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  • 301.
    Norén, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Moisture Safety of Tall Timber Facades—LCA and LCC Calculations of Damage Scenarios2019In: Cold Climate HVAC 2018 / [ed] Johansson, Dennis; Bagge, Hans; Wahlström, Åsa, 2019, p. 933-943Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of timber structures in tall buildings increases the demand of moisture safety in facades. Moisture in the facade could result in unwanted consequences such as mold, decay and distortions in wood materials. This might have impact on the indoor climate and the building quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the moisture safety regarding the composition of the façade and connection details such as windows and balconies. Scenarios with possible damages were evaluated with LCC (Life Cycle Cost) and LCA (Life Cycle Assessment). The scenarios were developed based on experiences from manufacturers and insurance companies and on research investigations of damages. LCC and LCA includes replacement of damaged building materials, transports of new materials and damaged materials for recycling or energy recovery and the use of energy for drying of moisture in the structure. Both light frame structures and CLT (Cross Laminated Timber) structures were included. Improvements of detail connections to increase moisture safety were also evaluated regarding risk of damage, costs and environmental impact. The results show that even small and inexpensive improvements will increase the moisture safety and significantly reduce the risk of damage.

  • 302.
    Ollas, Patrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Markusson, Caroline
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Persson, Jon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Alfadel, Usama
    Soliga Energi, Sweden.
    Impact of Battery Sizing on Self-Consumption, Self-Sufficiency and PeakPower Demand for a Low Energy Single-Family House With PVProduction in Sweden2018In: 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC-7), June 10-15, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper simulates the impact of battery sizingfor an actual nearly-zero energy (NZEB) single-family housewith solar PV located in Bor°as, Sweden. Simulations are done,using measurement data as an input, for three different batterydispatch algorithms with two different purposes; (i) peak powershaving and (ii) maximising system self-consumption (SC) andself-sufficiency (SS) of the solar PV. The results show that theoptimal battery storage size for this single-family house, givenits measured electrical loads and existing solar PV system isaround 7.2 kWh. System self-consumption and self-sufficiencyfrom generated solar PV increased with 24.3 percentage pointscompared to a reference case without battery. Furthermore,results show that increasing the battery size beyond 7.2 kWhonly results in minor performance gains.

  • 303.
    Ollas, Patrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Persson, Jon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Markusson, Caroline
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Alfadel, Usama
    Soliga Energi, Sweden.
    Impact of Battery Sizing on Self-Consumption, Self-Sufficiency and Peak Power Demand for a Low Energy Single-Family House with PV Production in Sweden2018In: 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, WCPEC 2018 - A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC and 34th EU PVSEC, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 618-623Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper simulates the impact of battery sizing for an actual nearly-zero energy (NZEB) single-family house with solar PV located in Boras, Sweden. Simulations are done,° using measurement data as an input, for three different battery dispatch algorithms with two different purposes; (i) peak power shaving and (ii) maximising system self-consumption (SC) and self-sufficiency (SS) of the solar PV. The results show that the optimal battery storage size for this single-family house, given its measured electrical loads and existing solar PV system is around 7.2 kWh. System self-consumption and self-sufficiency from generated solar PV increased with 24.3 percentage points compared to a reference case without battery. Furthermore, results show that increasing the battery size beyond 7.2 kWh only results in minor performance gains.

  • 304.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Linderholt, A.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Measurements of low frequency impact sound transfer functions of light weight timber floors, utilizing the IsO rubber ball2018In: 25th International Congress on Sound and Vibration 2018, ICSV 2018: Hiroshima Calling, International Institute of Acoustics and Vibration, IIAV , 2018, p. 476-483Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impact sound below 100 Hz is an important issue for light weight timber buildings. It is also well known that finite element model simulations are more beneficial in the low frequency range than in higher frequencies due to the longer wavelengths allowing the element meshes to be coarser. Utilizing transfer functions to describe impact sound would imply simplifications to correlate data stemming from measurements and low frequency finite element models. If the impact force is known, the simulations become easier since there would not be any need for the modelling of the impact mechanisms, just calculations of the transfer functions which are then combined with the force spectrum to give the resulting sound pressure. The impact ball has shown to be in close resemblance with a human's excitation in the low frequency range which makes it a suitable excitation device. However, when its force spectrum is needed, it may be hard in practice to achieve that during a regular measurement since the ball is not easily equipped with a force gauge. Here, two different methods are investigated. An investigation of the repeatability of the force spectrum of the rubber ball in the low frequency range for floors having different mobilities is made. To enable this, an equipment for field measurements of impact force spectrum and potentially point mobilities using an ISO ball, is designed, manufactured and evaluated. Impact force measurements are made on lightweight timber as well as concrete floors, with different properties for comparisons. Within the lowest frequencies it is potentially possible to use one given force spectrum from the ISO ball together with impact sound measurements for the creation of impact force to sound transfer functions on different floors.

  • 305.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Force to sound pressure frequency response measurements using a modified tapping machine on timber floor structures2019In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 196, article id 109343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, research has shown that the lower frequency portion of impact sound, down to 20 Hz, is of significant importance to residents’ perception in buildings that have lightweight timber floors. At low frequencies, the finite element method is a useful tool for predictive analysis. Impact sound frequency response functions, which are easily calculated using finite element software, are useful as they offer a common ground for studies of correlations between measurements and analyzes. On the measurement side, the tapping machine is well defined and has become the standard excitation device for building acoustics. When using a tapping machine, the excitation force spectrum generated – necessary to achieving experimental frequency force to sound response functions – is unknown. Different equipment may be used for excitation and force measurements and if a structure behaves linearly, the use of any excitation devices should result in the same frequency response functions. Here, an ISO tapping machine hammer is fitted with an accelerometer, enabling estimates of input force spectra. In combination with measurements of the sound in the receiver room, frequency response functions are then achieved using an ISO tapping machine. Various excitation devices have been used on a floor partition in a timber building and on a cross-laminated timber (CLT) lab. floor in order to compare the resulting frequency response functions. Structural nonlinearities are evident, implying that for accurate frequency response measurements in acoustically low frequencies, excitation magnitudes and characteristics that are similar to these which stem from human excitations, should preferably be used.

  • 306.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linneaus University, Sweden.
    Low-frequency impact sound pressure fields in small rooms within lightweight timber buildings — Suggestions for simplified measurement procedures2018In: Noise Control Engineering Journal, ISSN 0736-2501, E-ISSN 2168-8710, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 324-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-frequency impact sound insulation, down to 20 Hz, has a significant effect on humans' dissatisfaction due to noise in timber buildings. Today, the low-frequency procedure of the ISO 16283-2:2015 impact sound measurement standard covers the frequency range down to 50 Hz for the use of an ISO tapping machine, but does not yet cover the use of an ISO rubber ball. Here, microphone grid measurements were made in two small rooms that were excited by an ISO rubber ball from the rooms above. In each grid, 936 microphone positions were used to capture data representing the full spatial fields of impact sound pressures from 10 to 500 Hz for one excitation location for each room. The data show that the positions at the radiating ceiling surfaces have low maximum sound pressure levels compared to the pressure levels at the floors, especially in the floor corners. First, a measurement procedure to predict the maximum exposure of low-frequency sound in a room is proposed It is suggested that the maximum values for each frequency band in the corners opposite to the partition being excited (i.e., the floor corners) be used. Second, a procedure to predict the room average sound pressure level and the prediction's normal distribution is suggested. Iterative measurements with random microphone locations and random excitation locations are used. The advantage of this method is that the required precision and information about the sensitivity due to different excitation points are obtained.

