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  • 251.
    Rudmark, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Andersson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Feedback Loops in Open Data Ecosystems2022Inngår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 39, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Public agencies are increasingly publishing open data to increase transparency and fuel data-driven innovation. For these organizations, maintaining sufficient data quality is key to continuous re-use but also heavily dependent on feedback loops being initiated between data publishers and users. This paper reports from a longitudinal engagement with Scandinavian transportation agencies, where such feedback loops have been successfully established. Based on these experiences, we propose four distinct types of data feedback loops in which both data publishers and re-users play critical roles.

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  • 252.
    Rudmark, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Lindgren, Rickard
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The Design of Open Platforms: Towards an Emulation Theory2023Inngår i: Proceedings of the 56th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2023, s. 3735-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The enrolment of third-party developers is essential to leverage the creation and evolution of data ecosystems. When such complementary development takes place without any organizational consent, however, it causes new social and technical problems to be solved. In this paper, we advance platform emulation as a theoretical perspective to explore the nature of such problem-solving in the realm of open platforms. Empirically, our analysis builds on a 10-year action design research effort together with a Swedish authority. Its deliberate change agenda was to transform unsolicited third-party development into a sanctioned data ecosystem, which led to a live open platform that is still in production use. Theoretically, we synthesize and extend received theory on open platforms and offer novel product and process principles for this class of digital platforms.

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  • 253.
    Rudmark, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindman, Juho
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tryti, Andreas
    Entur AS, Norway.
    Dammen, Brede
    Entur AS, Norway.
    Beyond Procurement: How Entur Navigated the Open Source Journey to Advance Public Transport2023Inngår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 62-70Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes how software professionals at the Norwegian public transport organization Entur use open source processes and tools to leverage digital transformation. Moving software acquisition from procurement to open source and in-house development can deliver value but also entails challenges. 

  • 254.
    Rudmark, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Watson, Richard T.
    University of Georgia, USA.
    Lessons from the Regulation of E-scooters through the MDS Standard: Policy Lessons for Connected Vehicles2023Inngår i: Proceedings of the 56th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2023, s. 1479-1488Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Connected vehicles generate new data streams that present promising opportunities for policymakers to monitor and learn from events and behavior. To explore what we can learn from how public entities leverage ubiquitous data streams for policy development and enforcement, we draw on a case study of the standard Mobility Data Specification (MDS) and its use by cities to regulate E-scooter operators. Our findings suggest that (1) the richness of real-time data changes the speed of policy revision, (2) data access enables moving some micro-decisions to the edge, and (3) policy will be formulated as fixed or flexible with different amendment rules.

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  • 255.
    Runeson, Per
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Thomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Challenges and Opportunities in Open Data Collaboration: A focus group study2020Inngår i: Proceedings - 46th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2020, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2020, s. 205-212, artikkel-id 9226338Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Data-driven software is becoming prevalent, especially with the advent of machine learning and artificial intelligence. With data-driven systems come both challenges - to keep collecting and maintaining high quality data - and opportunities - open innovation by sharing data with others. We propose Open Data Collaboration (ODC) to describe pecuniary and non-pecuniary sharing of open data, similar to Open Source Software (OSS) and in contrast to Open Government Data (OGD), where public authorities share data. To understand challenges and opportunities with ODC, we organized five focus groups with in total 27 practitioners from 22 companies, public organizations, and research institutes. In the discussions, we observed a general interest in the subject, both from private companies and public authorities. We also noticed similarities in attitudes to open innovation practices, i.e. initial resistance which gradually turned into interest. While several of the participants were experienced in open source software, no had shared data openly. Based on the findings, we identify challenges which we set out to continue addressing in future research.

  • 256.
    Runeson, Per
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Thomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Linåker, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Lund University, Sweden.
    Open Data Ecosystems — An empirical investigation into an emerging industry collaboration concept2021Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 182, artikkel-id 111088Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software systems are increasingly depending on data, particularly with the rising use of machine learning, and developers are looking for new sources of data. Open Data Ecosystems (ODE) is an emerging concept for data sharing under public licenses in software ecosystems, similar to Open Source Software (OSS). It has certain similarities to Open Government Data (OGD), where public agencies share data for innovation and transparency. We aimed to explore open data ecosystems involving commercial actors. Thus, we organized five focus groups with 27 practitioners from 22 companies, public organizations, and research institutes. Based on the outcomes, we surveyed three cases of emerging ODE practice to further understand the concepts and to validate the initial findings. The main outcome is an initial conceptual model of ODEs’ value, intrinsics, governance, and evolution, and propositions for practice and further research. We found that ODE must be value driven. Regarding the intrinsics of data, we found their type, meta-data, and legal frameworks influential for their openness. We also found the characteristics of ecosystem initiation, organization, data acquisition and openness be differentiating, which we advise research and practice to take into consideration. © 2021 The Author(s)

