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  • 301.
    Johannesdottir, Solveig L
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Harder, Robin
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Recovery and reuse of plant nutrients in human excreta and domestic wastewater : Mapping the implementation in practice in Sweden2022Report (Other academic)
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  • 302.
    Johannesdottir, Solveig
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    MacUra, Biljana
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    McConville, Jennifer
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lorick, Dag
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Haddaway, Neal
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden; University of Johannesburg, South Africa; eMercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change, Germany.
    Karczmarczyk, Agnieszka
    Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland.
    Ek, Filippa
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Piniewski, Mikolaj
    Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland.
    Ksiȩżniak, Marta
    Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland.
    Osuch, Pawel
    Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland.
    What evidence exists on ecotechnologies for recycling carbon and nutrients from domestic wastewater?: A systematic map2020In: Environmental Evidence, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Eutrophication of the Baltic Sea, and many other water bodies, is partly the result of point-source emissions of nutrients and carbon from wastewater. At the same time, nitrogen and phosphorus planetary boundaries have been breached. There is a need for more efficient resource management, including the recovery and reuse of nutrients and carbon in waste. The aim of this paper is to collate evidence on ecotechnologies intended for use in the wastewater sector globally to facilitate the recovery or reuse of carbon and/or nutrients. Methods: Searches were performed on literature published between 2013 and 2017 and in 5 bibliographic databases, 1 search engine, and 38 specialist websites. Database searches were performed in English. Searches in specialist websites were also performed in Finnish, Polish and Swedish. There was no geographical limitation. Screening was conducted at title and abstract level, and on full texts. Apart from bibliographical information, we extracted information on ecotechnology type, intervention, details of the recovery or reuse, the type of wastewater stream to which the ecotechnology is applied, the study location, type and design. Prior to screening and coding, we conducted consistency checks amongst reviewers. We generated a searchable database of coded studies. Findings were synthesised narratively and visualised in a geographical information system (i.e. an evidence atlas). We identified a series of knowledge gaps and clusters that warrant further research. Results: The search resulted in 4024 records, out of which 413 articles were retained after the screening process. In addition, 35 pre-screened studies from the specialist website searches were added. Together, these 448 articles contained 474 individual studies of 28 types of ecotechnologies. A combination of ecotechnologies (16.7%), followed by microalgae cultivation (14.1%) were the most frequent ecotechnologies in the evidence base. Ecotechnologies for recovery composed 72.6% of the evidence base. The most common wastewater streams for recovery were mixed wastewater and sludge (73.8%). There was a relative lack of studies on recovery from source-separated wastewater. The most common type of recovery was energy (27.3%), followed by simultaneous recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus (22.1%). Reuse of recovered substances was described in 22.8% of the studies. The most common type of reuse was of nitrogen and phosphorus (57.4%), followed by joint reuse of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (35.2%). Reuse ecotechnologies were mostly focused on the use of wastewater for irrigation or reuse of biosolids, and not on the nutrients that had been extracted through e.g. precipitation of struvite. In 22 studies both recovery and reuse were described. In total, 60 different study countries were reported in the evidence base, and the most common study location was China. Conclusions: We found substantial evidence for the recovery and reuse of nutrients and carbon from wastewater sources. The relative abundance of studies where substances are recovered compared to studies where they are reused, suggests a knowledge gap on reuse of recovered nutrients and carbon. The majority of studies on reuse were on irrigation with treated wastewater or reuse of biosolids, and not on reuse of extracted nutrients such as struvite. © 2020 The Author(s).

  • 303.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    An overview of Waste-to-Energy technologies2021Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 304.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Climate change strategy and renewable energy issues in EU and Sweden2021In: Proceeding of 4th K-CIPEC, the 4th International Conference on Combustion, Incineration/pyrolysis, Emission control and Climate change in Korea / [ed] Jong-In Dong, 2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Discussions about the climate changes and actions to counter the adverse effects of the massive historic and ongoing emissions have reached far beyond the scientific conferences. Climate activists like Greta Thunberg have gotten attention and recognition. This has also made the public more aware about the issue than before. Together with the strong scientific advice presented by IPCC around the urgency in taking action to reach the 1.5°C target, things are starting to happen. 

    EU had set a goal of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions with 20% until 2020, which was reached ahead of time. The added knowledge developed during that time also have raised the awareness that the transition to a low carbon economy needs to be accelerated. In 2019 EU presented the green deal where it was stated that the EU would transform to become the first carbon neutral continent by 2050 (this is also in line with the IPPC estimation on when the world needs to become carbon neutral to achieve the 1,5°C target). Originally the EU set a part-target to reduce the emissions with 40% until 2030, this has since been revised to increase the ambition and the new target is 55% to 2030. To achieve these targets there has been several different packages developed. The green deal contains a multitude of actions, both on energy aspects like energy efficiency and replacing fossil energy sources, but also actions on circular economy to decrease the emissions driven by mass-consumption and in practice by the economic development. As one of the goals, the decoupling of resource use from the economic growth is mentioned. Amid the hunting after greenhouse gas emissions, it can be easy to ignore other sustainability aspects, however they are also part of the green deal. Bioenergy is mentioned but it will be connected with demands on the sustainability and coupled to aspects like biodiversity. On top of the measures EU also have identified the finance sector as a driver in the transformation, to guide the sector on what should be considered as sustainable actions, a Taxonomy is being developed.

    Sweden has been early in the transformation away from fossil fuels. This is especially true when it comes to the heating sector where district heating has made it possible to replace fossil fuels with bioenergy in a large scale. This has also been the case with the utilization of Waste-to-Energy where today, close to 50% of the MSW is treated in WtE facilities. With the increased demands on carbon neutrality these also face demands on reducing their fossil emissions. A multitude of actions to succeed with this is investigated, including measures to increase the separation of plastics from the residual waste, exchanging support fuels to bio-oils, and BECCS/CCS. 

