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  • 301. Bengtsson, Nils
    et al.
    Jakobsson, B.
    Cooking of meat patties for freezing: a comparison of conventional methods and their combination with microwave heating1974In: Microwave Energy Applications Newsletter, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 3-10Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 302.
    Bengtsson, Nils
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Jakobsson, B.
    Dagerskog, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Cooking of beef by oven roasting: A study of heat and mass transfer.1976In: Journal of Food Science, Vol. 41, p. 1047-1054Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 303.
    Bengtsson, Nils
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Liljemark, Arne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Olsson, P.
    Nilsson, B.
    An attempt to systemize time-temperature-tolerance (T.T.T) data as a basis for the development of time-temperature indicators1972In: Bulletin of the International Institute of Refrigeration. Annexe, Vol. 2, p. 303-311Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 304.
    Bengtsson, Nils
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Lycke, E.
    Experiments with a heat camera for recording temperature distribution in foods during microwave heating1969In: Journal of Microwave Power, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 48-54Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 305.
    Bengtsson, Nils
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Melin, J.
    Remi, K.
    Söderlind, S.
    Measurements of the dielectric properties of frozen and defrosted meat and fish in the frequency range 10-200 MHz1963In: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 592-604Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 306. Bengtsson, Nils
    et al.
    Ohlsson, Thomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Industrielles erhitzen mit mikrowellen und seine bedeutung fur gefrier- und hitzebehandelte lebensmittel.1986In: Internationale Zeitschrift für Lebensmitteltechnologie und Verfahrenstechnik, Vol. 37, p. 392, 395-399Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 307.
    Bengtsson, Nils
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Risman, P.O.
    Dielectric properties of fruits at 3 GHz as determined by a cavity pertubation technique.: 2. Measurements on food materials1971In: Journal of Microwave Power, Vol. 2, no 6, p. 107-123Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 308.
    Bengtsson, Nils
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Wirtén, Å.
    Industriskalad potatis.1972In: Livsmedelsteknik, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 25-27Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 309.
    Bengtsson, Nils
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Wirtén, Å.
    Industriskalad potatis.1971In: Livsmedelsteknik, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 372-374Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 310.
    Bengtsson, O
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Frystorkning av rått nötkött1972Report (Refereed)
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  • 311.
    Bengtsson, O
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Frystorkning av rått nötkött. 1, Studie av några råvaru-, tillagnings- och lagringsvariabler : ras, muskel, tid och temperatur1967Report (Refereed)
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  • 312.
    Bengtsson, O
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Frystorkning av rått nötkött. 2, Inverkan av några råvaru- och förbehandlingsvariabler : djurkategori, ålder, fetthalt, hängningstid, fryslagring1967Report (Refereed)
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  • 313.
    Bengtsson, O
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Frystorkning av rått nötkött. 3, Studie av några tillagningsvariabler med jämförelse mellan muskler och mellan fryst och frystorkat rått nötkött1967Report (Refereed)
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  • 314.
    Bengtsson, O
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Frystorkning av rått nötkött. 4, Inverkan av några infrysningsvariabler samt yttemperaturen under frystorkningen1967Report (Refereed)
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  • 315.
    Bengtsson, O
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Frystorkning av rått nötkött. 5, Studie av några förpacknings- och lagringsvariabler samt en jämförelse mellan fryst och frystorkat kött1967Report (Refereed)
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  • 316.
    Bengtsson, O
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Mass- och värmetransporten vid frystorkning av livsmedel : litteraturöversikt1967Report (Refereed)
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  • 317.
    Bengtsson, O
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Vattenhaltbestämning i torra och torkade livsmedel1965Report (Refereed)
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  • 318. Bengtsson, O.
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Nils
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Freeze-drying of raw beef.: 1. Influence of some raw material variables1968In: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 317-321Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 319. Bengtsson, O.
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Nils
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Freeze-drying of raw beef.: 2. Influence of some freezing and dehydration variables.1968In: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 19, no 9, p. 481-485Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 320. Bengtsson, O.
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Nils
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Freeze-drying of raw beef.: 3. Influence of some packaging and storage variables1968In: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 19, no 9, p. 486-491Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 321.
    Bengtzon, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Differences in sensory perceptions and preferences between elderly and young consumers.2003Report (Refereed)
  • 322.
