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  • 301.
    Bohlin, Markus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Dahms, Florian
    Mihalák, Matúš
    Flier, Holger
    Optimized shunting with mixed-usage tracks2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the planning of railway freight classification at hump yards, where the problem involves the formation of departing freight train blocks from arriving trains subject to scheduling and capacity constraints. The hump yard layout considered consists of arrival tracks of sufficient length at an arrival yard, a hump, classification tracks of non-uniform and possibly non-sufficient length at a classification yard, and departure tracks of sufficient length. To increase yard capacity, freight cars arriving early can be stored temporarily on specific mixed-usage tracks. The entire hump yard planning process is covered in this paper, and heuristics for arrival and departure track assignment, as well as hump scheduling, have been included to provide the neccessary input data. However, the central problem considered is the classification track allocation problem. This problem has previously been modeled using direct mixed integer programming models, but this approach did not yield lower bounds of sufficient quality to prove optimality. Later attempts focused on a column generation approach based on branch-and-price that could solve problem instances of industrial size. Building upon the column generation approach we introduce a direct arc-based integer programming model, where the arcs are precedence relations between blocks on the same classification track. Further, the most promising models are adapted for rolling-horizon planning. We evaluate the methods on historical data from the Hallsberg shunting yard in Sweden. The results show that the new arc-based model performs as well as the column generation approach. It returns an optimal schedule within the execution time limit for all instances but from one, and executes as fast as the column generation approach. Further, the short execution times of the column generation approach and the arc-indexed model make them suitable for rolling-horizon planning, while the direct mixed integer program proved to be too slow for this. Extended analysis of the results shows that mixing was only required if the maximum number of concurrent trains on the classification yard exceeds 29 (there are 32 available tracks), and that after this point the number of extra car roll-ins increases heavily.

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  • 302.
    Bohlin, Markus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Khoshniyat, Fahimeh
    Evaluation of planning policies for marshalling track allocation using simulation2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning the operational procedures in a railway marshalling yard is a complex problem. When a train arrives at a marshalling yard, it is uncoupled on an arrival yard and then its cars are rolled to a classification yard. All cars should eventually be rolled to the classification track that has been assigned to the train they’re supposed to depart with. However, there is normally not enough capacity to compound all trains at once. In Sweden, cars arriving before a track has been assigned to their train can be stored on separate tracks called mixing tracks. All cars on mixing tracks will be pulled back to the arrival yard, and then rolled to the classification yard again to allow for reclassification. Today all procedures are planned by experienced dispatchers, but there are no documented strategies or guidelines for efficient manual planning. The aim of this paper is to examine operational planning strategies that could help dispatchers find a feasible marshalling schedule that minimizes unnecessary mixing. In order to achieve this goal, two different online planning strategies have been tested using deterministic and stochastic simulation. The Hallsberg marshalling yard was used as a case study, and was simulated for the time period between December 2010 and May 2011. The first tested strategy simply assigns tracks to trains on a first come-first served basis, while the second strategy uses time limits to determine when tracks should be assigned to departing trains. The online planning algorithms have been compared with an offline optimized track allocation. The results from both the deterministic and the stochastic simulation show that the optimized allocation is better than all online strategies and that the second strategy with a time limit of 32 hours is the best online method.

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  • 303.
    Bohlin, Markus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Khoshniyat, Fahimeh
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Simulation of planning strategies for track allocation at marshalling yards2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning the operational procedures in a railway marshalling yard is a complex problem. When a train arrives at a marshalling yard, it is uncoupled at an arrival yard and then its cars are rolled to a classification yard. All cars should eventually be rolled to the classification track that has been assigned to the train they're supposed to depart with. However, there is normally not enough capacity to compound all trains at once. In Sweden, cars arriving before a track has been assigned to their train can be stored on separate tracks called mixing tracks. All cars on mixing tracks will be pulled back to the arrival yard, and then rolled to the classification yard again to allow for reclassification. Today all procedures are planned by experienced dispatchers, but there are no documented strategies or guidelines for efficient manual planning. The aim of this paper is to examine operational planning strategies that could help dispatchers find a feasible marshalling schedule that minimizes unnecessary mixing. In order to achieve this goal, two different online planning strategies have been tested using deterministic and stochastic simulation. The Hallsberg marshalling yard was used as a case study, and was simulated for the time period between December 2010 and May 2011. The first tested strategy simply assigns tracks to trains on a first come-first served basis, while the second strategy uses time limits to determine when tracks should be assigned to departing trains. The online planning algorithms have been compared with an offline optimized track allocation. The results from both the deterministic and the stochastic simulation show that the optimized allocation is better than all online strategies and that the second strategy with a time limit of 32 hours is the best online method.

  • 304.
    Bohlin, Markus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Holst, Anders
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Ekman, Jan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Sellin, Ola
    Bombardier Transportation, Sweden.
    Lindström, Björn
    Addiva Consulting AB, Sweden.
    Larsen, Stefan
    Addiva Eduro AB, Sweden.
    Statistical Anomaly Detection for Train Fleets2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a method for statistical anomaly detection which has been deployed in a tool for condition monitoring of train fleets. The tool is currently used by several railway operators over the world to inspect and visualize the occurrence of "event messages" generated on the trains. The anomaly detection component helps the operators to quickly find significant deviations from normal behavior and to detect early indications for possible problems. The savings in maintenance costs comes mainly from avoiding costly breakdowns, and have been estimated to several million Euros per year for the tool. In the long run, it is expected that maintenance costs can be reduced with between 5 and 10 % by using the tool.