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  • 305.
    Johansson, Inge
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Edo Giménez, Mar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Roberts, Daniel
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Hoffman, Beau
    U.S. Department of Energy, USA.
    Becidan, Michael
    SINTEF Energy Research, Norway.
    Ciceri, Giovanni
    RSE Research on Energy Systems, Italy.
    Murphy, Fionnuala
    UCD University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Trois, Cristina
    University of kwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Curran, Thomas P.
    UCD University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Stapf, Dieter
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany.
    Material and energy valorization of waste as part of a circular model2023Report (Other academic)
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  • 306.
    Johansson, Inge
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Jensen, Carl
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Bäckström, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    VIDAREUTVECKLING AV MODELL FÖR BERÄKNING AV REFERENSVÄRDE PMC I AVFALL2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektets syfte är att bidra till en mer rättvisande bild av de direkta utsläppen från fossilt innehåll i avfall som eldas i avfallsenergianläggningar. Detta genom att vidareutveckla modellen från det tidigare projektet Modellering av referensvärde pMC i avfall som går till energiåtervinning (förbränning). Målen i projektet har varit att: 1. Tydligare definiera de avfallstyper som ingår i de underkategorier som används i befintlig modell 2. Fastställa hur stora andelar av underkategorierna som eldas i de 15 största avfallsenergianläggningarna som ingår i EU:s handelssystem för CO2 (ETS, eg. de anläggningar som enligt ETS har utsläpp på minst 50 000 ton CO2 under 2019) samt för tre anläggningar som ligger relativt nära brytpunkten 50 000 ton CO2. 3. Fastställa hur stora variationer det finns inom olika underkategorier mellan anläggningarna samt mellan åren (2017–2019). Undersöka skillnader i referensvärde för 100 procent biogent avfall beroende på variationerna över tid och mellan anläggningarna. 4. Ta fram uppdaterade fördelningar mellan biogent/fossilt på olika avfallskategorier samt undersökt hur stor inverkan dessa har på referensvärdet. 5. Uppdatera modellen enligt slutsatserna från målen 1–4 ovan. Utifrån resultatet från ovanstående genomförandemål rekommenderar projektet att ett nationellt referensvärde (pMCref) används vid beräkning av fossila koldioxidutsläpp från svenska avfallsenergianläggningar. Projektet rekommenderar också att anläggningar som eldar huvudsakligen olika blandade avfallsströmmar (som exempelvis hushållsavfall, RDF mm) ligger till grund för den nationella schablonen. Av denna anledning har projektet exkluderat en anläggning eftersom den i huvudsak eldar träavfall och därmed kraftigt skiljer sig ifrån övriga 12 anläggningar vad gäller mottaget avfall. Det nationella referensvärdet för 2020 respektive 2021 hamnar baserat på ovanstående rekommendation på 107,2 respektive 107,0. Eftersom det redan är överenskommet ett referensvärde för 2020 rekommenderas att det nya referensvärdet används från 2021. Ett möjligt undantag från användning av ett nationellt referensvärde är anläggningar som huvudsakligen eldar träavfall eller exempelvis en blandning av träavfall och gummi. För det förstnämnda fallet skulle då en kombination av den nationella schablonen och en för träavfall bli aktuell. Över de tre åren data samlades in utgjorde Träavfall och träfraktionen i Stödbränsle totalt sett omkring 3 procent av totalt förbrända mängder. Projektet har finansierats av Naturvårdsverket och Avfall Sverige.

  • 307.
    Johansson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Prevent Säkerhetsvisaren 2.0: Psykometrisk analys med Rasch-metodik2024Report (Other academic)
  • 308.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Broberg, Sarah
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Energy strategies in the pulp and paper industry in Sweden: Interactions between efficient resource utilisation and increased product diversification2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 311, article id 127681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pulp and paper industry faces several challenges linked to climate and environmental impact, resource efficiency, rising energy prices, increased competition for biomass resources, and declining demand for traditional printed paper products. However, these challenges also offer strategic opportunities for the industry to develop into a competitive, resource-efficient, and low-carbon industry in line with a biobased economy. Against this background, this paper aims to analyse current energy strategies in the pulp and paper industry in Sweden. Specifically, the paper analyses how companies combine continuous process efficiency to reduce energy costs with activities that could be developed into new energy-related products to increase revenue. Most of the analysed companies work to various degrees with both these strategies, employing methods that include improving energy efficiency, energy security, and energy conversion, as well as developing a wide range of biobased energy products. However, our study indicates that there is an untapped potential associated with energy product development, and we conclude that energy efficiency measures can free up resources, enabling the development of new energy products. Finally, several potential managerial outcomes and implications are outlined. © 2021 The Authors

  • 309.
    Johansson, Marie
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Prefabricerade ytterväggselement för KL-trästommar2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prefabricated external wall elements for CLT systems

    This is a first pre-study to how building with cross-laminated timber (CLT) as a frame system in buildings could be made more efficient using prefabricated exterior wall elements as frame completion for CLT buildings. In carrying out this study, CLT building in Sweden as a rule involves an efficient frame erection of the CLT elements, but with a relatively slow phase to assemble the exterior frame completion. External frame completion of CLT buildings is usually carried out on construction scaffolding, where the layers of insulation and surface layer are built up on site. Prefabrication of the outer layers of the CLT frame that is lifted into place has the potential to save a lot of labor time and thus costs. The report presents requirements and practical aspects that must be taken into account in order for prefabricated exterior wall elements to be feasible in terms of requirements and in practice. The purpose of the report has also been to give tips, inspiration and ideas to consider when producing prefabricated exterior wall elements. In the study, an example solution has been developed with the aim of being wood based to as high degree as possible. The result shows that with relatively simple means it is possible to build a prefabricated wall element that meets established requirements. It is desirable that the outer wall elements are hung in place with the minimum possible finishing work on the facade. When it comes to the division of external wall elements, it is practical to follow a similar division and measurements as for the CLT boards to facilitate handling, assembly and lifting. It should be avoided to have sockets (window panes, door holes and the like) that are broken in its interface between the external wall elements to facilitate uniformity in the dimensioning of the elements. The study shows that it is realistic to create prefabricated exterior wall elements for CLT frames.

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  • 310.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Fukt, trä och mögelväxt – en översikt över litteratur inom området2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Preventing mould growth on building materials during construction requires understanding the conditions under which mould can grow. This study conducted an inventory of literature published in the field of moisture, wooden material, and mould growth, selected, documented and categorised relevant literature, and summarised the state of current research. The study is part of a bigger project working to produce a handbook for the moisture-proof production of wooden buildings. The criterium for selecting literature was whether it could provide information on the conditions under which mould growth can occur on wood and wood-based materials during the production stage. This information mainly covers limit values for humidity and temperature, how long these limit values can be exceeded without mould growth, and whether there are differences between different wood materials and between different wood-based products. Both laboratory tests and field studies are included in the material. Most published laboratory studies have been performed under high relative humidity (RH), very favourable to mould growth. Often in these conditions, mould growth begins within one week on all wooden material. Mould growth at lower, less favourable humidity conditions is less studied. However, there are indications that the lowest RH at which mould can grow varies between different qualities of wood. The laboratory studies use different methodologies, and it is not easy to compare results and make general conclusions to achieve the purpose of this study. For example, only discolouring growth is studied, resulting in misleading interpretations, as there may be extensive growth on a material without being visible to the naked eye. Outdoor field studies were evaluated first after several months. The results are difficult to apply to the construction of buildings, as these are not exposed for such long periods without weather protection. Additionally, the field studies only considered the development of discolouring growth. The report also summarises several studies performed at RISE using the same methodology. Some are yet unpublished. More information about the relationship between moisture, temperature, wood material, etc. can be obtained by additional analysis of the results from these studies.

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  • 311.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Bok, Gunilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Lång, Lukas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Kritiskt fukttillstånd för mögelpåväxt på byggnadsmaterial2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical moisture level for mould growth on building materials. Mould can grow on building materials in 75-100% relative humidity (RH) at room temperature. How sensitive materials are to mould growth varies. One way to describe this sensitivity is the critical moisture level, RHcrit, the lowest RH at which mould can grow on a material. The critical moisture level for different material groups was proposed based on the current research situation in 2005, in the report ” Microbiological growth on building materials – critical moisture levels. State of the art” (SP Rapport 2005: 11). Based on new research results, these values are no longer valid. This report provides a general overview of the conditions for mould growth on building materials, focusing on the critical moisture level and the new research results. The main conclusion is that RHcrit is a product-specific property. It is impossible to estimate RHcrit for a product based on that it belongs to a group of materials, such as plaster or wood-based boards. Instead, RHcrit must be determined by laboratory tests for each product. The report also discusses how the results of a laboratory test can be used to prevent mould growth in buildings with known RF and temperature and the benefits of using RHcrit instead of traditional mould resistance tests.