  • 307.
    Olsson, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rain intrusion rates at façade details - A summary of results from four laboratory studies2017In: Energy Procedia, 2017, p. 387-392Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More knowledge and realistic data on inward leakage is needed not only to better understand and confirm rain resistance of different facades, but also to carry out reliable theoretical moisture risk assessments of façade details in external walls. This article is an attempt to highlight amounts of expected leakage based on four laboratory studies. The results show that under heavy driving rain conditions, there may be continuous point leakage of significant volumes of water (0,01-0,05 l/min) in small invisible deficiencies, and corresponds to up to 2% of the applied water load. The leakage rate also depends, more or less, on the size, position and geometry of the deficiency, cumulative runoff rates, size of projecting details and surface properties. © 2017 The Authors.

  • 308.
    Olsson, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rain resistance of façades with façade details: A summary of three field and laboratory studies2018In: Journal of Building Physics, ISSN 1744-2591, E-ISSN 1744-2583, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 521-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ne of the main functions of the exterior walls and façades is to protect the indoor and the sensitive parts of construction from the outdoor climate. Exposure of driving rain is the most prominent moisture source a wall has to resist. Despite this, there is a lack of information on rain resistance. Field measurements on real-life external walls show that recurrent water leakage under driving rain conditions is observed in five out of seven new-built houses in Sweden, including those with ventilated façades. About a 100 commercial laboratory façade tests, mounted by façade suppliers, and targeted laboratory experiments showed that it is almost impossible to achieve fully tight façade solutions, and keep them sealed. Nearly, all test walls with façade details leaked, almost regardless of façade type and sealing efforts. The results from field and laboratory measurements of rain resistance in new buildings in Sweden show that façades are usually not water-tight and also that very small deficiencies can cause substantial amount of water leakage. © 2017, © The Author(s) 2017.

  • 309.
    Olsson, Lars
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Väderskyddat byggande: - eller omfattande fukt- och mögelkontroll av fuktexponerat virke, konstruktioner och KL-trä?2017In: Bygg & Teknik, no 5, p. 4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    När det gäller byggnadskonstruktioner så behöver allt fuktkänsligt byggmaterial skyddas mot förhöjd fuktighet och vatten. Görs inte detta så är risken stor bland annat för mikrobiell påväxt och byggnadsdelar behöver undersökas med avseende på fukt och mikrobiell påväxt.Anledningen till att det behöver undersökas med avseende på mikrobiell påväxt handlar inte bara om risken för hälsobesvär hos framtida brukare av byggnaden eller sanerings- och undersökningskostnader och utbyte av material och konstruktioner som följd av uppfuktning, utan även etik- och miljökonsekvensfrågor som blivit alltmer betydelsefullt i byggprojekt

  • 310.
    Ormarsson, S.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Finite element simulation of global structural behaviour of multifamily timber buildings using prefabricated volume modules2018In: WCTE 2018 - World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of building multi-storey timber buildings has changed in recent decades. The building of apartment houses with fully prefabricated volume modules in wood is an industry sector that is rapidly increasing its capacity. A number of house manufacturers that have delivered volume modules, primarily for single family homes, are now expanding their production to multi-storey buildings with up to 6-8 floors. This is a challenging task for producers, since the available design procedures for timber buildings have not yet been fully implemented for these types of buildings. The aim of the work is to develop an efficient and flexible finite element model to analyse the three-dimensional structural behaviour of multi-storey buildings using prefabricated volume modules, made from wooden stud-and-rail structures. The model will be used to study the global structural behaviour of various timber walls, volume modulus and modular-based multi-storey buildings when subjected to different types of loading. The model will also be used for detailed analysis and design (using so-called adaptive modelling) of the most critical parts of the structure.

  • 311.
    Parra-López, Carlos
    et al.
    IFAPA Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training, Spain.
    Holley, Martin
    CSE Centre for Sustainable Energy, UK.
    Lindegaard, Kevin
    Crops for Energy Ltd, UK.
    Sayadi, Samir
    IFAPA Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training, Spain.
    Esteban-López, Gonzales
    Energy Agency of Granada, Spain.
    Durán-Zuazo, Victor H.
    IFAPA Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training, Spain.
    Knauer, Cristoph
    ttz Bremerhaven, Germany.
    Engelbrechten, Hans-Georg von.
    Agraligna GmbH, Germany.
    Winterber, Ralf
    Regionale Planungsgemeinschaft Altmark, Germany.
    Henriksson, Annika
    SalixEnergi Europa AB, Sweden.
    Lamley, Annette
    CSE Centre for Sustainable Energy, UK.
    Nylander, Anders
    Kommunförbundet Skåne, Sweden.
    Paulrud, Susanne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Leonard, Pauline
    Western Development Commission, Ireland.
    Daly, Patrick
    Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland.
    Drzewaszewski, Lukasz
    Gmina Zaluski, Poland.
    Rzewuski, Wojciech
    Mazovian Agricultural Advisory Centre, Poland.
    Strengthening the development of the short-rotation plantations bioenergy sector: Policy insights from six European countries2017In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 114, p. 781-793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper, based on a participatory methodological framework involving expert stakeholders and researchers from six European countries (Germany, Ireland, Poland, Spain, Sweden and UK), analyses the priority issues for the development of short-rotation plantations (SRP), and proposes a series of policy strategies to strengthen this development. The results indicate that there is a lack of awareness of the multifaceted benefits of SRP at the level of farmers, policy makers and public authorities. More research is required to put a value on the multifunctionality of SRP and justify its public support. Small-scale projects using established technologies are also required with energy crops introduced in a phased manner. The simultaneous dissemination of this knowledge upwards to policy makers and downwards to producers and farmers is critical in the success of SRP. Also, greater financial support on both the supply and demand side is highlighted as being necessary: on the supply side linking multifunctional benefits of SRP and targeted payments, along with increased long-term contractual arrangements between farmers and energy plant operators; demand side incentives should overcome any difference in price between fossil fuels and energy crops. Groups to lobby for the uptake and support of SRP and bioenergy are also of necessary.

  • 312.
    Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Gustavsson, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Energikontor Sydost, Sweden.
    Tekniska och ekonomiska förutsättningar för oljeersättning i industrin med pyrolysolja2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For potential users, especially in the industry, which consider bio-oil as well as pyrolysis oil as a fuel alternatives in the future, in-depth knowledge of its technical and economic conditions in various industrial applications is required. To verify which requirements these oils sets on the combustion technology more combustion tests in potential burners are needed to clarify any technical development. To minimize any problems that may arise with pyrolysis oil, from delivery to storage and combustion, the available knowledge about the use of common bio-oils should be used. The overall objective of this project is to investigate the possibilities to use pyrolysis oil in various industrial applications.

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  • 313.
    Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ingvarson, Robert
    Janfire, Sweden.
    Sänkning av kväveoxidemissioner samt förlängd livslängd genom rökgasåterföring i en pelletsbrännare 750 kW2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project has been involved in developing a flue gas recirculation system aimed at reducing emissions of NO

    x and dust, as well as extending the life of the material in a pellet burner. Installation of a flue gas recirculation system and combustion tests have been performed in a laundry in Bengtsfors, which has a pellet-fired boiler with two janfire burners of 750 kW each. The results of the tests showed that the flue gas recirculation had an impact on NOx emissions. These decreased by about 17-18% in wood pellets combustion and by 10% in combustion of nitrogen rich agro fuel pellets in comparison to non-flue gas recirculation. With flue gas recirculation, the combustion furnace temperatures decreased by 85-105 oC for wood pellets and about 70 oC for agro fuel pellets.

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  • 314.
    Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Löfgren, Bengt-Erik
    Pelletsförbundet, Sweden.
    Iwarsson Wide, Maria
    Skogforsk, Sweden.
    Melin, Gustav
    SVEBIO, Sweden.
    Innovationskluster för internationalisering inom bioenergiområdet - förstudie2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioenergy contributes to a sustainable energy mix in most countries worldwide, is the largest renewable energy generation and has a global development potential. Bioenergy today accounts for 60 percent of all renewable energy in the EU: 11 percent of all used energy, compared with 7 percent for all other renewable energy sources. However, the market for Swedish bioenergy and bioenergy technology in Sweden has decreased. Partly because our domestic market for new district heating installations has already been expanded and partly because the competition from electricity heating through energy efficient heat pumps in the residential segment takes over the exchange market. In order for Swedish know-how and products to grow, increased exports and visibility are important. An innovation cluster for internationalization in the bioenergy field cre-ates a meeting place that facilitates involved bioenergy companies and organizations to create sustainable growth inside and outside their own industry.