    Bengtzon, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Differences in sensory perceptions and preferences between elderly and young consumers2003Report (Other academic)
  • 323.
    Bennet, S
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ecotoxicity in LCA - a review of methods and assessment of the ecotoxic impact of pesticide use in Swedish winter wheat and Brazilian soybean production2012Report (Other academic)
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  • 324.
    Berg, B
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Förpackning av livsmedel. En översikt över arbeten vid SIK 1960-1978.1978Report (Refereed)
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  • 325.
    Berg, B
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Förteckning över SIK:s skrifter : 1/7 1971-30/6 19731973Report (Refereed)
  • 326.
    Berg, B
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Förteckning över SIK:s skrifter : juli 1971-december 1974 = List of SIK publications series : July 1971-December 19741973Report (Refereed)
  • 327.
    Berg, B
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    List of SIK publications : 1948-June 19711973Report (Refereed)
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  • 328.
    Berg, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Sweden; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Langton, Maud
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Josell, Åsa
    Atria Scandinavia AB, Sweden.
    Fredrik, Davidsson
    Geoloc AB, Sweden.
    State of the Art Report Insects as Food and Feed2017In: Annals of Experimental Biology, ISSN ISSN:2348-1935, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 37-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    FAO has considered insects as food since 2003 and is promoting consumption of insects (entomophagy) in the Western world because of the possibilities for sustainable production it offers. Insects as food are considered to leave smaller ecological footprints than conventional livestock (beef, pigs, and poultry) regarding feed, land and water needs, as well as greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions. As an example regarding water, taken from a recent TV documentary, if a family of four people got their protein need from insects one day a week instead of from conventional livestock, over a year they would save the planet about a million Liters of water. This is in agreement with figures above. One of the main reasons that insects for food in general have such positive environmental properties is that they are cold-blooded and thus use no energy to maintain their body temperature, in contrast to mammals (beef, pig) and birds (poultry), so their feed conversion is considerably more effective than that of conventional livestock. However, differences in feed conversion may also have other reasons, and are complicated to explain, as discussed in a recent review of Life Cycle Assessments of edible insects [9]. In addition, insects can be reared on organic side streams. For example, mealworms can recycle organic residues into high-quality potential feed rich in energy, protein and fat. Insects as food are generally considered as healthy, nutritious alternatives to conventional meats such as chicken, pork, and beef. They are rich in protein, 40-60% of dry matter, with content of essential amino acids similar to beef and soy. Unsaturated fat content is 10-30% of dry matter, and they are high in calcium, iron and zinc. However, there are significant differences depending on insect species, rearing method and feed, etc. .

  • 329.
    Bergentall, Martina K.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Malafronte, Loredana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    As, Dorine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Hedelab, Belgium.
    Calmet, Emeline
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Fleury Michon, France.
    Melin, Petter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Reduction of malic acid in bilberry juice by Lactiplantibacillus plantarum-mediated malolactic fermentation2023In: European Food Research and Technology, ISSN 1438-2377, E-ISSN 1438-2385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) are the most common wild berries in Northern Europe. A substantial amount of the berries are picked with the objective to extract highly valued products such as anthocyanins. A smaller amount of the bilberries is used to make jams and drinks, and these are generally restricted to the domestic market. One reason is the sour taste, partly as a result of the high content of malic acid. By using certain strains of lactic acid bacteria with the ability to convert malic acid to lactic acid, the taste is predicted to be more pleasant. This process is called malolactic fermentation, and historically it has mostly been used in winemaking. After testing five different starter cultures, we identified that the strain, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum LP58, can rapidly convert malic acid to lactic acid without any loss of sugar or citric acid, which strongly indicates a successful malolactic acid fermentation. As it has been reported that other strains of L. plantarum can be used as biopreservative agents, the resulting product was also tested in terms of microbial safety after prolonged storage, and by means of metagenome sequencing. The obtained product was quite tolerant to microbial growth, but this observation was rather due to an initial heat treatment than the addition of lactobacilli. Potentially, starter cultures with documented biopreservative activity can be combined with L. plantarum LP58 to obtain a more stable product. Until then, the fermented bilberry juice must be processed and preserved like non-fermented bilberry products. © 2023, The Author(s).

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  • 330.
