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  • 301.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Swedish recommendations for steel fiber concrete overlays2013In: American Concrete Institute, ACI Special Publication, American Concrete Institute , 2013, Vol. SP 298, no SP 298, p. 28-39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite that steel fiber concrete (SFC) has been used in concrete structures during more than 50 years there is still a lack of practical recommendations. In Sweden, SFC has been used in concrete overlays on bridges during more than 25 years but the usage frequency is fairly low. The current Swedish guidelines for SFC overlays are based solely on empirically determined relationships between the amount of conventional reinforcement for crack control and amount of fibers. In a recent study at the Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute, the current recommendations have been critically reviewed. The experience shows that this empirical recommendation works fairly well for traditional concrete mixes and for the most frequently used fibers but there is a need of recommendations that promote the development of better concrete mixes and more efficient fibers. In order to reach this goal, guidelines which are much broader in their application field need to be developed. A novel approach taking the mechanical properties of the actual SFC into account has been proposed. This approach may also be used for concrete with synthetic fibers if their mechanical and long-term properties are proven to be sufficient.

  • 302.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The effect of climate changes on concrete, concrete structures, and concrete construction2012In: fib Symposium 2012: Concrete Structures for Sustainable Community - Proceedings, 2012, p. 553-556Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The predominant part of the global climate researchers is convinced that we face global climate changes. These are anticipated to vary around the globe. In Sweden, we may expect increased temperature, more rain, less snow, higher water-levels, and more wind. There are two main strategies for handling the climate change; mitigation and adaption. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the climate changes on concrete, concrete structures, and concrete production in Sweden.

  • 303.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Vikten av vår historia2012In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 12-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 304.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Farhang, Ali
    Rätt golvbetong minskar risken för sprickor2013In: Betong, ISSN 1101-9190, no 1, p. 46-49Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 305.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Stor steg för brandsäkerheten2011In: Betong, ISSN 1101-9190, no 1, p. 37-39Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 306.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Selander, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Storsatsa på nyttiga innovationer2008In: Betong, ISSN 1101-9190, no 6, p. 43-45Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 307.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Selander, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Storsatsa på nyttiga innovationer2008In: Betong, ISSN 1101-9190, no 6, p. 43-45Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 308.
    Silva, Nelson
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Boubitsas, Dimitrios
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Critical conditions for depassivation of steel in concrete: interface chloride profiles and steel surface condition2012In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 45, p. 111-124Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 309.
    Silva, Nelson
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Rodum, Eva
    Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Norway.
    Torkkeli, Minna
    Finnish Transport Agency, Finland.
    Hejll, Arvid
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Performance test for hydrophobic impregnations for protection against chloride2015In: Concrete 2015: Proceedings of the 27th Biennial National Conference of the Concrete Institute of Australia in conjunction with the 69th RILEM Week "Construction Innovations, Research into Practice", Institute of Australia , 2015, p. 884-893Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the development of a common Nordic test method for the evaluation ofhydrophobic impregnations for concrete, for protection against chloride ingress. The first stage of theexperimental campaign served to evaluate the influence of the precondition environment before surfacetreatment, curing time and type of surface on the performance of the impregnation agent. In the secondstage, a round robin test involving 3 Nordic laboratories was conducted; the results showed very littlevariation and were compared to results obtained according to previous standards in order to defineperformance requirements. Finally, data from field exposed specimens for more than 5 years was used tovalidate the suitability for use.

  • 310.
    Silva, Nelson
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Hallingberg, Per
    Aercrete Technology AB, Sweden.
    Cederqvist, Christer
    Aercrete Technology AB, Sweden.
    Foam concrete-aerogel composite for thermal insulation in lightweight sandwich2015In: Concrete 2015: Proceedings of the 27th Biennial National Conference of the Concrete Institute of Australia in conjunction with the 69th RILEM Week "Construction Innovations, Research into Practice", Institute of Australia , 2015, p. 1355-1362Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the initial steps towards the development of a foam concrete-aerogelcomposite for thermal insulation in lightweight sandwich façade elements. Fire safety is an important issuepertaining insulation materials. Therefore, the need for low-density inorganic, non-flammable materials israpidly increasing. Foam concrete is a lightweight material with good thermal characteristics; densities aslow as 400 kg/m3 and thermal conductivities as low as 100 mW/m·K can easily be achieved. The mainadvantage when compared to typical inorganic insulations (e.g. autoclaved aerated concrete or mineralwool) is that foam concrete has a much lower embodied energy, in particular due to the simplicity of themanufacturing process. However, in order to be competitive as an effective insulation material, thethermal conductivity needs to be drastically reduced which can be achieved by reducing the density andby incorporating silica aerogels (both measures affecting the compressive strength).