  • 257.
    Runeson, Per
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rathsman, Karin
    ESS European Spallation Source, Sweden.
    Olsson, Thomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Industrins data leder till innovationer – om den delas: Debattartikel2021Inngår i: Ny teknik, artikkel-id 2021-04-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 258.
    Rylander, David
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Andersson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Andersson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    On the viability of autonomous follower truck convoys2023Inngår i: 15th ITS European Congress, Lisbon, Portugal, 22-24 May-2023, 2023, artikkel-id Paper ID 51Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous follower truck convoy (AFTC) is a concept that addresses the major shortage of truck drivers and increasing transport costs. The AFTC concept can be described as a vehicle convoy concept consisting of two or more vehicles where the first, lead vehicle has a human driver and where the following vehicles in the convoy are driverless. The argument is made that this technology is less technically complex than single autonomous vehicles and targets higher economic values compared to driver-assisted platooning functions. The contribution of this paper is a viability study of the AFTC concept. The conclusions from the study are that the concept viability depends on the continuous evolvement of three main factors. The emergence of autonomous capabilities, legal frameworks, and logistics actors’ interest in adapting current processes and infrastructure to meet the operational limitations of the concept.

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  • 259.
    Rylander, David
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Design and Evaluation of a System of Systems Architecture for the Optimization of a Cyclic Transport Operation2021Inngår i: 2021 16th International Conference of System of Systems Engineering (SoSE), 2021, s. 114-119Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyclic transport missions involving fleets of vehicles are common in quarry and mining operations and have shown to have a significant potential for energy optimization. Vehicles such as articulated haulers and dump trucks utilized in transport missions can be of different brand, type and have different performance characteristics such as engine power, traction and load. Vehicles may also be operated and owned by different organizations as they can be subcontracted to an operation. The transport operation characteristics include stochastic behaviors and activity times that fluctuate over time, and hence real-time control is required for efficient optimization. As the vehicles are mobile, wireless communication also needs to be available. As the constituent systems (vehicles) have managerial and operational independence, a system of systems approach is applicable. This paper provides an overview of the key characteristics and requirements for such a system and discusses the pros and cons of acknowledged and directed system architectures. Further, a case study is presented where an acknowledged system of systems is implemented in a real world mine and evaluated through a qualitative assessment of an operator assistive optimization system. Key findings include the drawbacks and characteristics of the architecture approaches. Further challenges and potential for automation and production control of a larger process system are described.

  • 260.
    Rylander, David
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    LEAN METHOD TO IDENTIFY IMPROVEMENTS FOR OPERATION CONTROL AT QUARRY SITES2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The operation of Quarry and Aggregate sites are similar to factory production, since it contains sequential production processes, tasks and activities to produce the output product. Compared to the plant though, the quarry processes are generally not synchronized and controlled towards the overall throughput of the site in real time. Some quarries control parts of the production but do generally not utilize real-time technologies for the whole site and all its activities. This fact indicates a general improvement potential in increased productivity at quarry sites, but also unsolved challenges for the same reason. The main contribution of this paper is the presentation of a Lean based method for how to describe the processes to identify control improvement potential within a site. The aim of the identified improvements is to increase overall site productivity by optimizing site, fleet and machine utilization towards the overall throughput, and minimizing operational expenses and inventories. Further the paper exemplifies the methodÂ’s usability with field studies at operational quarry plants successfully identifying and quantifying potential wastes and improvements. In addition the identified productivity improvements based on increased control and automation indicate challenges and needs in wireless communication and sensing technologies.

  • 261.
    Rylander, David
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Using Wireless Communication to Improve Road Safety and Quality of Service at Road Construction Work Sites (Poster)2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how wireless communication and vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) based technologies can be applied in relation to road construction work sites to improve safety and increase efficiency and sustainability. It discusses how to design the flow of data for a number of functions and how to operate the functions at the work site even at low VANET penetration rates. The applications described identify the potential in increased productivity at a road construction site and how increased visibility of site activities impact on traffic and improved road safety. It also highlights important implementation considerations and the need of availability and utilization of open standards for this purpose.