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  • 315.
    Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    von Bahr, Bo
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Wallertz, Anna
    Rosenqvist, Håkan
    Slam från små avloppsanläggningar i kretslopp2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project aimed at locally investigate the availability of suitable sludge products from small sewage plants in the area of Alberga, Bälgviken and Näshulta in the municipality of Eskilstuna for a placement of a hygienic composting machine (ICM). Furthermore, the project included an investigation of the economic potential of a local solution as well as an overall calculation of the local environmental benefits of the cycle.

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  • 316.
    Pericault, Youen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Data supporting the life cycle impact assessment and cost evaluation of technical alternatives for providing water and heating services to a suburban development in Gällivare Sweden.2018In: Data in Brief, E-ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 21, p. 1204-1208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article presents input data that were used in Pericault et al. (2018) for life cycle impact assessment and total cost assessment of five technical alternatives for heat and water services provision in a suburban development in Sweden. The data consists of a list of environmental impacts (cumulative exergy demand of energy carriers - CExDe, global warming potential - GWP, abiotic depletion potential of elements - ADPE), costs, amortisation periods, lifetimes and output flows of the system processes composing the alternatives. The data was derived from values collected in lifecycle databases, environmental product declarations, scientific publications and personal communications with companies.

  • 317.
    Pericault, Youen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Expansion of sewer, water and district heating networks in cold climate regions: An integrated sustainability assessment2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 10, article id 3743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents an integrated sustainability assessment of technical alternatives for water and heating services provision in suburban areas affected by a cold climate. Each alternative combines a drinking water supply, sewerage (gravity or low-pressure), pipe freeze protection (deep burial or shallow burial with heat tracing) and heating solution (district heating or geothermal heat pumps). An innovative freeze protection option was considered, in which low-temperature district heating (LTDH) is used to heat trace shallow sewer and water pipes. First, the performance of each alternative regarding seven sustainability criteria was evaluated on a projected residential area in Sweden using a systems analysis approach. A multi-criteria method was then applied to propose a sustainability ranking of the alternatives based on a set of weights obtained from local stakeholders. The alternative with a deep buried gravity sewer and geothermal heat pumps was found to have the highest sustainability score in the case study. In the sensitivity analysis, the integrated trench solution with a gravity sewer, innovative heat tracing and LTDH was found to potentially top the sustainability ranking if geothermal energy was used as the district heating source, or if the weight of the cost criterion increased from 24% to 64%. The study highlights the need for integrated decision-making between different utility providers as an integrated solution can represent sustainability gains.

  • 318.
    Persson, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Gustavsson, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Europeisk standardisering av biobränsleeldade pannor och kaminer - revision till följd av EcoDesign-krav2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During 2016 and 2017 the European standards for solid fuel boilers and roomheaters have been under revision. RISE has taken active part in this work as a representative for Swedish interests. This includes meetings in the Swedish mirror committee SIS TK 169, participation in CEN Technical Committees TC 57 and 295 and in relevant working groups as well as continuous dissemination work. The report describes issues addressed at the meetings, Swedish positions and arguments as well as the status of the revision process.

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  • 319.
    Petersen, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Enebro, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Yarahmadi, Nazdaneh
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Solid-state organo-modification of montmorillonite for manufacturing of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) nanocomposites2018In: Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology, ISSN 1083-5601, Vol. 24, p. E146-E153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The preparation of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) nanocomposites via direct melt processing is still posing problems mainly because of the lack of availability of suitable commercial organoclays and because of the low thermal stability of PVC. A new type of organic compounds for modifying montmorillonite (MMT), which is suitable for use in plasticized PVC, has been found earlier. The current study shows that it is possible to achieve partially exfoliated PVC nanocomposites with greatly improved mechanical properties using a method of liquid-solid–state intercalation of MMT when using tributyl citrate and diisononyl phthalate (DINP) plasticizers as organic modifiers. It is also shown that liquid mixed metal stabilizers have the ability to intercalate the clay at least when DINP is used. The observation raises questions regarding how this phenomenon can affect the thermal stability of PVC composites. J. VINYL ADDIT. TECHNOL., 24:E146–E153, 2018. © 2017 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  • 320.
    Petersen, L.
    et al.
    Euro-Mediterranean Seismological Centre, France.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Teixeira, R.
    Barreiro Municipality, Portugal.
    Creating comparable public tolerance and technical performance measures for critical infrastructure resilience evaluation2018In: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 2018, p. 1231-1240Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    No consensus currently exists on how to measure and evaluate Critical Infrastructure (CI) resilience. Attempting to use the public’s declared coping capacity as a target for CI resilience, this paper explores how to develop relevant resilience performance measurements that enable comparison to the tolerance levels of the general public. To do so, one must first establish the normal performance of the system and the applicable performance measures. Then, a survey is used to convert public perception into these measures as to enable comparison with the technical resilience performance. The CI resilience will be presented through a family of so-called resilience triangles which will illustrate the evolution of the performance, before, during and after a crisis event. A case study of the Municipal Water Network of Barreiro, Portugal, is used. The overall performance is preferably described with the categories quality, quantity and delivery. In quantifying the performance the importance of what is being assessed, to what hazard and for which end-user became evident.

  • 321. Petra, Steen
    et al.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Erik, Dölerud
    Modvion, Sweden.
    Otto, Lundman
    Modvion, Sweden.
    Structural design methods for tall timber towers with large wind turbine2019In: International Conference on Computational Methods in Wood Mechanics – from Material Properties to Timber Structures. ECCOMAS Thematic Conference, June 17-19, 2019, Växjö, Sweden, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 322.
    Pettersson, Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Valeria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Anheden, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Fuglesang, Malin
    ÅF Industry, Sweden.
    Systems analysis of different value chains based on domestic forest biomass for the production of bio-SNG2018In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 2117-2140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares value chains based on domestic forest biomass for the production of bio-synthetic natural gas (SNG) with respect to economic performance, GHG emissions, and energy efficiency. Value chains in which raw material is upgraded to intermediate products before transportation to an SNG plant integrated with a district heating system for further upgrading are compared with a chain in which the raw material is transported directly to the SNG plant. The intermediates considered are either dried biomass from forest residues, or bark, upgraded at pulp mills, or pellets from sawdust upgraded at sawmills. The findings show that the difference in performance between the studied value chains is generally small. The highest cost and significantly lowest energy efficiency are associated with the value chain with pellets, which leads to the conclusion that more pretreatment than what is required by the SNG process, to lower transport costs, is not profitable. Drying forest residues at pulp mills before further transportation to and upgrading at an SNG plant leads to somewhat higher transportation costs because of the relatively high fixed costs associated with transportation. However, the benefit of drying the biomass using excess heat at pulp mills is that heat is "moved" from a location, where it can be hard to find profitable ways to use it, to the SNG plant, where the excess heat can be used for district heating. With these two factors working in opposition, the total cost is similar if forest residues are transported directly to the SNG plant or via a pulp mill. The lowest cost is achieved when falling bark from pulp mills is used because the first transportation step is avoided and no additional investment for biomass handling at the mill is required. However, there is a technical uncertainty regarding how much bark can be used in the SNG process.