  • 305.
    Bohlin, Markus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Kocjan, Waldemar
    Kreuger, Per
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Designing Global Scheduling Constraints for Local Search: A Generic Approach2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we present a novel method to automate the computation of global constraints cost for local search. The method is based on the representation of a global constraints as graph properties on a binary constraint network. This formulation simplifies the implementation of global constraints in local search, and provides a cost that can be readily compared to one obtained for subproblems using binary constraints exclusively. The cost obtained can be efficiently updated during the search using incremental methods. The representation of a global constraint as outlined above can also be used for generation of suitable neighborhoods for the constraint. This is done using simple repair functions applied on the elementary constraints in the global constraint graph. We show the usability of our approach by presenting formulations of global constraints in non-overlapping and cumulative scheduling.

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  • 306.
    Bohlin, Markus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Kreuger, Per
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Forsgren, Malin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Ansatser för flexibel planering och schemaläggning av tågtidtabeller2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten beskriver möjliga ansatser för att lösa det abstraherade tidtabellproblemet som bl.a. diskuteras i rapporten "Leveranstågplan: Specifikation och åtagande" (DDTP Arbetsdokument SICS-DDTP-002). Till grund för de olika ansatserna ligger en modell med avgångstider och hålltider (dvs. väntetider och i viss mån traverseringstider) som tillåts variera inom vissa tidsintervall. Huvudidén är att arbeta med förenklade kapacitetsvillkor på bana och bangård, för att på ett effektivt sätt kunna beräkna tidtabeller på en nivå som tillåter anpassning av tidtabellen till det gällande transportbehovet och den rådande trafiksituationen.

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  • 307.
    Bohlin, Markus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Lu, Yue
    Kraft, Johan
    Kreuger, Per
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Best-Effort Simulation-Based Timing Analysis using Hill-Climbing with Random Restarts2009In: Proceedings of the 15th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, IEEE Computer Society , 2009, 6Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 308.
    Bohlin, Markus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Wärja, Mathias
    Holst, Anders
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Slottner, Pontus
    Doganay, Kivanc
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Optimization of Condition-Based Maintenance for Industrial Gas Turbines: Requirements and Results2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 309.
    Boman, Magnus
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Artificial agent action in markets2001In: Electronic Commerce Research, ISSN 1389-5753, E-ISSN 1572-9362, Vol. 1, no 1-2, p. 159-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We summarise our experiences of a number of demonstrators and simulation experiments designed to test the feasibility of using artificial decision making agents in real-time domains, and comment on the significance of our results to autonomous artificial agent action patterns in markets. Our main hypothesis is that the use of norms can extend the capability of artificial decision makers beyond what is obtained from implementing individual utility maximisers in keeping with rational choice theory.

  • 310.
    Boman, Magnus
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    On Understanding Catastrophe — The Case of Highly Severe Influenza-Like Illness2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational epidemiology is a form of spatiotemporal reasoning in which social link structures are employed, and spatially explicit models are specified and executed. We point to issues thus far addressed neither by engineers, nor scientists, in the light of a use case focusing on catastrophic scenarios that assume the emergence of a highly unlikely but lethal and contagious strain of influenza. Our conclusion is that important perspectives are missing when dealing with policy issues resulting from scenario execution and analyses in computational epidemiology.

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  • 311.
    Boman, Magnus
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Speedwriting in Networked Foresight2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 312.
    Boman, Magnus
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    The joy of mesh2008In: British Medical JournalArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 313.
    Boman, Magnus
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Trading agents2001In: AgentLink News, ISSN 1465-3842, Vol. 6, p. 15-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 314.
    Boman, Magnus
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Who Were Where When? On the Use of Social Collective Intelligence in Computational Epidemiology2014In: Social Collective Intelligence, Switzerland: Springer , 2014, 9, p. 203-225Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A triangular (case, theoretical, and literature) study approach is used to investigate if and how social collective intelligence is useful to computational epidemiology. The hypothesis is that the former can be employed for assisting in converting data into useful information through intelligent analyses by deploying new methods from data analytics that render previously unintelligible data intelligible. A conceptual bridge is built between the two concepts of crowd signals and syndromic surveillance. A concise list of empirical observations supporting the hypothesis is presented. The key observation is that new social collective intelligence methods and algorithms allow for massive data analytics to stay with the individual, in micro. It is thus possible to provide the analyst with advice tailored to the individual and with relevant policies, without resorting to macro (statistical) analyses of homogeneous populations.

  • 315.
    Boman, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Bylund, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Espinoza, Fredrik
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Trading agents for roaming users2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 316.
    Boman, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Espinoza, Fredrik
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Franzén, Kristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Hansen, Preben
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Bylund, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Svensson, Martin
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Human Grid: En förstudie2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har granskat förutsättningarna och möjligheterna att implementera Human Grid: en så kallad mellanprogramvara för att integrera samarbetsfrämjande IT-lösningar som redan idag finns i datorer och telefoner, med hänsyn tagen till formella och informella sociala nätverk.

