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  • 301.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Pelo, Christian
    Ramboll, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    CFD-beräkningar vid brandteknisk dimensionering - En Round Robin studie2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I studien utförde nio deltagande aktörer samma beräkningsuppgifter utan att veta vad de andra kommit fram till. Resultatsammanställningen visar en relativt stor spridning som till största delen kan förklaras med att deltagarna gör olika ingenjörsmässiga val. Läs den och fundera på vilka ingenjörsmässiga val du gör i vardagen.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 302.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Fukt, trä och mögelväxt – en översikt över litteratur inom området2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Preventing mould growth on building materials during construction requires understanding the conditions under which mould can grow. This study conducted an inventory of literature published in the field of moisture, wooden material, and mould growth, selected, documented and categorised relevant literature, and summarised the state of current research. The study is part of a bigger project working to produce a handbook for the moisture-proof production of wooden buildings. The criterium for selecting literature was whether it could provide information on the conditions under which mould growth can occur on wood and wood-based materials during the production stage. This information mainly covers limit values for humidity and temperature, how long these limit values can be exceeded without mould growth, and whether there are differences between different wood materials and between different wood-based products. Both laboratory tests and field studies are included in the material. Most published laboratory studies have been performed under high relative humidity (RH), very favourable to mould growth. Often in these conditions, mould growth begins within one week on all wooden material. Mould growth at lower, less favourable humidity conditions is less studied. However, there are indications that the lowest RH at which mould can grow varies between different qualities of wood. The laboratory studies use different methodologies, and it is not easy to compare results and make general conclusions to achieve the purpose of this study. For example, only discolouring growth is studied, resulting in misleading interpretations, as there may be extensive growth on a material without being visible to the naked eye. Outdoor field studies were evaluated first after several months. The results are difficult to apply to the construction of buildings, as these are not exposed for such long periods without weather protection. Additionally, the field studies only considered the development of discolouring growth. The report also summarises several studies performed at RISE using the same methodology. Some are yet unpublished. More information about the relationship between moisture, temperature, wood material, etc. can be obtained by additional analysis of the results from these studies.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 303.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Bok, Gunilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Lång, Lukas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad.
    Kritiskt fukttillstånd för mögelpåväxt på byggnadsmaterial2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical moisture level for mould growth on building materials. Mould can grow on building materials in 75-100% relative humidity (RH) at room temperature. How sensitive materials are to mould growth varies. One way to describe this sensitivity is the critical moisture level, RHcrit, the lowest RH at which mould can grow on a material. The critical moisture level for different material groups was proposed based on the current research situation in 2005, in the report ” Microbiological growth on building materials – critical moisture levels. State of the art” (SP Rapport 2005: 11). Based on new research results, these values are no longer valid. This report provides a general overview of the conditions for mould growth on building materials, focusing on the critical moisture level and the new research results. The main conclusion is that RHcrit is a product-specific property. It is impossible to estimate RHcrit for a product based on that it belongs to a group of materials, such as plaster or wood-based boards. Instead, RHcrit must be determined by laboratory tests for each product. The report also discusses how the results of a laboratory test can be used to prevent mould growth in buildings with known RF and temperature and the benefits of using RHcrit instead of traditional mould resistance tests.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 304.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Brander, Linus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Jansson, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Svennberg, Kaisa
    Kvalitet hos byggnadsmaterial i cirkulära flöden2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en del av ett projekt med det övergripande målet att bygg- och rivningsavfall i högre utsträckning skall återvinnas eller återanvändas. Detta utan att kvaliteten på materialet, och därmed framtida byggnader, försämras.

    Syftet med projektet har varit att kartlägga och sammanställa de kunskaper och erfarenheter som finns kring de tekniska aspekterna vid cirkulära flöden av byggmaterial, med fokus på kvalitetsfrågor, att identifiera nya projekt som kan minska mängden bygg- och rivningsavfall som deponeras eller förbränns samt att skapa nya nätverk. Det finns spridd kunskap i byggbranschen om dessa frågor och dessutom finns en mängd forskningsresultat inom olika områden. I projektet har kunskaper och erfarenheter inom området samlats in genom litteraturstudier, workshops och seminarier, studiebesök och intervjuer.

    I första delen av rapporten diskuteras generella tekniska erfarenheter och utmaningar i olika delar av byggkedjan, medan utmaningar för specifika materialgrupper diskuteras i den andra delen av rapporten. Dessa materialgrupper är polymera material, planglas, stenull, glasull, gipsskivor, krossad betong samt trä och träbaserade material. I rapporten redovisas en enkätundersökning som genomförts av Optimera hos deras proffskunder, i syfte att samla in dessas erfarenheter och synpunkter kring hållbart byggande.

    Generellt kan vi konstatera att det finns stora utmaningar med att öka återvinningsgraden för rivnings- och ombyggnadsavfall. För installationsspill och byggavfall är de tekniska utmaningarna inte lika stora. Utmaningar och förutsättningar för ökad återvinning med bibehållen god kvalitet varierar mellan olika materialslag/produkter, typ av byggprojekt samt avsedd användning.

    I rapporten föreslås ett antal konkreta förslag på områden där arbetet kan drivas vidare. Dessa inkluderar bland annat förbättrad/utökad inventering inför rivning och ombyggnad, rutiner och metoder för provtagning, korrekt sortering, hantering och lagring för att få rätt och jämn kvalitet, ge möjlighet för separering av sammansatta material, logistikfrågor, produktionstekniska lösningar samt kvalitetssäkring. Resultaten visar också på vikten av utbildning, nätverk och mötesplatser samt att forskningsprojekt genomförs tvärvetenskapligt. Det finns goda möjligheter för ökad återvinning genom samarbete genom hela byggkedjan.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 305.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Lång, Lukas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Capener, Carl-Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    How well do mould models predict mould growth in buildings, considering the end-user perspective?2021Inngår i: Journal of Building Engineering, E-ISSN 2352-7102, Vol. 40, artikkel-id 102301Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mould growth results from a complex interaction between environmental factors, material properties, and mould fungi characteristics. These interactions must be considered during the design, construction and maintenance of a building to prevent growth. Mould prediction models aim to predict whether mould will grow on a specific material in a part of building with a known, or simulated, relative humidity and temperature. They are often used in the design phase. Several models are available. There is limited research on the performance of the models in real buildings. This study aimed to evaluate six different models, using data from five building parts. The predictions on whether mould growth was expected or not were compared to actual mould growth observations on five building materials. The study was performed as a round-robin. Most models underestimated the possibility for mould when humidity and temperature varied a lot by time. The outcome also depended on the end-user, who needs to make assumptions and parameter values choices on, for example, material susceptibility for mould growth. Therefore, using the same climate data, mould growth prediction may differ depending on who makes the prediction. One model, MOGLI model, where input data comes from laboratory tests and no such assumptions must be made, predicted correct in most cases. One conclusion of the study is that when predictions are made in practice, the results must be used cautiously. More knowledge is needed to understand, and more accurately model, the relationships between the moisture and temperature variations in buildings and the risk for mould growth. 

  • 306.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Sellén, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Bok, Gunilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Sparr, M.
    Länsforsäkringar Alliance Research Foundation, Sweden.
    Evaluation of cleaning products on the viability of mould growth on facades and decks2023Inngår i: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 2654, nr 1, artikkel-id 012026Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Microfungi, algae and cyanobacteria may cause discolouration when growing on facades and deckings. When the extent of growth is such that it is no longer aesthetically acceptable, cleaning is often performed to make the façade or deck as similar to the original as possible. Different cleaning methods may have different effects. Choosing a cleaning method is difficult because one does not always know which works best for the current conditions. Also, the best cleaning method probably cannot remove all the growth. In this study, the effect of 15 different cleaning chemical products on the viability of mould growth on painted facade boards and impregnated wood deck boards was studied in the laboratory. Results showed varying results; the best products killed or removed almost all growth, while the worst had the same effect as clean water. The results can not be used to predict the efficiency of the different products on discolouration authentic facades or wooden decks over time. It will be investigated in other studies of the same project as this study belongs. 