  • 311.
    Silva, Nelson
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Tang, Luping
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Application of LA-ICP-MS for meso-scale chloride profiling in concrete2013In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 1369-1381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chloride represents a major risk for reinforced concrete structures because at a certain concentration, it can promote depassivation of the steel bars and initiate corrosion. Therefore it is important to be able to measure the chloride content in concrete. In this paper the application of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for the study of chlorides in concrete is proposed. This scanning technique enables quick multi-element profiling, directly at the sample without the need for further preparation, within a range of sub-millimetre (meso-scale) resolution and with low limits of detection. Optimization of the operating conditions was performed in pressed concrete powder pellets. Linearity of the calibration was verified and limits of detection below 0.05 wt% of cement were determined. Chlorine, calcium and iron distributions were studied in cement based materials of increasing heterogeneity (paste, mortar and concrete). This technique is furthermore proposed for the study of the chloride induced corrosion process, by following element distributions along the concrete-steel interface at the time of depassivation.

  • 312.
    Silva, Nelson
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tang, Luping
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Boubitsas, Dimitrios
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Chloride profiles along the concrete-steel interface2013In: International Journal of Structural Engineering, ISSN 1758-7328, Vol. 4, no 1-2, p. 100-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The composition and microstructure of the concrete-steel interface influences the critical chloride content for initiation of pitting corrosion and these characteristics may differ from those of the bulk concrete. This paper describes the development of a methodology for chloride profiling along the interface by means of LA-ICP-MS. For semi-quantitative analysis, microstructure characterisation of the pitting positions and distribution and composition of the corrosion products, SEM-EDS and XRD techniques were employed. The results indicate that along the interface a range of chloride levels can be expected. These varied between 0.15-1.5 wt% of concrete with higher levels around the active corrosion sites. Good agreement has been found between the results from LA-ICP-MS and EDS techniques. Interface defects strongly influenced the pitting corrosion. Several Fe(III) oxy-hydroxides accumulated at the aggregate-paste interface and in air voids at the cement paste. XRD analysis suggested the presence of akaganeite and FeCl2 (rokuhnite).

  • 313. Skoglund, Pål
    et al.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Chloride redistribution and reinforcement corrosion in the interfacial region between substrate and repair concrete: a laboratory study2008In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 1001-1014Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 314.
    Stenbeck, Torbjörn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Budgeting Performance-Based Winter Maintenance: Snow influence on highway maintenance cost2009In: Journal of Infrastructure Systems, ISSN 1076-0342, E-ISSN 1943-555X, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 251-260Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 315.
    Stripple, Håkan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ellison, Tommy
    BESAB, Sweden.
    Ewertson, Cathrine
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Produkt & Kontroll.
    Lund, Peter
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Melander, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Tillståndsbedömningar.
    Evaluation of two different drainage systems for rock tunnels2016In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 58, p. 40-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water penetration and dripping in tunnels is almost always a significant problem which is usually solved with the help of a tunnel waterproofing drainage system mounted where drips and leaks are detected. Today's drainage systems are made of foamed polyethene (PE) mats which are covered with shotcrete. These are relatively expensive, complex to install, sensitive to mechanical impact, and often have a much shorter expected lifetime than the tunnel. In this study, a new type of drainage, Rockdrain, was studied and compared with the present drainage system. The systems were evaluated with respect to technical, environmental, and economic aspects. A field test was performed with the Rockdrain system and compared with installation of a traditional system. Laboratory tests were performed on especially the different shotcrete layers used in the Rockdrain system. The environmental evaluation was performed by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and the economic evaluation was performed by Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis. The results indicate that the Rockdrain system has a good drainage function, is significantly cheaper than the current system, has a longer expected lifetime, is easier to install, and is less sensitive to mechanical impact.