  • 262.
    Rylander, David
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Wallin, Peter
    Volvo, Sweden.
    Energy Savings by Wireless Control of Speed, Scheduling and Travel Times for Hauling Operation2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A Quarry and Aggregate production site consist of sequential production processes and activities to process and produce the output products. Compared to a fixed manufacturing plant, the quarry processes involve mobile machines such as wheel loaders, trucks and articulated haulers and a highly dynamic road infrastructure. Today, the mobile machines are generally not synchronized or controlled towards the overall throughput of the site in real time. This indicates a general improvement potential in increased productivity at quarry sites, but also unsolved challenges for the same reason. Assuming a wireless control system that controls speed and throughput of the different processes and activities, there would be a fuel reduction potential in controlling the mobile machines. This optimization requires models of machine fuel consumption for different applications, velocities and travel times. The main contribution of this paper is the presentation of fuel measurements based on different speeds, site application characteristics and travel times for hauling operation. The fuel measures reveal important aspects regarding how different velocities impact fuel consumption. The results of fuel measurements show a potential in fuel savings of up to 42% and a typical improvement of 20-30% depending on machine speeds, travel times, application and site characteristics. Based on this, some of the applications and challenges in wirelessly controlling machines are discussed.

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  • 263.
    Röding, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tomaszewski, Piotr
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Yu, Shun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Rönnols, Jerk
    Machine learning-accelerated small-angle X-ray scattering analysis of disordered two- and three-phase materials2022Inngår i: Frontiers in Materials, ISSN 2296-8016, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 956839Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is a useful technique for nanoscale structural characterization of materials. In SAXS, structural and spatial information is indirectly obtained from the scattering intensity in the spectral domain, known as the reciprocal space. Therefore, characterizing the structure requires solving the inverse problem of finding a plausible structure model that corresponds to the measured scattering intensity. Both the choice of structure model and the computational workload of parameter estimation are bottlenecks in this process. In this work, we develop a framework for analysis of SAXS data from disordered materials. The materials are modeled using Gaussian Random Fields (GRFs). We study the case of two phases, pore and solid, and three phases, where a third phase is added at the interface between the two other phases. Further, we develop very fast GPU-accelerated, Fourier transform-based numerical methods for both structure generation and SAXS simulation. We demonstrate that length scales and volume fractions can be predicted with good accuracy using our machine learning-based framework. The parameter prediction executes virtually instantaneously and hence the computational burden of conventional model fitting can be avoided. Copyright © 2022 Röding, Tomaszewski, Yu, Borg and Rönnols.

