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  • 351.
    Norberg, Ida
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Nordström, Ylva
    RISE, Innventia.
    Drougge, Rikard
    RISE, Innventia.
    Gellerstedt, Göran
    RISE, Innventia.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE, Innventia.
    A new method for stabilizing softwood kraft lignin fibers for carbon fiber production2013In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, no 6, p. 3827-3830Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 352.
    Nordström, Bengt
    et al.
    SCA R&D Centre, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Effect of fiber length on formation and strength efficiency in twin-wire roll forming2017In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 119-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A change in fiber length is known to change fiber flocculation and formation of machine-made paper, but it has been unclear how a change in formation through fiber length affects strength efficiency. (The strength efficiency reflects how well the furnish strength, as indicated by the handsheet strength, is utilized in the machine-made paper.) The effect of fiber length on strength efficiency in twin-wire roll forming was presently investigated by examining two furnishes with different average fiber length, prepared from the same batch of softwood kraft pulp, over a wide range of headbox consistencies on a pilot machine. An increase in fiber length resulted not only in worse Ambertec formation over the whole range of headbox consistencies but also in faster relative deterioration of the formation with increasing consistency. Tensile strength efficiency and Z-strength efficiency were both reduced when the formation was impaired through increased fiber length, and the effect was similar to the effect of a corresponding change in formation through headbox consistency. A given change in formation, through fiber length or headbox consistency, had a larger relative effect on Z-strength efficiency than on tensile strength efficiency.

  • 353.
    Nordström, Bengt
    et al.
    SCA R&D Centre, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Lennart
    RISE, Innventia.
    Effect of refining on strength efficiency in twin-wire roll forming of never-dried unbleached softwood kraft pulp2016In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 624-633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas refining is required for the strength development of chemical pulps, it has been unclear how refining affects the utilization of the furnish strength, as reflected by the handsheet strength, in the machine-made paper (strength efficiency). This work examined effects of refining on formation and strength efficiency in twin-wire roll forming of never-dried unbleached softwood kraft pulp in a pilot machine investigation comprising three separate sections. The first section showed that a change in refining energy has no significant effect on formation, tensile strength efficiency, tensile stiffness efficiency, or compression strength efficiency at a given consistency when the fiber length remains similar. The second section demonstrated that a change in kappa number has no significant effect on formation or tensile strength efficiency at a given consistency when the fiber length of the refined pulp remains similar. Here, an increase in kappa number involved an increase in refining energy. The third section showed that a reduction in headbox consistency results in an improvement in formation and tensile strength efficiency that is similar in magnitude over the whole refining curve.

  • 354.
    Nordström, Bengt
    et al.
    SCA R&D, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Effect of the ratio of softwood kraft pulp to recycled pulp on formation and strength efficiency in twin-wire roll forming2017In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 229-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has been undertaken to investigate how the tensile strength efficiency and Z-strength efficiency in twin-wire roll forming is affected when changing formation through the softwood kraft content in a mixture with recycled pulp. The effect of a change in formation through the softwood kraft content and the effect of a change in formation through headbox consistency were also compared. Five kraft contents (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) were investigated at volumetric headbox flow rates of 111 and 1,77l/sm. Three additional flow rates were used at a kraft content of 50%. Impaired formation through the softwood kraft content reduced tensile strength efficiency and Z-strength efficiency. Both these properties were similarly affected whether the formation was changed by the softwood kraft content or the headbox consistency. The relative impact of formation was larger for Z-strength efficiency compared with tensile strength efficiency. The reduction in tensile strength efficiency was replicated in a smaller relative increase in tensile strength for machine-made paper than for handsheets made of the furnish. Considering the effect on strength efficiency when evaluating furnishes has been demonstrated as an important concern.

  • 355.
    Nordström, Bengt
    et al.
    SCA R&D, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    One-sided versus two-sided roll forming of never-dried softwood kraft pulp: effects on formation and strength efficiency2017In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 407-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has been undertaken to demonstrate the effect on z-strength of headbox consistency in one-sided versus two-sided roll forming of unbleached softwood kraft pulp over a wide range of jet to wire speed differences. In addition, formation and tensile strength were evaluated. Using a pilot machine, each forming method was examined at two headbox consistency levels (0.4 and 0.6%). The wire speed was varied from 550 to 660m/min while maintaining the headbox conditions, resulting in a change in grammage from approximately 71gsm to 61gsm. A significantly higher Z-strength was noted for one-sided roll forming at a headbox consistency of 0.4% compared with two-sided roll forming. However, an increase in consistency resulted in a ore similar Z-strength through a larger reduction in Z-strength efficiency for one-sided than two-sided roll forming. In addition, Z-strength was promoted by formation improvement through the jet to wire speed difference in both one-sided and two-sided roll forming of the furnish. The effects of the jet to wire speed difference on formation and tensile strength efficiency in one-sided roll forming of the present furnish were relatively more favourable and more similar to the effects in two-sided roll forming.

  • 356.
    Nordström, Maria
    et al.
    STFI.
    Teleman, Anita
    STFI.
    Jacobs, Anna
    STFI.
    Dahlman, Olof
    STFI.
    Characterization of acetylated glucomannans from Aspen and Birch2002In: Towards molecular-level understanding of wood, pulp and paper: Seventh European workshop on lignocellulosics and pulp (EWLP 2002), 2002, p. 39-42Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    O-acetylated glucomannans were isolated from aspen and birch wood. The isolation procedure involved a sequential extraction of acetone-extracted wood meal with DMSO and hot water, after which the glucomannan was purified using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). The isolated glucomannans were characterized using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), SEC/MALDI-MS and NMR spectroscopy.