  • 323. Pettersson Skog, Anna
    et al.
    Jonatan, Malmberg
    Emilsson, Tobias
    Jägerhök, Tove
    Capener, Carl-Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Grönatakhandboken: Växtbädd och vegetation2017Report (Other academic)
  • 324.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    The role of biobased building materials in the climate impacts of construction: Effects of increased use of biobased materials in the Swedish building sector2017Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant share of the global climate change impacts can be attributed to the construction sector. One mitigation strategy is increasing the use of biobased materials. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to demonstrate the benefits of this, but forest complexities create uncertainty due to omission of key aspects. This aim of this thesis is to enhance understanding of the effects of increasing use of biobased materials in climate change mitigation of construction works with a life cycle perspective. Non-traditional LCA methodology aspects were identified and the climate impact effects of increasing the use of biobased materials while accounting for these was studied. The method applied was dynamic LCA combined with forest carbon data under multi-approach scenarios. Diverse case studies (a building, a small road bridge and the Swedish building stock) were used. Most scenarios result in impact reductions from increasing the use of biobased materials in construction. The inclusion of non-traditional aspects affected the results, but not this outcome. Results show that the climate mitigation potential is maximized by simultaneously implementing other strategies (such as increased use of low-impact concrete). Biobased building materials should not be generalised as climate neutral because it depends on case-sensitive factors. Some of these factors depend on the modelling of the forest system (timing of tree growth, spatial level approach, forest land use baseline) or LCA modelling parameters (choice of the time horizon, end-of-life assumptions, service life). To decrease uncertainty, it is recommended to use at least one metric that allows assessment of emissions based on their timing and to use long-term time horizons. Practitioners should clearly state if and how non-traditional aspects are handled, and study several methodological settings. Technological changes should be accounted for when studying long-term climate impacts of building stocks.

  • 325.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Wålinder, Magnus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Falk, Andreas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Future scenarios for climate mitigation of new construction in Sweden: Effects of different technological pathways2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 187, p. 1025-1035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A variety of climate mitigation strategies is available to mitigate climate impacts of buildings. Several studies evaluating the effectiveness of these strategies have been performed at the building stock level, but do not consider the technological change in building material manufacturing. The objective of this study is to evaluate the climate mitigation effects of increasing the use of biobased materials in the construction of new residential dwellings in Sweden under future scenarios related to technological change. A model to estimate the climate impact from Swedish new dwellings has been proposed combining official statistics and life cycle assessment data of seven different dwelling typologies. Eight future scenarios for increased use of harvested wood products are explored under different pathways for changes in the market share of typologies and in energy generation. The results show that an increased use of harvested wood products results in lower climate impacts in all scenarios evaluated, but reductions decrease if the use of low-impact concrete expands more rapidly or under optimistic energy scenarios. Results are highly sensitive to the choice of climate impact metric. The Swedish construction sector can only reach maximum climate change mitigation scenarios if the low-impact building typologies are implemented together and rapidly.

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  • 326.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology Sweden; IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Climate impacts from road bridges: effects of introducing concrete carbonation and biogenic carbon storage in wood2018In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 56-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction sector faces the challenge of mitigating climate change with urgency. Life cycle assessment (LCA), a widely used tool to assess the climate impacts of buildings, is seldom used for bridges. Material-specific phenomena such as concrete carbonation and biogenic carbon storage are usually unaccounted for when assessing the climate impacts from infrastructure. The purpose of this article is to explore the effects these phenomena could have on climate impact assessment of road bridges and comparisons between bridge designs. For this, a case study is used of two functionally equivalent design alternatives for a small road bridge in Sweden. Dynamic LCA is used to calculate the effects of biogenic carbon storage, while the Lagerblad method and literature values are used to estimate concrete carbonation. The results show that the climate impact of the bridge is influenced by both phenomena, and that the gap between the impacts from both designs increases if the phenomena are accounted for. The outcome is influenced by the time occurrence assumed for the forest carbon uptake and the end-of-life scenario for the concrete. An equilibrium or 50/50 approach for accounting for the forest carbon uptake is proposed as a middle value compromise to handle this issue. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

  • 327.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Røyne, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    The influence of system boundaries and baseline in climate impact assessment of forest products2019In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 160-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This article aims to explore how different assumptions about system boundaries and setting of baselines for forest growth affect the outcome of climate impact assessments of forest products using life cycle assessment (LCA), regarding the potential for climate impact mitigation from replacing non-forest benchmarks. This article attempts to explore how several assumptions interact and influence results for different products with different service life lengths. Methods: Four products made from forest biomass were analysed and compared to non-forest benchmarks using dynamic LCA with time horizons between 0 and 300 years. The studied products have different service lives: butanol automotive fuel (0 years), viscose textile fibres (2 years), a cross-laminated timber building structure (50 years) and methanol used to produce short-lived (0 years) and long-lived (20 years) products. Five calculation setups were tested featuring different assumptions about how to account for the carbon uptake during forest growth or regrowth. These assumptions relate to the timing of the uptake (before or after harvest), the spatial system boundaries (national, landscape or single stand) and the land-use baseline (zero baseline or natural regeneration). Results and discussion: The implications of using different assumptions depend on the type of product. The choice of time horizon for dynamic LCA and the timing of forest carbon uptake are important for all products, especially long-lived ones where end-of-life biogenic emissions take place in the relatively distant future. The choice of time horizon is less influential when using landscape- or national-level system boundaries than when using stand-level system boundaries and has greater influence on the results for long-lived products. Short-lived products perform worse than their benchmarks with short time horizons whatever spatial system boundaries are chosen, while long-lived products outperform their benchmarks with all methods tested. The approach and data used to model the forest carbon uptake can significantly influence the outcome of the assessment for all products. Conclusions: The choices of spatial system boundaries, temporal system boundaries and land-use baseline have a large influence on the results, and this influence decreases for longer time horizons. Short-lived products are more sensitive to the choice of time horizon than long-lived products. Recommendations are given for LCA practitioners: to be aware of the influence of method choice when carrying out studies, to use case-specific data (for the forest growth) and to communicate clearly how results can be used.

  • 328.
    Plos, Mario
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Shu, Jiangpeng
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A multi-level structural assessment strategy for reinforced concrete bridge deck slabs2017In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 223-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a multi-level assessment strategy for reinforced concrete bridge deck slabs. The strategy is based on the principle of successively improved evaluation in structural assessment. It provides a structured approach to the use of simplified as well as advanced non-linear analysis methods. Such advanced methods have proven to possess great possibilities of achieving better understanding of the structural response and of revealing higher load-carrying capacity of existing structures. The proposed methods were used for the analysis of previously tested two-way slabs subjected to bending failure and a cantilever slab subjected to a shear type of failure, in both cases loaded with concentrated loads. As expected, the results show that more advanced methods yield an improved understanding of the structural response and are capable of demonstrating higher, yet conservative, predictions of the load-carrying capacity. Nevertheless, the proposed strategy clearly provides the engineering community a framework for using successively improved structural analysis methods for enhanced assessment in a straightforward manner.

  • 329.
    Pousette, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Jacobsson, Peter
    Martinsons Group, Sweden.
    Johansson, Erik
    Moelven Töreboda AB, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Olof
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Warg, Christine
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Improved edge design for stress-laminated decks made of spruce2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress-laminated bridge decks in Sweden are usually made of glulam beams of spruce and it is therefore crucial to avoid moisture as the wood has no impregnation that can protect it from decay. Typically the protection of the deck consists of a waterproof bitumen sheet under the asphalt layers on the top surface and of claddings along the edges. The aim of this work was to study the risk of damages and how to ensure the function of the deck plates. The adhesion of bitumen sheets and the effect of different primers was studied. The design at the edges was studied and an improved solution with a steel angle along the deck edge was developed and tested. The improved design should be robust and easy to install to always assure a correct performance. The new design has been developed within the European research project DuraTB - Durable Timber Bridges and is now included in general recommendations for timber bridges in Sweden.

  • 330.
    Pousette, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Malo, Kjell Arne
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Thelandersson, Sven
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fortino, Stefania
    VTT, Finland.
    Salokangas, Lauri
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Wacker, James
    USDA, USA.
    Durable Timber Bridges - Final Report and Guidelines2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the final report from the project DuraTB - Durable Timber Bridges. The goal of the project was to contribute to the development of sustainable timber bridges by making guidelines for moisture design and developing new and improved bridge concepts and details in terms of durability and maintenance aspects.