    Berglund, Dag Torsten
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Methods for characterization of pectins1950In: Socker -Handlingar, Vol. 6, no 13, p. 219-223Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 331.
    Berglund, Dag Torsten
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Sylttillverkning efter nyare principer ("Moderne tilverkning av sylt")1950In: Tidskrift for Näringsmiddelenindustrien, Vol. 3, no 12, p. 461-462Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 332.
    Berglund, Torsten
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Pektin - en högpolymer av intresse för livsmedelsindustrien1948In: Socker -Handlingar, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 15-21Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 333.
    Bergstedt, S
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Erlöv, L
    Lingnert, H
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Olsson, P
    Forskning och utveckling inom området livsmedelsförpackningar i USA och Japan 1988. En reserapport.1989Report (Refereed)
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  • 334. Bergstrand, A.
    et al.
    Svanberg, C.
    Langton, Maud
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Nyden, M.
    Aggregation behavior and size of lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli O55:B52006In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 42261-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic light scattering, steady-state fluorescence, NMR diffusometry and cryo-TEM have been used to gain more insight into the aggregation behaviour of LPS from Escherichia coli O55:B5. Knowledge of this behaviour of the amphiphilic LPS molecule is in many cases of importance for the design of experiments and interpretation of results when using LPS in solution. The aim of this work was to study the aggregation and determine the aggregate size of E. coli O55:B5. The mean hydrodynamic radius of the LPS aggregates was determined by NMR diffusometry and dynamic light scattering to 14 and 26 nm, respectively. The cryo-TEM technique revealed predominately spherical aggregates of 9-19 nm. We wish to report 10 ?g/ml as the aggregation start for LPS E. coli O55:B5 in PBS buffer, pH 7.2. We suggest that the aggregation is a continuous process that starts at 10 ?g/ml and proceeds up to 300 ?g/ml. © 2006.

  • 335.
    Bergström, Birgitta
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lång hållbarhet utan mögel - Slutrapport till Jordbruksverket, SJV2010Report (Other academic)
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  • 336.
    Berlin, J
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Environmental improvements of the post-farm dairy chain : production management by systems analysis methods2005Report (Refereed)
  • 337.
    Berlin, J
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Environmental improvements of the post-farm dairy chain : production management by systems analysis methods2005Report (Other academic)
  • 338.
    Berlin, J
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of ready meals : LCA of two meals; pork and chicken & screening assessments of six ready meals2010Report (Other academic)
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  • 339.
    Berlin, J
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Klimatpåverkan från glassprodukter2009Report (Other academic)
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  • 340.
    Berlin, J
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Life cycle inventory (LCI) of semi-hard cheese2001Report (Refereed)
  • 341.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of Swedish semi-hard cheese2002In: International Dairy Journal, ISSN 0958-6946, E-ISSN 1879-0143, Vol. 12, no 11, p. 939-953Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An environmental life cycle assessment was performed to investigate the environmental consequences of the life cycle of Hushållsost, a semi-hard cheese. The assessment identified those activities that contribute most to the cheese's environmental impact throughout its life cycle from extraction of ingredients to waste management. Milk production at the farm was identified as having the greatest environmental impact, followed by cheesemaking at the dairy, retailing, and the production of plastic wrapping. The environmental impact could be reduced by minimising wastage of milk and cheese throughout the life cycle, without any effect on the quality of the product. Increasing the yield of cheese would also bring about substantial improvements as less milk would have to be produced on farms. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 342.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Environmental systems analysis of dairy production.2002Report (Refereed)
  • 343.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Life cycle assessment (LCA): An introduction2003In: Environmentally-Friendly Food Processing, p. 5-15Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 344.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Metod för utvärdering av miljöåtgärder realiserbara genom styrmedel2006Report (Other academic)
  • 345.
    Berlin, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Minimising environmental impact by sequencing cultured dairy products: two case studies2008In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 483-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased production of cultured milk products has environmental consequences. To counteract the environmental impact from the dairy industry, it is important to process the products in a sequence designed to minimise waste. In a previous study a model was constructed to minimise the waste caused by a sequence for a given set of products and to calculate the environmental impact of a waste minimised sequence. This study applies successfully the model in case studies at two dairies. The number of products to be sequenced varied: Dairy A had 34 products and Dairy B had 16. The sequenced products were yoghurt, sour cream, cold sauce and crème fraiche, all with multiple flavours. The difference in number of products to be sequenced offered the opportunity to use both of the two model sequencing solutions: the heuristic and the optimised. The role of frequency of each product to be sequenced was investigated. Scenarios with differing frequencies were used in the case studies. The result showed clearly that the waste caused by a sequence decreased when product frequency was reduced. From a life cycle perspective, the environmental impact of processing cultured milk products can be greatly reduced by adopting sequences with fewer changes of product. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 346.