  • 357.
    Nordström, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Norberg, Ida
    RISE, Innventia.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE, Innventia.
    Drougge, Rikard
    RISE, Innventia.
    A new softening agent for melt spinning of softwood kraft lignin2013In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, no 3, p. 1274-1279Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 358.
    Norman, Bo
    RISE, Innventia.
    Fibre suspensions2009In: Paper Chemistry and Technology, Walter de Gruyter, 2009, p. 93-102Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 359.
    Norman, Bo
    RISE, Innventia.
    Grammage variability2009In: Paper Chemistry and Technology, Walter de Gruyter, 2009, p. 203-211Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 360.
    Norman, Bo
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wet pressing2009In: Paper Chemistry and Technology, Walter de Gruyter, 2009, p. 213-229Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 361.
    Nowak, Andrzej P.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden ; Gdansk university of technology, Poland.
    Hagberg, Johan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Schweinebarth, Hannah
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Baker, Darren A
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Uhlin, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Tomani, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lignin-based carbon fibers for renewable and multifunctional lithium-ion battery electrodes2018In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 81-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin-based carbon fibers (LCFs) from the renewable resource softwood kraft lignin were synthesized via oxidative thermostabilization of pure melt-spun lignin and carbonization at different temperatures from 1000°C to 1700°C. The resulting LCFs were characterized by tensile testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and confocal Raman spectroscopy. The microstructure is mainly amorphous carbon with some nanocrystalline domains. The strength and stiffness are inversely proportional to the carbonization temperature, while the LCFs carbonized at 1000°C exhibit a strength of 628 MPa and a stiffness of 37 GPa. Furthermore, the application potential of LCFs was evaluated as negative electrodes in a lithium-ion battery (LIB) by electrochemical cycling at different current rates in a half-cell setup. The capacity drops with the carbonization temperature and the LCFs carbonized at 1000°C have a capacity of 335 mAh g-1. All LCFs showed good cycling stability. Because of the mechanical integrity and conductivity of the LCFs, there is no need to apply current collectors, conductive additives or binders. The advantage is an increased gravimetric energy density compared to graphite, which is the most common negative electrode material. LCFs show a promising multifunctional behavior, including good mechanical integrity, conductivity and an ability to intercalate lithium for LIBs.

  • 362.
    Nygårds, M.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Bhattacharya, A.
    Krishnan, S.V.R.
    Optimizing shear strength profiles in paperboard for better crease formation2014In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 510-520Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 363.
    Nygårds, Mikael
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Experimental techniques for characterization of elasticplastic material properties in paperboard2008In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 432-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four experimental techniques to characterize elastic-plastic material properties for paperboard are presented. To evaluate properties as a function of paperboard thickness the bottom, middle and top plies were separated by grinding. The different plies have been characterized with respect to in-plane tension, cyclic ZD tension, out-of-plane shear and cyclic ZD compression. These tests were chosen since they are easily interpreted in term of stresses and strains, and give a good set of elastic-plastic material properties that are needed to describe the mechanical properties of the materials. For the ZD tension and compression tests several loading/unloading cycles were used in order to evaluate how the elastic modulus evolves as a function of deformation. For the ZD tension it was observed that the elastic modulus degrade faster than the strength. For all tests functions that describe the stress-strain curves are proposed and hence material parameters with a physical interpretation were introduced.

  • 364.
    Nygårds, Mikael
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Modelling the out-of-plane behaviour of paperboard2009In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 72-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A material model consisting of a continuum and an interface model was proposed. When the models are used together the mechanical properties of paperboard can be accounted for. The continuum model was elastic-plastic in shear and compression, while only elastic in tension. In the continuum model two different yield surfaces were used to initiate plastic deformation; one for compression and one for combined shear and normal stresses. The elastic-plastic interface model accounts for separation in the normal and tangential directions. The models have been numerically implemented into the finite element software Abaqus (2007). The implementations were used to show that the response of a cyclic tension and cyclic compression test can be predicted. Moreover, simulations with combined compression and shear stresses were presented.

  • 365. Nygårds, Mikael
    et al.
    Just, M.
    Tryding, J.
    Experimental and numerical studies of creasing of paperboard2009In: International Journal of Solids and Structures, ISSN 0020-7683, E-ISSN 1879-2146, Vol. 46, no 11-12, p. 2493-2505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A laboratory creasing device to capture the most important properties of a commercial rotary creasing tool was designed. Finite element analysis of the creasing of a multiply paperboard in the laboratory crease device was presented. The multiply paperboard was modeled as a multilayered structure with cohesive softening interface model connecting the paperboard plies. The paperboard plies were modeled by an anisotropic elastic-plastic material model. The purpose of the analysis of the laboratory creasing device was to present material models that represent paperboard, and to investigate how well the analysis captured the multiply paperboard behavior during laboratory creasing. And to increase the understanding of what multiply paperboard properties that influence the laboratory crease operation. The result of the simulations showed very good correlations with the experimental obtained results. The results indicated that the paperboard properties that have the most influence is the out-of-plane shear, out-of-plane compression and the friction between the laboratory creasing device and the paperboard. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 366.
    Nygårds, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Sjökvist, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Marin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Sundström, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Simulation and experimental verification of a drop test and compression test of a Gable top package2019In: 29th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 2019: Serving society innovative perspectives on packaging, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     A finite element framework has been proposed that can be used to simulateboth empty paperboard packages and package filled with plastic granulates. A Gabletop package was made of a commercial paperboard, and material properties neededin the material model was determined. Two simulations were performed, a drop testand a compression test. By comparison between experimental and numerical results,the deformation mechanisms at impact could be identified and correlated to materialproperties. When the package was filled with granulates different mechanisms wasactivated compared to an empty package. The granulates contribute to bulging ofthe panels, such that the edges became more load bearing compared to the panels.When the edges carried the loads the importance of the out-of-plane properties alsoincreased, and local failure initiation related to delamination was observed. Comparison between experimental and numerical impact forces show that there are still important things to consider in the model generation, e.g. variation of properties withinthe package, which originate both from material property variations and the loadinghistory, e.g. during manufacturing and handling.

