to the peak pressure in air, that in porcine brain (Pmax brain/air) was 0.7 for the bazooka and 0.5 and 0.7, respectively, for the 9- and 30-kPa howitzer. The attenuation was stronger in water: the detonation pulse had a brain/water ratio of 0.1, and the secondary pulses had ratios of 0.3-0.4. The results indicate that low-frequency spectra penetrate easily from air or water into the brain, but high-frequency spectra appear to be filtered by body structures. In addition, blast waves were recorded in the brain and abdomen of pigs after local exposure via shock tube to either the abdomen or the top of the skull. When the abdomen was exposed, the maximal peak value in the brain was only 3% of that in the abdomen. Moreover, part of this pressure could have been derived from the air outside the head. The results gave little support to significant transmission of pressure within the body. 

  • 370.
    Sällerås, Bengt
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    En densitetsnormal spårbar till massa- och längddefinitionerna.1996Report (Refereed)
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    fulltext
  • 371.
    Tang, Aik Yean
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Drakinskiy, Vladimir
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Yhland, Klas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Stenarson, Jörgen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bryllert, Tomas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Stake, Jan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Analytical Extraction of a Schottky Diode Model from Broadband S-parameters2013In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 1870-1878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an analytic method to extract Schottky diode parasitic model parameters. All the ten unknown model parameters are extracted via a straightforward step-by-step procedure. The challenges for a proper finger inductance and series resistance extraction are discussed and solutions are recommended. The proposed method is evaluated using three sets of S-parameter data for GaAs-based planar Schottky diodes, i.e., data from measurement up to 110 GHz and 3-D electromagnetic full-wave simulations up to 600 GHz. The extracted models agree well with the measured and simulated data.

  • 372.
    Tarasso, Valter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Phase comparison of high-current shunts up to 100 kHz2011In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 60, no 7, p. 2359-2365Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 373.
    Tarasso, Valter
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Towards an electric power standard for frequencies up to 1 MHz2012In: CPEM Digest (Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements) CPEM 2012, 2012, , p. 128-129p. 128-129, article id 6250694Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a power standard for measurement of electrical power of sinusoidal signals based on digitzers and a phase-controlled phantom power source. The voltage channel ranges up to 1000 V at 100 kHz, and 20 V at 1 MHz, the current channel ranges up to 100 A at 100 kHz and 1 A at 1 MHz. The phase can be set arbitrarily ±180 degrees. We present the design of the system, its components and preliminary performance and measurement uncertainties.

  • 374.
    Tawackolian, Karsten
    et al.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Hogendoorn, Jankees
    KROHNE Altometer, The Netherlands.
    Lederer, Thomas
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Investigation of a ten-path ultrasonic flow meter for accurate feedwater measurements2014In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 75304-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow instruments used in thermal power plants cannot be calibrated directly for the actual process conditions, since no traceable calibration facility with known uncertainty is available. Asystematic investigation of the relevant influence parameters is therefore needed. It was found in earlier investigations that the dominant influences on the measurement uncertainty are the flowvelocity profile and the temperature. In the present work, we report on our experimental study of the temperature and Reynolds number dependence of a new ten-path ultrasonic flow meterprototype. An improved measuring program is developed that allows for a systematic characterization. Special emphasis was placed on producing and validating well defined velocity profiles on aprecision calibration flow rig. It was also for the first time intended and validated to generate fully developed Reynolds-similar velocity profiles for different temperatures so that the two main influence parameters, namely temperature and Reynolds number, can be clearly characterized separately. Since such ideal measurement conditions are not found in practical applications, the approach is also tested for a disturbed flow condition. A well defined disturbance is generated with a new flow disturber.