    Berlin, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Tillman, A.-M.
    A life cycle based method to minimise environmental impact of dairy production through product sequencing.2007In: Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 15, p. 347-356Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 347.
    Berlin, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Tillman, A.-M.
    Product chain actors' potential for greening the product life cycle: The case of the Swedish postfarm milk chain2008In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 95-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenge in working with environmental improvements is to select the action offering the most substantial progress. However, not all actions are open to all actors in a product chain. This study demonstrates how life cycle assessment (LCA) may be used with an actor perspective in the Swedish postfarm milk chain. The potential measures were identified, applied by the dairy, retailer, and household, that gave the most environmental improvement in a life cycle perspective. Improved energy efficiency, more efficient transport patterns, reduced milk and product losses, and organic labeling were investigated. Milk, yogurt and cheese were considered. After LCAs of the products were established, improvement potentials of the actors were identified and quantified. The quantification was based mostly on literature studies but also on assumptions. Then the LCAs were recalculated to include the estimated improvement potential. To find the action with the greatest potential, the environmental impacts of the modified and original LCAs were compared for each actor. No action was superior to any other from the dairy perspective, but reduced wastage lowered most impacts for all three products. For retailers, using less energy is the most efficient improvement. From the household perspective, reducing wastage gives unambiguously positive results. When households choose organic products, reductions in energy use and greenhouse gases are even larger, but eutrophication increases. Overall, households have greatest potential for improvement while yogurt is the product offering the most improvement potential. © 2008 by Yale University.

  • 348. Bernin, D.
    et al.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Van Ruijven, M.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Strom, A.
    Rudemo, M.
    Microstructure of polymer hydrogels studied by pulsed field gradient NMR diffusion and TEM methods2011In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 7, no 12, p. 5711-5716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The microstructure of various alginate gels have been studied by pulsed field gradient NMR (PFG NMR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The reduced diffusivity of dendrimer diffusion within the gels has been obtained from PFG NMR diffusion experiments. The polymer strand radius, an important microstructural property, has been extracted from various diffusion models. The results agree well with the polymer strand radii obtained from image analysis of the corresponding TEM micrographs. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • 349.
    Bernin, Diana
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Steglich, Thomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Röding, Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Moldin, Annelie
    Lantmännen, Sweden.
    Topgaard, Daniel
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Langton, Maud I.B.C.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Multi-scale characterization of pasta during cooking using microscopy and real-time magnetic resonance imaging2014In: Food Research International, ISSN 0963-9969, E-ISSN 1873-7145, Vol. 66, p. 132-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Macroscopic properties of pasta, such as the texture, are formed during cooking by a complex interplay of water and heat with the structuring agents starch and gluten. The impact of the starch-to-gluten ratio on microstructure and water distribution in pasta was analyzed by a multi-scale approach combining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and light microscopy. The cooking process and thus the water distribution was monitored non-invasively using 1H MRI in real-time with a temporal resolution of 45s. Our MRI set-up allowed following the water ingress by imaging the reduction of the uncooked core. The water ingress rate was neither dependent on pasta composition nor on the presence of salt in the cooking media (0.7% NaCl). Starch-rich samples showed a more homogeneous water distribution in the gelatinized zone, which was mirrored in a more homogeneous microstructure. In contrast, gluten-rich samples showed both a heterogeneous water distribution and microstructure. Thus, the gluten content affected local water content in the gelatinized zone but not the water ingress.

  • 350. Bertilsson, Jan
    et al.
    Barr, Ulla Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Borch, Elisabeth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Gunnarsson, Stefan
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lindbom, Ingela
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lundh, Åse
    Nilsson, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Salomon, Eva
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sundberg, Martin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Åström, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hållbara matvägar – referens- och lösningsscenarier för mjölkproduktion och framställning av konsumtionsmjölk och lagrad ost.2014Report (Other academic)
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