  • 367.
    Nygårds, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Sundström, Jonas
    RISE, Innventia.
    A comparison between in-plane compression and bending properties2015In: International Paper Physics Conference, Tokyo, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For paperboard that have a ZD gradient, the in-plane compression and bending properties were correlated. At peak load the paperboard delaminated.A Timoshenko beam analysis showed that when the bottom ply failed, delamination would be initiated.For three paperboards that were different in character, good prediction of failure load and delamination position could be made by only consider the tensile strength profiles and the shear strength profiles.

  • 368.
    Nygårds, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Sundström, Jonas
    RISE, Innventia.
    Comparison and analysis of in-plane compression and bending failure in paperboard2016In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 432-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-plane compression of paperboard, using long (LCT) and short compression test (SCT), and bend-ing, using the L&W creasability tester, have been ana-lyzed using three paperboards with similar strength prop-erties but different ZD profiles. The failure loads from the methods have been compared and the failure mechanisms analyzed. It was shown that at maximum bending moment from bending of samples using L=10 mm and L=50 mm, the SCT value and the maximum bending force from LCT all varied linearly with each other, indicating that same dam-age mechanism is activated. It was suggested that delamination cracks were initiated during SCT and LCT as well as during bending when plastic deformation had been initiated in an outer ply subjected to compressive stress. The plastic deformation would be initiated when the yield stress in the ply was reached, determined by an in-plane tensile test. When plastic deformation takes place, it will generate shear induced delamination cracks in locations with low shear strengths, e.g. in the interfaces or within the middle ply. The location depends on the material design strategy used in manufacturing the paper quality. To control the in-plane compression properties in pa-perboard one should control the yield stress (or possibly the failure stress) of the outer plies. Increased stress gives higher in-plane compression strength. Moreover, the interfaces strength is important, since increased interface strength (or lack of interfaces) prevents delamination.

  • 369.
    Odeberg Glasenapp, Astrid
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia. RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Alfthan, Johan
    RISE, Innventia.
    Gustafsson, Jan-Erik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Modelling of the corrugator and gluability of corrugated board2015In: 27th IAPRI Symposium on packaging 2015, 2015, p. 228-236Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within SUW – The International Development Group for Corrugated Board, high class corrugated board research has been conducted since 1968. During the last decade one research focus has been on the heat and moisture transfer in the corrugator. Simulation programs for the single facer and for the double backer were written. Consequences of different operating strategies for the heating table were evaluated. It was shown that for double board, a decreasing temperature along the heating table gives a higher temperature of the middle glue line. Mechanisms for heat transport through the corrugated board paper layers have also been investigated. It was shown that moisture transports a considerable amount of heat through the board. Right now a project is on-going where the levelling out of temperature and moisture in the corrugated stack after corrugated board production will be simulated.SUW´s other research focus, also on-going for a decade, is dealing with the gluability of corrugated board. Still the gluing process in corrugated board production is performed with a starch-water solution. Important gluing parameters like the glue solid content, gluing temperature, gluing time, paper properties and the chemical glue content were investigated. In this project, also the cause of gluing defects was evaluated. For the first time, ”brittle bonding”, a gluing defect in the corrugator, could be simulated. Some results from these simulations will be shown.

  • 370.
    Odeberg Glasenapp, Astrid
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Alfthan, Johan
    RISE, Innventia.
    Köhke, Katharina
    Standards for corrugated board converting2016In: IAPRI 2016 - 20th World conference on packaging: Innovation, Development and Sustainability in Packaging, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrugated board is the dominant transport packaging material. All corrugated board blanks have to pass converting machines in order to produce packaging. The corrugated board converting process should be precise to avoid waste and machine stops. There are standards existing that state tolerances for the corrugated board converting process. These tolerances can be set for corrugated board properties like warp and dimensions or tolerances to be achieved for the ready packaging. The standards are issued among others by FEFCO, GIFCO, VDW, and SUW (The International Development Group of Corrugated Board), but also by some large brand owners. A comparison of tolerances mentioned in the most important standards was conducted. Further actual tolerances of corrugated board and corrugated board packages converted in several corrugated board plants and used at the brand owners were investigated. At corrugated board plants and brand owners the ambient temperature and humidity were measured. Also the temperature and humidity in the corrugated board stacks and the warp of the sheets were investigated. The runnability in the converting machines was evaluated by machine drivers. Some of these results will be shown. Furthermore thickness, folding strength of creases and misalignment, fishtailing, gap of manufactures joint and width and length of folded blanks of slotted boxes were determined. The results indicate that stricter tolerances for corrugated board are possible. The results of the plant trials will be used to propose a new SUW standard with new tolerance levels e.g. for warp and dimensions of the corrugated board sheets and packages. The new tolerances will be discussed within the corrugated board branch, converting machine suppliers and users of corrugated board. New stricter tolerances for corrugated board packaging in the converting process contribute to a better competitiveness of this renewable and sustainable packaging material in the future.