    In this report the analyzes, surveys, results and guidelines are described. More detailed descriptions are referred to the many publications that the project has delivered.

    The research leading to these results has received funding from the WoddWisdom-Net Research Programme which is a transnational R&D programme jointly funded by national funding organisations within the framework of the ERA-NET WoodWisdom-Net 2.

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  • 331.
    Pushp, Mohit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Gall, Dan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Seemann, Martin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Jan B C
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Influence of Bed Material, Additives, and Operational Conditions on Alkali Metal and Tar Concentrations in Fluidized Bed Gasification of Biomass2018In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 6797-6806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gasification of biomass results in release of tar and alkali metal compounds that constitute a significant challenge to the optimization of the gasification process. Here we describe on-line measurements of alkali, condensable tar, and particle concentrations in product gas from a 2-4 MWth dual fluidized bed gasifier, with the aims to characterize typical concentrations and contribute to the understanding of alkali-tar interactions. The influence of bed material, additives, and operational parameters on the concentrations is investigated. Alkali concentrations are measured with a surface ionization detector, and particle and tar concentrations are determined using aerosol measurement techniques. The gasification of wood chips using quartz or olivine as bed material results in an alkali concentration of 30-250 mg m-3, and the observed alkali levels are consistent with a significant release of the fuel alkali content. Addition of ilmenite to a quartz bed and additions of K2SO4 and K2CO3 to an olivine bed influence both alkali and heavy tar concentrations. The additions result in changes in alkali concentration that relaxes to a new steady state in tens of minutes. The concentration of condensable tar is lower for the olivine bed than for the quartz bed, and tends to decrease when potassium or sulfur is added. The concentration of condensable tar compounds is anticorrelated with the alkali concentration when a quartz bed is used, while no clear trend is observed with an olivine bed. An increase in steam flow rate results in a substantial decrease in heavy tar concentration from a quartz sand bed, while the alkali concentration increases slightly with increasing flow rate. This is in contrast to the alkali concentrations observed when using an activated olivine bed, where concentrations are higher and tend to decrease with increasing steam flow rate. The study confirms that several primary methods are available to optimize the alkali and tar behavior in the gasifier, and suggests that on-line monitoring is needed to systematically change the operational conditions and to study the underlying processes.

  • 332.
    Rahm, Michael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Evegren, Franz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Ringsberg, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Structural Fire Integrity Testing of Lightweight Multiple Core Sandwich Structures2017In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Marine Structures - MARSTRUCT. Progress in the Analysis and Design of Marine Structures, 2017, p. 869-878Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lightweight structures become increasingly important to reduce environmental impact and to improve payload/deadweight ratio of ships. Significant weight savings can be accomplished by replacing steel with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sandwich panels. An assessment is then necessary to ensure that equivalent fire safety is provided, since the structures are combustible. To support such assessments, this paper presents results from vertically loaded fire resistance tests of two structures: (1) a “conventional” FRP sandwich bulkhead with thermal insulation (providing load carrying fire resistance for 60 minutes) and (2) a multiple core FRP sandwich bulkhead without insulation. Both bulkheads were constructed for and tested with the same design load. The multiple core sandwich bulkhead demonstrated structural fire integrity performance well beyond 60 minutes whilst having a significantly lower structural weight and thickness. The new type of multiple core sandwich structure thus provides great potential, both from a weight-savings and a fire safety perspective.

  • 333.
    Razmjoo, Narges
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Sven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Morgalla, Mario
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Study of the transient release of water vapor from a fuel bed of wet biomass in a reciprocating-grate furnace2019In: Journal of the Energy Institute, ISSN 1743-9671, Vol. 92, no 4, p. 843-854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates how sudden changes in fuel moisture affected the combustion characteristics of the fuel bed in a 4-MW reciprocating-grate furnace. The moisture content of the fuel fed to the furnace was monitored online using a near-infrared spectroscopy device, and the water vapor concentration in the flue gas was measured continuously. To obtain experimental data on fuel-bed conditions, the temperature and gas composition in the bed were measured using a probe. A simplified drying model was developed using the measured gas composition values as inputs. The model was then used to estimate the drying rate and to simulate the extent of the drying zone along the grate. Measurements indicated that a change in the moisture content of the fuel fed to the furnace was detected as a change in water vapor concentration in the flue gas with a delay of about 2 h. The model predicted that a portion of wet fuel would need about 2 h to become dry, in line with the measured time delay of the water vapor concentration change in the flue gas. Overall, there was good alignment between the measured and simulated results, supporting the validity of the model and the assumed mechanisms. © 2018 Energy Institute

  • 334.
    Regmi, P.
    et al.
    Brown and Caldwell, USA.
    Miller, M.
    Brown and Caldwell, USA.
    Jimenez, J.
    Brown and Caldwell, USA.
    Stewart, H.
    Jacobs, USA.
    Johnson, B.
    Jacobs, USA.
    Amerlinck, Y.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Volcke, E. I. P.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lund University, Sweden.
    García, P. J.
    Atkins, UK.
    Maere, T.
    Université Laval, Canada; Québec Water Research Center, Canada.
    Torfs, E.
    Université Laval, Canada; Québec Water Research Center, Canada.
    Vanrolleghem, P. A.
    Université Laval, Canada; Québec Water Research Center, Canada.
    Miletić, I.
    InCTRL Solutions Inc, Canada.
    Rieger, L.
    InCTRL Solutions Inc, Canada.
    Schraa, O.
    InCTRL Solutions Inc, Canada.
    Samstag, R.
    Bainbridge Island, USA.
    Santoro, D.
    Trojan Technologies, Canada.
    Snowling, S.
    Hydromantis ESS Inc, Canada.
    Takács, I.
    Dynamita, France.
    The future of WRRF modelling - Outlook and challenges2019In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 79, no 1, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wastewater industry is currently facing dramatic changes, shifting away from energy-intensive wastewater treatment towards low-energy, sustainable technologies capable of achieving energy positive operation and resource recovery. The latter will shift the focus of the wastewater industry to how one could manage and extract resources from the wastewater, as opposed to the conventional paradigm of treatment. Debatable questions arise: Can the more complex models be calibrated, or will additional unknowns be introduced? After almost 30 years using well-known International Water Association (IWA) models, should the community move to other components, processes, or model structures like 'black box' models, computational fluid dynamics techniques, etc.? Can new data sources - e.g. on-line sensor data, chemical and molecular analyses, new analytical techniques, off-gas analysis - keep up with the increasing process complexity? Are different methods for data management, data reconciliation, and fault detection mature enough for coping with such a large amount of information? Are the available calibration techniques able to cope with such complex models? This paper describes the thoughts and opinions collected during the closing session of the 6th IWA/WEF Water Resource Recovery Modelling Seminar 2018. It presents a concerted and collective effort by individuals from many different sectors of the wastewater industry to offer past and present insights, as well as an outlook into the future of wastewater modelling.

  • 335.
    Reinelt, Torsten
    et al.
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Delre, Antonio
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Westerkamp, Tanja
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Holmgren, Magnus Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Liebetrau, Jan
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Scheutz, Charlotte
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Comparative use of different emission measurement approaches to determine methane emissions from a biogas plant2017In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 68, p. 173-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sustainable anaerobic biowaste treatment has to mitigate methane emissions from the entire biogas production chain, but the exact quantification of these emissions remains a challenge. This study presents a comparative measurement campaign carried out with on-site and ground-based remote sensing measurement approaches conducted by six measuring teams at a Swedish biowaste treatment plant. The measured emissions showed high variations, amongst others caused by different periods of measurement performance in connection with varying operational states of the plant. The overall methane emissions measured by ground-based remote sensing varied from 5 to 25 kg h−1 (corresponding to a methane loss of 0.6–3.0% of upgraded methane produced), depending on operating conditions and the measurement method applied. Overall methane emissions measured by the on-site measuring approaches varied between 5 and 17 kg h−1 (corresponding to a methane loss of 0.6 and 2.1%) from team to team, depending on the number of measured emission points, operational state during the measurements and the measurement method applied. Taking the operational conditions into account, the deviation between different approaches and teams could be explained, in that the two largest methane-emitting sources, contributing about 90% of the entire site’s emissions, were found to be the open digestate storage tank and a pressure release valve on the compressor station.