  • 307.
    Johansson, Tim
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Data-driven prediction of PVC flooring in the Swedish building stock2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    PVC flooring accounts for a significant share of PVC use in the construction sector and has great potential for recycling. Nevertheless, the actual recycling rate of PVC flooring spillage in 2018 was less than 20%, according to the national system for the separate collection and recycling of material residues from the installation of PVC floorings, developed by flooring manufacturer Tarkett AB and now used by all manufacturers in the flooring industry. To improve the sorting and recycling process of old PVC flooring it is necessary to identify where the material is located and evaluate its recycling potential. Such information is crucial for demolition waste recycling companies and flooring manufacturers to improve recycling practices for PVC flooring and then use the recycled PVC materials in the new flooring production. The challenge is to find out in which buildings there is PVC flooring and when it was installed which will indicate when it is planned to be dismantled and replaced. Since the PVC flooring manufactures do not keep track on where their products are laid such information is lacking. The best source of information that was made available for the researchers appeared to be the public building owners´ maintenance plans. Therefore, it was decided to focus on the presence of PVC flooring in public preschools as an example. By combining data from maintenance plans with national building registers, the PVC flooring in the Swedish preschools have been forecasted. The project results show an example how limited data sources can be used to predict presence of materials in larger stocks and is therefore expected to contribute to a climate-neutral supply chain with recycled PVC flooring. Based on the results of this study, dialogue, recommendations and guidelines can be developed for the flooring industry, the waste and recycling industry and the Swedish real estate and construction sector.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 308.
    Johansson, Tim
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Development of an energy atlas for renovation of the multifamily building stock in Sweden2017Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 203, s. 723-736Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have highlighted the importance of retrofitting to mitigate the energy use of building stocks. An important step in the development of renovation strategy and energy conservation advising is to gather information of the energy performance of the existing buildings. However, renovation strategies must also consider the socio-economic challenges associated with the cost of energy retrofitting. This paper describes the development of an energy atlas of the multifamily building stock in Sweden for visualizing and analyzing energy use and renovation needs. The atlas has been developed using Extract Transform and Load technology (ETL) to aggregate information on the energy performance, building ownership, renovation status, and socio-economic status of inhabitants from various data sources. The atlas can visualize the energy use and renovation status of multifamily buildings in 2D maps and 3D models, displaying data for either individual buildings or aggregated data on spatial scales ranging from 250 × 250 m squares through district and municipality to county areas. A demonstration of its use on national and city scales indicates that energy retrofits of multifamily buildings reaching a service life of 50 years can reduce the energy use of the existing building stock by up to 50% relative to 1990. However, costs associated with renovation and energy retrofits of multifamily buildings can be problematic, especially in economically weak suburbs. A good understanding of past and future renovation needs and socio-economic consequences is important in the development of a sustainable national renovation strategy. © 2017

  • 309.
    Johnsson, Filip
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Taljegård, Maria
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Johanna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    von Bonin, Michael
    Fraunhofer Institute, Germany.
    Gerhardt, Norman
    Fraunhofer Institute, Germany.
    Electricity supply to electric road systems: Impacts on the energy system and environment2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses how an electrification of the transport sector, including static charging and electric road systems (ERS), could impact the Swedish and German electricity system. The integration of ERS in the electricity system is analysed using: (i) a model-package consisting of an electricity system investment model (ELIN) and electricity system dispatch model (EPOD) and (ii) an energy system investment and dispatch model (SCOPE). The models are run for the same sets of scenarios and methodological differences and results are compared. The modelling results from the CollERS project show that the additional electricity demand from a large-scale implementation of ERS (i.e., a German-Swedish ERS corridor and connecting main road network) is mainly met by investments in wind power in Sweden and both wind and solar power in Germany. Since ERS will take some time to scale up,

    the modelling shows that there should be enough time for the electricity system to be transformed to meet demand for ERS while also meeting the goals on greenhouse gas reduction.

    It can be concluded that ERS are increasing the peak power demand (i.e., the net load) in the electricity system. Therefore, there is a need for more investments in peak power units and storage technologies when using ERS. A smart integration of other electricity demand, such as optimisation of the static charging at the home location of passenger cars, can facilitate an efficient use of renewable electricity also with ERS. Thus,

    it is important that ERS are evaluated and assessed in connection to corresponding assessment of electrification technologies of passenger cars and other sectors, including the industry sector where there are already plans for electrification (e.g. iron and steel, cement and petrochemical industry).

    The model comparison shows that different assumptions and methodological choices impact what kind of investments are taken, such as in wind, solar and thermal power plants to cover an additional demand from the use of ERS. However, an increase in investments in solar power (Germany) and wind power (Sweden) can be seen in all scenarios to cover the new demand for ERS.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    CollERS_Electricty_Supply_ERS_20200511
  • 310.
    Jonasson, Hans G.
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Storeheier, Svein
    SINTEF.
    Nord 2000. New nordic prediction method for road traffic noise2001Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A new Nordic method to predict road traffic noise is proposed. It is based on a complete

    separation of source emission and sound propagation. Each vehicle is modelled as a

    number of point sources each with a certain sound power with or without directivity. The

    source model is connected to point source sound propagation theory to yield the sound

    pressure level in an arbitrary receiver position. The propagation model is based on

    accurate analytical models and it is capable of predicting propagation effects both with

    and without the influence of meteorological parameters.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    SP_rapport_2001_10
  • 311.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Fire Stops in Buildings2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In a statistical study performed by the London fire brigade in the Real Fires Database it was found that out of 30 086 fires occurring between 2009 and 2011, fire spread beyond the floor of origin through gaps or voids occurred in 92 cases. This illustrates that the phenomenon is relatively rare. However, it can lead to severe property damage. Fires can spread invisibly within cavities of the structure, which has led to problems concerning the extinguishment of the fire. Cavity barriers function is to stop the fire spread through cavities. However, these cavity barriers have not always been effective.

    This report is the result of a study that aimed to:

    1. Develop a robust testing method for cavity barriers for cavities with combustible materials within walls, floors and other elements in buildings.

    2. Provide guidelines for the materials, installation, positioning, detailing and location of the cavity barriers.

    Additionally, a preliminary study is performed to assess some extinguishing strategies.

    Based on a study of characteristics of cavity fires, current standard fire tests for cavity barriers were revised for the use in cavities with combustible materials. From tests following the revised methodology, guidelines regarding the dimensions, installation and fire stopping design are provided.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 312.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    SMART HOUSING SMÅLAND : Optimizing the fire protection of massive timber structures2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A research project to optimize gypsum protection of CLT or other mass timber materials was performed by RISE. The project included 5 intermediate scale furnace fire tests of CLT protected with a fire rated gypsum board. The pattern of the gypsum screws was varied in the tests to allow for a comparative study. The comparisons indicated that fall-off of gypsum boards can be delayed significantly by changing positions of screws and the spacing between them.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 313.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Brandstopp i byggnadskonstruktioner: Resultat från SBUF projekt 129932016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bristande brandteknisk funktion hos byggnadstekniska detaljlösningar är ofta en starkt

    bidragande orsak till brandspridning. Flera incidenter de senaste åren visar tydligt att byggsystem

    med hålrum kan ha stor inverkan på brandförloppet och medföra stora egendomsskador i alla

    typer av byggnader. Befintliga rekommendationer om att brandstopp måste installeras i hålrum

    för att hindra att dolda bränder uppstår och sprids mellan brandceller följs tyvärr ofta inte inom

    praktiskt byggande.

    Syftet med projektet är att utveckla en lämplig metodik för att verifiera funktionen hos olika

    typer av brandstopp i byggnader, att dokumentera funktionen hos några typer av brandstopp

    enligt relevant metodik samt att ge underlag för riktlinjer om hur brandstopp ska utformas och

    användas. Resultaten ska även kunna användas för att bedöma befintliga detaljlösningar.

    Arbetet har inriktats främst på brandstopp för hålrum i modulhus. Olika typer av brandstopp för

    sådana hålrum har studerats bland annat genom provningar i modellskala. Befintlig

    provningsteknik har vidareutvecklats och en reviderad metodik har föreslagits.