  • 371.
    Odeberg Glasenapp, Astrid
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Alfthan, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Stevanic Srndovic, Jasna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Björk, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Holmqvist, Claes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Yang, Li
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Berthold, Jesper
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Next level of corrugated board research2019In: 29th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 2019: Serving society innovative perspectives on packaging, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     For the first time in the Bioeconomy research program at RISE, corrugatedboard has an own research area. Research is building around the main driving forcesin the corrugated board value chain like e-commerce, improved box performance anddigital printing. The main weakness of corrugated board, its moisture sensitivity, isalso addressed.These main driving forces and weaknesses of corrugated board are mirrored in thethemes of this large research program area:Fibre sorption and deformation mechanismsFundamental knowledge on the mechanisms behind moisture sorption and deformation on fibre level is developed to increase moisture and creep resistance throughmodification of paper materials. State of the art methods for characterization ofthe fibre ultra- and nano-structure such as Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy(FTIR), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS)give new insights on mechanisms and clarify effects of moisture as well as chemicalmodifications.Papermaking for improved base sheetsConcepts that are explored are fibre-based strength additives produced with novelrefining techniques, and modified ZD-profiles in the sheet for better mechanical properties.Box mechanicsMechanical performance of structures such as corrugated board boxes can be predicted through physically based mathematical modelling by taking the behaviour ofthe constituent materials as well as the geometry into account. Appropriate materialmodels for the corrugated board are identified and finite element models for simulation of corrugated board packaging performance are developed.Tool for inkjet printability on corrugatedThere is a genuine need for improved inkjet printability on corrugated materials thanksto rapid development in e-commerce as well as digitalization along the corrugatedvalue chain. Effective measurement methods and knowledge around ink-substrateinteractions are developed to enable board producers and converters to have effective product development and predictable printability on not only liners but also oncorrugated materials.

  • 372.
    Odeberg Glasenapp, Astrid
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Pötzsch, Sina
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Alfthan, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Lindström, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Berthold, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    DuraWell : novel approach to enhance the moisture resistance of corrugated board paper2017In: 28th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 2017, p. 178-197Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 373.
    Odeberg Glasenapp, Astrid
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Sundin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Nordlinder, J.
    Swedish Patent- and Registration Office, Sweden.
    Berthold, Jesper
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Alfthan, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Water-free bonding of corrugated board2018In: 21st IAPRI World Conference on Packaging 2018: Packaging: Driving a Sustainable Future, DEStech Publications Inc. , 2018, p. 608-616Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The "water-free bonding of corrugated board" concept focuses on the development, waste management and market potential of a new corrugated board production method. It has earlier been shown that by integrating PLA into paper, certain mechanical properties of corrugated board papers can be enhanced. These enhanced papers have been used for producing corrugated board. Corrugated board is usually produced by gluing the corrugated board paper layers with a starch suspension. This process is reducing the mechanical paper strength and is also energy consuming, as the water added by the starch suspension in the process has to be evaporated. In this study, two new water-free joining techniques for corrugated board have been investigated: PLA-welding, which melts the inherent PLA of the paper to create a bond and using PLA as an adhesive. Both techniques have shown promising results and are recommended for further investigation, however, replacing starch glue with PLA seems to be a solution closer to the market. For the material to fit in a future circular economy it is important that the waste is managed in a way that is sustainable for the environment and the society. Repulpability testing in combination with literature studies indicate that the new material would be possible to recycle, and that the new material could function in every step described in the EU Waste Framework Directive.

  • 374.
    Odeberg Glasenapp, Astrid
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Sundin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Nordlinder, Johanna
    Swedish patent- and registration office, Sweden.
    Berthold, Jesper
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Alfthan, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Water-free bonding of corrugated board2018In: Packaging: Driving a sustainable future / [ed] Wang S-W, 2018, p. 608-616Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The "water-free bonding of corrugated board" concept focuses on thedevelopment, waste management and market potential of a new corrugated board production method. It has earlier been shown that by integrating PLA into paper, certain mechanical properties of corrugated board papers can be enhanced. These enhanced papers have been used for producing corrugated board. Corrugated board is usually produced by gluing the corrugated board paper layers with a starch suspension. This process is reducing the mechanical paper strength and is also energy consuming, as the water added by the starch suspension in the process has to be evaporated. In this study, two new water-free joining techniques for corrugated board have been investigated: PLA-welding, which melts the inherent PLA of the paper to create a bond and using PLA as an adhesive. Both techniques have shown promising results and are recommended for further investigation, however, replacing starch glue with PLA seems to be a solution closer to the market. For the material to fit in a future circular economy it is important that the waste is managed in a way that is sustainable for the environment and the society. Repulp ability testing in combination with literature studies indicate that the new material would be possible to recycle, and that the new material could function in every step described in the EU Waste Framework Directive.