  • 336.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Bouffier, C.
    INERIS Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, France.
    Durgun, Özüm
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Guay, F.
    DBI Danish Institute of Fire and Security Technology, Denmark.
    Ioannou, I.
    University College London, UK.
    Mira da Silva, M.
    University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Petersen, L.
    EMSC European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre, France.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Theocharidou, M.
    European Commission Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Vigh, L. G.
    Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary.
    Infrastructures facing disaster risk: Pilot implementation of a new resilience management framework2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 337.
    Reitsma, Lizette
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Hayley, Ho
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Nyström, Sofie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    Brikhan, Wasim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Schaeffer, Jennie
    Västmanlands läns museum, Sweden.
    Ryöppy, Merja
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Larsen, Henry
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Strøbech, Elena
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Our burden - Carbondioxide theatre for climate action2019In: NORDES 2019: WHO CARES?, Espoo, Finland, 2019, Vol. 8, article id 150Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The biggest changes to the planet are made by humankind and action needs to be taken in order to guarantee a sustainable level of emissions for the planet (Rockström et al. 2009). In the project presented in this poster, we engage young citizens (from 15 to 20 years old), in critically reflecting on social norms and practices around climate goals and CO2 emissions, through participatory theatre methods. Only when those involved can get sufficient authority to determine and guide the research and the research agenda, can a project be truly participatory (Winschiers-Theophilus 2009). Participatory theatre offers ways to meet the longing for shared forums by engaging large groups of people in exploring difficult social dilemmas. It can potentially empower the young participants to change their own situations and organisations, as it is “likely to shake things into action or to “unfreeze” blocked situations ” (Shreyögg and Höpfl 2004).

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  • 338.
    Rex, Emma
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Fernqvist, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ryding, Sven-Olof
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Recommendation and context: the missing links for increased life cycle impact in large industries2019In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study takes an open and explorative approach to investigating the impact, or lack of impact, of life cycle information on behaviours throughout large production companies. Based on cases where life cycle information has been provided, this paper analyses how life cycle information has been interpreted and acted upon—not only by the life cycle assessment (LCA) practitioner conducting the study but also by employees outside the environmental departments. Methods: To understand the impact of life cycle information on everyday actions in organisations and how this impact can be enhanced, this study takes a grounded approach to following flows of life cycle information from the environmental department through other departments of an organisation. From the flows of information, the research team selected rich descriptions of empirical data that reflect action and inaction. Using interviews and documents, we collected barriers and enablers for acting on life cycle information. Barriers and enablers were interpreted and clustered into categories and arranged into concepts. Next, we reviewed the empirical data using theories from social psychology. Results and discussion: The results show that it is difficult for life cycle information to result in subsequent action outside of environmental departments. The barriers to this action were partly due to the life cycle information per se such as gaps between what life cycle information is available and what life cycle information is needed. Barriers and enablers were also found in relation to the context in which life cycle information was applied and new behaviours were adopted, including timing and software structures, reward systems, trade-offs, and personal beliefs about the profession. The results suggest a new role of the life cycle proponent that includes providing the right life cycle information and understanding and influencing the expected agents’ situations. Conclusions: Assisted by theories from social psychology, we found that behaviour can be changed if ‘recommendations’ and ‘contexts’ are considered when providing life cycle information. The paper suggests that the impact of life cycle information could increase if normative arguments about environmental visions, strategies, and overarching goals are aligned with enablers that focus on personal goals, such as meeting a deadline, reducing uncertainty, and reaching the threshold for a bonus. © 2019, The Author(s).

  • 339.
    Rex, Emma
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Fernqvist, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ryding, Sven-Olof
    IVL, Sweden.
    Hallberg, Klas
    Akzo Nobel, Sweden.
    Ringström, Emma
    Akzo Nobel, Sweden.
    Landström, Lena
    Vattenfall, Sweden.
    Andréasson, Jessica
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Widerberg, Anna
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Dahllöf, Lisbeth
    Volvo Group, Sweden.
    Hallén Jorquera, Rebecka
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tailored for decision – Knowing your target group prior to adaptation2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle thinking is but one perspective - if at all considered -, in everyday business decisions throughout the organization; in the selection of suppliers, in the strategy of new product ranges, and, in what information is chosen to be highlighted to the customers. Tradeoffs are constantly made between e.g. environment, quality, price and other company goals. Before any successful adaptation and visualization of life cycle information, it is important for internal life cycle experts to identify and understand how other functions of the company perceive and value life cycle information in their specific working situations.

    To get a better understanding of these internal users of life cycle information, life cycle experts in four multinational companies (Akzo Nobel, Vattenfall, Volvo Cars, Volvo Group) have joined forces with researchers in life cycle management and behavioral science to create a graphical map of how life cycle information is spread and used in different parts of an organization. The aim of the map is to be used as a basis for discussions and recommendations on how to tailor life cycle information in order to support decision making throughout a company.

    The map is constructed by combining a) inventories on how quantitative data seeks its way to internal users through databases, reports and KPIs, with b) qualitative interviews on goal framing and decision weights of e.g. environmental and economic information. As a result, the map illustrates both the “physical” flows of life cycle information and the “cognitive logics” of this information for different users (e.g. how values, attitudes and norms influence the target groups’ likelihood of including life cycle information in their decision processes).

    Based on the map, each company can identify and discuss who the main users of life cycle information are and what premises for life cycle thinking these users have: In what decision making situation is, or can, life cycle information be used? How is the information understood? What other sources of information and rationales for decisions are used in parallel to, or in conflict with, LCA-results?

    Initial analyses on the usefulness of the map point to a better understanding of how life cycle experts can tailor information for decisions in different parts of the company, as well as on its usefulness in illustrating to people outside of the environmental departments the widespread use of life cycle information that already exist in the company. The latter is not least important for creating an understanding in how the organization respond to ongoing external pressure to focus more on a life cycle approach, e.g. new requirements in ISO 14001, new EU Directives on public procurement and current EU work to establish a common LCA methodology.   

  • 340.
    Rex, Emma
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rosander, Erica
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Røyne, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Veide, Andras
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ulmanen, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    A systems perspective on chemical production from mixed food waste: The case of bio-succinate in Sweden2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 125, p. 86-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The option of producing the chemical succinic acid from bio-based resources is well in line with current political and industrial ambitions for a bio-based economy. A little explored but intriguing biomass feedstock opportunity is food waste. Mixed food waste is especially appealing as it represents less resource competition than more homogenous food waste fractions. The feasibility of producing succinic acid from mixed food waste depends on both technical and societal system structures. Therefore, to assess the production prospect, it is important to investigate all relevant system components. This study explores from such multiple perspectives the feasibility of chemical production as a viable added pathway for mixed food waste, using microbial production of succinic acid from municipal solid waste in Sweden as an example. The perspectives explored are: 1) feedstock feasibility, 2) societal drivers and barriers for technology progress, and 3) resource availability. Findings show that even though, from a technical feasibility and resource availability perspective, production seems possible, it lacks institutional support and actor commitment and alignment for development in Sweden. Findings also show that a holistic and interdisciplinary systems perspective contributes valuable insight when assessing prospects for bio-based chemicals.