    Som ett första resultat för praktisk användning har riktlinjer tagits fram för hur brandstopp ska

    utformas och användas i modulkonstruktioner. De främsta målgrupperna är bygg- och

    byggmaterialindustrin samt brandkonsulter

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 314.
    Jónsdóttir, Hafdís
    et al.
    Chalmers Industriteknik, Sweden.
    Bekken Björkman, Max
    Chalmers Industriteknik, Sweden.
    Boss, Annika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Lindqvist, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Ett cirkulärt system för emballageplastfrån byggindustrin steg 2 (CirEm steg 2)2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggprodukter är det näst största användningsområdet för plast efter förpackningar. Byggindustrin använder dessutom en stor mängd plastförpackningar men endast en liten del av plastavfallet från denna industrigren materialåtervinns. Sedan 2020 ska enligt lag all plast från byggnation och rivning sorteras ut separat i minst en fraktion men för att uppnå en mer hållbar plastanvändning samt ökad och kvalitativ materialåtervinning behöver plasten sorteras i flera fraktioner och samlas in så att materialet kan återvinnas och användas i nya produkter. Projektet CirEm steg 2 (”Ett cirkulärt system för emballageplast från byggindustrin steg 2”) är finansierat av Energimyndigheten inom ramen för innovationsprogrammet RE:Source och genomfört av Chalmers Industriteknik och RISE tillsammans med 14 projektdeltagare i form av byggföretag, byggfackhandel, avfallsentreprenörer, återvinnare, plastproducenter, fastighetsägare, arkitekter, branchorganisationer och IT-företag. Målet med projektet är att utveckla och testa ett effektivt insamlings- och återvinningssystem för plastemballage från byggindustrin. Projektet har undersökt och identifierat möjligheter och utmaningar med att samla in och återvinna plastemballage och annan mjukplast som avfall från byggarbetsplatser och byggfackhandel. Genom olika insamlingsförsök har projektet visat på hur avfallet bör sorteras vid källan för att förbättra kvaliteten på den sekundära plastråvaran. Försök där sekundär plastråvara tagits fram och sedan använts vid produkttillverkning har visat på hur sådan plast som insamlats kan hitta olika avsättningsområden. Den transparanta plasten kunde exempelvis användas till plasthuvar och den färgade till virkestäckfilm och säckar. Projektet har visat att det fungerar bra att producera högkvalitativa plastprodukter baserade på sekundär plastråvara från plastemballage men att kvalitetsaspekten hänger tätt ihop med hur plastavfallet samlas in och hanteras. Det finns därför goda möjligheter att nå ett högt värdebevarande men för att skapa ett effektivt insamlings- och återvinningssystem för plastemballage och annan mjukplast från byggindustrin behöver det fortsatt arbetas med att förbättra sorteringen vid källan samt att öka medvetenheten om möjligheterna för återvinning. En utmaning i detta sammanhang är att avfallsgenererare och de aktörer som lämnar ifrån sig plastavfallet i dagsläget inte ser tillräckliga ekonomiska incitament för att sortera plastemballage och annan mjukplast i mer än en fraktion. Kostnadsbilden för de som står med avfallet behöver därför förändras för att skapa större drivkrafter till en utökad sortering och därmed ett högre värdebevarande.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 315.
    Jöhrens, Julius
    et al.
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Helms, Hinrich
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Lambrecht, Udo
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Spathelf, Felix
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Mottschall, Moritz
    Öko-Institut eV, Germany.
    Hacker, Florian
    Öko-Institut eV, Germany.
    Jelica, Darijan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Alfredsson, Hampus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Nebauer, Greger
    Intraplan Consult GmbH, Germany.
    Schubert, Markus
    Intraplan Consult GmbH, Germany.
    Almestrand Linné, Philip
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Nordin, Lina
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Taljegård, Maria
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Connecting Countries by Electric Roads: Methodology for Feasibility Analysis of a Transnational ERS Corridor2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aims at discussing relevant aspects for a potential roll-out of Electric Road Systems (ERS) on transnational corridors, as well as generally for ERS introduction in Europe.

    Feasibility criteria have thus been developed in order to assess the following topics for specific potential ERS corridor projects:

    • Technical aspects: Which technical prerequisites exist for ERS corridors and to which extent can they expected to be met?
    • Environmental aspects: Which effects can be expected on key environmental indicators?
    • Economic aspects: Can an ERS corridor pose a business case? Could it contribute to the improvement of ERS economy in general?
    • Political aspects: Would an ERS corridor implementation make sense from a political point of view?

    The developed criteria may serve as a toolbox for scrutinizing future transnational ERS corridor projects. In order to illustrate their application, we used them to analyse a potential roll-out of an Electric Road System on a selected highway corridor (424 km) connecting Sweden and Germany, but mainly located on Danish territory. Based on traffic flows and patterns along the corridor route, it was found:

    • A considerable part of the total truck mileage on the corridor is done by vehicles with a rather limited driving distance for pre- and post-haul, assuming the corridor is realized as a stand-alone project, and
    • the CO2 emissions (well-to-wheel) of truck traffic along the corridor route can be significantly reduced if electric trucks are powered by the national electricity mixes expected for the year 2030, and even more if it would be powered purely renewable.

    Although a continuous ERS on the complete corridor route would not be economically feasible under current conditions, the analysis pinpoints sections along the route where the traffic volumes with a sufficient share of operation on a potential ERS are significantly higher. These sections are located in the metropolitan areas of Malmö, Copenhagen and Hamburg. For implementation, peculiarities of the local markets and regulation should be considered, as well as country-specific priorities on decarbonizing road freight transport. Additionally, the identified ERS potential for medium distances will depend on the technical and cost development of battery trucks.

    Our analysis also sheds some light on the role of first transnational corridors within a European roll-out strategy for ERS. Such corridor projects could help to

    • proof the principal strengths of ERS,
    • trigger strategic coordination between the participating countries,
    • foster national ERS roll-out due to synergy effects with the corridor and
    • pave the way for integration of ERS into EU legislation (e.g. AFID, TEN-T planning)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    CollERS_Transnational_ERS_20210310
  • 316.
    Kadawo, Abdinasir
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Sadagopan, Madumita
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    During, Otto
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Nagy, Agnes
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Combination of LCA and circularity index for assessment of environmental impact of recycled aggregate concrete2023Inngår i: Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials, ISSN 2165-0373, E-ISSN 2165-0381, Vol. 12, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multidisciplinary approach is used to evaluate concrete with recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) from technical, environmental impacts and product circularity perspectives. Two RCA replacements investigated, RAC50: fine aggregates; RAC100: both coarse, fine aggregates. Reference, recycled concretes have same cement content, similar workability and compressive strength requirement, proven experimentally. RCA is sourced from pre-fab element discards of a Swedish plant, the logistical alternatives requiring environmental impact analysis. Alternatives are RCA crushing at plant and crushing at a different location including transportation. LCA shows transportation is second largest contributor after cement in all impact categories. RAC alternatives show lower total impact than reference concrete due to RCA replacement. A circularity index for concrete based on economic value of recirculated aggregates; supplements LCA for sustainability reporting. Circularity index results: RAC100 > RAC50 > RC. Combining circularity index with LCA helps optimize recycling process with regard to amount of recycled material and logistics respectively. © 2022 The Author(s).

  • 317.
    Karami, Peyman
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    A comparative study of the environmental impact of Swedish residential buildings with vacuum insulation panels2015Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 109, s. 183-194Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A large part of the energy consumption in the European Union member states is related to space heating, a significant share of which is due to transmission losses through the building envelope. Vacuum insulation panels (VIPs), with unique thermal insulation properties, do therefore provide an interesting alternative for the building industry. This paper presents the results of a life cycle analysis (LCA) study that compares the environmental impact of three hypothetical buildings, a standard residential building, a regular well-insulated building and a building insulated with VIPs. The environmental impact includes the global warming potential (GWP) and the primary energy (PE) use, from the material production stage to the building operational phase (50 years). The cradle-to-gate environmental impact categories of ozone depletion potential (ODP), acidification potential (AP) and eutrophication potential (EP) of all building components are also assessed. The study shows a comparatively lower operational energy for the VIP insulated building and a relatively lower total greenhouse gas emission as well as the possibility to save significant living space. The results also show that the VIPs have measurable environmental impact during the product stage while the core material of the VIPs has considerable impact on the results.