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  • 312.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Lång, Lukas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Bok, Gunilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Capener, Carl-Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Threshold values for mould growth: Critical moisture level of 21 different building materials2020In: E3S Web of Conferences. Volume 172, 2020, EDP Sciences , 2020, article id 20002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The susceptibility for mould growth varies among different building materials. One way to describe the susceptibility is the lowest RH at which mould can grow on a specific material, the critical moisture level (RHcrit). Determining RHcrit for materials provide the basis for material choice in designs where moisture and temperature conditions are known. In this study, RHcrit of 21different products were determined according to SIS-TS 41:2014/SPMet 4927. This test method is developed based on the results of a variety of laboratory studies and validated by field studies. Test specimens were inoculated with a suspension containing spores from six different mould fungi and were then incubated in moisture chambers at four levels of RH at 22 °C. After 12 weeks specimens were analysed for mould growth. RHcrit was determined based on the lowest RH at which mould grew on the specimens. RHcrit varied among different products, even between product belonging to a similar group of material, for example, calcium silicate boards or gypsum boards. The results show, and confirm, previous findings that it is not possible to estimate RHcrit for a specific product based on material group. Instead, each product must be tested. © The Authors

  • 313.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Lång, Lukas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Capener, Carl-Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    How well do mould models predict mould growth in buildings, considering the end-user perspective?2021In: Journal of Building Engineering, E-ISSN 2352-7102, Vol. 40, article id 102301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mould growth results from a complex interaction between environmental factors, material properties, and mould fungi characteristics. These interactions must be considered during the design, construction and maintenance of a building to prevent growth. Mould prediction models aim to predict whether mould will grow on a specific material in a part of building with a known, or simulated, relative humidity and temperature. They are often used in the design phase. Several models are available. There is limited research on the performance of the models in real buildings. This study aimed to evaluate six different models, using data from five building parts. The predictions on whether mould growth was expected or not were compared to actual mould growth observations on five building materials. The study was performed as a round-robin. Most models underestimated the possibility for mould when humidity and temperature varied a lot by time. The outcome also depended on the end-user, who needs to make assumptions and parameter values choices on, for example, material susceptibility for mould growth. Therefore, using the same climate data, mould growth prediction may differ depending on who makes the prediction. One model, MOGLI model, where input data comes from laboratory tests and no such assumptions must be made, predicted correct in most cases. One conclusion of the study is that when predictions are made in practice, the results must be used cautiously. More knowledge is needed to understand, and more accurately model, the relationships between the moisture and temperature variations in buildings and the risk for mould growth. 

  • 314.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sellén, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Bok, Gunilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sparr, M.
    Länsforsäkringar Alliance Research Foundation, Sweden.
    Evaluation of cleaning products on the viability of mould growth on facades and decks2023In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 2654, no 1, article id 012026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microfungi, algae and cyanobacteria may cause discolouration when growing on facades and deckings. When the extent of growth is such that it is no longer aesthetically acceptable, cleaning is often performed to make the façade or deck as similar to the original as possible. Different cleaning methods may have different effects. Choosing a cleaning method is difficult because one does not always know which works best for the current conditions. Also, the best cleaning method probably cannot remove all the growth. In this study, the effect of 15 different cleaning chemical products on the viability of mould growth on painted facade boards and impregnated wood deck boards was studied in the laboratory. Results showed varying results; the best products killed or removed almost all growth, while the worst had the same effect as clean water. The results can not be used to predict the efficiency of the different products on discolouration authentic facades or wooden decks over time. It will be investigated in other studies of the same project as this study belongs. 

  • 315.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Svensson, Thomas
    Thomas Svensson-Ingenjörstatisk, Sweden.
    Predicting mould growth on building materials- the PJ-model2020In: E3S Web of Conferences. Volyme 172, 2020., EDP Sciences , 2020, article id 20001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mould growth in buildings is a complex process, affected by moisture and temperature, the properties of the building material as well as characteristics of the mould fungi. The complexity poses challenges when assessing the risk of mould growth in buildings. Mathematical models are often used to predict whether mould will grow in a part of building with expected RH and temperature conditions. The models can be described as static or dynamic. In a previous round-robin study, comparing results from models with observations from field studies, the outcome of the dynamic models evaluated depended on the user of the model. Also, the models often underestimated the risk of mould growth. A better agreement was found for static models, especially for the PJ-model. It is a part of a standardised technical specification (SIS-TS 41:2014) and has not previously been described as a model. The critical moisture level (RHcrit), determined by tests according to the method, is used as input. Thus, the subjectivity in the predictions is reduced. RHcrit is the lowest moisture level at which mould can grow and is temperature-dependent. The PJ-model provides an equation to estimate RHcrit at typical temperatures in buildings. If RH in a building section exceeds the limit values at the current temperature, growth is predicted. This paper describes the PJ-model version 1.0, some of the extensive work performed during the development and validation of the model and the ongoing work to refine the model to include considering transient conditions and measurement uncertainties. © The Authors

  • 316.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Wadsö, Lars
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sanne
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Svensson, Thomas
    Thomas Svensson Ingenjörsstatistik, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Bengt
    Skanska, Sweden.
    Utveckling och validering av modeller för att prediktera mögelväxt i byggnader2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this project we have tested a mould model originally developed by Skanska (the m-model) and a method developed by RISE in Sweden (the GLC-method) on data from both laboratory and field measurements. The laboratory measurements had durations of a few months and were made in climate chambers at RISE; the field measurements were made in 12 buildings during 30 months. In both cases, temperature, relative humidity and mould growth was assessed on six different materials. The results were used to investigate if the m-model or the GLC-method could predict when there was mould growth. Both methods could differentiate between the (dry) cases without mould and the (moist) cases with mould. However, we could not find mould resistance parameters for the tested materials to be used with the m-model. This could be because the m-model cannot predict mould growth well enough, but it can also be because the types of measurements that we have made have relative large uncertainties in relative humidity. Isotheral calorimetry was also investigated as an interesting method to study how drying affects the activity of mould fungi.