  • 341.
    Rex, Emma
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rosander, Erica
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Røyne, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Veide, Andreas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ulmanen, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    A systems perspective on chemical production from mixed food waste: The case of bio-succinate in Sweden2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The option of producing the chemical succinic acid from bio-based resources is well in line with current political and industrial ambitions for a bio-based economy. A little explored but intriguing biomass feedstock opportunity is food waste. Mixed food waste is especially appealing as it represents less resource competition than more homogenous food waste fractions. The feasibility of producing succinic acid from mixed food waste depends on both technical and societal system structures. Therefore, to assess the production prospect, it is important to investigate all relevant system components. This study explores from such multiple perspectives the feasibility of chemical production as a viable added pathway for mixed food waste, using microbial production of succinic acid from municipal solid waste in Sweden as an example. The perspectives explored are: 1) feedstock feasibility, 2) societal drivers and barriers for technology progress, and 3) resource availability. Findings show that even though, from a technical feasibility and resource availability perspective, production seems possible, it lacks institutional support and actor commitment and alignment for development in Sweden. Findings also show that a holistic and interdisciplinary systems perspective contributes valuable insight when assessing prospects for bio-based chemicals. 

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    A systems perspective on chemical production from mixed food waste: The case of bio-succinate in Sweden
  • 342.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Brischke, Christian
    University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Windeisen, Elizabeth
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Richter, Klaus
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Incipient brown rot decay in modified wood: patterns of mass loss, structural integrity, moisture and acetyl content in high resolution2017In: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 172-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of degradation and growth patterns of fungi in modified wood may increase the understanding of their mode of action and may lead to more accurate service-life predictions. The aim of this paper was to study the degradation and growth patterns of brown rot fungi in modified wood and to measure moisture content (MC), structural integrity and the acetyl content by frequent monitoring over 300 days. Mass loss (ML) in the modified wood materials increased slowly up to 3% for 50–100 days after which it flattened out and remained constant during the remainder of the test. Structural integrity and acetyl content were maintained in the modified wood materials and MC was lower compared to untreated wood throughout the decay test. ML results of untreated wood indicate that fungi in solid wood go through distinct phases; the degradation patterns in the modified wood materials were more difficult to interpret.

  • 343.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Kalinowski, Mariusz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ascue, Johnny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Slurry acidification: Micro-structural analyses of concrete after exposure in acidified and non-acidified slurry2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Samples of three different concrete qualities were prepared and hardened, before exposure in cattle slurry without sulphuric acid (A) and with sulphuric acid added until pH<5.5 (B). The samples were exposed for two years in containers with about 45 L slurry. The boxes with slurry and concrete samples were placed in a ventilated room at 20 °C. The slurry and air temperatures were recorded continuously with temperature loggers, data being recorded every third hour. The slurry level in the boxes and the slurry pH were checked regularly during the experiment. Slurry or acid was added, if necessary, to maintain the level and pH<5.5. Before pH measurements, the slurry was stirred gently in both boxes. To restrict evaporation, the containers had non-airtight plastic covers between measurements.

    Half-way through exposure, the old slurry was replaced with fresh slurry (acidified and non-acidified treatments) to mimic conditions in farm storage where fresh slurry is added continuously during storage. After two years’ storage, the experiment was finalised. The concrete samples were taken out of the slurry, washed gently with water and put into labelled plastic bags.

    The samples were delivered to RISE CBI’s concrete laboratory, where the structural analyses were performed. These used petrographic microscopy techniques to examine the effects of exposure to two potentially aggressive environments, non-acidified and acidified cattle slurry, on concrete with three different mixes. The studied surfaces in the concrete samples were oriented vertically in the plastic containers. Polished sections were evaluated with a stereo microscope, and thin sections were evaluated using a polarising microscope and sources for visible and UV light.

    The results of the study show that the acidified slurry is more chemically aggressive to the cement paste in all the concrete mixes analysed. This can be explained by the solution’s lower pH.

    The extent of the chemical attack correlates with the initial quality of the concrete mix (water-powder ratio and type of binder). The deepest chemical attacks were observed in samples A1 and B1 consisting of “regular” concrete mix with w/c 0.59. The “long lasting quality” (LLC) concrete with a binder specially developed for low-pH environments shows markedly better resistance to chemical attack.

    The effects of the chemical attack on concrete after two years’ exposure can be classified as weak, consisting mainly of an increase in the capillary porosity of the cement paste in the outer layer of the concrete. The increase in porosity is considered to be due to the partial leaching of calcium hydroxide.

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  • 344.
    Rogers, Patrick
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gram, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Selander, A.
    Cementa AB, Sweden.
    Bulk hydrophobic civil engineering concrete for nordic conditions – Freeze thaw action2019In: Proceedings of the fib Symposium 2019: Concrete - Innovations in Materials, Design and Structures, International Federation for Structural Concrete , 2019, p. 2044-2051Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete is a composite building material which long term function can be modified for example by changing the water to cement ratio (w/c) or by adding in other chemical admixtures to change the fresh and hardened properties of the concrete. The overall goal of this study is to reduce the water absorption capacity of the cement paste/microstructure by at least 85 %. This is achieved by using bulk hydrophobic agents in the mixing phase rather than post hardened surface application. Numerous commercial agents and triglycerides (vegetable oils) were tested and showed promising results at a dosage equal to 3% of cement weight. This though affected compressive strengths negatively. As these concretes will be exposed to Nordic winter conditions, the concrete should perform well under repeated salt water freezing and thawing. This continued study will show how a selection of these bulk hydrophobic concretes performed during this part of the study. The concrete has a w/c = 0.4 with a cement content (CEM I) of 430 kg/m3.

  • 345.
    Ruud, Svein
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Verifiering av beräkningsprogram för energieffektiva småhus2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the energy performance of 11 different single-family houses has been determined by calculation using two different energy calculation programs, through energy-declarations made by an independent energy expert and finally trough a stepwise normalization of measured values according to instructions in the regulation BEN published by the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket). Comparison has been made with current energy requirements and the energy requirements that applied when the buildings were constructed. Comparison has also been made with the energy calculations performed during the design phase. The 11 houses were selected in consultation with four different house manufacturers who have provided support in the form of drawings and calculation data. The houses have a geographical spread from the north to the south of Sweden and have different heating and ventilation systems. All houses have been visited and documented on site. All houses seem to meet the energy requirements that applied when they were built, but some have difficulty meeting the energy requirements that apply today. This mainly applies to the houses with district heating. On average, calculated values are lower than measured and normalized values, especially when compared to the energy declarations. However, it is assessed that the energy declarations made from a questionnaire and without having visited the houses have a lot of deficiencies, among other things, in most cases no real estate energy is reported, which in several cases affects the calculation of the primary energy incorrectly. But also, the detailed normalization is uncertain because available measurement data have major shortcomings. The fact that several houses indicate the use of wood for wood-burning stoves is a contributing factor to the calculations being lower. Regardless, it is recommended that in an energy calculation, there is always some margin to the requirement level regarding energy performance. This is because during a normalization it is difficult to account for all behavioral deviations from the "normal", and that there are also uncertainties about most inputs to an energy calculation. However, if using proper safety margins, energy calculations on a completed house can be just as good as a normalization of measured data when determining it´s energy performance.

    There is a need to further improve Boverket's regulation BEN, both when it comes to calculations and normalization of measured energy consumption. This is especially important regarding how to handle electricity from solar cells.

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  • 346.
    Röyne, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Life Cycle Assessment of BioZEment – concrete production based on bacteria2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project BioZEment (University of Oslo 2014) was carried out 2014-2017, with the aim of developing a concrete product that complies with today’s standards of strength and durability, but without using the calcination process. Instead of thermally decomposing the limestone to make reactive lime, the project strived towards finding a low-temperature method for partial dissolution and re-precipitation of the mineral surfaces to make the limestone particles bind to each other, and thereby creating an alternative to conventional concrete with significantly lower climate impact. Modern biotechnology was applied to find microorganisms that could perform the dissolution and precipitation in a controlled manner. The project also included detailed studies of how cementation takes place on the micro- and nano-scale, in combination with microbiology and biotechnology.

    In order to ensure that the project was striving toward a product that truly could be seen as a sustainable alternative to today’s concrete, both the method life cycle assessment (LCA) and studies of ethical, legal and societal aspects of the process were applied. This report presents the results of the LCA.