  • 316.
    Sturesson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Hertzberg, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    P-märket garanterar kvalitet på takduk2008In: Husbyggaren, no 3, p. 12-14Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 317. Sundquist, Håkan
    et al.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Produktiviteten i anläggningsbyggandet måste drastiskt förbättras2012In: Samhällsbyggaren, ISSN 2000-2408, no 3, p. 26-30Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 318.
    Tahersamsi, Mohammad
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Plos, Mario
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Anchorage of naturally corroded bars in reinforced concrete structures2014In: Magazine of Concrete Research, ISSN 0024-9831, E-ISSN 1751-763X, Vol. 66, no 14, p. 729-744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bond properties of naturally corroded reinforced concrete members were experimentally investigated. Thirteen specimens were taken from the northern edge beam of Stallbacka Bridge, a girder bridge in Sweden. The specimens exhibited different levels of corrosion-induced damage, including concrete cracking and cover spalling. The damage was carefully documented and the specimens were tested in suspended four-point bending tests. Their general behaviour was monitored through measurements of applied loads and vertical deflections. At the same time, the local anchorage behaviour was recorded at the end regions. The test results showed around 5% lower anchorage capacity for damaged specimens compared with the reference ones. The residual bond strength was studied with respect to the observed damage. These tests, and artificial corrosion results from the literature, indicate that the bond strength decreased with increasing maximum splitting crack widths. However, the bond capacity was higher for the naturally corroded specimens. The results thus show an obvious difference between artificial and natural corrosion, and furthermore indicate that the provisions given in fib Model Code 2010 are on the safe side. These test results contribute to further knowledge regarding the structural behaviour of corroded reinforced concrete structures.

  • 319.
    Tahershamsi, Mohammad
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fernandez, Ignasi
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Investigating correlations between crack width, corrosion level and anchorage capacity2017In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 13, no 10, p. 1294-1307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In assessing existing structures, inspection results need to be linked to the effects on load-carrying capacity; to provide such information, this study has investigated the correlation between splitting crack width, corrosion level and anchorage capacity. The study was based on 13 reinforced concrete beams that had been exposed to natural corrosion for 32 years, 11 beams with splitting cracks and 2 without. The crack pattern and widths were documented before undergoing structural testing of anchorage capacity. Thereafter, the reinforcement bars were extracted and their corrosion levels measured using two methods, gravimetric weight loss and 3D scanning. The corrosion level from the weight loss method was approximately twice as large; possible reasons are horizontal or subsurface corrosion pits, and the cleaning method. Further, for the same corrosion level, the specimens in this study had much larger crack widths and slightly lower bond capacity than the artificially corroded tests in the literature; a possible reason is that these specimens had been subjected to combined corrosion and freezing. However, the corrosion level and reduction in bond capacity related to crack width were both lower in the present than in previous studies in the literature. Thus, by formulating a damage indicator from the damage visible in the form of crack widths from artificial test data, the structural capacity is estimated to be on the safe side.

  • 320.
    Tahershamsi, Mohammad
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Plos, Mario
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Anchorage capacity of naturally corroded reinforced concrete beams2012In: fib Symposium 2012: Concrete Structures for Sustainable Community - Proceedings, 2012, p. 323-326Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the anchorage capacity of naturally corroded reinforcement was investigated experimentally. The test specimens were taken from edge beams of Stallbacka Bridge in Sweden. The beams have shown different extent of corrosion damage; from no sign of corrosion to extensive cover cracking and spalling. A four-point bending test, indirectly supported with suspension hangers, was set up so that a diagonal shear crack preceded an anchorage failure. The anchorage behaviour was examined through monitoring the applied load, free-end slip and mid-span deflection. The test results can be used to extend our knowledge concerning the structural behaviour of corroded reinforced concrete structures to field conditions.

  • 321.
    Tahershamsi, Mohammad
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Plos, Mario
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Assessment of anchorage capacity of naturally corroded reinforcement2013In: Assessment, Upgrading and Refurbishment of Infrastructures, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion of reinforcement is a significant cause of deterioration in existing structures. While this topic has been extensively studied using artificially corroded test specimens, little is known about the actual response of naturally corroded structures. Overall, the literature suggests that drastic reduction of the corrosion time, i.e. from years to days, in accelerated corrosion process, might markedly influence the bond and the anchorage capacity of a reinforced concrete member. Consequently, the anchorage capacity of specimens with naturally corroded reinforcement was investigated. Since a large scatter was observed in the tests of the first series, see [1, 2], fourteen more specimens were tested in a second round using samples from the other side of the same bridge. The specimens were carefully documented regarding crack patterns, crack widths, and spalled regions before testing. In all cases, diagonal shear cracks preceded a splitting-induced pullout failure; i.e. anchorage failure was achieved as expected. Subsequent work will combine results from both test series, such as load versus deflection, free end-slip and crack patterns; and compare these with the predictions from detailed nonlinear finite element modelling, using the available bond and corrosion models. These will result in a better understanding of the structural behaviour of corroded reinforced concrete structures to field conditions.