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  • 317.
    Boman, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Ghaffar, Asim
    Liljeros, Fredrik
    Stenhem, Mikael
    Social network visualization as a contract tracing tool2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Something many pathogens have in common is the requirement for tracing their spread under harsh time constraints, posing a so-called contact tracing (or ``race-to-trace'') problem. We present a tool for visualizing contact networks, an important step towards practical use by epidemiologists, which generates interactive three-dimensional (3D) network visualizations. Its general purpose visualization engine can support multiple applications and varying pathogens. The main purpose is to trace, in the case of an outbreak, contacts among individuals known to have been at the same place.

  • 318.
    Boman, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Gillblad, Daniel
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Learning machines for computational epidemiology2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resting on our experience of computational epidemiology in practice and of industrial projects on analytics of complex networks, we point to an innovation opportunity for improving the digital services to epidemiologists for monitoring, modeling, and mitigating the effects of communicable disease. Artificial intelligence and intelligent analytics of syndromic surveillance data promise new insights to epidemiologists, but the real value can only be realized if human assessments are paired with assessments made by machines. Neither massive data itself, nor careful analytics will necessarily lead to better informed decisions. The process producing feedback to humans on decision making informed by machines can be reversed to consider feedback to machines on decision making informed by humans, enabling learning machines. We predict and argue for the fact that the sensemaking that such machines can perform in tandem with humans can be of immense value to epidemiologists in the future.

  • 319.
    Boman, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Holm, Einar
    Multi-agent systems, time geography, and microsimulations2004In: Systems Approaches and Their Application, Kluwer , 2004, 1, , p. 340p. 95-118Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we consider the role virtual conferencing has to play in realising a successful Inhabited Information Space (IIS). For any IIS to be successful it needs to weave together many different constituent elements and present these in a coherent and seamless manner. For example, Maher et al (2000) describe how many different components are used together to create a virtual design studio for architectural collaboration. For the IIS to function all the elements must work both individually and collectively. Communication is one of the basic building blocks for an IIS, and can be in many modes across many media. Approaches to virtual conferencing offer support for communication across a number of media and can be utilised in an IIS. These approaches are also starting to additionally offer support for collaboration. By providing an introduction to and overview of various possibilities for virtual conferencing we aim to show how these solutions can provide the required and appropriate support for communication and collaboration between inhabitants in a shared information space. Of course virtual conferencing solutions exist at many levels of sophistication and fidelity. Communication media can range from text through 3d graphics to video representations. The aim of this chapter is to present these many and varied possibilities, drawing on the experience of the author as well as insights into the past, present and future. In this way it is possible to see how diverse a range of IISes can make use of virtual conferencing functionality.

  • 320.
    Boman, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Johansson, Stefan J.
    Modeling Epidemic Spread in Synthetic Populations - Virtual Plagues in Massively Multiplayer Online Games2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A virtual plague is a process in which a behavior-affecting property spreads among characters in a Massively Multiplayer Online Game (MMOG). The MMOG individuals constitute a synthetic population, and the game can be seen as a form of interactive executable model for studying disease spread, albeit of a very special kind. To a game developer maintaining an MMOG, recognizing, monitoring, and ultimately controlling a virtual plague is important, regardless of how it was initiated. The prospect of using tools, methods and theory from the field of epidemiology to do this seems natural and appealing. We will address the feasibility of such a prospect, first by considering some basic measures used in epidemiology, then by pointing out the differences between real world epidemics and virtual plagues. We also suggest directions for MMOG developer control through epidemiological modeling. Our aim is understanding the properties of virtual plagues, rather than trying to eliminate them or mitigate their effects, as would be in the case of real infectious disease.

  • 321.
    Boman, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Johansson, Stefan
    Lybäck, David
    Parrondo strategies for artificial traders2001In: Intelligent Agent Technology, World Scientific, 2001, 1, , p. 10p. 150-159Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On markets with receding prices, artificial noise traders may consider alternatives to buy-and-hold. By simulating variations of the Parrondo strategy, using real data from the Swedish stock market, we produce first indications of a buy-low-sell-random Parrondo variation outperforming buy-and-hold. Subject to our assumptions, buy-low-sell-random also outperforms the traditional value and trend investor strategies. We measure the success of the Parrondo variations not only through their performance compared to other kinds of strategies, but also relative to varying levels of perfect information, received through messages within a multi-agent system of artificial traders.

  • 322.
    Boman, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Abstrakta maskiner och formella språk1996 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lärobok i formella språk.

  • 323.
    Boman, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Laaksolahti, Jarmo
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Espinoza, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Cöster, Rickard
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Trust in Micro Service Environments2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Report produced in the project Enabling and Promoting Trust in Micro Service Environments (EPTMSE) with a web site at www.trust-eze.org. The report gives an overview of the concept of trust in domains such as psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science, and then describes the current domain of Micro Service Environments - open and unregulated electronic service environments - where users can create, use, and share electronic services, and where the need for decentralized trust mechanisms is high. Some design and implementation choices and solutions for trust mechanisms are suggested.