  • 264.
    Sager, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Alfredsson, Hampus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Esbjörnsson, Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Holmberg, Per-Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Internationell forskning och finansiering för elflyg: Omvärldssanalys2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    De stora utvecklingsströmmarna inom flyg och luftfarten framgent visar på en fortsatt hållbar utveckling där alternativa drivmedel idag är i ett relativt tidigt stadie, men kommer att fortsätta växa. Elektrifieringen av flyget blir en viktig del i den hållbara omställningen och kommer på en längre tidshorisont, bortom 10 år, sannolikt vara en viktig del av inrikesflyget i Sverige. Denna sammanställning ger en överblick över satsningar från forskningsfinansiärer, pågående och avslutade forsknings- och utvecklingsprojekt, samt framåtblickande forskningsagendor, strategier och färdplaner. Rapportens fokus ligger på EU, samt nationella satsningar i Tyskland, Frankrike, Storbritannien och USA. Beteckningen elflyg har inom ramen för detta uppdrag definierats som antingen (i) elmotordrivet flyg med batterier som primär energibärare, eller (ii) elmotordrivet flyg med vätgas och bränsleceller som primär energibärare. Vad gäller satsningar från forskningsfinansiärer ser vi tydliga skillnader mellan länderna/områdena kring deras upplägg och hur de adresserar elflygsområdet. Genomgången och analysen som i detta arbete gjorts av europeiska och nationella forskningsprogram för EU, Frankrike, Storbritannien, Tyskland och USA visar på flera forskningsinitiativ riktade mot just elektrifiering av luftfart, särskilt inom EU, Storbritannien, Tyskland och USA. Utöver elflygsatsningar finns många satsningar på hållbar luftfart, där elflyg kan ses som en delmängd men där exempelvis hållbara flygbränslen, vätgasförbränning, hybridlösningar, samt andra operationella och ekonomiska åtgärder också är väsentliga inriktningar. I de forskningsagendor, strategier och färdplaner som identifierats inom ramen för uppdraget nämns elflyg på samma sätt oftast som en alternativ lösning för flygets omställning till ökad hållbarhet. Det inkluderas ofta under mer generella rubriker för innovativa, revolutionerande luftfarkoster och disruptiva teknologier, eller klumpas ihop under elektrifiering. I ett försök att syntetisera och tydliggöra framtida behov inom specifika forskningsdomäner för elflyg har vi därför kategoriserat uttryckta forskningsbehov från agendor, strategier och färdplaner. Dessa kategorier beskrivs tydligare i rapporten under rubrik 5 Utpekade framtida forskning- och utvecklingsbehov för elflyg. Vidare, genom att analysera antalet referenser till respektive kategori har vi på detta sätt erhållit ett viktat fokus för varje forskningsdomän (vilket dock inte behöver betyda att framtida forskningsanslag motsvarar dessa viktningar, men bör åtminstone säga något om förväntad tonvikt för respektive domän i framtida forskning). Om dessa viktningar representerar framtida satsningar inom forskningen i dessa regioner kommer följande områden stå i fokus: - Farkostutveckling (exempelvis nya designkoncept och flygplanskonfigurationer, lättviktsmaterial, elektriska drivlinor, kraftfulla och effektiva komponenter) - Infrastruktur (exempelvis standardiserad, tillförlitlig och säker infrastruktur för såväl laddning av batterielektriska flygplan som tillförsel av vätgas, lokal energiproduktion och lagring) - Vätgas/bränslecellsteknik (exempelvis lagring, distribution och användning av kryogen vätgas (LH2) ombord, lätta och isolerade vätgastankar, och övervakningssystem) - Batteriteknik (exempelvis ökad energi- och effekttäthet/densitet, nya kraftfullare batteritekniker och kemi, samt standardisering av batterimoduler för flyg) Det är stora likheter mellan de satsningar som redan gjorts och fokus i de färdplaner och forskningsagendor som publicerats. Detta visar att störst fokus fortsatt ligger på farkost och teknik, men mindre på möjliggörare för implementering av elektrisk luftfart. Det är naturligt att kapitalintensiv teknik med långa utvecklingscykler behöver stöd längre in i omställningsprocessen, men det är samtidigt viktigt att hinder och trösklar för denna omställning inte kvarstår när tekniken är redo för marknadsintroduktion. Det finns en hel del regionala skillnader, dels hur forskningsprogrammen är inriktade, dels vad gäller tillgängligheten av programbeskrivningar. Med reservation för att all typ av forskningsfinansiering inte inkluderas i denna analys då information kan varit mindre tillgänglig, återfinns ändå skillnader i inriktning på dessa. Storbritannien har flera program riktade mot elektrifiering (och automation) inom flygsektorn, även på högre spannet i TRL-skalan. Frankrike har däremot sin forskningsfinansiering inbäddat i generiska forskningsprogram, och där exempelvis inriktning på materialforskning för lätta farkoster. I Tyskland drivs ett stort luftfartsforskningsprogram av DLR, men inte dedikerat till just elflyg, och med en stor del av spannet på TRL-skalan i fokus. Inom Horizon Europe visar en analys av de utlysningar som fortfarande är öppna riktat mot området, att dessa till stor del är så kallade Research and Innovation Actions (RIA) och därmed högre upp på TRL-skalan. För en mer detaljerad förståelse av befintliga satsningar har vi inom detta arbete dessutom identifierat ett 60-tal större projekt inom elflyg som bedrivits under den senaste 5-årsperioden med en total projektomslutning på närmare 260 miljoner Euro.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 265.
    Sashiko, Muto
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Rudmark, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Östling, Alina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    En jämförande analys av Mobility Data Specification och alternativa standarder - lärdomar för det svenska transportsystemet2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative analysis of the Mobility Data Specification and alternative standards - lessons learned for the Swedish transport system

    Previous research results show that Mobility Data Specification (MDS) has been developed and widely spread in a relatively short time, and that the use of MDS has helped cities implement regulatory issues relating to e-scooters and also created business opportunities for external software developers (Rudmark et al., 2023). The main purpose of this report is to, through comparative analysis, further explore and evaluate which success factors can explain OMF/MDS's quick results and to make recommendations for the Swedish transport system based on the analysis. Special consideration is also given to how the EU's delegated acts relate to the various standards. The report builds further on results from previous research within the project (Rudmark, 2022a, 2022b; Rudmark et al., 2023). In addition, a number of supplementary interviews have been conducted with individuals with experience from NeTEx, MDS and NOPTIS.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 266.
    Scharinger, Boris
    et al.
    Siemens Digital Industries, Germnay.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Lund University, Sweden.
    Vogelsang, Andreas
    University of Cologne, Germany.
    Olsson, Thomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Can RE Help Better Prepare Industrial AI for Commercial Scale?2022Inngår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 39, nr 6, s. 8-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This issue marks the start of my term as department editor for the “Requirements” column. I very much look forward to exploring contemporary aspects of requirements and requirements engineering (RE) in the coming years! As an institute researcher with RISE, I primarily work in strictly regulated domains, in which requirements are cornerstones in the development activities. Please check my introduction in the September/October 2022 issue of IEEE Software for more about my background. In this issue—featuring a theme that perfectly matches my current research interests—we discuss RE4AI from the perspective of Siemens Digital Industries. Referring to this as industrial artifical intelligence (AI), we share insights from our numerous chats about this topic in the last two years, including formal interviews with key stakeholders. In this column, we argue that the business side of AI has been underexplored—and that RE can help us forward.