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  • 317.
    Johansson, Tim
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Data-driven prediction of PVC flooring in the Swedish building stock2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    PVC flooring accounts for a significant share of PVC use in the construction sector and has great potential for recycling. Nevertheless, the actual recycling rate of PVC flooring spillage in 2018 was less than 20%, according to the national system for the separate collection and recycling of material residues from the installation of PVC floorings, developed by flooring manufacturer Tarkett AB and now used by all manufacturers in the flooring industry. To improve the sorting and recycling process of old PVC flooring it is necessary to identify where the material is located and evaluate its recycling potential. Such information is crucial for demolition waste recycling companies and flooring manufacturers to improve recycling practices for PVC flooring and then use the recycled PVC materials in the new flooring production. The challenge is to find out in which buildings there is PVC flooring and when it was installed which will indicate when it is planned to be dismantled and replaced. Since the PVC flooring manufactures do not keep track on where their products are laid such information is lacking. The best source of information that was made available for the researchers appeared to be the public building owners´ maintenance plans. Therefore, it was decided to focus on the presence of PVC flooring in public preschools as an example. By combining data from maintenance plans with national building registers, the PVC flooring in the Swedish preschools have been forecasted. The project results show an example how limited data sources can be used to predict presence of materials in larger stocks and is therefore expected to contribute to a climate-neutral supply chain with recycled PVC flooring. Based on the results of this study, dialogue, recommendations and guidelines can be developed for the flooring industry, the waste and recycling industry and the Swedish real estate and construction sector.

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  • 318.
    Johansson, Tim
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Development of an energy atlas for renovation of the multifamily building stock in Sweden2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 203, p. 723-736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have highlighted the importance of retrofitting to mitigate the energy use of building stocks. An important step in the development of renovation strategy and energy conservation advising is to gather information of the energy performance of the existing buildings. However, renovation strategies must also consider the socio-economic challenges associated with the cost of energy retrofitting. This paper describes the development of an energy atlas of the multifamily building stock in Sweden for visualizing and analyzing energy use and renovation needs. The atlas has been developed using Extract Transform and Load technology (ETL) to aggregate information on the energy performance, building ownership, renovation status, and socio-economic status of inhabitants from various data sources. The atlas can visualize the energy use and renovation status of multifamily buildings in 2D maps and 3D models, displaying data for either individual buildings or aggregated data on spatial scales ranging from 250 × 250 m squares through district and municipality to county areas. A demonstration of its use on national and city scales indicates that energy retrofits of multifamily buildings reaching a service life of 50 years can reduce the energy use of the existing building stock by up to 50% relative to 1990. However, costs associated with renovation and energy retrofits of multifamily buildings can be problematic, especially in economically weak suburbs. A good understanding of past and future renovation needs and socio-economic consequences is important in the development of a sustainable national renovation strategy. © 2017

  • 319.
    Jonasson Tolv, Julia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Lööf, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Inkluderande innovation i Vinnväxtmiljöer2021Report (Other academic)
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  • 320.
    Jonauskaite, D.
    et al.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Abu-Akel, A.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Dael, N.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland; .
    Oberfeld, D.
    Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Germany.
    Abdel-Khalek, A. M.
    Alexandria University, Egypt.
    Al-Rasheed, A. S.
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.
    Antonietti, J. -P
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Bogushevskaya, V.
    Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Italy.
    Chamseddine, A.
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Chkonia, E.
    Tbilisi State Medical University, Georgia.
    Corona, V.
    Universidad Panamericana, Mexico; Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain.
    Fonseca-Pedrero, E.
    University of La Rioja, Spain.
    Griber, Y. A.
    Smolensk State University, Russia.
    Grimshaw, G.
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
    Hasan, A. A.
    Alexandria University, Egypt.
    Havelka, J.
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Hirnstein, M.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Karlsson, Bodil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Laurent, E.
    University Bourgogne Franche Comté, France; .
    Lindeman, M.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Marquardt, L.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Mefoh, P.
    University of Nigeria, Nigeria.
    Papadatou-Pastou, M.
    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Academy of Athens, Greece.
    Pérez-Albéniz, A.
    University of La Rioja, Spain.
    Pouyan, N.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Roinishvili, M.
    I Beritashvili Center of Experimental Biomedicine, Georgia.
    Romanyuk, L.
    Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine; VI Vernadsky Taurida National University, Ukraine; Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts, Ukraine.
    Salgado Montejo, A.
    Universidad de La Sabana, Colombia; BI Norwegian Business School, Norway; Neurosketch, Colombia.
    Schrag, Y.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Sultanova, A.
    National Mental Health Centre, Ministry of Health, Azerbaijan.
    Uusküla, M.
    Tallinn University, Estonia.
    Vainio, S.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Wąsowicz, G.
    Kozminski University, Poland.
    Zdravković, S.
    University of Novi Sad, Serbia; University of Belgrade, Serbia.
    Zhang, M.
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Mohr, C.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Universal Patterns in Color-Emotion Associations Are Further Shaped by Linguistic and Geographic Proximity2020In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 31, no 10, p. 1245-1260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many of us “see red,” “feel blue,” or “turn green with envy.” Are such color-emotion associations fundamental to our shared cognitive architecture, or are they cultural creations learned through our languages and traditions? To answer these questions, we tested emotional associations of colors in 4,598 participants from 30 nations speaking 22 native languages. Participants associated 20 emotion concepts with 12 color terms. Pattern-similarity analyses revealed universal color-emotion associations (average similarity coefficient r =.88). However, local differences were also apparent. A machine-learning algorithm revealed that nation predicted color-emotion associations above and beyond those observed universally. Similarity was greater when nations were linguistically or geographically close. This study highlights robust universal color-emotion associations, further modulated by linguistic and geographic factors. These results pose further theoretical and empirical questions about the affective properties of color and may inform practice in applied domains, such as well-being and design. © The Author(s) 2020.

  • 321.
    Jonauskaite, Domicele
    et al.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland; University of Vienna, Austria.
    Epicoco, Déborah
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Al-rasheed, Abdulrahman S.
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.
    Aruta, John Jamir Benzon R.
    De La Salle University, Philippines.
    Bogushevskaya, Victoria
    University of Salento, Italy.
    Brederoo, Sanne G.
    University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Corona, Violeta
    Universidad Panamericana, Mexico; Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain.
    Fomins, Sergejs
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Gizdic, Alena
    Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain.
    Griber, Yulia A.
    Smolensk State University, Russian Federation.
    Havelka, Jelena
    University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Hirnstein, Marco
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    John, George
    Government of India, India.
    Jopp, Daniela S.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Karlsson, Bodil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Konstantinou, Nikos
    Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus.
    Laurent, Éric
    Université de Franche-Comté, France.
    Marquardt, Lynn
    Haukeland University Hospital, Norway.
    Mefoh, Philip C.
    University of Nigeria, Nigeria.
    Oberfeld, Daniel
    Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany.
    Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta
    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.
    Perchtold-Stefan, Corinna M.
    University of Graz, Austria.
    Spagnulo, Giulia F. M.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Sultanova, Aygun
    National Mental Health Centre, Azerbaijan.
    Tanaka, Takumi
    University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Tengco-Pacquing, Ma. Criselda
    University of Santo Tomas, Phillipines.
    Uusküla, Mari
    Tallinn University, Estonia.
    Wąsowicz, Grażyna
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland; University of Vienna, Austria.
    Mohr, Christine
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    A comparative analysis of colour–emotion associations in 16–88-year-old adults from 31 countries2024In: British Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0007-1269, E-ISSN 2044-8295, Vol. 115, no 2, p. 275-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As people age, they tend to spend more time indoors, and the colours in their surroundings may significantly impact their mood and overall well-being. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence to provide informed guidance on colour choices, irrespective of age group. To work towards informed choices, we investigated whether the associations between colours and emotions observed in younger individuals also apply to older adults. We recruited 7393 participants, aged between 16 and 88 years and coming from 31 countries. Each participant associated 12 colour terms with 20 emotion concepts and rated the intensity of each associated emotion. Different age groups exhibited highly similar patterns of colour–emotion associations (average similarity coefficient of.97), with subtle yet meaningful age-related differences. Adolescents associated the greatest number but the least positively biased emotions with colours. Older participants associated a smaller number but more intense and more positive emotions with all colour terms, displaying a positivity effect. Age also predicted arousal and power biases, varying by colour. Findings suggest parallels in colour–emotion associations between younger and older adults, with subtle but significant age-related variations. Future studies should next assess whether colour–emotion associations reflect what people actually feel when exposed to colour. 