  • 322.
    Tammo, Kristian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Energilagring i betong kan förbättras med nya material2010In: Betong, ISSN 1101-9190, no 5, p. 44-46Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 323.
    Tammo, Kristian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Energilagringen i betong kan förbättras med andra material2010In: Betong, ISSN 1101-9190, no 5, p. 44-46Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 324.
    Tammo, Kristian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Sprickvidder och deras inverkan på beständighet2010In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 8-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 325.
    Tang, Luping
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Engineering expression of the ClinConc model for prediction of free and total chloride ingress in submerged marine concrete2008In: Cement and Concrete Research, ISSN 0008-8846, E-ISSN 1873-3948, Vol. 38, no 8-9, p. 1092-1097Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 326.
    Tang, Luping
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Fu, Y
    Rapid assessment of reinforced corrosion in concrete bridges2010Report (Refereed)
  • 327.
    Tang, Luping
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindvall, Anders
    Thomas Concrete Group AB, Sweden.
    Validation of models for prediction of chloride ingress in concrete exposed in de-icing salt road environment2013In: International Journal of Structural Engineering, ISSN 1758-7328, Vol. 4, no 1-2, p. 86-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results from validation of models for prediction of chloride ingress in concrete exposed in de-icing salt road environment. Three models including the simple error-function complement (ERFC) model, the DuraCrete model and the ClinConc model, were evaluated using the measurement data collected from both the field exposure site after over ten years exposure and the real road bridges after 25-30 years in service. The sensitivity of input parameters in each model is analysed. The results show that, among different input parameters, the age factor is the most sensitive one. The simple ERFC model significantly overestimates chloride ingress. The DuraCrete model, if the input parameters are properly selected, may give a reasonably good prediction, otherwise often underestimates chloride ingress. The ClinConc model in general gives fairly good predictions for chloride ingress in de-icing salt road environment with heavy traffic at high speed.

  • 328.
    Tang, Luping
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Utgenannt, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Validation of models and test methods for assessment of durability of concrete structures in the road environment2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results from validation of models and test methods for assessment of durability of concrete structures exposed in Swedish road environment. In the past years a number of models for durability design of concrete structures have been suggested by relevant organisations or international committees. It is necessary to validate these models against long-term field data for their applicability with respect to exposure climate in order to satisfactorily use the models in the durability design and redesign of concrete structures. In this study, various potential models for concrete resistance to chloride ingress, carbonation and frost attack were compiled and the sensitive input parameters that affect the modelling results were mathematically analysed. Three models including the simple ERFC, the DuraCrete and the ClinConc, for prediction of chloride ingress were evaluated using the infield data collected from both the field exposure site after over 10 years exposure and the real road bridges of 25-30 years old. A physicochemical model for prediction of carbonation depth was evaluated using the infield data collected from the field exposure site after 11 years exposure and the limited data from the real structures with the age of 7-13 years. The results from different standard test methods including the newly standardised prEN/TS 12390-11 for chloride diffusivity were compared. For the modelling of frost attack, some test procedures for measurement of critical saturation degree and water absorption curves including the pump effect were suggested. Based on the results, recommendations as guidelines for practical application of test methods and models in durability design of concrete structures were suggested.

  • 329.
    Tang, Luping
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Utgenannt, Peter
    Validation of models and test methods for assessment of durability of concrete structures in the road environment2010Report (Refereed)
  • 330.
    Tang, Luping
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Utgenannt, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Boubitsas, Dimitrios
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Durability and service life prediction of reinforced concrete structures2015In: Journal of the Chinese Ceramic Society, ISSN 0454-5648, Vol. 43, no 10, p. 1408-1419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents some durability and service life models for reinforced concrete structures with regard to chloride ingress, carbonation and frost attack. In the past years a number of models for durability design of concrete structures have been suggested by relevant organisations or international committees. It is necessary to validate these models against long-term field data for their applicability with respect to exposure climate in order to satisfactorily use the models in the durability design and redesign of concrete structures. In this study, various potential models for concrete resistance to chloride ingress, carbonation and frost attack were briefly reviewed. Three models including the simple ERFC, the DuraCrete and the ClinConc, for prediction of chloride ingress were evaluated using the infield data collected from both the field exposure site after over 20 years exposure and the real road bridges of about 30 years old. A physicochemical model for prediction of carbonation depth was evaluated using the infield data collected from the field exposure site after 11 years exposure and the limited data from the real structures with the age of 7-13 years. For the modelling of frost attack, some problems in measurement of critical saturation degree and actual degree of saturation are discussed. According to the comparison results, the simple ERFC overestimates whilst the DuraCrete model underestimate the chloride ingress in most cases. The ClinConc model on the other hand gives reasonable good prediction for both the short-term (one year) and the long-term (21 years) exposure. The Papadakis model for carbonation also gives fairly good prediction of carbonation depth when compared with the Norwegian infield data classified as exposure class XC3|, but underestimates the carbonation depths when compared with the infield data from Norwegian structures in exposure class XC4.