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  • 324.
    Boman, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sanches, Pedro
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Sensemaking in Intelligent Health Data Analytics2015In: Künstliche Intelligenz, ISSN 0933-1875, E-ISSN 1610-1987, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 143-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A systemic model for making sense of health data is presented, in which networked foresight complements intelligent data analytics. Data here serves the goal of a future systems medicine approach by explaining the past and the current, while foresight can serve by explaining the future. Anecdotal evidence from a case study is presented, in which the complex decisions faced by the traditional stakeholder of results—the policymaker—are replaced by the often mundane problems faced by an individual trying to make sense of sensor input and output when self-tracking wellness. The conclusion is that the employment of our systemic model for successful sensemaking integrates not only data with networked foresight, but also unpacks such problems and the user practices associated with their solutions.

  • 325.
    Boman, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Sandin, Anna
    Implementing an agent trade server2004In: Decision Support Systems, ISSN 0167-9236, E-ISSN 1873-5797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental server for stock trading autonomous agents is presented and made available, together with an agent shell for swift development. The server, written in Java, was implemented as proof-of-concept for an agent trade server for a real financial exchange.

  • 326.
    Bor, Martin
    et al.
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Roedig, Utz
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Alonso, Juan
    National University of Cuyo, Argentina; National University of San Luis, Argentina.
    Do LoRa Low-Power Wide-Area Networks Scale?2016In: Proceedings of the 19th ACM International Conference on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems, 2016, p. 59-67Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New Internet of Things (IoT) technologies such as Long Range (LoRa) are emerging which enable power efficient wireless communication over very long distances. Devices typically communicate directly to a sink node which removes the need of constructing and maintaining a complex multihop network. Given the fact that a wide area is covered and that all devices communicate directly to a few sink nodes a large number of nodes have to share the communication medium. LoRa provides for this reason a range of communication options (centre frequency, spreading factor, bandwidth, coding rates) from which a transmitter can choose. Many combination settings are orthogonal and provide simultaneous collision free communications. Nevertheless, there is a limit regarding the number of transmitters a LoRa system can support. In this paper we investigate the capacity limits of LoRa networks. Using experiments we develop models describing LoRa communication behaviour. We use these models to parameterise a LoRa simulation to study scalability. Our experiments show that a typical smart city deployment can support 120 nodes per 3.8 ha, which is not sufficient for future IoT deployments. LoRa networks can scale quite well, however, if they use dynamic communication parameter selection and/or multiple sinks.

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  • 327. Borg Gyllenbäck, Katarina
    et al.
    Boman, Magnus
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Narrative Bridging2011In: Design Computing and Cognition '10, Springer , 2011, 7, p. 525-544Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the design of interactive media, various forms of intuitive practice come into play. It might prove tempting to use templates and strong narrative structures from film, instead of developing the narrative directly for interactive media, leading to a move towards computer implementation too swiftly. The narrative bridging method focuses on the initial design phase, in which the conceptual modeling takes place. The purpose is to provide designers with a non-intrusive method that aids the design without interfering with creativity. The method supports the sentient construction of digital games with a narrative, with the ultimate goal of enhancing the player’s experience. A prototype test served as a first evaluation, and two games from that test are showcased here for the purpose of illustrating the hands-on use of narrative bridging. The test demonstrated that the method could aid time-constrained design, and in the process detect inconsistencies that could prevent the design team from making improvements. The method also provided teams with a shared vocabulary and outlook.

  • 328.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab. Lund University, Sweden.
    TuneR: A Framework for Tuning Software Engineering Tools with Hands-on Instructions in R2016In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 427-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous tools automating various aspects of software engineering have been developed, and many of the tools are highly configurable through parameters. Understanding the parameters of advanced tools often requires deep understanding of complex algorithms. Unfortunately, suboptimal parameter settings limit the performance of tools and hinder industrial adaptation, but still few studies address the challenge of tuning software engineering tools. We present TuneR, an experiment framework that supports finding feasible parameter settings using empirical methods. The framework is accompanied by practical guidelines of how to use R to analyze the experimental outcome. As a proof-of-concept, we apply TuneR to tune ImpRec, a recommendation system for change impact analysis in a software system that has evolved for more than two decades. Compared with the output from the default setting, we report a 20.9% improvement in the response variable reflecting recommendation accuracy. Moreover, TuneR reveals insights into the interaction among parameters, as well as nonlinear effects. TuneR is easy to use, thus the framework has potential to support tuning of software engineering tools in both academia and industry.

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  • 329.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Runeson, Per
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Software Engineers' Information Seeking Behavior in Change Impact Analysis: An Interview Study2017In: ICPC '17 Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Program Comprehension, IEEE Press, 2017, p. 12-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software engineers working in large projects must navigate complex information landscapes. Change Impact Analysis (CIA) is a task that relies on engineers' successful information seeking in databases storing, e.g., source code, requirements, design descriptions, and test case specifications. Several previous approaches to support information seeking are task-specific, thus understanding engineers' seeking behavior in specific tasks is fundamental. We present an industrial case study on how engineers seek information in CIA, with a particular focus on traceability and development artifacts that are not source code. We show that engineers have different information seeking behavior, and that some do not consider traceability particularly useful when conducting CIA. Furthermore, we observe a tendency for engineers to prefer less rigid types of support rather than formal approaches, i.e., engineers value support that allows flexibility in how to practically conduct CIA. Finally, due to diverse information seeking behavior, we argue that future CIA support should embrace individual preferences to identify change impact by empowering several seeking alternatives, including searching, browsing, and tracing.