  • 318.
    Karlberg, Marie
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Simons, Andrew
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Områdesanalys om hållbar hantering av processvatten i den biobaserade industrin2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Area analysis on sustainable management of process water in the bio-based industryWater is an important resource for the bio-based industry where many processes use large amounts of water. Proactive work towards more efficient process water use provides better conditions to meet future demands for sustainable resource management.Upcoming legislation is expected to put increased requirements for resource efficiency for water, and customers make clearer demands on companies to account for water use.At the same time, Sweden is a country with large water resources and there is generally plenty of water. Nonetheless, the conditions vary greatly and access varies geographically. In south-eastern Sweden, many areas have limited water resources and water shortages are a fact during some dry years. Climate change will also bring about further changes in water availability. In general, Sweden will receive more precipitation on average over the year. But in the south-eastern parts of the country, increased temperature and evaporation will lead to longer periods of drought and lower water flows.To understand different perspectives with respect to sustainable water use, a stakeholder analysis has been carried out with a number of interviews and two round-table discussions. The purpose of the interviews is to gain understanding of different aspects such as the attitude to sustainable water use, risk awareness, proportion of water that is circulated internally in the process, along with the connections between water consumption and energy. At the stakeholder dialogue, it emerged that there is a need to cooperate more with other actors in one's immediate area. This allows actors to gain a greater understanding of how the conditions for water availability will change and what role one's own operations play in the total access to water.There is a need to be able to demonstrate the positive and negative impacts of reducing water use and the impact on processes. There is often no access to methods, time and/or expertise to clearly link water use and energy consumption, nor to be able to demonstrate incentives and the potential for reduced costs. Here, support is needed in the form of tools such as simulation models or process integration techniques that link water, energy and costs. Such tools can provide an investment basis for sustainable water use. It is recommended that industry and researchers must work together to develop and demonstrate technologies that enable this holistic understanding of water, energy and cost relationships.There is also a need for clearer standards and specifications with respect to the impact detrimental substances in bio-based process industries. This can reduce the need for excessively large safety margins with regard to water quality, and hence reduce the risk of processes using large amounts of water and building oversized systems.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 319.
    Karlsson, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Energi och klimateffektiva byggsystem med hjälp av Modellbaseradprognosstyrning2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A general optimization model has been developed and applied for a representative apartment in the condominium association "Viva", which is an apartment building area planned to be erected by Riksbyggen, at Dr. Allard street in Gothenburg. The optimization model's purpose is to find the optimum supply of heat from an environmental perspective without compromising thermal comfort. The building's heating system is updated with the heat source CO

    2-load, external climatic variations and internal loads, three days ahead and at the same time, the apartment’s heating system and thermal behavior is also taking into account. The aim is to assess the potential for CO2-savings depending on the choice of building structures and heating systems.

    The model of the Viva's apartment shows that it is possible to control and optimize the heat supply with respect to comfort requirements, internal and external loads, and environmental damage from the heat production. The extent of CO

    2 savings will be entirely dependent on how much CO2 impact of energy varies over time. A variation with a standard deviation of about 25 grams of CO2 / kWh provides savings of up to 20% for an apartment with a concrete frame and up to 16% for the same apartment with wooden frames. The difference between the heating systems; underfloor heating or air heating, is marginal in this case. On the other hand, if the standard deviation would be five times larger, corresponding to the use of margin generated heat, there could be savings of as much as 171% in the concrete apartment with underfloor heating and 145% for the same apartment with wooden frames. If air heating is used the savings will decrease by 20%-units in each case. All these findings are a result of optimization of heat source CO2-load and a comparison with the corresponding apartment controlled without optimization of heat source and were inside temperature could vary between 21-23 degrees. During optimization the temperature has been allowed to vary between 20-24 degrees.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 320. Karlsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Lannemyr, Rikard
    Karlsson, Ann
    Ranäng, Sara
    Sweco, Sweden.
    PM SMARTA LEVERANSER GAMLA STAN2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 321.
    Karlsson, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Haraldson, Sandra
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Holmberg, Per-Erik
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Co-using infrastructure for sustainability in maritime transports2015Inngår i: 2015 Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2015, Americas Conference on Information Systems , 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable transportation systems require optimal co-use of infrastructure. Different means of transportation use infrastructure for its operations. At certain points these means of transportation utilizes the same infrastructure, such as e.g. passages on or under bridges, which require co-modal coordination. To create means for such coordination, situational awareness needs to be established among involved actors by digitalization and principles for information sharing. In this short paper, a comodal transport system, GOTRIS (Göta Älv River Information Services), is used as a basis for a deeper understanding of the challenges for reaching an optimal co-use of infrastructure. By integrating information from maritime transports as one source in this coordination effort, sustainable transportation systems can be reached. This challenge is formulated in a research question and a preferred approach is stated.