  • 331.
    Tang, Luping
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zang, Emma Qingnan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fu, Y.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Covercrete with hybrid functions: novel approach to durable reinforced concrete structures2012In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 63, no 12, p. 1119-1126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete structures, the concrete with low water-cement ratio (w/c), high cement content, and large cover thickness is conventionally used for prolonging the passivation period of steel. Obviously, this conventional approach to durable concrete structures is at the sacrifice of more CO2 emission and natural resources through consuming higher amount of cement and more constituent materials, which is against sustainability. By placing an economically affordable conductive mesh made of carbon fiber or conductive polymer fiber in the near surface zone of concrete acting as anode we can build up a cathodic prevention system with intermittent low current density supplied by, e.g., the solar cells. In such a way, the aggressive negative ions such as Cl-, CO3 2-, and SO4 2- can be stopped near the cathodic (steel) zone. Thus the reinforcement steel is prevented from corrosion even in the concrete with relatively high w/c and small cover thickness. This conductive mesh functions not only as electrode, but also as surface reinforcement to prevent concrete surface from cracking. Therefore, this new type of covercrete has hybrid functions. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of feasibility of this approach and discusses the potential durability problems and possible solutions to the potential problems.

  • 332.
    Teofilusson, Gunilla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Kursverksamheten CBI2014In: Svensk Bergs & Brukstidning, ISSN 0039-6435, Vol. 93, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 333.
    Teofilusson, Gunilla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Regler kring utförande av betongkonstruktioner2012In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 8-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 334.
    Trägårdh, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    ASR-problematik i Sverige och arbete på CBI Betonginstitutet2014In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 3-4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 335.
    Trägårdh, Jan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Kalinowski, Mariusz
    SBUF-projekt nr 11522 "Innovativ självkompakterande betong med goda brandspjälkningsegenskaper".: Rapport WP 4 : mikrostruktur- och beständighetsanalys2009Report (Refereed)
  • 336.
    Utgenannt, P
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Influence of carbonation on the scaling resistance of OPC concrete1999Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 337.
    Utgenannt, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Frost resistance of concrete - Experience from three field exposure sites2001In: Proceedings. CONSEC 01, Vancouver, Canada, 2001, 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 338. van Hees, R
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    RILEM TC 203-RHM: Repair mortars for historic masonry.: From problem to intervention: a decision process2012In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 45, no 9, p. 1295–1302-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on repair or replacement mortars for historical buildings. Both the decision process and questions arising are dealt with, in order to better define and illustrate technical requirements for mortars to be used for the repair or restoration of monuments and historic buildings (masonry mortars, plasters, renders). The article summarizes a longer document, meant to help professionals in their decisions on the interventions, taking into account aspects, which are ranging from the ethics of restoration to the technical requirements

  • 339.
    Vera-Agullo, J.
    et al.
    ACCIONA, Spain.
    Lample, R.
    ACCIONA, Spain.
    Nelson, Silva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Durability of concrete exposed to sea water at early age: Flotaing dock method for construction of caissons2016In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Concrete Sustainability (ICCS16), International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE) , 2016, p. 250-260Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ACCIONA Infrastructure, a Spanish contractor, uses the caisson method for the construction of breakwater structures. One of its floating docks, Kugira, is one of the largest of its kind in the world and it can produce concrete caissons measuring 70 m long by 36 m wide and 35 m high. Concrete caissons made in floating docks are gradually immersed in sea water as they are built; thus, the set concrete is exposed to sea water at a very early stage, within 18 to 48 hours after casting in sliding formwork. In order to study the durability of slag concrete using this construction method, the properties of concrete exposed to sea water at a very young age have been tested. Specimens were exposed to artificial sea water by the ponding method at different ages (16h, 1, 2, 3, 7 and 28 days) for a period of 6, 18 and 36 (analysis pending) months. The following properties were measured and compared with unexposed specimens: compressive strength, water and oxygen permeability, pore size distribution, migration coefficient DNT492 and chloride profiles. After 6 and 18 months ponding, lower chloride contents were measured for the specimens exposed to sea water after 28 days curing compared to those exposed at early ages. However, this difference significantly decreases within a small depth from the exposed surface. Also the migration coefficient DNT492 decreases significantly with the increase of the age of the concrete. With regards to water and oxygen permeability, no significant differences were found. In this paper, a summary of all these works is presented.                