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  • 330.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    de la Vara, José Luis
    Carlos III University of Madrid, Spain.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Practitioners' Perspectives on Change Impact Analysis for Safety-Critical Software - A Preliminary Analysis2016In: Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: SAFECOMP 2016 Workshops / [ed] Amund Skavhaug, Jérémie Guiochet, Erwin Schoitsch, Friedemann Bitsch, 2016, 11, Vol. 9923, p. 346-358Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety standards prescribe change impact analysis (CIA) during evolution of safety-critical software systems. Although CIA is a fundamental activity, there is a lack of empirical studies about how it is performed in practice. We present a case study on CIA in the context of an evolving automation system, based on 14 interviews in Sweden and India. Our analysis suggests that engineers on average spend 50-100 hours on CIA per year, but the effort varies considerably with the phases of projects. Also, the respondents presented different connotations to CIA and perceived the importance of CIA differently. We report the most pressing CIA challenges, and several ideas on how to support future CIA. However, we show that measuring the effect of such improvement solutions is non-trivial, as CIA is intertwined with other development activities. While this paper only reports preliminary results, our work contributes empirical insights into practical CIA.

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  • 331.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Lennerstad, Iben
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ros, Rasmus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bjarnason, Elizabeth
    Lund University, Sweden.
    On using active learning and self-training when mining performance discussions on stack overflow2017In: EASE'17 Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering. ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 2017, p. 308-313Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abundant data is the key to successful machine learning. However, supervised learning requires annotated data that are often hard to obtain. In a classification task with limited resources, Active Learning (AL) promises to guide annotators to examples that bring the most value for a classifier. AL can be successfully combined with self-training, i.e., extending a training set with the unlabelled examples for which a classifier is the most certain. We report our experiences on using AL in a systematic manner to train an SVM classifier for Stack Overflow posts discussing performance of software components. We show that the training examples deemed as the most valuable to the classifier are also the most difficult for humans to annotate. Despite carefully evolved annotation criteria, we report low inter-rater agreement, but we also propose mitigation strategies. Finally, based on one annotator's work, we show that self-training can improve the classification accuracy. We conclude the paper by discussing implication for future text miners aspiring to use AL and self-training.

  • 332.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Olsson, Thomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Svensson, John
    Boliden, Sweden.
    From LiDAR to Underground Maps via 5G - Business Models Enabling a System-of-Systems Approach to Mapping the Kankberg Mine2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With ever-increasing productivity targets in mining operations, there is a growing interest in mining automation. The PIMM project addresses the fundamental challenge of network communication by constructing a pilot 5G network in the underground mine Kankberg. In this report, we discuss how such a 5G network could constitute the essential infrastructure to organize existing systems in Kankberg into a system-of-systems (SoS). In this report, we analyze a scenario in which LiDAR equipped vehicles operating in the mine are connected to existing mine mapping and positioning solutions. The approach is motivated by the approaching era of remote controlled, or even autonomous, vehicles in mining operations. The proposed SoS could ensure continuously updated maps of Kankberg, rendered in unprecedented detail, supporting both productivity and safety in the underground mine. We present four different SoS solutions from an organizational point of view, discussing how development and operations of the constituent systems could be distributed among Boliden and external stakeholders, e.g., the vehicle suppliers, the hauling company, and the developers of the mapping software. The four scenarios are compared from both technical and business perspectives, and based on trade-off discussions and SWOT analyses. We conclude our report by recommending continued research along two future paths, namely a closer cooperation with the vehicle suppliers, and further feasibility studies regarding establishing a Kankberg software ecosystem.

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  • 333.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Olsson, Thomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Svensson, John
    Boliden, Sweden.
    Piggybacking on an Autonomous Hauler: Business Models Enabling a System-of-Systems Approach to Mapping an Underground Mine2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With ever-increasing productivity targets in mining operations, there is a growing interest in mining automation. In future mines, remote-controlled and autonomous haulers will operate underground guided by LiDAR sensors. We envision reusing LiDAR measurements to maintain accurate mine maps that would contribute to both safety and productivity. Extrapolating from a pilot project on reliable wireless communication in Boliden's Kankberg mine, we propose establishing a system-of-systems (SoS) with LIDAR-equipped haulers and existing mapping solutions as constituent systems. SoS requirements engineering inevitably adds a political layer, as independent actors are stakeholders both on the system and SoS levels. We present four SoS scenarios representing different business models, discussing how development and operations could be distributed among Boliden and external stakeholders, e.g., the vehicle suppliers, the hauling company, and the developers of the mapping software. Based on eight key variation points, we compare the four scenarios from both technical and business perspectives. Finally, we validate our findings in a seminar with participants from the relevant stakeholders. We conclude that to determine which scenario is the most promising for Boliden, trade-offs regarding control, costs, risks, and innovation must be carefully evaluated. 