    The LCA was carried out by SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden. The project was led by the University of Oslo. Other project partners, all based in Norway, were the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), the research institute SINTEF, the consultancy company Dr. tech. Olav Olsen, and the research institute SIFO.

    Results indicate that the BioZEment has the potential to reduce climate impact considerably, in a range of 70-85%. For other environmental impact categories (ozone depletion potential, eutrophication potential, and land use, and for the higher acidification estimate), the BioZEment has a higher environmental impact than conventional concrete. The impact levels are, however, not severe. Nevertheless, ammonia emissions (causing eutrophication and acidification) should be monitored. In the further development of the BioZEment, specific attention should be paid to:

    • Reducing water consumption

    • Establishing systems for waste water treatment

    • Minimizing urea demand

    • Minimizing ammonia emissions and/or capture ammonia emissions

     

    Key words: life cycle assessment, concrete, cement, bacteria, climate

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  • 347.
    Røyne, Frida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    The importance of including service life in the climate impact comparison of bioplastics and fossil-based plastics2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioplastics are gaining attention as a means of reducing fossil resource dependence. Most bioplastics differ from fossil-based plastics in molecular structure, and therefore in terms of properties and durability. Still, the life cycle environmental performance of bioplastics has attracted limited attention in research. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine the importance of applying a life cycle perspective and identify key considerations in the environmental evaluation of bioplastics and bioplastic products under development.

    The climate impact of the life cycle of an engine component storage box currently made of the fossil-based plastic acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) is compared to a hypothetical case study, based on laboratory observations, of the same box produced from a blend of polycarbonate and the bioplastic polylactic acid (PC/PLA) and a box made of biopolyamide (PA1010). The comparison is conducted with a cradle-to-grave attributional life cycle assessment. The functional unit of the study is five years of service life, which reflects the required function of the storage box.

    Whereas the climate impact of the production of the different plastic materials differ only slightly, the PC/PLA engine component storage box was found to have a significantly higher climate impact that the ABS and PA1010 boxes when the whole life cycle is taken into account. The dominant contributor to climate impact is premature material deterioration due to humidity and heat during service life, which prevents the product from fulfilling the required function. Two other influential aspects are the possibility of material reuse and the share of fossil or biogenic carbon in the product. Production of plastic materials and boxes, and transport distances, are of less importance.

    Results demonstrate the high significance of including service life and potential material deterioration when bioplastics and fossil-based plastics are compared. Our findings underline the importance of applying a life cycle perspective and taking into account the intended application and function of bioplastics as part of their development and environmental assessment.

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  • 348.
    Røyne, Frida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Torén, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Cintas, Olivia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Assessment Roadmapfor Emerging Bio-based Technologies: Identifying Sustainability Prospects with Multiple Perspectives2019In: Life cycle Management Conference 2019: Life cycle Management Conference 2019, Poznan, Polen, 2019, Vol. 9Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many bio-based technologies are emerging technologies, with the characteristics of being radical and fast growing. The 2018 Nobel prize in chemistry is based on enzymatic bio-based conversion as a green alterative for several conventional technologies. Overall, the transition to a bio-based economy is seen as a mean to reach sustainability, energy independence and economic growth. Bioeconomy strategies have however also been criticized for focusing too much on economic growth and too little on sustainability. Assessing potential life cycle sustainability risks and benefits early in the development of technologies – when still at lab or pilot scale – provides valuable insights about how to prioritize research activities and to potentially avert unintended consequences. The lack of knowledge and high uncertainty in early development however also makes such assessments challenging. On the social sustainability side, bio-based technologies create new jobs, while the social acceptance can hinder the market growth even in an innovation country like Sweden. Emerging technologies like for example artificial intelligence might reduce jobs and gene therapy in medicine might bear risk for coming future generation. The questions and risks are manifold. Therefore, it is essential to have a roadmap for guidance that takes a holistic approach to sustainability with a life cycle perspective. To add to the complexity, the possibilities for assessment approaches are extensive. Different perspectives can be assessed in numerous ways and with many different methods. The goal of this study is to contribute to a sustainable transition to the bioeconomy, by serving as a roadmap for research and innovation (R&I) on emerging bio-based technologies.

    To suggest a general roadmap for holistic and interdisciplinary assessments, this study identifies, and describes the use of multiple perspective assessments in selected R&I projects on emerging bio-based technologies. The projects include virgin and waste raw materials, biotechnology conversion processes and products such as bio-based chemicals, building materials, soil amendment, and pellets for heat. The findings are, in combination with existing frameworks on biomass- and bio-product prospect models, used to suggest an assessment roadmap for identifying sustainability prospects of emerging bio-based technologies.

    The result consists of an “assessment roadmap” including the perspectives resource-, economic-, environmental-, social- and market potential. Each perspective is accompanied by questions targeted to identify benefits and risks, such as “What valorization routes currently exists, and are under research, for the feedstock?”; “Is the feedstock available, also in the future?”; “Is the production technology socially accepted?”. The roadmap for bio -based emerging technologies also provides advice on the procedure for sustainability assessments, such as organizing an initial workshop with expert knowledge and highlight the importance of scanning before allocating resources for in depth analyses.

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  • 349.
    Røyne, Frida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Hackl, Roman
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Ringström, Emma
    AkzoNobel Sustainability, Sweden.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Environmental Evaluation of Industry Cluster Strategies with a Life Cycle Perspective: Replacing Fossil Feedstock with Forest-Based Feedstock and Increasing Thermal Energy Integration2018In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 694-705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Symbiotic linkages in industry clusters in the form of interconnected materials, energy and information flows, and close proximity provide unique opportunities to develop efficient environmental strategies. The purpose of our study is to examine the practical potential of applying a life cycle approach in strategy evaluations, as the environmental impact caused by industrial symbiosis systems outside the company gates has been scarcely addressed. This is done by evaluating two strategies for an industry cluster in Sweden: (1) to replace a share of the fossil feedstock used in the industry cluster with forest-based feedstock and (2) to improve energy efficiency through thermal energy integration. The environmental impact reduction potential of the strategies is evaluated using life cycle assessment. The ratio between investment cost and reduced global warming potential is used as an indicator to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the strategies. Results demonstrate the importance of applying a life cycle perspective as the assessment outcome depends heavily on whether only on-site consequences are assessed or if upstream and downstream processes are also included. 20% of the greenhouse gas emission reduction of the energy integration strategy occurs off-site, whereas the forest strategy has the largest reduction potential off-site, >80%.

  • 350.
    Røyne, Frida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Quistgaard, Louise
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Improved Communication of Environmental Impacts – The Case of LCA Results2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a widely used environmental assessment tool. However, only a small share of efforts have been made to extend communication. Researchers, practitioners, and their targeted audiences have divergent needs and knowledge for using and communicating the information provided from LCAs. As such, communication efforts are needed to transparently and coherently identify how LCA can be used and how to interpret the results.

    The goal of the study is to provide insight and guidance on improved communication of LCA results. The goal is approached, on the one hand, by exploring how LCA results presently are communicated, and on the other, by exploring preferences on communication among different stakeholder groups.

    The study employs a mix of methods; interviews, a literature review and a final online survey. Results from these methods are later analyzed and triangulated to provide further understanding of improving LCA communication; based on feedback, needs and knowledge from all stakeholders involved in the study and scientific knowledge.

    The interviews resulted in a review of divergent needs, knowledge and opinions from different societal actors on communicating life cycle-based knowledge. The interviewees highlighted the importance of communication of intent and conclusions. This was however not reflected by the current practice identified in the literature reviews. The survey respondents emphasized the importance of tailoring communication to media and audience, and a need for a certain LCA knowledge when communicating LCA results. Perceptions towards result presentation in figures and tables were mapped. Of suggested actions for improving communication, education and courses received the most recognition.

    In conclusion, the study identified a need for focus on LCA communication, both when it comes to the identification and evaluation of current practice and providing support for those communicating and receiving LCA results.

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