  • 322.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Kartläggning av svenska aktörer relevanta för utvecklandet av funktionaliteter hos smarta fönster: Appendix till förstudie för Smart Windows Technology Center (SWTC)2017Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 323.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Kozlowski, Marcin
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Andersson, Sara
    Acoustic Agree AB, Sweden.
    Haller, Kristian
    Acoustic Agree AB, Sweden.
    Persson, Kent
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Non‐destructive assessment of the glassstrength using nonlinear acoustics2022Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 324.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Kozlowski, Marcin
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Sweden.
    Kinsella, David
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Sweden.
    Haller, Kristian
    Acoustic Agree AB, Sweden.
    Andersson, Sara
    Acoustic Agree AB, Sweden.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    Osby Glas AB, Sweden.
    Persson, Kent
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Sweden.
    Kvalitetshöjning av planglas: Icke-förstörande provning av glasets hållfasthet2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållfastheten och därmed kvaliteten på planglas varierar kraftigt beroende på förekomsten sprickor i glasets yta. Sprickorna fungerar som brottanvisningar vilket medför att man måste räkna med stora säkerhetsfaktorer då glas belastas i olika byggnadskonstruktioner. Trä som konstruktionsmaterial har en liknande problematik där man utvecklat virkessortering för att kvalitetsklassning. I den här förstudien har vi undersökt om det går att kvalitetsklassa planglas med hjälp av en oförstörande provningsmetod baserad på icke-linjärt ultraljud. Tre olika kantbearbetningar (A) dragen, (B) obehandlad och (C) polerad kant undersöktes i 4-punktsböjprovning med tre olika belastningshastigheter (0.6, 2 och 5mm/min) och kontinuerlig mätning av skadevärde med icke-linjärt ultraljud. Hållfastheten för de olika kantbearbetningar följer trenden (C) polerad > (A) dragen > (B) obehandlad  med avtagande hållfasthet. Som förväntat gav provningarna ett ökande skadevärde med en ökande last. Provningarna visade även att hållfastheten var lägre för lägre belastningshastigheter. Skadevärdet ökade mest för obehandlad kant vilket tyder på att det fanns en stor spricktillväxt medan lägst ökning gav polerad kant. Vi har även undersökt obehandlade brutna kanter med optiskt profilometri och i ljusmikroskop. Med ljusmikroskopi kunde vi linjärt korrelera kantskadans tjocklek till tjockleken på glaset. Luftsidan på planglas undersöktes med optisk profilometri och man fann tydliga skillnader i ytornas karakteristik. Skillnaderna är inte synliga för blotta ögat men de skulle kunna ge upphov till andra skillnader såsom t ex fuktkänslighet, mekanisk skärbarhet och hållfasthet. Sammanfattningsvis så finns det god potential för kvalitetsklassning av planglas men det kommer att behövas fler tester i ett större forskningsprojekt för att ta detta till marknaden. Marknadspotentialen är enorm med 80 miljoner ton planglas i marknadsbehov.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 325.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Lang, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Fransson, Anna-Lena
    GFAB Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Persson, Tomas
    GFAB Lindberg & Co AB, Sweden.
    Spontangranulering av härdade glas: En litteraturstudie och en genomlysning av problemet inom glasbranschen2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Härdat glas har många fördelar i flera avseenden bl a sprickmönstret, hållfastheten och ett överkomligt pris. Akilleshälen för termiskt härdat glas är spontangranulering som är ovanligt men som trots allt förekommer. Syftet med den här förstudien var att genomlysa hur vanligt förekommande det är genom enkäter till företag inom duschväggsbranschen samt göra en litteraturstudie med syftet att undersöka vilka metoder det finns att råda bot på problemet. Enkäterna visade att branschen inte direkt ser det som ett problem men endast en relativt liten andel för statistik på hur vanligt förekommande spontangranulering är. Litteraturstudien visade på en splittrad bransch varav en del förespråkar den standardiserade HST-metoden (heat soak test) medan andra kritiserar den. Oavsett har man lagt ner mest arbete på HST-metoden och det är den som fått störst genomslag, men den används inte i hela branschen. Metoden har sina brister men just nu pågår arbete med att uppdatera den befintliga standarden vilket kommer att göra den mer tillförlitlig. HST-metoden har dock fortfarande nackdelarna att den är relativt dyr och minskar härdningsgraden något. För alternativa metoder krävs tydliga satsningar som dock är osannolika eftersom problemet anses vara litet. De alternativ som identifierats som mest intressanta är metoder som ger ytterligare fördelar såsom t ex hållfasthetssortering av planglas eller att man utvecklar en glassammansättning som lämpar sig för termisk härdning av glas.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 326.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Gregard, Greger
    Chromogenics, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per
    Ray Space, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Anders
    Linköpings university, Sweden.
    Askling, Anders
    Nässjö Kommun, Sweden.
    Möjligheter för multifunktionella fönster i flerbostadshus: Teknik, visualisering och prototyper2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här förstudien fokuserade på visualisering och prototyptillverkning av dynamiskt fönster och luftrengörande fönster. Detta är viktigt för spridning av kunskap om nya smarta fönster, dels för företag som har intresse för ny teknologi men även för spridning av information till allmänheten. Resultatet av förstudien är en VR-visualisering av Chromogenics dynamiska fönster Converlight® samt en prototyp för luftrengörande fönster. Det senare är ett nytt koncept för smarta fönster där luftreningen drivs av solljus och som även kan kombineras med ett termokromt skikt som ger ett dynamiskt fönster som styrs av temperatur. Med dynamiskt fönster menas att det kan variera i ljusgenomsläpplighet och därmed även energitillförsel till byggnader och det kan användas för att skapa ett bättre inomhusklimat. Rengöringen av inomhusluften är ytterligare en del i att skapa ett bättre inomhusklimat. VR-visualiseringen och prototypen för luftrengörande fönster är viktiga för att skapa en förståelse för innebörden av teknologin och på så vis inducera en snabbare kommersialisering av teknologierna. Projektet är ett exempel på en god samverkan mellan två VINNVÄXT initiativ, Smart Housing Småland och Visual Sweden, där man nyttjat varandras nyckelkompetenser på ett kompletterande sätt.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 327.
    Kauniste, Maarja
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia; Arro and Agasild Inseneribüroo OÜ, Estonia.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Tuhkanen, Eero
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Kalamees, Targo
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Assessment on Strength and Stiffness Properties of Aged Structural Timber2024Inngår i: Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering, ISSN 2029-9990, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 62-74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the growing popularity of wood and wood-based products in the construction industry, there has been insufficient focus on assessing the condition, preservation, and potential reuse of existing timber. While numerous standards evaluate the quality of freshly sawn timber, there is currently no standardized system for assessing the strength properties of aged and reused timber. The lack of these guidelines is also one of the reasons the results obtained in numerous research are often fluctuating, and we cannot draw clear conclusions. The matter is further complicated by the lack of data on old in-situ wood and its exploitation, which would help to evaluate its condition. Consequently, there is a real practical need to assess the condition of old timber to avoid unnecessary demolition and the loss of valuable and structurally sound building material. What sets this study apart from others is that, in addition to destructive testing, the 4-point non-destructive (ND) bending tests were conducted on all four faces of test specimens. This provided an opportunity to assess the wood visually and then find connections to associate external characteristics with real properties. This methodology aimed to determine whether it is feasible to visually assess the most practical way to use wooden elements in construction. If this question arises, which face of the beam would be better suited for the tension side and which for the compression side? The old timber used in testing originated from an old library building located on Vaksali Street, Tartu, Estonia and is estimated to be about 120 years old. This paper investigates and compares the collected data with a Nordic standard for grading fresh-sawn timber and two established Italian standards for visually assessing aged timber. This comparison contributes to developing a standardized framework for future visual assessments. ND and destructive four-point bending tests were performed to validate and find appropriate visual characteristics to determine the strength and stiffness of the timber elements. The primary goals of this study were first to compare the results obtained from existing ND methods with actual results and secondly to provide guidelines for better visual grading of wood in the future, based on Nordic Standard INSTA 142 (2010) and Italian standards UNI 11119 (2004) and UNI 11035 (2010) Contrary to previous research conclusions, the visual assessment results yielded unexpected outcomes. The results show that the grading standards significantly underestimated the real strength of the wood, and even more, none of the visual assessments overestimated the real strength of the specimens. Therefore, based on prior research and the findings derived from this study, there is evident a substantial potential for extensive development and optimization within this field.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 328.
    Keucken, Alexander
    et al.
    VIVAB Vatten och Miljö i Väst, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Habagil, Moshe
    VIVAB Vatten och Miljö i Väst, Sweden.
    Batstone, Damien
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. Lunds university, Sweden.
    New insights on process performance and stability for anaerobic co-digestion through modelling and population analysis2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) allows for underutilised digesters to increase biomethane production. The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), e.g. food waste, is an abundant substrate with high degradability and gas potential. This paper focuses on the implementation of codigestion of mixed sludge from wastewater treatment and OFMSW through batch and continuous labscale experiments, modelling and microbial population analysis. The results show a rapid adaptation of the process and an increase of the biomethane production of 20 to 40% with 50% OFMSW and it has an impact on the microbial community. The methanogenic activity increases and changes towards acetate degradation while the community without co-substrate remains unaffected. The modelling results show that ammonium inhibition increases at elevated organic loads and that intermittent feeding causes fluctuations in digester performance due to varying inhibition. Modelling can be successfully used for designing feed strategies and experimental set-ups for anaerobic co-digestion.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 329.
    Keucken, Alexander
    et al.
    Vatten & Miljö i Väst AB, Sweden.
    Habagil, Moshe
    Vatten & Miljö i Väst AB, Sweden.
    Batstone, Damien
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Sludge and Organic FoodWaste — Performance, Inhibition, and Impact on theMicrobial Community2018Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, nr 9, artikkel-id 2325Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic co-digestion allows for under-utilised digesters to increase biomethane production. The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), i.e., food waste, is an abundant substrate with high degradability and gas potential. This paper investigates the co-digestion of mixed sludge from wastewater treatment plants and OFMSW, through batch and continuous labscale experiments, modelling, and microbial population analysis. The results show a rapid adaptation of the process, and an increase of the biomethane production by 20% to 40%, when codigesting mixed sludge with OFMSW at a ratio of 1:1, based on the volatile solids (VS) content. The introduction of OFMSW also has an impact on the microbial community. With 50% co-substrate and constant loading conditions (1 kg VS/m3/d) the methanogenic activity increases and adapts towards acetate degradation, while the community in the reference reactor, without a co-substrate, remains unaffected. An elevated load (2 kg VS/m3/d) increases the methanogenic activity in both reactors, but the composition of the methanogenic population remains constant for the reference reactor. The modelling shows that ammonium inhibition increases at elevated organic loads, and that intermittent feeding causes fluctuations in the digester performance, due to varying inhibition. The paper demonstrates how modelling can be used for designing feed strategies and experimental setups for anaerobic co-digestion.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 330.
    Khanalizadehtaromi, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    DesignTool for Timber Balconies2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing environmental issues and the need to have more sustainable solutions in the construction industry and the built environment, raising awareness regarding more use of timber in multi-story structures is aimed. Ensuring the performance of timber balconies will help to increase more use of timber as the construction material in these elements. The developed tool in this study has two versions. The first one is able to calculate and control the deflection of balconies built with cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels. The second version calculates and controls the deflection and vibration of balconies made with plywood and timber studs. The material properties in the second version are verified with experimental tests performed on 30 balcony slabs. The four-point bending test and natural frequency measurements were performed at RISE laboratories. The tool is designed in Excel and has the advantages of being easy to access, easy to use, and easy to understand for the user.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 331.
    Kiuru, R.
    et al.
    Aalto University School of Engineering, Finland.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Király, D.
    SOM System Kft, Hungary.
    Suikkanen, J.
    Posiva Oy, Finland.
    Effects of Excavation Damage on the Physical Properties of Rock Matrix2021Inngår i: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, IOP Publishing Ltd , 2021, Vol. 833, nr 1, artikkel-id 012020Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Posiva Oy has conducted investigations into excavation damage, including comprehensive laboratory testing of physical properties of rock specimens from excavation damaged rock mass. Laboratory testing was conducted on drill core specimens extracted from the excavated surface of a tunnel located at approximately 345 m depth in Olkiluoto, Finland. A total of 141 drill core specimens of three main rock types, a structurally isotropic coarse-grained pegmatoid (PGR) and structurally anisotropic veined gneiss (VGN) and diatexitic gneiss (DGN), were subjected to petrophysical testing, rock mechanics testing and petrographic analyses. Results from the various tests were subjected to rigorous statistical analysis in order to reveal the effects excavation damage has on the physical properties of the rock mass. Results of the study revealed changes that are credited to excavation damage in resistivity, S-wave velocity and various elastic properties of the rock specimens. Effects of excavation damage and the depth of the excavation damaged zone seem to be different to gneiss compared to pegmatoid. On microscopic level, the extent of excavation damaged zone appears to be 0.2 - 0.4 m depending on the measured property. This means that the deeper excavation damaged layer observed by geophysical surveys may be caused by larger scale fractures. 