  • 267.
    Schnurr, Maria
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Duell, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Faxer, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Västerdal, Mårten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Branschöverskridande systemdesign: Hållbar mobilitet för fastigheter och kvarter2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Städer växer och förtätas, våra mobilitetsmönster förändras med teknologin som möjliggörare – men först och främst har personer ett behov av att ”lösa” mobilitet i vardagen utan att tänka för mycket på den. Det måste vara ”lätt att göra rätt” från början, och början och slutet av många resor är just fastigheter, antingen bostäder eller olika sorters verksamheter. Vilka mobilitetslösningar de erbjuder och möjliggör är därför avgörande för hur vi rör oss. Våra nuvarande planeringsnormer gynnar en bilburen mobilitet i och med att det finns regler om parkering per bostad resp. arbetsplats, så kallat parkeringstal (se plan- och bygglagen, förkortad PBL). På sistone har det dock varit ett flertal fastighetsaktörer och kommuner som har börjat experimentera med alternativ till parkeringen. Som så ofta inom begynnande innovationsområden saknas det kunskap och erfarenhet hos aktörerna, samt att nya samarbeten måste utvecklas och fördjupas. Under 2020 fick en grupp forskare på RISE möjlighet att undersöka a) hur en samarbetsprocess mellan två hittills oberoende aktörer eller branscher (”gränsland”) kan se ut och b) vilka som är de främsta utmaningar i det nya gränslandet mellan mobilitet och fastigheter, som exempel för ett gränsland som håller på att växa fram – bland flera andra som uppstår i omställningens spår. Till vår hjälp har vi haft flera experter som frikostigt delade med sig av kunskap och insikter, samt kollegor som har ett ben antingen i samhällsbyggnads- eller mobilitetsforskningen. I den här rapporten föreslår vi en process för samarbete mellan två branscher/ sektorer; och vi har sammanställt våra resultat och gör en bedömning av i vilken riktning mobilitet i fastigheter kommer ta vägen samt vilka förutsättningar som behöver förändras så för att bidra till att det blir just lätt att göra rätt, och därmed öka chanserna att lyckas med klimatomställningen i våra städer och samhällen.

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  • 268.
    Schnurr, Maria
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Faxer, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Skoglund, Tor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Mobility services at residence and district level: Experiences from Gothenburg/Sweden2023Inngår i: Transportation Research Procedia, E-ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 72, s. 2840-2847Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One way to contribute to more sustainable travel patterns is involving real estate actors who assume responsibility for mobility services. This paper presents results of two projects that developed or tested MaaS-like mobility solutions for residential or mixed-use areas in Gothenburg (Sweden): A field trial of a mobility broker in a housing unit in a project called (1) DenCity, and a concept study for a mobility system for multiple real-estate actors within a district in the (2) Gamlestaden concept study. The evaluation of (1) adds insights to end-users’ experiences of MaaS. It also showed that expanding mobility solutions to cover multiple housing and facility providers in a district could remedy some of the shortcomings of MaaS for residential units. This would require a different organizational setup since a natural procurer is missing, an insight the concept study (2) was based on.

  • 269.
    Selander, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; VTI, Sweden.
    Strand, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Almberg, Maria
    Mobilitetscenter, Sweden.
    Lidestam, B
    VTI, Sweden.
    Ready for a Learner's Permit? Clinical Neuropsychological Off-road Tests and Driving Behaviors in a Simulator among Adolescents with ADHD and ASD.2021Inngår i: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 256-265Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A simulator driving test (SDT) and two neuropsychological tests, the Useful Field of View (UFOV) test and the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) were evaluated with regard to validity for fitness to drive on 51 young clients diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 33 of whom also had autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and 38 adolescents without a neurodevelopmental diagnosis. The results show generally much greater variability and significantly poorer performance in the SDT and the TOVA for clients with ADHD/ASD compared with the control group. The SDT results were strongly intratest correlated, but had no interest correlation with either the UFOV test or the TOVA. The greater variability among clients with ADHD/ASD suggests greater effort and susceptibility to motivational issues and decline in sustained attention over several tests. In conclusion, the SDT is sensitive and has good face validity, and the TOVA is sensitive to neuropsychological aspects of safe driving. The SDT and the TOVA thus complement each other, and discrepancy between test scores calls for special consideration.

  • 270.
    Smith, Göran
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Chapter 9: Smart mobility experimentation: Reflecting on a public transport authority’s convoluted journey with Mobility-as-a-Service2022Inngår i: Experimentation for sustainable transport?: Risks, strengths, and governance implications / [ed] Kelsey Oldbury, Karolina Isaksson, Greg Marsden, Boxholm: Linnefors förlag , 2022, s. 185-201Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) is an umbrella term for services that enable users to plan, book, and pay for multiple types of mobility services through a joint digital channel (Smith 2020). From late 2013 to early 2014, what is often referred to as theworld’s first MaaS pilot took place in Gothenburg, a city located in Västra Götaland, Sweden. The outcome was promising; the pilot participants appreciated the service and substituted private car use for shared and active mobility during the pilot period. Inspired by these results, the regional public transport authority (PTA) for Västra Götaland1 has since performed a suite of ex- periments to further explore the MaaS concept and to facilitate its implementation. Still, seven years later, MaaS is not available in Västra Götaland, apart from via one commercial service that integrates public transport with parking, and in a few small- scale pilots.