  • 375.
    Teichter, Jörgen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Design of a shock tube2005Report (Refereed)
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  • 376.
    Thalmann, R.
    et al.
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Nicolet, A.
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Meli, F.
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Picotto, G. B.
    INRIM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    Matus, M.
    BEV Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying, Austria.
    Carcedo, L.
    CEM Centro Espanol de Metrologia, Spain.
    Hemming, B.
    MIKES Centre for Metrology and Accreditation, Finland.
    Ganioğlu, O.
    TÜBİTAK UME National Metrology Institute, Turkey.
    De Chiffre, L.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Saraiva, F.
    IPQ Portuguese Quality Institute, Portugal.
    Bergstrand, Sten
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Zelenika, S.
    DMDM Directorate of Measures and Precious Metals, Serbia.
    Tonmueanwai, A.
    NIMT National Institute of Metrology, Thailand.
    Tsai, C. -L.
    CMS Center for Measurement Standards, Taiwan.
    Shihua, W.
    NMC National Metrology Centre, Singapore.
    Kruger, O.
    NMISA National Metrology Institute of South Africa, South Africa.
    de Souza, M. M.
    INMETRO National Institute of Metrology Standardization and Industrial Quality, Brazil.
    Salgado, J. A.
    LNE Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais, France.
    Ramotowski, Z.
    GUM Central Office of Measures, Poland.
    Key comparison EURAMET.L-K8.2013 calibration of surface roughness standards2016In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 53, no 1AArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The key comparison EURAMET.L-K8.2013 on roughness was carried out in the framework of a EURAMET project starting in 2013 and ending in 2015. It involved the participation of 17 National Metrology Institutes from Europe, Asia, South America and Africa representing four regional metrology organisations. Five surface texture standards of different type were circulated and on each of the standards several roughness parameters according to the standard ISO 4287 had to be determined. 32 out of 395 individual results were not consistent with the reference value. After some corrective actions the number of inconsistent results could be reduced to 20, which correspond to about 5% of the total and can statistically be expected. In addition to the material standards, two softgauges were circulated, which allow to test the software of the instruments used in the comparison. The comparison results help to support the calibraton and measurement capabilities (CMCs) of the laboratories involved in the CIPM MRA.

  • 377.
    Thomas, Jörgen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Subdivision of the kilogram.1989Report (Refereed)
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  • 378.
    Thorén, Ingemar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Utvärdering av kalibreringsmetoder. Nordtest projekt 909-90.1990Report (Refereed)
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  • 379.
    Tortora, Paolo
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Crewell, Susanne
    University of Cologne, Germany.
    Elgered, Gunnar
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Graziani, Alberto
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Jarlemark, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Löhnert, Ulrich
    University of Cologne, Germany.
    Martellucci, Antonio
    European Space Agency, The Netherlands.
    Mercolino, Mattia
    European Space Agency, Germany.
    Rose, Thomas
    Radiometer Physics GmbH, Germany.
    Schween, Jan Herbert
    University of Cologne, Germany.
    AWARDS: Advanced microwave radiometers for deep space stations2013In: Space communications, ISSN 0924-8625, E-ISSN 1875-9211, Vol. 22, no 2-4, p. 159-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study, named AWARDS (Advanced microWAve Radiometers in Deep space Stations), is the preliminary design of a transmission Media Calibration System (MCS) to be located at an ESA Deep Space Antenna (DSA) site. The crucial aspect is the capability to accurately retrieve the tropospheric path delay along the line-of-sight of the deep space probe in order to allow precise tropospheric calibration of deep space observables (range and range-rate) with particular reference to the BepiColombo spacecraft and its primary DSA at Cebreros (ES). The study focuses on two main aspects which lead to the preliminary design of the Mercury Orbiter Radioscience Experiment (MORE) MCS: the characterization of current microwave radiometers (MWRs) available at ESA/ESTEC and the atmospheric fluctuation effects on the MCS error budget, in terms of the Allan standard deviation (ASD). In the course of the study, further critical aspects have been identified (effects of Sun contamination, effects of ground noise emission), and mitigation strategies have been proposed. The final outcome is a preliminary design of the MWR (and the entire MCS) to be deployed at the ESA/ESTRACK (ESA Tracking station network) sites and being compliant with MORE requirements.