  • 340.
    Vera-Agullo, Jose
    et al.
    ACCIONA, Spain.
    Castro-Visos, Francisco Manuel
    ACCIONA, Spain.
    Larraz-Bordanaba, Francisco Javier
    ACCIONA, Spain.
    Troncone-Cusati, Claudio
    ACCIONA, Spain.
    Asencio-Varela, Juan Pedro
    ACCIONA, Spain.
    Silva, Nelson
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Durability of concrete caissons made in floating docks2015In: Concrete 2015: Proceedings of the 27th Biennial National Conference of the Concrete Institute of Australia in conjunction with the 69th RILEM Week "Construction Innovations, Research into Practice", Institute of Australia , 2015, p. 894-903Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ACCIONA Infrastructure, a Spanish contractor, uses the caisson method for the construction ofbreakwater structures. One of its floating docks, Kugira, is one of the largest of its kind in the world and itcan produce concrete caissons measuring 70 m long by 36 m wide and 35 m high. Concrete caissonsmade in floating docks are gradually immersed in sea water as they are built; thus, the set concrete isexposed to sea water at a very early stage, within 18 to 48 hours after casting in sliding formwork. In orderto study the durability of slag concrete using this construction method, the properties of concrete exposedto sea water at a very young age have been tested. Specimens were exposed to artificial sea water by theponding method at different ages (16h, 1, 2, 3, 7 and 28 days) for a period of 6, 18 and 36 (analysispending) months. The following properties were measured and compared with unexposed specimens:compressive strength, water and oxygen permeability, pore size distribution, migration coefficient DNT492and chloride profiles. After 6 and 18 months ponding, lower chloride contents were measured for thespecimens exposed to sea water after 28 days curing compared to those exposed at early ages.However, this difference significantly decreases within a small depth from the exposed surface. Also themigration coefficient DNT492 decreases significantly with the increase of the age of the concrete. Withregards to water and oxygen permeability, no significant differences were found. In this paper, a summaryof all these works is presented.Apart from this laboratory analysis, real scale tests were performed at site with the aim to increasedurability by the addition of nanosilica particles. The characterization of these real scale tests are alsodescribed and discussed in this paper.

  • 341.
    Wallqvist, Viveca
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Kraft, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Prototype bike lanes - placement practices and properties2015In: 57º Congresso Brasileiro do Concreto, Bonito/MS [CBC 2015], IBRACON , 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    AstaZero, a unique environment to build any scenario in order to develop, test or certifynew traffic safety solutions was opened 2014 in Sweden. In this environment a testingarena for vulnerable road users has been developed. Among with the solutions testedbelongs impact absorbing surfaces for cyclists, one which has been made of rubbermodified concrete. The study involved testing of different compositions and examining newproperties in the fresh state, which affected the production process to different extents. Forexample, due to difference in density between aggregate and rubber the segregation maybe a problem. Regarding the materials properties, the head injury criterion (HIC) was usedfor evaluation of the pavements shock absorbing capability. In the laboratory tests themodified concrete demonstrated a decrease in HIC-value by 85% compared to standardbitumen material. In the AstaZero test-lane, measured at -1°C, the decrease in HIC-valuecompared to reference was 79%. The frictional properties were approved according toexisting criteria. Future tests will determine the new materials’ durability, maintenance andcycling comfort.