  • 375.
    Oko, Asaf
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Niga, Petru
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Measurements and dimensional scaling of spontaneous imbibition of inkjet droplets on paper2016In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 156-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally the spontaneous imbibition of water based inkjet formulations utilizing paper capillary rise and imbibition of inkjet drops. We approximate the paper structure to a two dimensional anisotropic porous material, and using Darcy's law as a base, we derive dimensionless groups that scale drop imbibition. This derivation is based on a previous dimensional scaling of drop imbibition on thick isotropic porous material. We apply this scaling to a paper substrate by measuring the average drop imbibition rate, and perform paper capillary rise experiments to obtain the average system parameters required for the scaling. The results suggest that this approach is a valuable tool to predict drop imbibition rates on paper. We then continue and perform the same sets of experiments on a different paper with similar structure that is surface treated (surface sized) with CaCl2 salt, an additive that is known to improve print quality. We find that due to rapid aggregation of the colorant ink by the CaCl2, the imbibition rate is slowed down in the capillary rise experiments, i.e., on much larger scales compared to a single inkjet drop. However, the presence of CaCl2 has only minor effect over the average imbibition rates of single drops. Imbibition rates on the CaCl2 surface sized paper did not give adequate scaling as a result of the fact that the aggregation was not included the theoretical assumptions behind the scaling.

  • 376.
    Olm, Leelo
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Tormund, Disa
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lundqvist, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    High sulphidity kraft pulping2009In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 433-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The object of this project was to evaluate the effect of high sulphidity on the performance of the kraft cooking process. Softwood (SW) mix (50/50 of spruce, Picea abies, and pine, Pinus sylvestris) and a hardwood (HW: birch, Betula pendula) have been explored as wood raw material. The reference kraft cook was carried out at 35% sulphidity. The laboratory kraft cooking trials showed that the rate of delignification in kraft cooking increases with increasing sulphidity for both these raw materials. An increase in sulphidity from 35% to 80% increases the apparent delignification rate by a factor of almost two. The faster delignification rate could be exploited as an increase in production and/or as a reduction in EA charge (2%-units for both raw materials) and/or as a decrease in cooking temperature (5°C for SW) at the same production. The yield of softwood kraft pulp at a given kappa number was not affected by the increase in sulphidity. For hardwood, the combination of high sulphidity and reduced effective alkali charge gave an increase in pulp yield of one %-unit. The pulp viscosity at a given kappa number was increased. The high sulphidity in SW kraft cooking (at a given EAcharge) led to a slightly better bleachability in an OD(E+P)DD bleaching sequence. The fully bleached SW kraft pulp at 80% sulphidity had a slightly higher tear index and higher fibre strength than the corresponding reference kraft pulp at 35% sulphidity. The other strength properties were virtually unchanged. The fully bleached HW kraft pulp at 80% sulphidity showed better optical properties, light scattering and opacity, which are, in fact, the critical properties for fully bleached hardwood pulps.

  • 377.
    Olsmats, Carl
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Birgitta
    Independent Management Consultant, Sweden.
    Pousette, Sandra
    RISE, Innventia.
    Perceptions of sustainability and functional aspects on liquid carton board packaging materials versus competing materials for juice applications in Sweden2015In: Beverages, E-ISSN 2306-5710, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 194-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research explores the downstream perceptions of liquid carton board versus competing materials in packaging applications for juice. The methodology used is focus groups. The context is sustainability and functional performance, and related potential implications for the beverage industry value chain. The purpose is to get a deeper insight and understanding of functionality in relation to juice beverage packaging. The results confirm that there is no optimal packaging for every juice product, but a multitude, depending on the distribution channel, retail outlet, customer preferences, and context of consumption. There are some general packaging preferences, but the main deciding criteria for purchase seem to be the product characteristics in terms of quality, taste, brand, price and shelf life. For marketing reasons, packaging has to be adopted to the product and its positioning, liquid carton board packaging seem to have some functional advantages in distribution and is considered as sustainable and functional among many consumers. Major drawbacks seem to be shape limitations, lack of transparency, and lack of a “premium look”. To improve packaging performance and avoid sub-optimization, actors in the beverage industry value chain need to be integrated in development processes.

  • 378.
    Olsson, A.-M.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Salmen, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Mechano-sorptive creep in pulp fibres and paper2014In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 569-580Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 379.
    Olsson, Carina
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, IVF.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE, Swerea, IVF.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE, Innventia.
    Reimann, Anders
    RISE, Innventia.
    Carbon fibres from lignin-cellulose precursor2015In: 18th International Symposium on Wood, Fiber and Pulping Chemistry, September 9-11, 2015, Vienna, 2015, Vol. Poster, p. 126-129Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of two-component precursor fibres for carbon fibre production has been produced by air-gap spinning of kraft lignin with cellulose as the fibreforming polymer, the latter from paper grade or dissolving grade pulps. The spun precursor fibres,containing 70% lignin and 30% cellulose, demonstrate mechanical properties equivalent to commercial textile fibres. Precursor fibres based on softwood kraft lignin were treated thermally in twosteps to carbon fibres, which had mechanical properties equal to or greater than those reported for neat lignin-based carbon fibres produced by melt spinning. An advantage of the wet-spun precursor fibres developed in this project is that they are more flexible and easier to handle with a decreased risk ofbrittle fracture. The potential for further improvement for the new type of carbon fibre is very high.