    In this chapter, I briefly describe the PTA’s journey in relation to MaaS as I see it, and, with the benefit of hindsight, reflect on what I believe has hindered greater progress. The reason that I judge that I have something to say about this is that between 2016 and 2020 I was employed as an industrial doctoral stu- dent at the PTA. In this dual role as civil servant and aspiringresearcher, I was specifically assigned to oversee and analyse the PTA’s work on MaaS and to revise their MaaS strategy based on my insights. As I argued in my doctoral thesis from 2020, this exploratory and participatory research approach gave me a unique opportunity to acquire an empirically grounded un- derstanding of the dynamics of MaaS developments. Still, now that some time has passed and I no longer must navigate the constraints associated with my dual role at the PTA (see Smith 2017), this chapter arguably gives me an opportunity to step back and reflect more broadly on my experiences.

    Given the ground-breaking but convoluted nature of the PTA’s journey with MaaS, I believe that it can be an informa- tive case for other public authorities that set out to experiment with smart mobility concepts such as MaaS. Hence, inspired by the literature on projectification and experimentation, I end the chapter by proposing what there might be to learn for public authorities. I considered the two selected strands of literature to offer a valuable frame of reference for this analysis since the former explains how the prevailing project logic within the public sector in Western countries shapes expectations on ex- periments, and the latter highlights the need to move beyond a narrow focus on scaling the outcome of isolated experiments. Researchers Torrens and von Wirth (2021) have suggested that, taken together, the two strands of literature instead propose a much wider view of how experiments can be organised and through which mechanisms they can stimulate societal transformations. This perspective helped me critically reflect on the PTA’s strategic decisions in relation to MaaS.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 271.
    Smith, Göran
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Kombinerad mobilitet: En del av det nya normala efter pandemin?2021Inngår i: Omstart för kollektivtrafiken: Idéer för enhållbar framtid / [ed] Hanna Holm och Andrea Kollman, Lund: K2 Nationellt kunskapscentrum om kollektivtrafik , 2021, s. 85-95Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den pågående coronakrisen har ställt kollektivtrafikbranschen inför en tuff utmaning. Resandet har minskat drastiskt och de som kan väljer allt oftare cykeln, bilen eller elsparkcykeln framför bussar och tåg när de väl reser. Samtidigt är den ekonomiska situationen pressad, inte minst för de regionala kollektivtrafikmyndigheterna.

    Det finns de som argumenterar för att resandetappet och den vanskliga ekonomiska situationen kräver att strategiska men osäkra utvecklingsinsatser, så som utvecklingen av kombinerad mobilitet, sätts på paus. I syfte att möjliggöra hållbara resvanor bör varenda skattekrona som kan skakas fram läggas på att vinna tillbaka resenärerna till kollektivtrafiken, det vill säga på att upprätthålla ett attraktivt och tryggt utbud av linjelagd kollektivtrafik. Även om jag till fullo sympatiserar med investeringar i den linjelagda kollektivtrafiken, argumenterar jag i den här texten för en omvänd logik mot den ovan. Jag menar att pandemins effekter på resenärernas behov betingar att den offentliga sektorn bör växla upp sin roll i att utöka utbudet av nya typer av mobilitetstjänster i och utanför städerna, samt i att knyta dessa närmare kollektivtrafiken.

  • 272.
    Smith, Göran
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    KomILand: Från pilot till verklighet2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utifrån ett kollektivtrafikperspektiv karakteriseras landsbygden av låga reseunderlag, långa distanser och utspridda målpunkter. Det gör det svårt att erbjuda en servicenivå som både är tillfredställande för resenärerna och ekonomiskt rimligt för skattebetalarna. Till följd av detta upplevs tillgängligheten för de landsbygdsbor som inte äger bil ofta som låg; den allmänna uppfattningen är att du måste äga en bil om du ska bo på landet. En metod för att öka tillgängligheten i landsbygder är att komplettera kollektivtrafiken med andra typer av mobilitetstjänster, så som samåkning, bilpool eller delade cykelkärror. I projektet kombinerad mobilitet i landsbygder (KomILand) testas en sådan lösning i tre småorter i Skaraborg under 2020 – 2021. Förutsatt att utfallet av testet är lovande är ambitionen att bygga vidare på projektets erfarenheter och resultat för att på sikt kunna skala upp lösningen till fler liknande orter i Västra Götaland. I syfte att bereda väg för den processen presenterar detta dokument ett förslag för det första steget på vägen från ett tidsbegränsat och forskningsfinansierat försök som engagerar en mindre skara invånare till en pålitlig tjänst som erbjuds på ett rättvist och ekonomiskt hållbart sätt i Västra Götaland. 