  • 342.
    Warris, Birger
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    The influence of air-entrainment on the frost-resistance of concrete1963Report (Refereed)
  • 343.
    Westerholm, Mikael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Självkompakterande betongs statiska stabilitet2010Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Självkompakterande betong (SKB) är i det färska stadiet en vätskelik betong som har förmågan att fylla ut formen och kompakteras utan någon vibreringsinsats eller att något annat arbete tillförs. SKB har många fördelar jämfört med konventionell betong, t.ex. kan tekniken bidra till ökad produktivitet, möjliggöra mer komplicerade gjutningar och inte minst förbättras arbetsmiljön på byggarbetsplatsen. Men den stora flytförmågan som krävs för att betongen skall bli självkompakterande kan resultera i höga formtryck, vilket kan ställa andra krav på formdimensionering. Vidare ökar även risken för separation med ökande flytförmåga. Emellertid kan dessa potentiella problem minimeras genom omsorgsfull proportionering. _x000D_ Denna rapport är en litteraturstudie och utgör första etappen i ett forskningsprojekt inriktat mot självkompakterande betongs statiska stabilitet. SKB:s statiska stabilitet kan definieras som dess förmåga att förbli homogen utan vare sig förekomst av sten-, pasta-, eller vattenseparation i vila. I rapporten beskrivs betongs statiska stabilitet, mikrostruktur och relaterade krafter. _x000D_ _x000D_ Separation av betongens delmaterial uppstår på grund av olikheter i densitet, t.ex. mellan sten och pastafas. Stabiliteten hos SKB anses dock till stor del styras av pastans och mikrobrukets flytgränsspänning, plastiska viskositet, tixotropi och ballastmaterialets gradering. De nämnda egenskaperna påverkas av betongens sammansättning och de studier som utförts avseende SKB:s stabilitet visar att den bland annat minskar med ökande flytförmåga och att separation ofta uppträder abrupt när en viss flytförmåga överskrids. Stabiliteten gynnas av minskande dmax, kontinuerligt graderad ballast, stor volymandel ballast samt av stabiliserande tillsatsmedel. _x000D_ _x000D_ I rapporten beskrivs även stabiliserande tillsatsmedels egenskaper och funktion översiktligt. Dessa tillsatsmedel har blivit allt vanligare på senare år och anses förändra betongens viskositet, flytgränsspänning och tixotropa egenskaper i varierande grad. De används i syfte att förbättra betongens stabilitet och robusthet. Det finns både oorganiska och organiska stabiliserande tillsatsmedel. _x000D_ _x000D_ I rapporten ingår ett avsnitt om modellcement. Modellcement kan med fördel användas i laboratorieförsök om man är intresserad av att eliminera inverkan av cementreaktionerna. Ett modellcement bör i möjligaste mån uppvisa egenskaper, såsom ytegenskaper och kornsstorlek, som ligger nära cementets. Det bör dock vara kemiskt stabilt. Magnesiumoxid har egenskaper liknande cement och har använts frekvent som modellcement under senare år. _x000D_ _x000D_ Avslutningsvis ges förslag på ett forskningsområde där det fortfarande finns behov av ökad kunskap.

  • 344. Westerholm, Mikael
    et al.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Influence of fine aggregate characteristics on the rheological properties of mortars2008In: Cement & Concrete Composites, ISSN 0958-9465, E-ISSN 1873-393X, Vol. 30, p. 274-282Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 345.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Pär
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tensile behaviour of textile reinforcement under accelerated ageing conditions2016In: Journal of Building Engineering, E-ISSN 2352-7102, Vol. 5, p. 57-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile reinforced concrete (TRC) has emerged as a promising alternative wherein corrosion is no longer an issue and much thinner and light-weight elements can be designed. Although TRC has been expansively researched, the formalization of experimental methods concerning durability arises when attempting to implement and design such innovative building materials. In this study, accelerated ageing tests paired with tensile tests were performed. The change in physico-mechanical properties of various commercially available textile reinforcements was documented and evaluated. The ability for the reinforcements to retain their tensile capacity was also quantified in the form of empirical degradation curves. It was observed that accelerated test parameters typically applied to fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) bars and grids are generally too aggressive for the textile reinforcement products and alternative boundary conditions are necessary. The developed degradation curves were found to have an overall good correlation with the experimental findings.

  • 346. Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Lundgren, Karin
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Implementation of experimental data in analyses of textile reinforced concrete structures2015In: FERRO-11 – 11th International Symposium on Ferrocement and 3rd ICTRC - International Conference on Textile Reinforced Concrete, 2015, , p. 149-158Conference paper (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 347.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Evaluation of pull-out behaviour in textile reinforced concrete2014In: Proceedings of the 10th fib International PhD Symposium in Civil Engineering, Universite Laval , 2014, p. 97-102Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete reinforced with conventional steel is one of the most commonly used building materials, yet it has historically shown disadvantages in terms of durability and vulnerability to corrosion attack. Various remedial methods have been applied to overcome the shortcomings of this building material, such as increasing the concrete cover, which, however, leads to an increased self-weight of the structure. Over the past decade, Textile Reinforced Concrete (TRC), encompassing a combination of finegrained concrete and non-corrosive multi-axial textile fabrics, has emerged as a promising novel altemative offering corrosion resistance, as well as thinner and light-weight structures such as foot bridges and façade elements. Although TRC has been extensively researched, the formalization of experimental methods and design standards is still in progress. The aim of this paper is to quantify and model the bond behaviour of TRC basalt fibre meshes. The bond between the textile fibre mesh and fine-grained concrete matrix is a critical element influencing the overall performance of this composite material. The yam structure is rather complex including a multitude of outer and inner filaments; thus inevitably, the constituents of one yam are unevenly bonded to the concrete matrix. As such, experiments help quantify complex material behaviour which can be further used to develop and calibrate analytical and non-linear finite-element models. The bond behaviour of TRC was characterized through means of direct pull-out tests with un-symmetrical embedment lengths such that the test specimens were notched at a prescribed breaking point. The test specimens consisted of one-layer of reinforcement mesh, centrally cast, made of basalt fibres. The applied force and average deformation of the test specimen were measured. The evaluation of varying embedment lengths was explored in order to quantify pull-out and textile rupture failure modes. The experimental results were thereafter evaluated using an analytical 1 D bond model. Pull-out and rupture failure were observed in the experimental pull-out results. A local bond stress-slip curve was calibrated for the basalt specimens based on the experimental results. Finally, it was observed that the simulation results from the 1 D bond model had a reasonable correlation with the experimental results in spite ofthe complex bond behaviour of TRC.