  • 380.
    Olsson, Carina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Idström, Anna
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Bengtsson, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Coagulation of cellulose solutions and its effect on material properties2016In: Proceedings of the 14th European workshop on lignocellulosics and pulp, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 381. Opedal, Mihaela Tanase
    et al.
    Stenius, P.
    Johansson, L.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Colloidal stability and removal of extractives from process water in thermomechanical pulping2011In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 26, p. 248-257Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 382. Opedal, Mihaela Tanase
    et al.
    Stenius, Per
    Gregersen, Øjvind
    Johansson, Lars
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Hill, J.
    Flocculation of colloidal wood extractives in process water from precompression of chips in thermo-mechanical pulping2011In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 26, p. 64-71Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 383. Opedal, Mihaela Tanase
    et al.
    Stenius, Per
    Gregersen, Øjvind
    Johansson, Lars
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Hill, J.
    Removal of dissolved and colloidal substances in water from compressive pre-treatment of chips using dissolved air flotation: Laboratory Tests.2011In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 26, p. 72-80Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 384. Opedal, Mihaela Tanase
    et al.
    Stenius, Per
    Johansson, Lars
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Hill, J
    Sandberg, C.
    Removal of dissolved and colloidal substances in water from compressive pre-treatment of chips using dissolved air flotation: Pilot Trial2011In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 26, p. 364-371Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 385. Osong, S.H.
    et al.
    Norgren, S.
    Engstrand, P.
    Lundberg, M.
    Hansen, P.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Crill: A novel technique to characterize nano-ligno-cellulose2014In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 190-194Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 386.
    Osong, S.H.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Norgren, S.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Engstrand, P.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Lundberg, M.
    PulpEye AB, Sweden.
    Hansen, P.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Development of nano-ligno-cellulose produced from mechanical pulp2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective in this work was to develop a methodology for producing mechanical pulp based nano-ligno-cellulose (NLC) from fines fractions. Also there has been a great deal of enthusiasm to evaluate particle size distribution of NLC. In this work the crill characterisation technique was used. The crill values of TMP and CTMP based nano-ligno-celluloses were measured as a function of the homogenisation time. Results showed that the crill value of both TMP-NLC and CTMP-NLC correlated with the homogenisation time. Another objective was to utilise NLC as strength additives in paper and board grades. Laboratory sheets of CTMP and bleached kraft pulp (BKP), with the addition of their respective NLC, were made in a Rapid Kothen sheet former. It was found that handsheets of pulp fibres blended with NLC improved the z- strength and other important mechanical properties for similar sheet densities.

  • 387.
    Ottesen, V
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Gregersen,  Ø
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) Department of Chemical Engineering;.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Nanocellulose in Paper and Packaging2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One possible way to improve competitiveness of paper materials is through utilization of nanocellulose to achieve new properties or to reduce production cost. Several studies have shown that nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) can act as strength enhancing additive in paper or for paper surface improvements. NFC has the potential to bind large amounts of inorganic fillers in the paper sheet, and by this reduce energy consumption during paper production considerably. However, there are challenges that need to be addressed before the novel concepts can be realized, e.g. impaired drainage and drying of paper resulting from addition of NFC. This may be solved by obtaining the right balance between NFC quality, chemicals and additives. Promising results in this respect have been obtained  but this is still in an early stage. Fiber-based packaging materials represent a “green” alternative to petroleum based packaging solutions. Depending on the packaging category, different properties are important. For the segment liquid packaging board, barrier against oxygen is important. Currently, this is obtained by using aluminum, or the petroleum-based polymer EVOH in combination with a water barrier. Replacing these materials with “green” alternatives would represent a large environmental achievement. While superior oxygen barrier properties has been demonstrated for NFC,  good barrier against water and oxygen requires the combination of nanofibrils with complementary materials. Adequate combinations with other materials and feasible application techniques are still challenges that need to be solved. Other packaging segments require other properties, e.g. high stiffness or fracture toughness. By development of appropriate nanocellulose qualities, such properties can be improved. By preparing fibrils with small diameter, translucent films can be prepared. This is an interesting property for food packaging, where transparency may be a desired trait.

  • 388.
    Ottesen, V
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Gregersen,  Ø
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) Department of Chemical Engineering;.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Nanocellulose Properties of Interest for Paper and Packaging2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose Nano-Fibrils (CNF) is a biocompatible nano-material with appealing mechanical and optical properties. The high specific surface area (SSA) of nanofibrils ensure that a large fraction of the polymer chains in each fibril are surface fibrils, meaning numerous surface hydroxyl groups will be available to form bonds between components in the paper, ensuring high density and strength. CNF may be added to conventional paper as a strengthening agent. CNF films may be used as a barrier coating, or CNF sheets may be used in a number of products due to their potential transparency, strength and barrier properties. As a paper additive, CNF as a nanomaterial acts as a material that increases density and form bonds between fibers in the paper, providing an increased strength and stiffness whereas dusting and permeability is reduced. For papers where strength is chiefly limited by inter-fiber bonding strength, increases in excess of 100 % may be achieved by addition of small amounts of CNF. Less, but still significant contributions can be seen for papers whose strength is less dependent on inter-fiber bonding strength. Due to the pore-blocking properties of CNF coupled with Cellulose’s hydrophilic properties, dewatering on the paper machine is a challenge when CNF is used in this fashion. The high density, viz. the low porosity and small pore size (~0.47 nm), of CNF films provide a significant reduction in mass-transport. Applying such a film to a less efficient barrier material, or producing a pure CNF film presents oxygen transfer rates comparable with the best synthetic polymer films produced for this purpose. Sheets of pure CNF or a CNF composite may transmit 90 % of incident light with a wavelength of 600 nm. This transparency is due to the high density and small fibril size in sheets of pure CNF or a CNF-based composite, which results in a lower scattering coefficient compared to corresponding conventional fiber based sheets. Transparent sheets such as these may be of interest in packaging applications where the packaged goods, such as foodstuffs or luxury articles, is desired displayed to the end customer. The properties of CNF, whether as a film, a paper additive or a major paper or composite component may be of significant industrial interest due to the unique properties of the material.