  • 334.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Petter, Gulin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Linus, Olofsson
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Do Take it Personal: It's Not What You Say, It's Who (and Where) You Are!2016In: Tiny Transactions on Computer Science, Vol. 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Issue management in market-driven software projects is constantly under time pressure. A limited set of developers must share their time between developing features for the next release and resolving reported issues. Project managers need to find the appropriate balance between a high quality product and fast time to market. We study a telecom company in Sweden developing embedded systems for a consumer market. The project managers report that developers resolve approximately 10% of the issues reported during a project. Consequently, it is critical to properly prioritize the issues to receive the best possible return on investment, and above all to remove all bugs that might impact the market's reception of the product. We use machine learning to investigate what features of an issue report are the best predictors of changes to production code during its corresponding resolution. After removing all features jeopardizing the confidentiality of individual engineers, the issue reports are characterized by 19 features (apart from text). We extract 80,000 issue reports, an equal mix of positive and negative examples, and train a Bayesian Network classifier [2], obtaining 73% classification accuracy. Moreover, it reveals that the feature with the highest predictive value is from which physical site the issue was submitted. The general priority feature however, is only ranked 17 out of 19, whereas the submitting team is ranked 12. Our findings confirm a suspicion in the company: the priority set by the issue submitter is indeed a poor predictor of a future code change.

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  • 335. Borissov, Nikolay
    et al.
    Anandasivam, Arun
    Wirström, Niklas
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Neumann, Dirk
    Rational bidding using reinforcement learning: an application in automated resource allocation2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of autonomous agents by the provisioning and usage of computational resources is an attractive research field. Various methods and technologies in the area of artificial intelligence, statistics and economics are playing together to achieve i) autonomic resource provisioning and usage of computational resources, to invent ii) competitive bidding strategies for widely used market mechanisms and to iii) incentivize consumers and providers to use such market-based systems. The contributions of the paper are threefold. First, we present a framework for supporting consumers and providers in technical and economic preference elicitation and the generation of bids. Secondly, we introduce a consumer-side reinforcement learning bidding strategy which enables rational behavior by the generation and selection of bids. Thirdly, we evaluate and compare this bidding strategy against a truth-telling bidding strategy for two kinds of market mechanisms – one centralized and one decentralized.

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  • 336. Borissov, Nikolay
    et al.
    Wirström, Niklas
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Q-Strategy: A Bidding Strategy for Market-Based Allocation of Grid Services2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of autonomous agents by the provisioning and usage of computational services is an attractive research field. Various methods and technologies in the area of artificial intelligence, statistics and economics are playing together to achieve i) autonomic service provisioning and usage of Grid services, to invent ii) competitive bidding strategies for widely used market mechanisms and to iii) incentivize consumers and providers to use such market-based systems. The contributions of the paper are threefold. First, we present a bidding agent framework for implementing artificial bidding agents, supporting consumers and providers in technical and economic preference elicitation as well as automated bid generation by the requesting and provisioning of Grid services. Secondly, we introduce a novel consumer-side bidding strategy, which enables a goal-oriented and strategic behavior by the generation and submission of consumer service requests and selection of provider offers. Thirdly, we evaluate and compare the Q-strategy, implemented within the presented framework, against the Truth-Telling bidding strategy in three mechanisms – a centralized CDA, a decentralized on-line machine scheduling and a FIFO-scheduling mechanisms.

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  • 337. Boström, Gustav
    et al.
    Giambiagi, Pablo
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Olsson, Tomas
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Quality of Service Evaluation in Virtual Organizations Using SLAs2006In: 1st International Workshop on Interoperability Solutions to Trust, Security, Policies and QoS for Enhanced Enterprise Systems (IS-TSPQ 2006), 2006, 1, , p. 12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperating in Virtual organizations requires trust between the constituting organizations. SLA contracts are put in place in order to specify the quality of service of services offered. For these contracts to be effective they also need to be monitored effectively. In a Service Oriented Architecture this often means monitoring Web service invocations and evaluating if the service fulfills the obligations in its SLA. In this paper we present an implementation of a rule engine based SLA Evaluator specifically designed for the needs of a virtual organization. The evaluator fits in the context of a virtual organization through the use of open XML-based standards and a loosely coupled, event-driven architecture.

  • 338. Boujemaa, Nozha
    et al.
    Compañó, Ramón
    Dosch, Christoph
    Geurts, Joost
    Kompatsiaris, Yiannis
    Karlgren, Jussi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    King, Paul
    Köhler, Joachim
    Le Moine, Jean-Yves
    Ortgies, Robert
    Point, Jean-Charles
    Rotenberg, Boris
    Rudström, Åsa
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Sebe, Nicu
    CHORUS Deliverable 2.1: State of the Art on Multimedia Search Engines2007Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the information provided by European projects and national initiatives related to multimedia search as well as domains experts that participated in the CHORUS Think-thanks and workshops, this document reports on the state of the art related to multimedia content search from, a technical, and socio-economic perspective. The technical perspective includes an up to date view on content based indexing and retrieval technologies, multimedia search in the context of mobile devices and peer-to-peer networks, and an overview of current evaluation and benchmark inititiatives to measure the performance of multimedia search engines. From a socio-economic perspective we inventorize the impact and legal consequences of these technical advances and point out future directions of research.