  • 332.
    Kiuru, Risto
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Király, Dorka
    Budapest University, Hungary.
    Dabi, Gergely
    University of Szeged, Hungary.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Tillämpad mekanik.
    Comparison of dfn modelled microfracture systems with petrophysical data in excavation damaged zone2021Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 11, nr 7, artikkel-id 2899Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical and petrographic properties of drill core specimens were determined as a part of investigations into excavation damage in the dedicated study area in the ONKALO® research facility in Olkiluoto, Western Finland. Microfractures in 16 specimens from two drillholes were analysed and used as a basis for fractal geometry-based discrete fracture network (DFN) modelling. It was concluded that the difference in resistivity between pegmatoid granite (PGR) and veined gneiss (VGN) specimens of similar porosity was likely due to differences in the types of microfractures. This hypothesis was confirmed from microfracture analysis and simulation: fractures in gneiss were short and mostly in one preferred orientation, whereas the fractures in granite were longer and had two preferred orientations. This may be due to microstructure differences of the rock types or could suggests that gneiss and granite may suffer different types of excavation damage. No dependencies on depth from the excavated surface were observed in the geometric parameters of the microfractures. This suggests that the excavation damaged zone cannot be identified based on the changes in the parameters of the microfracture networks, and that the disturbed layer observed by geophysical methods may be caused by macro-scale fractures. © 2021 by the authors.

  • 333.
    Kjølsen Jernæs, Nina
    et al.
    NIKU, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    In the Heat of the Moment: Testing Fire-Protective Covers for Mitigating Damage to Large Historic Inventories2023Inngår i: Studies in Conservation, ISSN 0039-3630, E-ISSN 2047-0584Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1990s, the Norwegian management for cultural heritage has increased its focus on finding effective solutions for protecting Norway?s wooden cultural heritage from fire damage. The medieval churches in general, including the wooden stave churches, with their interiors and inventories, are of special interest. However, the usefulness of protecting valuable interiors and inventories when fighting fire has been questioned. An experiment was carried out to find manageable solutions for protecting large inventories by using fire covers in case of fire. An experiment using seven commercially available products was conducted by fire fighters to investigate whether these products could protect historic interiors from water and fire. The preliminary results show that it is possible to find manageable, large format covers for the protection of large, immovable historic inventories.

  • 334.
    Klingberg, Josefine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Dolk, Elin
    Kungsbacka Municipality, Sweden.
    KAVA Kartläggning av vattenanvändning2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    KAVA mapping of water use.

    There is limited data on how much drinking water is used for different purposes and how water use varies over time in relation to various factors such as temperature and precipitation. This lack of knowledge means that we don’t know where the water goes for example on hot days when usage increases significantly, which creates a load on raw water sources, drinking water treatment and/or drinking water distribution systems. This project has analyzed water consumption data from a total of seven participating water utilities to create an understanding of how consumers contribute to flow peaks. Data has been collected from water treatment plants, pumping stations and water meters from various consumer groups such as households and businesses together with weather data. The results show, among other things, that water use, in most cases, rises when the temperature (maximum daily temperature) rises, that villas with a pool have a higher water use than villas without a pool during the second quarter of the year. Results also shows that and that flow peaks occur when many people use a little more water than when a few people use a lot more water, and that flow peaks are driven by local conditions as they usually do not occur simultaneously for drinking water plants in different locations. As more water meters with stationary readings are replaced with digital water meters, new opportunities are created to analyze water usage data. The new data base also provides opportunities to inform and visualize water use for consumers and give them direct feedback when they change their behavior pattern. The most important experience that is highlighted regarding communication of sustainable water use is to stick to a predetermined communication plan and to convey a clear and well-thought-out why consumers should reduce their water use. We hope that this project will create a better understanding of how and when flow peaks occur and with that information water utilities can better avoid flow peaks, irrigation bans and events with depressurized distribution networks from occurring.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 335.
    Klingberg, Josefine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Kusoffsky, Elin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Förstudie för testbädd för dagvattenanläggningar2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The awareness of, and need for, limiting the discharge of pollutants from stormwater to recipients is growing. However, it is a complex decision for customers to choose stormwater facilities as there is a variety of technical solutions on the market that often are marketed by the manufacturer with high levels of purification and little need for maintenance. In Sweden, there is currently no national standard for tests of the purification function of stormwater facilities. There are also no test sites for standardized third-party tests.   

    This project is a prestudy of a testbed for prefabricated compact stormwater facilities. The testbed will, when constructed, be able to ease the decision-making process of selection of measures for sustainable stormwater management. The testbed will also give manufacturers the opportunity to test and verify the function of their solutions under standardized conditions. 

    In parallel with this project, a project has been carried out with the aim of updating the proposed standard for prefabricated compact stormwater facilities with the goal of a new Swedish national standard. The purpose of the planned testbed is to perform tests according to the proposed standard. 

    The prestudy has been carried out through three project objectives: 

    1. Three different options for possible placement of a test bed have been investigated and compared. The alternatives are (1) integrate into the existing test bed for small-scale sewage treatment in Uppsala, (2) construct the test bed next to the RISE office and workshop in Uppsala and (3) construct the test bed as a mobile container solution that can be placed according to alternative 1 or 2 for independent testing, borrowed to technology manufacturers for development work or placed in fields for technology evaluation or research projects. 

    2. Examine how the test bed should be constructed to achieve a layout according to the proposed standard. 

    3. Through an interview study, gather experiences from six existing and/or previous testbeds in the VA technology area to learn lessons/avoid similar mistakes. 

    Together with the parallel project to develop the proposed standard, a workshop with approximately 30 participants and a questionnaire study with 12 participants have been carried out.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 336.
    Kovacs, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Larsson, David
    Solisten, Sweden.
    Effektiv renovering med solceller2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Installation of solar PV is a measure that can contribute to great climate benefits when renovating buildings. This report, which is the final report of the project "Optimized renovation for efficient PV roofs" (short called EST), describes how property owners can contribute to increased climate benefits by considering the possibilities with PV installations when planning to renovate a building. The focus of the work has been PV installation in connection with roof renovation, but facades, which are increasingly mentioned in PV discussions, are also treated and we also touch on solar shading and balcony fronts that are potentially interesting for solar PV integration. Climate benefit means a minimization of the greenhouse gas emissions that occur through the energy use in the building and in the production of the building's constituent building materials, and that the excess solar exported from the plant can replace fossil-based power production, see sections 2.1 and 2.2. Section 2.3 “Well-planned solar PV renovation” gives an overall picture of the challenges facing those who want to achieve the greatest possible climate benefit, challenges that are discussed in the following sections. In the project, we have investigated different ways of maximizing the size of a photovoltaic system based on what the roof of a building can accommodate, which means that the size is optimized with regard to the climate benefits. In general, this gives a different result than an economic optimization where the latter results in significantly smaller systems. The reason is that the sale of larger electricity production surpluses in this segment is currently not as profitable as replacing the electricity you buy, with self-produced electricity. Most research reports and guidelines on the topic of optimal plant size also stop at economic optimization, often without even mentioning the possibility of going further to increase climate benefits. In this project, we have basically done the opposite, without turning a blind eye to economic realities. In section 3, we deal with architecture, planning and permit issues and argue that the strategy we advocate also leads to better architectural solutions than state of the art. The focus has been on presenting several concept solutions that aim to maximize the utilization of the available roof space, see sections 4 and 5 and Appendix 2. Our motives for this are partly a feeling of high importance when it comes to accelerating the introduction of renewable energy production in the built environment. Another is a hope and a belief that politics and the market both contribute and will continue to contribute to a development that makes maximized climate benefit a much better deal for the plant owner than it is today. Section 6 briefly discusses a few different measures to increase the own use of the solar electricity one can produce, which enables building a larger facility while maintaining good finances. One of these measures — collective measurement of the apartments' household electricity - is dealt with in more detail in Appendix 3, which is a guide aimed at property owners. The project's initial hypothesis was that simultaneous renovation of roofs and installation of solar PV was an optimal approach. The results from more in-depth investigations of, for example, contract forms and tender documents in section 8 and from the seven case studies presented in section 9, have led to a more nuanced picture: • It may sometimes be better to install solar cells after the roof or facade renovation has been completed, but even if it is expected to take place later, there is every reason to take this future work into account when planning a renovation. Conversely, there are good reasons to think through your renovation needs if you are considering investing in a solar PV system. • In addition to renovating the climate shell of a building, renovation of the ventilation and electrical systems can also have a major impact on the technical and economic potential of a future PV system. • City planning and the building permit requirements for building-integrated solar cell solutions can sometimes be a major challenge when you want to maximize the solar PV surface on a roof in connection with renovation or extension, which is dealt with in section 3. In section 10, we finally discuss the experiences and results that the project has led to. We also describe four projects that in different ways pave the way for the continued introduction of solar PV in buildings and describe how the work in the EST project can be taken further in future projects.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 337.
    Kovacs, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Ollas, Patrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Hemlin, Olleper
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Regelmässiga förutsättningar för takrenoveringar och solcellsinstallationer – en litteratursammanställning2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten redogör för en tvådelad litteratursammanställning som dels sammanfattar incitament och regelmässiga hinder vid renovering av flerbostadshus, och dels redogör för de generella regelverk, policys och andra förutsättningar vid installationer av solcellsanläggningar. Den första delen är resultatet av litteratursökningar och intervjuer om tillgängliga stöd och reglerverk och den andra delen baseras enbart på litteratursökning. För aktörer på beställar- och leverantörssidan med intresse för takrenovering med solceller, syftar rapporten till att ge en bild av förutsättningarna i form av incitament och hinder.