  • 389.
    Ottesen, Vegar
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian university of science and technology, Norway.
    Roede, Erik Dobloug
    NTNU Norwegian university of science and technology, Norway.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI. NTNU Norwegian university of science and technology, Norway.
    Gregersen, Øyvind Weiby
    NTNU Norwegian university of science and technology, Norway.
    Focused ion beam tomography as a means for characterization of CNF in a paper matrix2017In: 16th Fundamental Research symposium, 2017, p. 595-609Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 390.
    Ottesen, Vegar
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Gregersen, Øyvind W.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Mixing of cellulose nanofibrils and individual furnish components: Effects on paper properties and structure2016In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 441-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP) handsheets with different fractions of cellulose nano fibrils (CNF) and ground calcium carbonate (GCC) were made. CNF and retention chemicals were added in three different ways; to GCC, to long fibre fraction (LFF) or to complete furnish. The different addition strategies affected dewatering time, tensile strength and permeability, however opacity was not affected. Depending on filler and CNF levels, adding CNF to GCC produced the most beneficial effects on paper properties; CNF had a lower impact on dewatering times and permeability and GCC reduced strength less than for competing strategies. Adding CNF to LFF produced the least beneficial results using the same metrics. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the sheets reveal that sheets produced using the different strategies are structurally different; adding CNF and retention chemicals to GCC appears to have increased GCC clustering, whereas adding CNF and retention chemicals to LFF appears to have increased the fraction of GCC adsorbed on the fiber walls. CNF and retention chemical addition to complete furnish showed GCC clustering and adhering to the fiber walls, of which clustering appeared the most common.

  • 391.
    Ottestam, Catharina
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    ECOTARGET - What is the result of this large pulp and paper project?2008In: International Paperworld IPW, no 12, p. 50-53Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ECOTARGET is an EU-funded research project covering process development in the development chain from mechanical pulp, to papermaking. The project involves 26 organisations: universities, institutes, supplier companies and papermaking companies from nine European countries. The project is divided in six subprojects whereof five are dedicated to process development and the sixth evaluates the impact on mill and society level if the newly developed processes will be implemented. All process ideas in the project are evaluated with regard to reduction of at least one of the four target areas Energy Consumption, Wood Raw Material, Fresh Water and Waste and Emissions. The project has been running four years and results are beginning to show. This article gives an overview of the project and also some examples of promising results for new unit processes. One of the examples covers a new way of making stratified (layered) sheets in one single headbox, even for thin paper qualities. By placing different fibre types, in different layers of a paper product the same functionality is achieved (surface quality, stiffness etc.) while using less resources. The innovation in this technology is to use liquid layers for the separation of fibre flows in the headbox instead of solid vanes which has been tried for many years already. The technology has now been proven in pilot scale and can be used for other purposes too, as for example to place fillers in the middle of a sheet, by injecting fillers into the liquid layers only.

  • 392.
    Ovaska, Sami-Seppo
    et al.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Hiltunen, Salla
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Schuster, Erich
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Backfolk, Kaj
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Characterization of rapeseed oil/coconut oil mixtures and their penetration into hydroxypropylated-starch-based barrier coatings containing an oleophilic mineral2016In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 101, p. 569-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was conducted that demonstrated that the blending of edible oils leads to changes in surface tension, thermal properties, viscosity, and oil penetration times through a barrier-coated paperboard. The results emphasize the significance of testing the oil and grease resistance (OGR) oil blends in order-to verify the suitability of the packaging material for real-life end-use applications. The results of the OGR determinations suggest that hydroxypropylated-starch-based composite coatings containing an oleophilic high aspect ratio mineral can be tailored for food shaving different fatty acid compositions by varying the pigmentation level. Compared to standard OGR tests, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)-based techniques make it possible to evaluate the oil penetration time and its diffusion behavior very accurately, both inside the coating layer and in the bulk matrix. It was found that, at room temperature, coconut oil tends to crystallize inside the substrate, inducing swelling of the coating layer, which probably has an influence on the physicomechanical properties of the packaging material.

  • 393.
    Ovaskainen, Louise
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Olin, Pontus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Tuominen, Mikko
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Lars Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The effect of different wear on superhydrophobic wax coatings2017In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 195-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wear resistance of superhydrophobic coatings made by spraying a crystallizing wax from supercritical carbon dioxide solutions was evaluated using several methods. Scratch tests were performed using a tip in contact with the surface using atomic force microscope (AFM). Compression tests were performed by applying different loads on a rubber stamp placed on the surface. Frictional wear was evaluated by stroking an index finger over the surfaces while measuring applied load and friction. The wetting properties of the coatings were subsequently evaluated as advancing and receding water contact angles, superhydrophobic sliding resistance according to a recently developed method and surface roughness, coating morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy and optical profilometry. Scratching with tip of an AFM cantilever with a force of 12 nN removed major fraction of the wax coating from underlying silica substrate whereas subjecting the surfaces to a compressive load up to 59 kPa did not significantly influence the superhydrophobicity of the coatings. Frictional wear measurements indicate that superhydrophobic properties were immediately lost after pressing and moving a finger over the coating, as movement of the finger destroyed the fine surface structure. Nevertheless, the surfaces could withstand up to 200000 falling water drops without losing their superhydrophobicity. © 2017 De Gruyter Open Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 394.
    Peciulyte, Ausra
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Karlström, Katarina
    RISE, Innventia.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE, Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Olsson, Lisbeth
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Impact of the supramolecular structure of cellulose on the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis2015In: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis is reduced by the structural properties of cellulose. Although efforts have been made to explain the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by considering the interaction of cellulolytic enzymes with cellulose or the changes in the structure of cellulose during enzymatic hydrolysis, the process of cellulose hydrolysis is not yet fully understood. We have analysed the characteristics of the complex supramolecular structure of cellulose on the nanometre scale in terms of the spatial distribution of fibrils and fibril aggregates, the accessible surface area and the crystallinity during enzymatic hydrolysis. Influence of the porosity of the substrates and the hydrolysability was also investigated. All cellulosic substrates used in this study contained more than 96% cellulose. Results: Conversion yields of six cellulosic substrates were as follows, in descending order: nano-crystalline cellulose produced from never-dried soda pulp (NCC-OPHS-ND)∈>∈never-dried soda pulp (OPHS-ND)∈>∈dried soda pulp (OPHS-D)∈>∈Avicel∈>∈cotton treated with sodium hydroxide (cotton∈+∈NaOH)∈>∈cotton. Conclusions: No significant correlations were observed between the yield of conversion and supramolecular characteristics, such as specific surface area (SSA) and lateral fibril dimensions (LFD). A strong correlation was found between the average pore size of the starting material and the enzymatic conversion yield. The degree of crystallinity was maintained during enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulosic substrates, contradicting previous explanations of the increasing crystallinity of cellulose during enzymatic hydrolysis. Both acid and enzymatic hydrolysis can increase the LFD, but no plausible mechanisms could be identified. The sample with the highest initial degree of crystallinity, NCC-OPHS-ND, exhibited the highest conversion yield, but this was not accompanied by any change in LFD, indicating that the hydrolysis mechanism is not based on lateral erosion