  • 322.
    Järnberg, Linn
    et al.
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Ochola, Brenda
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Do, Thao
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Stenbeck, Sten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Johannesdottir, Solveig
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    BONUS RETURN Reducing Emissions by Turning Nutrients and Carbon into Benefits: Deliverable No: D.6.4 – Regional exchange and learning event 2 Ref: WP (6) Task (6.6) Lead participant: Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) Date: 2019-06-302019Report (Other academic)
  • 323.
    Kadawo, Abdinasir
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Sadagopan, Madumita
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    During, Otto
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Nagy, Agnes
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Combination of LCA and circularity index for assessment of environmental impact of recycled aggregate concrete2023In: Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials, ISSN 2165-0373, E-ISSN 2165-0381, Vol. 12, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multidisciplinary approach is used to evaluate concrete with recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) from technical, environmental impacts and product circularity perspectives. Two RCA replacements investigated, RAC50: fine aggregates; RAC100: both coarse, fine aggregates. Reference, recycled concretes have same cement content, similar workability and compressive strength requirement, proven experimentally. RCA is sourced from pre-fab element discards of a Swedish plant, the logistical alternatives requiring environmental impact analysis. Alternatives are RCA crushing at plant and crushing at a different location including transportation. LCA shows transportation is second largest contributor after cement in all impact categories. RAC alternatives show lower total impact than reference concrete due to RCA replacement. A circularity index for concrete based on economic value of recirculated aggregates; supplements LCA for sustainability reporting. Circularity index results: RAC100 > RAC50 > RC. Combining circularity index with LCA helps optimize recycling process with regard to amount of recycled material and logistics respectively. © 2022 The Author(s).

  • 324.
    Karlberg, Marie
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Simons, Andrew
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Områdesanalys om hållbar hantering av processvatten i den biobaserade industrin2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Area analysis on sustainable management of process water in the bio-based industryWater is an important resource for the bio-based industry where many processes use large amounts of water. Proactive work towards more efficient process water use provides better conditions to meet future demands for sustainable resource management.Upcoming legislation is expected to put increased requirements for resource efficiency for water, and customers make clearer demands on companies to account for water use.At the same time, Sweden is a country with large water resources and there is generally plenty of water. Nonetheless, the conditions vary greatly and access varies geographically. In south-eastern Sweden, many areas have limited water resources and water shortages are a fact during some dry years. Climate change will also bring about further changes in water availability. In general, Sweden will receive more precipitation on average over the year. But in the south-eastern parts of the country, increased temperature and evaporation will lead to longer periods of drought and lower water flows.To understand different perspectives with respect to sustainable water use, a stakeholder analysis has been carried out with a number of interviews and two round-table discussions. The purpose of the interviews is to gain understanding of different aspects such as the attitude to sustainable water use, risk awareness, proportion of water that is circulated internally in the process, along with the connections between water consumption and energy. At the stakeholder dialogue, it emerged that there is a need to cooperate more with other actors in one's immediate area. This allows actors to gain a greater understanding of how the conditions for water availability will change and what role one's own operations play in the total access to water.There is a need to be able to demonstrate the positive and negative impacts of reducing water use and the impact on processes. There is often no access to methods, time and/or expertise to clearly link water use and energy consumption, nor to be able to demonstrate incentives and the potential for reduced costs. Here, support is needed in the form of tools such as simulation models or process integration techniques that link water, energy and costs. Such tools can provide an investment basis for sustainable water use. It is recommended that industry and researchers must work together to develop and demonstrate technologies that enable this holistic understanding of water, energy and cost relationships.There is also a need for clearer standards and specifications with respect to the impact detrimental substances in bio-based process industries. This can reduce the need for excessively large safety margins with regard to water quality, and hence reduce the risk of processes using large amounts of water and building oversized systems.

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  • 325.
    Karlsson, Bodil
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Sjöblom, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ström, Henrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Light my fire but don't choke on the smoke: Wellbeing and pollution from fireplace use in Sweden2020In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 69, article id 101696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fireplaces are popular in Northern Europe. However, particle emissions from fireplaces have been identified as an environmental problem and a health problem. User behaviors affect particle emissions and the success of particle reducing technologies to a large extent. This interdisciplinary study aims to investigate why and how people use their fireplaces, including what emotions people associate with fire, and their interest in learning more about fire making and changing behavior related to fire making. It does so by applying an emotion regulation model in a novel way. In total, 146 Swedish individuals owning a fireplace (the majority had wood stoves, a few had tiled stoves, boilers or other types of fireplaces) participated in an online questionnaire about motives, behaviors, knowledge, and interest in learning and changing behavior. The most common motives for using a fireplace in this sample were complementary heating and “cozy fire making”. Our results suggest that watching a fire can aid in regulating emotions from unpleasant stress towards joy and provide a pleasant atmosphere for socialization, and that wood fuel may be a preferred complementary energy choice because it provides beautiful light, comfortable warmth, beautiful design and safety. People reporting emotional motives for using a fireplace also reported an interest in changing behavior.

  • 326.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Chemical strengthening of soda lime silicate glass and the effects of dopants2022Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 327.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Dataset: The viscosity effect of TiO2 on soda-lime-silicate bearing glass2021Data set
  • 328.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Andersson, Sara
    Acoustic Agree, Sweden.
    Haller, Kristian
    Acoustic Agree, Sweden.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Persson, Kent
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Strength classification of flat glass for better quality – validation of method by well-defined surface defects and strength testing2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current project was a collaborative project between the involved partners: RISE Glass, Lund University and Acoustic Agree. It is funded by ÅForsk (Grant No. 19-479). The project is a follow-up project from a Smart Housing Småland (Grant No. 2016-04218) pre-study where we used a nonlinear acoustic wave (NAW) to determine the damage value in float glass simultaneously with four-point bending tests. Glass is a brittle material whose strength is primarily determined by its surface characteristics i.e., the presence of flaws, defects or cracks on the surface. The strength of glass is greatly limited by stress-concentrations at the crack tips generating very high stresses when the glass is under load. The size and distribution of surface defects vary greatly, this gives a great variation of strength of glasses so that conventionally very large safety measures must be employed for glass products. If these defects and/or cracks could be detected in a non-destructive way, it would be beneficial for glass manufacturers as well as final building users. Nonlinear acoustic wave (NAW) techniques can be used to detect defects in materials. In these methods, acoustic waves are transmitted through an object and nonlinear effects, caused by the defects in the material, is analysed from the signal obtained at the receiver. The aim of the current project was to establish a calibration and a clear correlation between nonlinear acoustic wave measurements and the ultimate strength of annealed glass samples with controlled defects. Controlled defects were made as indentation imprints with a microindenter, equipped with a Vickers diamond head, in the middle of float glass samples with the dimensions 4×100×100 mm3. The applied loads were 0.5N, 1N, 2N, 5N and 10N. The indents were inspected with a microscope in order to see the cracks and the depth of the indents were also determined. The formed defects (cracks) were detected with NAW technique. Analysing the waves after propagating in the glass the nonlinear content in the wave was analysed. Due to the objects damage, the propagated wave distorts proportionally to the damage. After the NAW-inspection the strength of the glass samples were tested with ring-on-ring tests. Using the results from NAW-inspection, a clear correlation between the nonlinear response and the indenter load was found. There was also an obvious correlation between the failure load on the ring-on-ring-tests and the indenter load. The standard deviation for the ring-on-ring-tests for the 1N, 2N, 5N and 10 N was low but for the 0.5 N load was very high. A possible explanation is that the indenter imprint in most of the cases only gave rise to plastic deformation and in some samples, cracks were formed too. There were visible cracks for all the higher indenter loads and thus a lower scatter of the results. The main conclusion of the project is that it is possible to detect small cracks, which cannot be seen with the naked eye, with NAW technique and it can be directly correlated to the strength of the glass.