    Den samlade bilden är att det pågår en snabb positiv utveckling kring incitament och regelverk specifikt för solceller och att även regelverk för energieffektivisering och miljöcertifiering kan motivera fastighetsägare till att ta ett sådant samlat grepp. Sammantaget utgör de styrande kraven – vid en renovering som klassas som en omfattande ändring – dock snarare ett hinder än en möjlighet för att genomföra de koncept som tagits fram i projektet.

    Denna rapport utgör ett komplement till projektrapporten för projektet ”Miljontak – takrenovering med solceller” (Energimyndighetens projektnummer: 41857-1) och finns tillgänglig via E2B2’s hemsida - http://www.e2b2.se/.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 338.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Johansson, Richard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Förstudie – Provningsmetod fysisk säkerhet för säkerhetskänslig verksamhet2024Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten redovisar resultaten från en förstudie som har genomförts under 2023 inom ramen för CFORT Centrum för fortifikatorisk kompetens. CFORT är en kompetensplattform med syfte att bygga upp och upprätthålla nationell fortifikatorisk kompetens för hela totalförsvarets behov. CFORT drivs i samverkan mellan Fortifikationsverket, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden och Försvarsmakten och där 15 myndigheter finns representerade i plattformens referensgrupp. Förstudien bygger på de resultatet från REINFORCE-projektet, som drivits inom CFORT och i huvudsak finansierats av EU:s fond för inre säkerhet ISF. Inom förstudien har befintliga standarder för fysisk säkerhet studerats och utvärderats med avseende på motståndsförmåga mot mer kvalificerade angrepp. Förstudiens slutsats är att en ny sammanhållen standard för fysisk säkerhet som tar höjd för hoten mot säkerhetskänslig verksamhet bör utformas och upprättas. Rapporten beskriver också övergripande hur en sådan standard och provmetod skulle kunna vara uppbyggd samt vilka utmaningar och möjligheter ett sådant arbete står inför. Slutligen ger rapporten vägledning till och förslag på det fortsatta arbetet.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 339.
    Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    De Goey, Heleen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Can Social Sustainability Values be Incorporated in a Product Service System for Temporary Public Building Modules?2017Inngår i: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 64, s. 193-198Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The temporary constructions industry has cost efficiency and sustainability challenges that may require new innovative business models as well as product and processes. This paperaims to discuss how social sustainability services can be included in product service system (PSS)by investigating a case where employment is offered in distributed temporary building module manufacturing in the PSS context. The case has been evaluated against PSS literature. Recent reviews and literature on inclusion of social sustainability and PSS for buildings were used. It is concluded that the current concept fits basic definitions of PSS although it is not typical. The social value of employment is difficult to evaluate and inclusion in PSS needs further research. Design practice could be used to further develop the services in the studied concept. © 2017 The Authors.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 340.
    Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Calculation Procedure for Revolving Doors -U-value2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a new calculation method to calculate the U-value of revolving doors. The calculation method is developed based on EN ISO 10077-1:2017 and EN ISO 10077-2:2017 standards, being used for calculating the U-value of doors and windows. Additionally, the EN 10211:2017 standard is exploited to calculate certain thermal bridges (Psi-values). The calculation method is developed by performing: 1. An analysis to identify the different heat flow paths 2. Frame calculations for the revolving part 3. Psi (ψ) calculations for the revolving part 4. Air cavity calculations 5. Frame calculation for the canopy part 6. Psi (ψ) calculation for the canopy part 7. U-value calculation for the complete door

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 341.
    Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Brick, Karolina
    Riksbyggen, Sweden.
    Rönneblad, Anders
    Cementa, Sweden.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    During, Otto
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Larsson, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kriterier för resurssnålt byggande i praktiken: Slutrapport från forskningsprogrammet E2B2 – energieffektivtbyggande och boende2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet omfattar uppföljning av ställda kriterier för låg klimatpåverkan från betong vid upphandlingav betongstomme för brf. Viva i Göteborg. Kriterierna följdes upp dels genom att LCA studien somgenomförts under programskedet uppdaterades med data för den färdigupphandlade byggnaden ochdels genom att interljuva ett urval av aktörer för att få en inblick över hur branschen ser på de ställdakraven. Arbetet innehåller även en avslutande del angående känsligheten i beräkningarna samtosäkerheter och hur de kan behandlas.Byggnaderna som är tänkta att stå i 100 år kommer utsättas för klimatförändringar. Därförgenomfördes parallellt med LCA studien också energisimuleringar för att se hur den termiskakomforten och uppvärmningsbehovet förändras över tiden.Resultaten av LCA-uppföljningen och de ställda kriterierna visar att kraven uppfylldes för både denprefabricerade betongen och den platsgjutna betongen. Att jämföra den totala klimatpåverkan mellanprogramskedet och upphandlad byggnad visar sig inte vara möjligt då konstruktionen har förändratsalltför mycket, bland annat har den uppvärmda ytan ökat med ca 50% samtidigt som mer material haranvänts för de prefabricerade väggarna och bjälklagen. En känslighetsanalys har istället genomförtssom visar att den upphandlade konstruktionen har 30% lägre klimatpåverkan per BOA jämfört motom den byggts med traditionell betong. Hade de ursprungliga konstruktionsdetaljerna frånprogramskedet använts för väggar och bjälklag hade klimatpåverkan istället varit ca 40% lägre.Vid framtida kravställning bör man därför ta hänsyn även till konstruktionerna, betongkvaliteternaoch dess materialmängder och inte bara ställa krav på betongrecepten som i det här fallet.Klimatsimuleringarna visar att det troligen finns ett stort mörkertal med lågenergilägenheter som harförhöjd temperatur inomhus sommartid redan vid dagens klimat

  • 342.
    Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    During, Otto
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Energy and climate-efficient construction systems: Environmental assessment of various frame options for buildings in Brf. Viva2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the collaborative forum Positive footprint housing® Riksbyggen is building the Viva residential quarter, which is a sustainability project at the very forefront of what is possible with contemporary construction. The idea is that this residential quarter should be fully sustainable in ecological, economic and social terms. Since 2013, a number of pilot studies have been completed under the auspices of the Viva project framework thanks to financing from the Swedish Energy Agency. The various building frame alternatives that have been evaluated are precast concrete, cast in-situ concrete and solid wood, all proposed by leading commercial suppliers. The report includes a specific requirement for equivalent functions during the use phase of the building, B. An interpretation has been provided that investigates the building engineering aspects in detail, as well as an account of the results based on the social community requirements specified in Viva, durability, fire, noise and energy consumption in the Swedish National Board of Building, Planning and Housing building regulations (BBR), plus Riksbyggen’s own requirements, Sweden Green Building Council’s Environmental Building Gold (Miljöbyggnad Guld) and 100-year life cycle. Given that the alternatives have different long-term characteristics (and also that our knowledge of these characteristics itself varies), these functional requirements have been addressed by setting up different scenarios in accordance with the EPD standard EN 15978. Because Riksbyggen has specified a requirement for a 100-year life cycle, we have also opted for an analysis period of 100 years. The results show no significant differences between concrete and timber structures for the same functions during the life cycle, either for climate or for primary energy. The minor differences reported are accordingly less than the degree of uncertainty involved in the study. The available documentation on the composition of the relevant intumescent paint coating on solid wood frames differs from source to source, so it was not possible to fully allow for the significance of this. The LCA has not included functional changes in the building linked to load-bearing characteristics, noise, moisture, health or other problems that may result in increased maintenance and replacement. The concrete houses have been dimensioned for 100 years, for instance, in accordance with tried and tested standards and experience. The solid wood house is not dimensioned in the same way, and this has led to us having to assume various scenarios.

    The results also show the following:

    • The uncertainties involved in comparing different structures and alternative solutions are very significant. The results are affected by factors such as life cycle, the functional requirements taken into consideration, transportation, design and structural details, etc.