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  • 339.
    Brand, Per
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS. Department of Electronics and Computer Systems.
    The design philosophy of distributed programming systems: the Mozart experience2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed programming is usually considered both difficult and inherently different from concurrent centralized programming. It is thought that the distributed programming systems that we ultimately deploy, in the future, when we've worked out all the details, will require a very different programming model and will even need to be evaluated by new criteria. The Mozart Programming System, described in this thesis, demonstrates that this need not be the case. It is shown that, with a good system design, distributed programming can be seen as an extended form of concurrent programming. This is from the programmer's point-of-view; under the hood the design and implementation will necessarily be more complex. We relate the Mozart system with the classical transparencies of distributed systems. We show that some of these are inherently on the application level, while as Mozart demonstrates, others can and should be dealt with on the language/system level. The extensions to the programming model, given the right concurrent programming base, are mainly concerned with non-functional properties of programs. The models and tuning facilities for failure and performance need to take latency, bandwidth, and partial failure into account. Other than that there need not be any difference between concurrent programming and distributed programming. The Mozart Programming System is based on the concurrent programming language Oz, which integrates, in a coherent way, all three known concurrency or thread-interaction models. These are message-passing (like Erlang), shared objects (like Java with threads) and shared data-flow variables. The Mozart design philosophy is thus applicable over the entire range of concurrent programming languages/systems. We have extracted from the experience with Mozart a number of principles and properties that are applicable to the design and implementation of all (general-purpose) distributed programming systems. The full range of the design and implementation issues behind Mozart are presented. This includes a description of the consistency protocols that make transparency possible for the full language, including distributed objects and distributed data-flow variables. Mozart is extensively compared with other approaches to distributed programming, in general, and to other language-based distributed programming systems, in particular.

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  • 340.
    Brand, Per
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Franzén, Nils
    Klintskog, Erik
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Haridi, Seif
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    A platform for constructing virtual spaces1998Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual spaces (worlds) applications are among the most complex of distributed applications. They are both distributed and open. Minimizing network latency, fault-tolerance, persistence, resource control, and security are also important aspects. Designing and implementing virtual spaces is currently difficult in that the already not insignificant complexities of program functionality, distribution, openness, and efficiency are interwound and cannot be tackled separately. We present a distributed programming language, distributed-Oz, that greatly reduces the complexity of distributed programming by clearly separating the different aspects of distributed programming. The design and implementation of distributed-Oz is ongoing work, but considerable progress has been made. The current prototype demonstrates network transparency, that computations behave the same way regardless of how the computation is partitioned between different sites. This is the basis for realizing clean separation of the functionality aspect from other aspects. Network awareness allows the programmer to predict and control network communication patterns. The current system gives the programmer the means to tackle separately the aspects of openness, efficiency (minimizing latency), distribution, and functionality. We have extended distributed-Oz with a tool for graphics in a distributed setting. This extends the idea of network transparency and network awareness to graphics. From the programmers point of view graphics programming for a multi-user application is virtually the same as programming for a single-user application. The differences are necessary extensions for achieving network and site awareness, such as visualization control (deciding which users should see what). Finally we consider virtual space applications, and propose a number of abstractions for use by developers of virtual spaces, relating them to the properties of distributed-Oz upon which they are based.

  • 341.
    Braschler, Martin
    et al.
    Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland.
    Choukry, Khalid
    Evaluations and Language resources Distribution Agency, France.
    Ferro, Nicola
    University of Padua, Italy.
    Hanbury, Allan
    Information Retrieval Facility, Austria.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Müller, Henning
    University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland, Switzerland.
    Petras, Vivian
    Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany.
    Pianta, Emanuele
    Centre for the Evaluation of Language Communication Technologies, Italy.
    de Rijke, Maarten
    University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Santucci, Giuseppe
    Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    A PROMISE for Experimental Evaluation2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participative Research labOratory for Multimedia and Multilingual Information Systems Evaluation (PROMISE) is a Network of Excellence, starting in conjunction with this first independent CLEF 2010 conference, and designed to support and develop the evaluation of multilingual and multimedia information access systems, largely through the activities taking place in Cross-Language Evaluation Forum (CLEF) today, and taking it forward in important new ways. PROMISE is coordinated by the University of Padua, and comprises 10 partners: the Swedish Institute for Computer Science, the University of Amsterdam, Sapienza University of Rome, University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, the Information Retrieval Facility, the Zurich University of Applied Sciences, the Humboldt University of Berlin, the Evaluation and Language Resources Distribution Agency, and the Centre for the Evaluation of Language Communication Technologies. The single most important step forward for multilingual and multimedia information access which PROMISE will work towards is to provide an open evaluation infrastructure in order to support automation and collaboration in the evaluation process.

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  • 342. Braun, Torsten
    et al.
    Feeney, Laura Marie
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS. CNA.
    Power saving in wireless ad hoc networks without synchronization2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Power saving strategies generally attempt to maximize the time that nodes spend in a low power consumption sleep state. Such strategies often require the sender to notify the receiver about pending traffic using some form of traffic announcement. Although asynchronous traffic announcement mechanisms are particularly suitable for the ad hoc environment, they also provide relatively limited power savings. This paper proposes a mechanism that improves the efficiency of asynchronous traffic announcement mechanisms by reducing the proportion of time that nodes need to spend awake, while still maintaining good connectivity properties. The mechanism is based on allowing traffic announcements to be rebroadcast by neighbouring nodes.