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  • 329.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Kozlowski, Marcin
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Andersson, Sara
    Acoustic Agree AB, Sweden.
    Haller, Kristian
    Acoustic Agree AB, Sweden.
    Persson, Kent
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Non‐destructive assessment of the glassstrength using nonlinear acoustics2022Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 330.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Mathew, Renny
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Paemurru, Mart
    GlasStress Ltd, UK.
    Anton, Johan
    GlasStress Ltd, UK.
    Stevensson, Baltzar
    Baltzar Stevensson, Sweden.
    Edén, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Dataset: Mechanical, thermal, and structural investigations of chemically strengthened Na2O–CaO–Al2O3–SiO2 glasses2022Data set
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the effect of alumina doping on thermal, mechanical, and structural properties of a conventional soda lime silicate glass before and after ion exchange strengthening. The techniques to measure properties were:- 23Na and 27Al Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR)- Scattered light polariscope- Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA)- Nanoindentation- MicroindentationMore detailed information can be found in the documentation-readme file.

  • 331.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Mathew, Renny
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnaus University, Sweden.
    Paemurru, Mart
    GlasStress Ltd, UK.
    Anton, Johan
    GlasStress Ltd, UK.
    Stevensson, Baltzar
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Edén, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Mechanical, thermal, and structural investigations of chemically strengthened Na2O–CaO–Al2O3–SiO2 glasses2022In: Frontiers in Materials, E-ISSN 2296-8016, Vol. 9, article id 953759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For a series of conventional soda-lime-silicate glasses with increasing Al2O3 content, we investigated the thermal, mechanical, and structural properties before and after K+-for-Na+ ion-exchange strengthening by exposure to molten KNO3. The Al-for-Si replacement resulted in increased glass network polymerization and lowered compactness. The glass transition temperature (Tg), hardness (H) and reduced elastic modulus (Er), of the pristine glasses enhanced monotonically for increasing Al2O3 content. H and Er increased linearly up to a glass composition with roughly equal stoichiometric amounts of Na2O and Al2O3 where a nonlinear dependence on Al2O3 was observed, whereas H and Er of the chemically strengthened (CS) glasses revealed a strictly linear dependence. Tg, on the other hand, showed linear increase with Al-for-Si for pristine glasses while for the CS glasses a linear to nonlinear trend was observed. Solid-state 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed the sole presence of AlO4 groups in both the pristine and CS glasses. 23Na NMR and wet-chemical analysis manifested that all Al-bearing glasses had a lower and near-constant K+-for-Na+ ion exchange ratio than the soda-lime-silicate glass. Differential thermal analysis of CS glasses revealed a “blurred” glass transition temperature (Tg) and an exothermic step below Tg; the latter stems from the relaxation of residual compressive stresses. The nanoindentation-derived hardness at low loads and <5 mol% Al2O3 showed evidence of stress relaxation for prolonged ion exchange treatment. The crack resistance is maximized for molar ratios n(M(2)O)/n(Al2O3)≈1≈1 for the CS glasses, which is attributed to an increased elastic energy recovery that is linked to the glass compactness.

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  • 332.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Persson, Kent
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Haller, Kristian
    Acoustic Agree AB, Sweden.
    Hållfasthetsklassificering av planglas för bättre kvalitet2021In: GLAS, no 4, p. 60-61Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagsläget finns endast förstörande metoder för att bestämma hållfastheten för planglas. Det har medfört att på grund av den stora spridningen i hållfasthet av planglas behöver man ta till en stor säkerhetsfaktor. En ”säker” designhållfasthet som med andra ord behöver vara så låg så att risken är minimal att glaset går sönder. Resultatet blir att onödigt mycket glas används eftersom glas i princip alltid är starkare än designhållfastheten. Dessutom finns det idag heller ingen metod som kan mäta att glaset faktiskt upprätthåller designhållfastheten. Det finns med andra många skäl, både miljömässiga och kvalitetsskäl, till att utveckla en icke-förstörande metod till att bestämma hållfastheten av planglas. 

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  • 333.
    Karpenja, Tatjana
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Wästerlid, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Guidelines for Green Electronics – Sustainability and Foresight: Introducing the concepts as a first step2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The society is transitioning towards a circular economy and the Digital Cellulose Center (DCC) that develops green electronics may play an important role in it. The research within the DCC focuses on the topic of digital cellulose, where cellulose is combined with electroactive material, making it possible to develop electrically active cellulose products that can communicate with the digital world while remaining sustainable. This could mean entirely new types of active packaging solutions, able to sense and adapt to their surroundings, or paper rolls able to store energy from solar cells or wind power [1]. This document offers guidance for the DCC stakeholders on the choice of sustainable materials for green electronics, focusing on the two life cycle phases of a product: • Raw materials • End-of-life Since the DCC green electronics are still in the development stage, a future scenario analysis has been applied in order to envision the possible future outcomes. The DCC green electronics have been explored in two opposite future scenarios: • Stuck in the Mud – A business-as-usual scenario, where the year 2045 is more or less the same as year 2022. • Circular Dawn – Where the circular economy has become a new normal and the whole society is thriving in a resource-efficient, circular and biobased economy. The guideline contains a sustainability checklist adapted to the needs of the DCC stakeholders for more informed decision-making and for being able to drive the development towards a circular economy, i. e. the future scenario Circular Dawn.