    • Variations in the built items and a considerable degree of uncertainty in the assumptions make it difficult to obtain significant results on comparisons. Only actual construction projects with known specific data, declared from a life cycle perspective that takes into account actual building developer requirements and involving different scenarios (best, documented and worst-case) for the user stage can currently be compared.

    • In the other hand, comparisons restricted to different concrete structures only, or to different timber structures only, ought to involve a lower degree of uncertainty. These would then provide results that are significant as well as improvement requirements that are relevant.

    • There is potential for improving concrete by imposing requirements on the material

    • There is potential for improving solid wood frames by developing and guaranteeing well-documented long-term characteristics for all functional requirements.

    The LCAs were performed as an iterative process where all parties were given the opportunity to submit their viewpoints and suggestions for changes during the course of the work. This helped ensure that all alternatives have been properly thought through.

    Because, during the project, Riksbyggen opted to procure a concrete frame, in the final stage the researchers involved focused on ensuring the procurement process would result in the concrete frame as built meeting the requirements set out above. As things currently stand, the material requirements for the concrete are limited by the production options open to the suppliers, and this is therefore being investigated in the manufacture of precast concrete frames for the Viva cooperative housing association.

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  • 343.
    Kuznecovs, Artjoms
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ringsberg, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mallaya Ullal, Anirudh
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Janardhana Bangera, Pavan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Consequence analyses of collision-damaged ships — damage stability, structural adequacy and oil spills2023Inngår i: Ships and Offshore Structures, ISSN 1744-5302, E-ISSN 1754-212X, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 567-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A ship collision accident may pose a threat to human lives, the environment and material assets. A damaged ship can suffer from the loss of ship stability, reduced global structural strength, and the loss of the integrity of internal tanks carrying polluting liquids. This study presents a methodology as a framework that can be used to analyze the related consequences of ship-ship collision events using simulations and evaluations. The methodology includes nonlinear finite element analyses of the collision event, a METOCEAN data analysis module, damage stability simulations, analyses of the damaged ship’s ultimate strength and structural integrity, oil spill drift simulations, and finally, an evaluation of the three abovementioned consequences. A case study with a chemical tanker subjected to collision demonstrates the methodology. The collision event was assumed to occur in the Kattegat area (between Sweden and Denmark) at a ship route intersection with high ship traffic density. © 2022 The Author(s).

  • 344.
    Kårekull, Oscar
    et al.
    Fläkt Woods, Sweden.
    Hellgren, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Noise and indoor air quality: HVAC noise characteristics2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise from Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems in residential buildings have an influence on the residents´ well-being. The characteristics of HVAC noise have been investigated as to recommend typical spectra for the design of a listening test using sound recordings. An HVAC system layout is developed to represent a system in a residential building where variations of the noise spectrum are possible without the use of unrealistic conditions. From a spectrum shape perspective the main parameter of the system is the balance between noise originated from the heat recovery unit and the duct component related noise. The receiving room spectrum is here mainly modified by the use of different silencers close to the heat recovery unit and the balance between the pressure loss of the air terminal device and a nearby damper. Modifications of the heat recovery unit total airflow and the inflow properties to the air terminal device are also investigated. Variations at both low and high frequencies are possible, at a constant total A-weighted sound pressure level, using these system properties.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 345.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk.
    Mechanism and mode of carbonation of cementitious materials2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete is the most common and widely used construction material in the world, with a consumption of approximately 1.5 tons per capita annually worldwide. This consumes 3000 million ton of cement, around 400 kg per capita. Sweden consumes around 250 kg of cement per capita.  The production of Portland cement consumes around 3500 MJ energy per ton. In addition, Portland cement production releases considerable amounts of CO2 when limestone is heated and calcinated. With 800 kg of CO2 per ton of cement around 5 % of the global release of CO2 comes from cement clinker production. About half of this comes from the limestone. Concrete, however, also binds CO2 when it is carbonated. In a geological time perspective, all concrete will carbonate and thus half of the released CO2 will be bound to carbonated concrete, which would reduce the environmental impact (Xi et al 2016). I reality the absorption is much less, and is related to the time interval of interest.  How fast CO2 will be absorbed depends on the type of concrete or cementitious material, site of the concrete, amount of CO2 in the environment and the environment as such, etc. It is also depending on the amount CO2 in the atmosphere and the temperature. In the end, to be able to calculate the uptake it is important to find out what happens with the concrete after demolition and if it is possible to increase the speed of carbonation.  This report mainly cover the mechanism and mode of carbonation to be able to get a better and more accurate understanding of how to calculate carbonation and CO2 uptake.  This project was funded by the Swedish Consortium for financing Basic research in the Concrete Field. The consortium members are: Cementa, Färdig Betong, Abetong, Swerock, Betongindustri and Strängbetong.

  • 346.
    Landel, Pierre
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Linderholt, A.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Comparative study of wind-induced accelerations in tall timber buildings according to four methods2021Inngår i: World Conference on Timber Engineering 2021, WCTE 2021, World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE) , 2021Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The height and the market share of multi-story timber buildings are both rising. During the last two decades, the Architectural and Engineering Construction industry has developed new reliable solutions to provide strength, structural integrity, fire safety and robustness for timber structures used in the mid- and high-rise sectors. According to long-time survey and lab experiments, motion sickness and sopite syndrome are the main adverse effects on the occupants of a wind sensitive building. For tall timber buildings, wind-induced vibrations seem to be a new critical design aspect at much lower heights than for traditional steel-concrete buildings. To guarantee good comfort, the horizontal accelerations at the top of tall timber buildings must be limited. Two methods in the Eurocode for wind actions (EN1991-1-4), procedure 1 in Annex B (EC-B) and procedure 2 in Annex C (EC-C), provide formulas to estimate the along-wind accelerations. The Swedish code advises to follow a method specified in the National Annex to the Eurocode (EKS) and the American ASCE 7-2016 recommend another method. This study gives an overview on the background of the different methods for the evaluation of along-wind accelerations for buildings. Estimated accelerations of several tall timber buildings evaluated according to the different methods are compared and discussed. The scatter of the accelerations estimated with different codes is big and increases the design uncertainty of wind induced response at the top of tall timber buildings

  • 347.
    Landel, Pierre
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Reduced and test-data correlated FE-models of a large timber truss with dowel-type connections aimed for dynamic analyses at serviceability level2022Inngår i: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 260, artikkel-id 114208Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of wood buildings in the skylines of cities forces structural dynamic and timber experts to team up to solve one of the new civil-engineering challenges, namely comfort at the higher levels, in light weight buildings, with respect to wind-induced vibrations. Large laminated timber structures with mechanical joints are exposed to turbulent horizontal excitation with most of the wind energy blowing around the lowest resonance frequencies of 50 to 150 m tall buildings. Good knowledge of the spatial distribution of mass, stiffness and damping is needed to predict and mitigate the sway in lighter, flexible buildings. This paper presents vibration tests and reductions of a detailed FE-model of a truss with dowel-type connections leading to models that will be useful for structural engineers. The models also enable further investigations about the parameters of the slotted-in steel plates and dowels connections governing the dynamical response of timber trusses. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 348.
    Landel, Pierre
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Test-analyses comparisons of a stabilizing glulam truss for a tall building2019Inngår i: 2nd International Conference on Computational Methods in Wood Mechanics – from Material Properties to Timber Structures. ECCOMAS Thematic Conference, June 17-19, 2019, Växjö, Sweden, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 349.
    Lane, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Thollander, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Success Factors and Barriers for Facility Management in Keeping Nearly-Zero-Energy Non-Residential Buildings Energy-Efficient over Time2024Inngår i: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 14, nr 1, artikkel-id 242Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency is a cornerstone of climate change mitigation. For buildings, facility management is an essential part of achieving efficient energy use while keeping tenants satisfied. This interview study explores success factors and barriers for facility management in maintaining energy efficiency over time in four approximately 10-year-old non-residential premises built as so-called nearly zero-energy buildings (nZEB) in Sweden. The study highlights the importance of functional digital tools, benchmarks, and building professionals’ involvement in ensuring energy efficiency. It also emphasizes the need for involvement communication and strategies to engage facility management in energy efficiency efforts. The study suggests that in-house and public policies can play a crucial role in sustaining high ambitions for energy efficiency. Access to professional support that is self-evident to use is identified as a critical success factor. Additionally, the research presents an analytic model that can be used in future studies to assess facility management organizations’ potential for maintaining energy performance in buildings over time. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 350.
    Lange, David
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Resilient infrastructures for resilient communities2017Inngår i: Proceedingsof the 12th International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability: Safety,Reliability, Risk, Resilience and Sustainability of Structures andInfrastructure, 2017, s. 3155-3164Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
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