  • 380.
    Wagner, J.
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Germany.
    Roy, A. L.
    Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Germany.
    Krichbaum, T. P.
    Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Germany.
    Alef, W.
    Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Germany.
    Bansod, A.
    Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Germany.
    Bertarini, A.
    Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Germany; University of Bonn, Germany.
    Güsten, R.
    Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Germany.
    Graham, D.
    Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Germany.
    Hodgson, J.
    Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Germany.
    Märtens, R.
    Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Germany.
    Menten, K.
    Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Germany.
    Muders, D.
    Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Germany.
    Rottmann, H.
    Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Germany.
    Tuccari, G.
    Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Germany; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy.
    Weiss, A.
    Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Germany.
    Wieching, G.
    Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Germany.
    Wunderlich, M.
    Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Germany.
    Zensus, J. A.
    Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Germany.
    Araneda, J. P.
    European Southern Observatory, Chile.
    Arriagada, O.
    European Southern Observatory, Chile.
    Cantzler, M.
    European Southern Observatory, Chile.
    Duran, C.
    European Southern Observatory, Chile.
    Montenegro-Montes, F. M.
    European Southern Observatory, Chile.
    Olivares, R.
    European Southern Observatory, Chile.
    Caro, P.
    Atacama Pathfinder Experiment, Chile.
    Bergman, P.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Conway, J.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Haas, R.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jan M.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Olofsson, H.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pantaleev, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Buttaccio, S.
    Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy.
    Cappallo, R.
    MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    Crew, G.
    MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    Doeleman, S.
    MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    Fish, V.
    MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    Lu, R. -S
    MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    Ruszczyk, C.
    MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    SooHoo, J.
    MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    Titus, M.
    MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    Freund, R.
    University of Arizona, USA.
    Marrone, D.
    University of Arizona, USA.
    Strittmatter, P.
    University of Arizona, USA.
    Ziurys, L.
    University of Arizona, USA.
    Blundell, R.
    Harvard University, Sweden.
    Primiani, R.
    Harvard University, Sweden.
    Weintroub, J.
    Harvard University, Sweden.
    Young, K.
    Harvard University, Sweden.
    Bremer, M.
    IRAM Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, France.
    Sánchez, S.
    IRAM Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, Spain.
    Marscher, A. P.
    Boston University, USA.
    Chilson, R.
    Academia Sinica, Taiwan.
    Asada, K.
    Academia Sinica, Taiwan.
    Inoue, M.
    Academia Sinica, Taiwan.
    First 230?: GHz VLBI fringes on 3C 279 using the APEX Telescope (Research Note)2015In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 581, article id A32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. We report about a 230? GHz very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) fringe finder observation of blazar 3C 279 with the APEX telescope in Chile, the phased submillimeter array (SMA), and the SMT of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). Methods. We installed VLBI equipment and measured the APEX station position to 1? cm accuracy (1σ). We then observed 3C 279 on 2012 May 7 in a 5? h 230? GHz VLBI track with baseline lengths of 2800? Mλ to 7200? Mλ and a finest fringe spacing of 28.6? μas. Results. Fringes were detected on all baselines with signal-to-noise ratios of 12 to 55 in 420? s. The correlated flux density on the longest baseline was ∼0.3? Jy beam-1, out of a total flux density of 19.8? Jy. Visibility data suggest an emission region ≤ 38? μas in size, and at least two components, possibly polarized. We find a lower limit of the brightness temperature of the inner jet region of about 1010? K. Lastly, we find an upper limit of 20% on the linear polarization fraction at a fringe spacing of ∼ 38? μas. Conclusions. With APEX the angular resolution of 230? GHz VLBI improves to 28.6? μas. This allows one to resolve the last-photon ring around the Galactic Center black hole event horizon, expected to be 40? μas in diameter, and probe radio jet launching at unprecedented resolution, down to a few gravitational radii in galaxies like M 87. To probe the structure in the inner parsecs of 3C 279 in detail, follow-up observations with APEX and five other mm-VLBI stations have been conducted (March 2013) and are being analyzed.