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  • 334.
    Kawasaki, Yayoi
    et al.
    Waseda University, Japan.
    Reid, J Nick
    Western University, Canada.
    Ikeda, Kazuhiro
    Shokei Gakuin University, Japan.
    Liu, Meiling
    DIS Study Abroad in Scandinavia, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Bodil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Color Judgments of #The Dress and #The Jacket in a Sample of Different Cultures.2021In: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 216-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two viral photographs, #The Dress and #The Jacket, have received recent attention in research on perception as the colors in these photos are ambiguous. In the current study, we examined perception of these photographs across three different cultural samples: Sweden (Western culture), China (Eastern culture), and India (between Western and Eastern cultures). Participants also answered questions about gender, age, morningness, and previous experience of the photographs. Analyses revealed that only age was a significant predictor for the perception of The Dress, as older people were more likely to perceive the colors as blue and black than white and gold. In contrast, multiple factors predicted perception of The Jacket, including age, previous experience, and country. Consistent with some previous research, this suggests that the perception of The Jacket is a different phenomenon from perception of The Dress and is influenced by additional factors, most notably culture.

  • 335.
    Kazadi Mbamba, Christian
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Bergvatten, Anders
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels, Sweden.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ometto, Francesco
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels, Sweden.
    Modelling Industrial Symbiosis of Biogas Production and Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plants – Technical Report2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present-day treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents can be significantly improved by incorporating biogas production in the context of industrial symbiosis. In this work a new industrial symbiosis concept is presented, the focus being on modelling it in view of process optimization, design improvement and adoption by the pulp and paper industry. The concept consists of a first stage in which pulp and paper mill effluents are treated by high-rate anaerobic digestion in external circulation sludge bed (ECSB) reactors to produce biogas. In the second stage the removal of organic matter contained in the anaerobic effluent stream occurs through aerobic activated sludge treatment, aiming to achieve maximum sludge production with minimum aeration requirements. This sludge should in the case study then be co-digested with residues from fish farming industry to yield methane for energy production, nutrient-rich reject water that can be recycled to the activated sludge treatment for optimum microbial activities and production of a nutrient-rich soil amendment. The overall research aim was in this project to develop a mathematical model that describes the relevant process units and the dynamics of the different processes involving organic matter removal, biogas production and nutrient release. The plant-wide model used integrated activated sludge and anaerobic models with a physico-chemical modelling framework. Through systematic calibration good general agreement was obtained between the full-scale experimental and simulated results at steady state. Acceptable differences between measured and modelled biogas production (flow rate and methane concentration), nutrients release (N and P) and effluent quality (N, P and COD) of 2-3.2 %, 5.3-7.4 % and 1.4-1.9 %, respectively, were observed throughout the full-scale system. Model-based analysis shows that the model can predict and give insight on dynamic behaviours resulting from deliberate changes but also on disturbances in one of the systems and their subsequent impacts within the integrated plant. Additionally, the model allowed the prediction of nutrients release in anaerobic digestion and subsequent consumption upstream in the high-rate anaerobic system or activated sludge system. Simulations show that there is a need for imposing a basic control and operational strategy for efficient reject water recirculation to optimize the concentrations of N and P in the activated sludge system while also achieving nutrient levels required to meet the effluent discharge permits. Overall, the evaluated plant-wide model can jointly describe the relevant physico-chemical and biological processes and is therefore advocated as a tool for future extension of this type of industrial symbiosis concepts between biogas producers and industries producing large amounts of wastewater rich in organic material. The model can be used for design, multi-criteria performance assessment and optimization of different treatment plants.

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  • 336.
    Khanalizadehtaromi, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    DesignTool for Timber Balconies2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing environmental issues and the need to have more sustainable solutions in the construction industry and the built environment, raising awareness regarding more use of timber in multi-story structures is aimed. Ensuring the performance of timber balconies will help to increase more use of timber as the construction material in these elements. The developed tool in this study has two versions. The first one is able to calculate and control the deflection of balconies built with cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels. The second version calculates and controls the deflection and vibration of balconies made with plywood and timber studs. The material properties in the second version are verified with experimental tests performed on 30 balcony slabs. The four-point bending test and natural frequency measurements were performed at RISE laboratories. The tool is designed in Excel and has the advantages of being easy to access, easy to use, and easy to understand for the user.

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  • 337.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification.
    Innovation Management Professionals in Healthcare: Knowledge and Legitimacy2020In: The ISPIM Innovation Conference – Innovating in Times of Crisis,7-10 June 2020., 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides insights into innovation management practice at a hospital and explores how having a personal certification as an innovation management professional can play a role. The study was conducted at a large university hospital in Sweden and interviews were made with certified innovation management professionals working at the hospitals’ Center for Innovation. Identified main drivers for entering the certification process were different aspects related to legitimacy but also related to enhance the knowledge from different aspects. At present, the urge for legitimization of innovation management appears even stronger in the healthcare context than identified in earlier studies. Since innovation management is an emerging area, a personal certification is not only legitimizing the individual, but also the area in itself. Identified effects from the personal certifications was a raised legitimacy but also an enhanced clarity of contribution of innovation management compared to e.g. research and improvement work.

  • 338.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification.
    Bellander Nydahl, Erika
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Vlachos, Stefan
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Building Innovation Management Support at a University Hospital2023In: Healthcare Innovation - Shaping Future Models of Delivery / [ed] Mona Seyed Esfahani and Matthew Halkes, World Scientific , 2023, p. 49-82Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides an illustration of how the support for innovation workhas been developed at Karolinska University Hospital. Karolinska is a largeuniversity hospital in Sweden that provides highly specialised healthcaretogether with research and education. The chapter presents a ‘journey’ spanningthe period 2011–2020 whose overall goal was to support innovation efforts at thehospital. During that time, different initiatives to achieve the goal were launched.These included establishing expertise in forming and leading innovationpartnerships; developing a portfolio of educational programmes for clinicalstaff regarding innovation management; utilising the opportunity to certify thehospital’s innovation management professionals; engaging in the developmentof ISO standards for innovation management; and designing and implementinga hospital-wide innovation management system. This journey is then reflectedupon, and the specific issues of adapting innovation management to a healthcarecontext and developing innovation management support in a hospital setting arediscussed. This all serves as input for how to address innovation management aswell as for future models of healthcare delivery.

  • 339.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hyland, Joanne
    rInnovation Group, USA; International Society for Professional Innovation Management (ISPIM), UK; Standards Council of Canada (SCC), Canada.
    Chapter 4. Introduction to Case Studies2022In: Changing the Dynamics and Impact of Innovation Management: A Systems Approach and the ISO Standard / [ed] Joanne Hyland, Magnus Karlsson, Ingrid Kihlander, John Bessant, Mats Magnusson, Jimmi Kristiansen, World Scientific, 2022, p. 37-43Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 340.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hyland, Joanne
    rInnovation Group, USA; International Society for Professional Innovation Management (ISPIM), UK; Standards Council of Canada (SCC), Canada.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Swedish Institute for Standards (SIS), Sweden .
    Chapter 1. Introduction2022In: Changing the Dynamics and Impact of Innovation Management: A Systems Approach and the ISO Standard / [ed] Joanne Hyland, Magnus Karlsson, Ingrid Kihlander, John Bessant, Mats Magnusson, Jimmi Kristiansen, World Scientific, 2022, p. 3-7Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 341.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification.
    Jagstedt, Siri
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Managing collaborative innovation initiatives - Does a standard-based framework apply?2022In: Event Proceedings: LUT Scientific and Expertise Publications: ISBN 978-952-335-694-8, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To address grand societal challenges, united actions from multiple actors are required. Innovation management in mission-oriented, collaborative contexts is however a particularly tall order. In parallel, ISO standards for innovation management have become available. This paper has studied nine collaborative innovation initiatives (diverse domains/levels) to capture their experiences and challenges. These were analysed regarding the relevance of applying standard-based frameworks for innovation management in such settings. It is concluded that a standard-based framework for innovation management can be applied as a support for both planning and execution, making a relevant starting point to ensure crucial aspects are not overlooked. Thereto, this paper also presents a tentative methodology aiming to contribute to the planning and execution of such collaborative innovation initiatives. The methodology contains (1) a preparatory step of mapping the initiative, and (2) a second step utilising a set of guiding aspects in the form of questions and claims.