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  • 343. Braun, Torsten
    et al.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Dunkels, Adam
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Energy-Efficient TCP Operation in Wireless Sensor Networks2005In: PIK Journal Special Issue on Sensor Networks, ISSN 0930-5157, Vol. 28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 344. Braun, Torsten
    et al.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Dunkels, Adam
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Tcp support for sensor networks2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 345.
    Bregu, Endri
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Casamassima, Nicola
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Cantoni, Daniel
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Mottolay, Luca
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS. Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Whitehouse, Kamin
    University of Virginia, USA.
    Reactive control of autonomous drones2016In: MobiSys 2016 - Proceedings of the 14th Annual International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2016, p. 207-219Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aerial drones, ground robots, and aquatic rovers enable mobile applications that no other technology can realize with comparable flexibility and costs. In existing platforms, the low-level control enabling a drone's autonomous movement is currently realized in a time-triggered fashion, which simplifies implementations. In contrast, we conceive a notion of reactive control that supersedes the time-triggered approach by leveraging the characteristics of existing control logic and of the hardware it runs on. Using reactive control, control decisions are taken only upon recognizing the need to, based on observed changes in the navigation sensors. As a result, the rate of execution dynamically adapts to the circumstances. Compared to time-triggered control, this allows us to: i) attain more timely control decisions, ii) improve hardware utilization, iii) lessen the need to overprovision control rates. Based on 260+ hours of real-world experiments using three aerial drones, three different control logic, and three hardware platforms, we demonstrate, for example, up to 41% improvements in control accuracy and up to 22% improvements in flight time.

  • 346.
    Bretan, Ivan
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Synergy Effects in Natural Language-Based Multimodal Interaction1994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss the synergetic effects that can be obtained in an integrated multimodal interface framework comprising on one hand a visual language-based modality and on the other natural language analysis and generation components. Besides a visual language with high expressive power, the framework includes a cross-modal translation mechanism which enables mutual illumination of interface language syntax and semantics. Special attention has been payed to how to address problems with robustness and pragmatics through unconventional methods which aim to enable user control of the discourse management process.

  • 347.
    Bretan, Ivan
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Synergy Effects in Natural Language-Based Multimodal Interaction1993In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction, 1993, 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A scheme for integration of a natural language interface into a multimodal environment is presented with emphasis on the synergetic results that can be achieved, which are argued to be: 1)Complementary expressiveness; 2) Mutual illumination of language syntax and semantics; 3) Robust pragmatics and graceful recovery from failed natural language analyses through the reification of discourse objects to enable user control of discourse management.

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  • 348. Bring, M
    et al.
    Sanz-Velasco, A
    Rodjegard, H
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Imego.
    Enoksson, P
    Micro pinball game demonstrating an easy MEMS transfer process using room temperature plasma bonding,2003In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 13, no 4, p. s51-61Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 349. Brouwers, Lisa
    et al.
    Boman, Magnus
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    A Computational Agent Model of Flood Management Strategies2011In: Computational Methods Applied to Agricultural Research: Advances and Applications, IGI Global , 2011, 7, p. 296-307Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A geographically explicit flood simulation model was designed and implemented as a tool for policy making support, illustrated here with two simple flood management strategies pertaining to the Upper Tisza area in Hungary. The model integrates aspects of the geographical, hydrological, economical, land use, and social context. The perspectives of different stakeholders are represented as agents that make decisions on whether or not to buy flood insurance. We demonstrate that agent-based models can be important for policy issues in general, and for sustainable development policy issues in particular, by aiding stakeholder communication and learning, thereby increasing the chances of reaching robust decisions. The agent-based approach enables the highlighting and communication of distributional effects of policy changes at the micro-level, as illustrated by several graphical representations of outputs from the model.

  • 350. Brouwers, Lisa
    et al.
    Boman, Magnus
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Camitz, Martin
    Mäkelä, Kalle
    Tegnell, Anders
    Micro-Simulation of a Smallpox Outbreak using Official Register Data2010In: Eurosurveillance, Vol. 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To explore the efficacy of four vaccine-based policy strategies (ring vaccination, targeted vaccination, mass vaccination, and pre-vaccination of health care personnel combined with ring vaccination) for controlling smallpox outbreaks in Sweden, disease transmission on a spatially explicit social network was simulated. The mixing network was formed from highcoverage official register data of the entire Swedish population, building on the Swedish Total Population Register, the Swedish Employment Register, and the Geographic Database of Sweden. The largest reduction measured in the number of infections was achieved when combining ring vaccination with a pre-vaccination of health care personnel. In terms of per dose effectiveness, ring vaccination was by far the most effective strategy. While unsurprising, the results can to some extent be adapted to other diseases and environments, including other countries, and the methodology employed can be analysed in its own right. The mixing networks and other intrinsic structures generated with the help of the model could prove useful to a larger class of problems within policy making, for example.

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