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  • 273.
    Smith, Göran
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Mobility as a Service and Public Transport2021Inngår i: The Routledge Handbook of Public Transport / [ed] Corinne Mulley, John Nelson, Stephen Ison, Routledge, 2021, 1, s. 33-45Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is a digital concept that centres on integrating traditional public transport offerings with other types of mobility services such as carsharing and ridesourcing. In recent years, MaaS has become a much discussed topic within the public transport industry since proponents of the concept argue that its rise will disrupt the current role of public transport authorities and increase the attractiveness of public transport. This chapter aims to provide an overview of what MaaS is and what its prospective diffusion could imply for public transport authorities and public transport systems. To do so, a definition of MaaS is first introduced, followed by a brief review of expectations on how MaaS could influence traditional public transport. A framework that describes different pathways to governing MaaS developments is introduced next, and is subsequently used to analyse and discuss how public transport authorities in Finland, Sweden, and Norway have approached MaaS thus far. The chapter ends with a few recommendations on how governments can support and shape MaaS developments, based on the experience to date.

  • 274.
    Smith, Göran
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Omdefinierad roll för kollektivtrafiken: En kunskapsöversikt2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur kan kollektivtrafiken omdefiniera sin roll för att bli bättre på att dra nytta av möjligheterna med andra hållbara trafikslag, kombinerat resande och integrerade mobilitetstjänster? Den frågan ställer K2 Nationellt kunskapscentrum för kollektivtrafik till Rådslaget för hållbar omstart – ett initiativ för förnyelse av kollektivtrafik som uppkommit i kölvattnet av coronapandemin. I syfte att skapa en gemensam utgångspunkt för den diskussionen ämnar den här texten att i korthet ge en överblick över den samhällsorganiserade kollektivtrafiken och dess roll i Sverige idag samt hur rollens utveckling för närvarande diskuteras. Sammanställningen gör inga anspråk på att vara allomfattande och representerar inte nödvändigtvis vare sig K2s eller RISE position i frågan.

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  • 275.
    Smith, Göran
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. University of Sydney, Australia.
    Hensher, David
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Ho, Chinh
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Balbontin, Camila
    University of Sydney, Australia; Pontifcia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile; Instituto Sistemas Complejos de Ingeniería, Chile.
    Mobility-as-a-Service users: insights from a trial in Sydney2023Inngår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 15, artikkel-id 40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The positive effects that Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) is envisioned to have on transport can only be reaped if people are using MaaS. Yet, the understanding of the user perspective on MaaS is incomplete and primarily based on experiments with non-users. To address this shortcoming, this paper reports user experiences from a trial of a high-level MaaS service in Sydney, Australia. Based on questionnaires and interviews, it analyses who participated in the trial and why, and whether the trial experience satisfied their motives. The contribution to the literature on MaaS is three-fold. Firstly, most of the people that participated in the trial were frequent users of both public transport and private cars. This supports the notion that multi-modal travellers are likely early adopters of MaaS and contradicts the fear that MaaS does not appeal to private car users. Secondly, a desire to contribute to innovation and curiosity about MaaS were the main motives for signing up for the trial, which highlights the important role an inviting setting for experimentation, such as a trial, can play in stimulating MaaS adoption. Thirdly, many participants struggled with making the trialled service work for them and on average they seemed to value the support and feedback functions higher than other service features. This underscores the novelty of MaaS, compared to existing service models, and reiterates the notion that more than an app and a few subscription plans is needed to make MaaS useful for users.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Smith et al 2023
  • 276.
    Smith, Göran
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. University of Sydney Business School, Australia.
    Ho, Chinh
    University of Sydney Business School, Australia.
    Workshop 5 report: New service models - Governing emerging mobility services2024Inngår i: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 103, artikkel-id 101398Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of new service models for passenger transport is arguably transforming the mobility landscape. Concurrently, the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted mobility practices and questioned traditional public transport models. Given the negative externalities of transport, and the key role of shared mobility in reducing these, it is therefore critical to work out what governments can do to ensure that the new service models contribute to making mobility service systems more attractive to users as well as more energy-, space- and cost-efficient. Workshop 5 of the 17th International Conference on Competition and Ownership in Land Passenger Transport set out to address these issues. It included thirteen papers that reported evidence about demand-responsive transport (DRT), ridesourcing, ridesharing, and Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) as well as about innovations within traditional public transport, taxi, and paratransit. The workshop discussed what roles governments have adopted, what types of regulations and policies they have been using, and what is known about the impacts of these governance approaches. Drawing on this discussion, the workshop developed a set of policy recommendations designed to cater for democratic governance processes with transformative impacts as well as a list of potential avenues for further research on the governance of emerging mobility services.