  • 381.
    Wang, Feng
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Le Tuan, Ahn
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bertling-Tjernberg, Lina
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mannikoff, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Bergman, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    A New Approach for Benefit Evaluation of Multiterminal VSC-HVDC Using A Proposed Mixed AC/DC Optimal Power Flow2014In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 432-443, article id 6571278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an extended optimal power-flow (OPF) model incorporating a detailed model of a voltage-source converter-based–multiterminal high-voltage direct current system (VSC–MTDC) is proposed, hereafter referred to as the mixed ac/dc OPF (M-OPF) model. A cost-benefit analysis approach using the M-OPF model as the calculation engine is proposed to determine the preferred VSC-MTDC alternative to be installed in an existing ac transmission system. In this approach, the operational benefits of VSC–MTDC systems are evaluated against their investment costs to derive the benefit-to-cost ratios (BCR) which reflect the cost-effectiveness of the alternatives. A case study has been carried out using a modified Nordic 32-bus system. The results of the study show that VSC–MTDC systems might lead to a reduction in total operation cost, and the reduction of the total system transmission loss depends to a large extent on the VSC–MTDC configuration. The results from sensitivity analyses show that if the VSC loss could be reduced to a third of the original level, the total benefit from the system would be increased by about 70%. A suggestion for the placement and configuration of a VSC–MTDC system is made based on calculated BCRs.

  • 382.
    Werner, Gösta
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Beständighet hos varselkläders fluorescerande material2000Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 383.
    Werner, Gösta
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Framtagning av Nordtestmetod för mätning på temperaturgivare i elektronisk värmemätarapplikation. Nordtest-projekt 1033-92.1993Report (Refereed)
  • 384.
    Werner, Gösta
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Undersökning av reflexvävars synbarhet i olika vädersituationer.1998Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 385.
    Werner, Gösta
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Eliasson, Per-Olof
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Accuracy of surface mounted temperature sensors in different applications.1991Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 386.
    Werner, Gösta
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Isaksson, Hans
    Nötningshärdighet hos ögonskydd2000Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 387.
    Werner, Gösta
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Isaksson, Hans
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Undersökning av imbildning hos ögonskydd.1996Report (Refereed)
  • 388. Wolfgang, Andreas
    et al.
    Carlsson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Improved Procedure for Measuring Efficiency of Small Antennas in Reverberation Chambers2003In: IEEE AP-S International Symposium and URSI Science Meeting, 2003, , p. 727-730Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 389.
    Wright, Paul S.
    et al.
    National Physical Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    Bergman, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Flood, Martin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Clarkson, Paul
    National Physical Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    Herzberg, K.
    Swedish National Grid, Sweden.
    Onsite Measurements for Power-Quality Estimation at the Sweden - Poland HVDC Link2014In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 472-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A discussion of the power-quality (PQ) aspects of HVDC systems is given, in particular, harmonic aspects. This is followed by a description of the apparatus and their installation as part of an onsite measurement campaign at the Sternö;, classical HVDC station on the SwePol HVDC link. PQ results are presented, including the current and voltage characteristics of the station, converter harmonics, filtered harmonics, noncharacteristic harmonics, switch-on current, and system unbalance.

  • 390.
    Yhland, Klas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    A subharmonic graphene FET mixer2012In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 71-73Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 391.
    Yhland, Klas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Simplified Analysis of Resistive Mixers2007In: IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 604-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This letter gives a simple method for calculation by hand of the conversion efficiency of resistive mixers. The method assumes the same embedding impedances at all mixing frequencies and the mixing element is modeled as a time varying reflection coefficient. This gives simple expressions for the conversion efficiency. It, therefore, allows analytical parameter studies of the impact of the embedding impedance and parameters of the mixing element on the conversion efficiency. The theory is developed in two stages. First at optimum local oscillator power and second for arbitrary power. The theory agrees well with verifying measurements made on a field-effect transistor (FET)-based resistive mixer.