  • 348.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wallbaum, Holger
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Sustainable potential of textile-reinforced concrete2015In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 27, no 7, article id 4014207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The building construction industry is in need of sustainable materials and solutions. A novel building material, such as textile-reinforced concrete (TRC), could be used to meet this demand. Textile-reinforced concrete is a combination of fine-grained concrete and multiaxial textile fabrics that has been fundamentally researched over the past decade. TRC-based research has explored various facets of this composite material, such as its structural functionality, production, applicability, and design. One key aspect that is still missing, however, is a comprehensive review of the sustainable potential of this material in terms of its input–output and durability that suitably answers to requirement No. 7 of EU’s Construction Products Regulation. This article provides qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the sustainable potential and prospective development of TRC particularly reinforced by alkali-resistant (AR) glass, carbon, or basalt fibers. Based on the outcome of this evaluation, carbon textile fibers were observed to hold the optimal potential mechanical behavior; additionally, it was revealed through the conducted life-cycle assessment (LCA) that basalt had the least cumulative energy demand, whereas carbon had the least environmental impact.

  • 349.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Silva, Nelson
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Billberg, Peter
    Consolis Strängbetong, Sweden.
    Durability study of textile fibre reinforcement2015In: Concrete 2015: Proceedings of the 27th Biennial National Conference of the Concrete Institute of Australia in conjunction with the 69th RILEM Week "Construction Innovations, Research into Practice", Institute of Australia , 2015, p. 408-413Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional steel reinforced concrete is one of the most commonly used building materials,yet it has shortcomings in terms of weight, thick concrete covers, and durability namely corrosion of thereinforcement. Textile Reinforced Concrete (TRC), a combination of fine-grained concrete and noncorrosivefibre grids, has emerged as a promising alternative; corrosion is no longer an issue and muchthinner and light-weight elements can be designed. Although TRC has been expansively researched,unknowns pertaining to the long-term durability arise when attempting to implement such innovativebuilding materials. The aim of this article is to study the effect of accelerated aging on the tensile strengthof various textile fibre grids according to ISO 10406-1 [1]. Carbon, basalt and alkali-resistant (AR) glassfibre grids were immersed into high alkali environment and elevated temperature for 30 days. Directtensile tests were conducted before and after aging to observe the degree of stiffness and tensile strengthloss. After aging, the carbon fibre grids were marked by an increase in both tensile strength and stiffness,while AR-glass and basalt were degraded to the extent that tensile tests could not be conducted.Specimens were therefore exposed to alternative conditions to identify the governing degradation factor.

  • 350.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Wlasak, Lech
    Mostostal Warszawa SA, Poland.
    GFRP connectors in textile reinforced concrete sandwich elements2016In: IABSE Congress Stockholm 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment, IABSE c/o ETH Hönggerberg , 2016, p. 1336-1343Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, both experimental and numerical methods are presented to gain an understanding of the structural behaviour related to a TRC sandwich panel with a glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) plate connection system. Double shear tests were conducted on component-scale sandwich panels to characterize the available shear capacity provided by the connectors and panel configuration. Three-dimension (3D) non-linear Finite Element Analysis (NLFEA) was applied to develop a model for the design of TRC sandwich panels while focusing on the connectors. The experimental outcome of the shear tests was applied to validate the corresponding numerical model developed in this work. The need for further modifications to the design of the shear connectors or other parameters such as panel thickness can be established accordingly. This developed FE model can essentially be applied as a design tool to further predict the structural behaviour of the full-scale sandwich elements.

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