  • 342.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundh Gravenius, Åse
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Chapter 11. Karolinska University Hospital: Implementing an Innovation Management System at a University Hospital Providing Highly Specialised2022In: Changing the Dynamics and Impact of Innovation Management: A Systems Approach and the ISO Standard / [ed] Joanne Hyland, Magnus Karlsson, Ingrid Kihlander, John Bessant, Mats Magnusson, Jimmi Kristiansen, World Scientific, 2022, p. 157-175Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 343.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification. KTH Kungliga Tekniska högskolan.
    Lundh Gravenius, Åse
    Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset.
    Innovation management system implementation at a university hospital2020Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 344.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Critical features in introducing standard-based innovation management systems2023In: 24th CINet Conference, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ISO56002 ‒ a global standard for innovation management systems was published 2019 and empirical validation of using the standard is so far limited. This study investigates design and introduction of innovation management systems based on ISO56002 and explores the impact this brings to the studied organizations. 

    Two organizations, a UK-based consultancy firm in engineering, and a Japan-based information and technology company, both explicitly utilizing ISO 56002 and considered as leading examples were studied. A qualitative approach was chosen, mainly based on interviews in order to open for elaborations on the emerging phenomenon of innovation management systems based on a standard. 

    The study shows that the ISO56002 brought value to both organizations, despite them being in different sectors. The standard does not provide detail solutions, instead it is used as support to actively apply a systems approach to innovation covering strategic, structural, and cultural issues all together. Specifically, management functions are supported to address strategy and culture, including design structures for fencing space for exploration, risk-taking and experimentation. Critical features to enable this, such as appointing a core team with a long-term ambition, are identified and discussed. 

  • 345.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Role of Certification in Establishment of an Innovation Management Profession2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A professionalization within the area of innovation management is taking place, and this paper presents a study on the phenomenon of personal certification as an innovation management professional. The study has investigated motivations for taking a personal certification as an innovation management professional, and impacts from it, addressing certified individuals, their organizations, and potential contributions to professionalization. The study was conducted in Sweden related to the personal certification of innovation management professionals launched in 2017by the Swedish Association for Innovation Management Professionals (Innovationsledarna) and RISE Research Institutes of Sweden as a third-partycertification body. Identified motivational factors covered desired knowledge enhancement, measuring of competence level, a strive for legitimacy, and curiosity. Impact from taking the certifications were for example increased knowledge, enhanced professional communication about innovation management, boosted selfconfidence, expanded network, and more opportunities to influence. The current situation was also analyzed from a professionalization perspective as well as discussed in terms of innovation maturity and innovation diffusion.

  • 346.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Certification of Innovation Management Professionals: Reasons for and Results from Acquiring Certification2022In: Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 2183-0606, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 58-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses how personal certification in innovation management can contribute to the ongoingprofessionalisation within the innovation management discipline. The empirical study focused a projectin Sweden initiated to develop qualification, specifically personal certification, of innovation managementprofessionals. The project resulted in a certification process and a first batch of certified innovationmanagement professionals. The study aimed to capture the individuals’ reasons for, as well as results andeffects from, choosing to acquire a voluntary personal certification within innovation management. A widerange of reasons for taking the certifications was reported such as willingness to learn more, willingness toformalise innovation management competence, a wish to clarify roles, but also to promote the discipline itself.Certification was apprehended as a trustworthy format to achieve this. Identified effects were establishmentof a common language, increased visibility of individuals, and innovation management professionals to feelmore confident in their jobs.

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  • 347.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. Swedish Defence University, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; LUISS Guido Carli University, Italy.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Critical Factors to Consider When Designing an Innovation Management System2024In: Research-Technology Management, Vol. 67, no 3, p. 34-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations can implement an innovation management system in order to address the multidimensional challenges they often have in their practical innovation work. Until the ISO 56002 standard was released in 2019, there was no international standard for the design of innovation management systems. The standard provides support as a framework and highlights important systems elements. We studied two early adopters that have used this international standard to design their innovation management systems. Based on the study findings, we devised a practical approach for framing the design of an innovation management system. The approach includes a set of steps and critical considerations that include understanding a company's innovation ambitions and direction, analyzing the systemic dimensions of the system (the elements and how they interconnect), and introducing a balanced set of control mechanisms.

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  • 348.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification.
    Developing Innovation Leadership – The Relevance of Qualification and Certification of Innovation Management Professionals: Chapter 52023In: Innovation Leadership in Practice: How Leaders Turn Ideas into Value in a Changing World / [ed] K.R Jensen, S. Kaudela-Baum and R. Sheffield, Leeds: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2023, p. 79-Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents results from initial studies on personal certifications of innovation management professionals, drawing from a Swedish context. The results capture motivations for, as well as effects from, the certification process. They are discussed from the perspective of how this is relevant for developing and enhancing innovation leadership competencies. Increased knowledge, enhanced professional communication, and strengthened self-confidence related to innovation management were identified as outcomes for individuals pursuing the certifications. Further, this laid the ground for increased visibility, expanded network, and thus more opportunities to influence innovation work. An overarching theme appearing in the study is how a certification can contribute to strengthening the legitimacy of working with innovation management, and thus serve as an enabler for innovation management practice and subsequently innovation leadership. Effects from the certification that may be beneficial for successful innovation leadership include the opportunity for practitioners to articulate their own experiences and competencies, in addition to improving the impact of their efforts utilising innovation terminology. For organisations, knowledge of personal certification can be used both for recruitment and for development of existing personnel and their innovation leadership. Through a longer perspective, it can also contribute to decreasing the dependence on a few specific individuals and instead strengthen the long-term organisational innovation capabilities.

  • 349.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, sweden.
    Ledningssystem för innovation: Reflektioner kring en ledningssystemstandard för innovationsarbete2022In: MGMT Management of Innovation and Technology, ISSN ISSN 1102-5581, no 2, p. 5-7Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En vägledande ISO-standard för innovationsledningssystem (ISO 56002) publicerades 2019. Den ger möjlighet att följa hur ett sådant ramverk kan stödja organisationer som vill stärka sin innovationsförmåga med hjälp av en systemansats. Den här artikeln delar insikter från fallstudier bland annat på organisationer som uttalat har använt ISO-standarden för att implementera ett innovationsledningssystem.

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  • 350.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Personcertifiering innovationsledare: En mekanism i etableringen av professionen innovationsledare2022In: MGMT Management of Innovation and Technology, ISSN 1102-5581, no nr 4Article in journal (Other academic)
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