  • 392.
    Yhland, Klas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Eiö, Christopher P.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    Stenarson, Jörgen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    A calibration procedure for electronic calibration units2014In: 84th ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference: The New Frontiers for Microwave Measurements, 2014, , p. 7013414article id 7013414Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a procedure for calibrating a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) calibration kit, mechanical short, open, and load or electronic calibration unit, as a black box. The uncertainty is associated with each connector type in the calibration kit in the form of an uncertainty two-port. The method is validated by comparing results using different VNA test set configurations as well as a comparison to a traditional ripple technique.

  • 393.
    Yhland, Klas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Judaschke, Rolf H.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Rausche, Florian
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Wingqvist, Claes
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Stenarson, Jörgen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Bilateral comparison on calibration factor of a 2.92 mm power sensor2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a bilateral comparison between PTB and SP on the calibration factor of a 2.92 mm thermocouple power sensor. The measurements were done at 0 dBm from 50 MHz to 40 GHz. The comparison also covers the sensor reflection coefficient over the same frequency range.

  • 394.
    Yhland, Klas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Stenarson, Jörgen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Characterization of thin film resistors and capacitors integrated on GaAs membranes for submillimeter wave circuit applications2011In: Proceedings - International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 2011, , p. 5978368Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 395.
    Yhland, Klas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Stenarson, Jörgen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Measurement Uncertainty in Power Splitter Effective Source Match2007In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 4-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an uncertainty calculation together with a technique to assess the residual error when calibrating the effective source match of power splitters. The technique is applied to the Juroshek method, which is the most convenient way of measuring the effective source match. The technique uses an airline as impedance reference and is similar to the ripple technique used when evaluating the residual errors in vector network analyzers.

  • 396.
    Yhland, Klas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Stenarson, Jörgen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Wingqvist, Claes
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    An in-circuit, non-contacting, S-para-meter measurement method2001In: Proceedings of Swedish National Symposium on Gi-gahertz Electronics, 2001, 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 397.
    Zelan, Martin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    En ny sekunddefinition - en tidsfråga2014In: Fysikaktuellt, no 3, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 398.
    Zelan, Martin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Arrhén, Fredrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Jarlemark, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Mollmyr, Oscar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Johansson, Håkan
    Simea Optics AB, Sweden.
    Characterization of a fiber-optic pressure sensor in a shock tube system for dynamic calibrations2015In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 48-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of mechanical quantities such as pressure often take place under dynamic conditions, yet no traceable standards for the primary dynamic calibration of pressure sensors currently exist. In theory, shock tubes can provide a close to perfect step-function ideal for the calibration of pressure transducers. In this paper we investigate a system consisting of a shock tube and an ultra-fast fiber-optical sensor that is designed to be a future primary system for dynamic pressure calibrations. For reference, the fiber-optical sensor is compared to a piezoelectric sensor, and their corresponding frequency spectra are calculated. Furthermore, an investigation of the repeatability of the fiber-optical sensor, as well as a comparison with a second shock tube, is performed.

  • 399.
    Zelan, Martin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Arrhén, Fredrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    Silander, Isak
    Axner, Ove
    Optical measurement of the gas number density in a Fabry–Perot cavity2013In: Meas. Sci. Technol., Vol. 24, p. art nr 105207-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An optical method for measuring the gas density by monitoring the refractive index inside a high-finesse Fabry–Perot cavity is presented. The frequency of a narrow linewidth Er:fiber laser, locked to a mode of the cavity, is measured with the help of an optical frequency comb while the gas density inside the cavity changes. A resolution of 1.4 × 10-6 mol m-3 is achieved in 3 s for nitrogen, which allows measurement of a relative gas density change of 3.4 × 10-8 at atmospheric pressure.

  • 400. Zerrouki, S
    et al.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Comparative study of several roughness measurement techniques: application to the characterisation of mass standards’ surface quality2001Conference paper (Other academic)
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