  • 395.
    Peciulyte, Ausra
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kiskis, Juris
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE, Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Olsson, Lisbeth
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Enejder, Annika
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Visualization of structural changes in cellulosic substrates during enzymatic hydrolysis using multimodal nonlinear microscopy2016In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 1521-1536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose provides a renewable source of monosaccharides for production of variety of biochemicals and biopolymers. Unfortunately, the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is often incomplete, and the reasons are not fully understood. We have monitored enzymatic hydrolysis in terms of molecular density, ordering and autofluorescence of cellulose structures in real time using simultaneous CARS, SHG and MPEF microscopy with the aim of contributing to the understanding and optimization of the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Three cellulose-rich substrates with different supramolecular structures, pulp fibre, acid-treated pulp fibre and Avicel, were studied at microscopic level. The microscopy studies revealed that before enzymatic hydrolysis Avicel had the greatest carbon-hydrogen density, while pulp fibre and acid-treated fibre had similar density. Monitoring of the substrates during enzymatic hydrolysis revealed the double exponential SHG decay for pulp fibre and acid-treated fibre indicating two phases of the process. Acid-treated fibre was hydrolysed most rapidly and the hydrolysis of pulp fibre was spatially non-uniform leading to fractioning of the particles, while the hydrolysis of Avicel was more than an order of magnitude slower than that of both fibres.

  • 396.
    Petroudy, S.R.D
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway; Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Ghasemain, A
    Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran.
    Resalati, H
    Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran.
    Effects of bagasse microfibrillated cellulose and cationic polyacrylamide on key properties of bagasse paper2014In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 99, p. 311-318Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 397. Popescu, C.-M.
    et al.
    Larsson, P.T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Olaru, N.
    Vasile, C.
    Spectroscopic study of acetylated kraft pulp fibers2012In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, no 2, p. 530-536Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 398. Preston, J.
    et al.
    Hiorns, A. G.
    Elton, N.
    Ström, Göran
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Application of imaging reflectometry to studies of print mottle on commercially printed coated papers2008In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 11-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been well documented that homogeneous coating structures are necessary for obtaining good, mottle-free printed papers. Methods such as mercury intrusion porosimetry are widely used in the paper industry, but will deliver a bulk porosity measure, which contains contributions from both the surface layers and the bulk of the coating. One way of assessing the surface porosity is to measure its effective refractive index (Rl) because the Rl measured is a combination of the material Rl and air. In this work three papers coated with PCC, kaolin, and GCC were Rl mapped using an imaging reflectometer. The data were then treated with a mathematical transform in order to be able to quantify the degree of variation that was taking place at each length scale. These results were then compared to the print mottle, which was evident after both lab scale printing and full scale sheetfed printing of the pilot coated papers. The commercial mottle was quantified both visually and using image analysis and there was a reasonable correlation between these two methods. In the halftone printed area, the propensity for mottle correlated with the degree of porosity variation of the coating. However, the rankings for the full tone print areas better correlated with the short time water absorbency of the coatings. FFT band-pass analysis confirmed that the same spatial distribution of unevenness occurred in the basepaper, coating layer and printed areas.

  • 399. Ragauskas, A J
    et al.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE, Innventia.
    Nanocellulose and the future2014In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 06-majArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 400.
    Rahman, Hafizur
    et al.
    SCA R&D Centre, Sweden.
    Lindström, Mikael E.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandström, Peter
    SCA R&D Centre, Sweden.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Engstrand, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    The effect of increased pulp yield using additives in the softwood kraft cook on the physical properties of low-grammage handsheets2017In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 317-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of increasing the pulp yield by the addition of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) or polysulfide (PS) in softwood kraft cooking, i.e. enhancing the retention of glucomannan, on the physical properties of low-grammage handsheets was studied. In addition to the yield improvement, an increase in tensile index was observed, especially at lower degrees of beating. These higher yield pulps showed an increase in pore volume, indicating an increased degree of swelling of the fibres. Presumably, the increased flexibility of the fibres affects the bonding strength and leads to the higher tensile index observed.

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