  • 277.
    Smith, Göran
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Region Västra Götaland, Sweden; K2 The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport, Lund, Sweden; University of Sydney, Australia.
    Sochor, Jana
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Karlsson, I C MariAnne
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Adopting Mobility-as-a-Service: An empirical analysis of end-users’ experiences2022Inngår i: Travel Behaviour & Society, ISSN 2214-367X, E-ISSN 2214-3688, Vol. 28, s. 237-248Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite widespread interest, empirical research on how end-users perceive and use Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) is scarce. To address this knowledge gap, this article analyzes the end-user process of adopting a MaaS service entitled EC2B, which was launched in Gothenburg, Sweden, in the spring of 2019. The contribution to the MaaS literature is three-fold. Firstly, the article provides insight into potential end-users by describing the characteristics and motives of the studied group of adopters. Secondly, it improves the understanding of the potential effects of MaaS by outlining how the EC2B service was used and how it influenced travel behavior. Thirdly, the article informs strategies for facilitating MaaS adoption by outlining what types of drivers and barriers the end-users faced during different stages of the adoption process. The reported findings underscore previous assertions that MaaS is much more than just an app and a subscription plan and highlight a mutually reinforcing relationship between the introduction of MaaS and the implementation of policies aimed at reducing car use.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 278.
    Smith, Göran
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. University of Sydney, Australia.
    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden; K2 Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport, Sweden .
    Public-private MaaS: Unchallenged assumptions and issues of conflict in Sweden2023Inngår i: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 99, artikkel-id 101297Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite an increase in Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) initiatives that aim to pave the way for both public and private MaaS Operators, such MaaS models have received limited scholarly attention. Uncertainties therefore remain in terms of how public-private MaaS can be realized and governed. This paper addresses this problem through an exploratory case study of an attempt to reform the business ecosystem for mobility services in Sweden, which is conceptualized as a move towards public-private MaaS. Inspired by the What-is-the-Problem-Represented-to-Be approach, the paper analyzes what problem representations and assumptions underpin the proposed reform and outlines issues of conflict across the involved actors. Drawing on these findings, the paper highlights disagreements on problems, centralization, and responsibilities as challenges to public-private MaaS developments and proposes that an inclusive and pragmatic governance strategy is key for effective and democratic governance of MaaS. Additionally, three avenues for future research are identified: development of analytical tools that better represent the complexity of MaaS governance choices, studies of how the prevailing narrative around MaaS influences developments, and analyses of governance strategies’ effectiveness in relation to political objectives for MaaS developments.

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  • 279.
    Sobiech, Cilli
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Andersson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Polgren, Lars ()
    Thorn, Johanna ()
    Möjligheter och hinder för användning av kameror i busstrafik2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Possibilities and obstacles for the use of cameras in bus traffic The purpose of this part of the Drive Sweden Policy Lab (DSPL) 2021/22 is to explore opportunities and challenges regarding camera surveillance to increase traffic safety and usage of data for a more sustainable, efficient and connected society. Overall aim of DSPL is to explore how technology and service development relate to the existing policies for future mobility services, to show the need for changes in regulations as well as to propose solutions. The project is partly financed by Sweden´s innovation agency Vinnova, through its strategic innovation program Drive Sweden, and partly by the project parties. Key questions in this part of the project are how to use data from cameras and other sensors collected by public transport, in particular which use cases can be applied and demonstrated already now and which areas have further potential? How do we manage risks to personal integrity and which partners need to be involved as well as how need policies and regulations be adapted to continue the technological development so that the use cases can become reality in the future? Within the framework of the subproject, use cases for outward-facing front cameras in buses and a permanently mounted traffic camera in Barkarby/Järfälla municipality are identified and demonstrated. Information from cameras and other sensors could be used for monitoring the traffic environment to support traffic management in increasing accessibility of public transport and safety today and for future autonomous operations. In workshops and interviews with the project we map opportunities and obstacles that exist for the use of cameras and other sensors in bus traffic. In summary, our subproject shows that existing legislation allows cameras within a narrow area of use for public transport, namely the situation when a private actor uses a camera where only aggregated anonymised data leaves the camera. To apply this on a larger scale, technology is not an obstacle to progress. Yet, what we need is to improve public acceptance for the technology, in particular a better understanding of the possibilities of new cameras and its ability to keep personal integrity intact, to establish business models and actor collaborations for usage of the data, as well as a legislation that opens up for more use cases and is faster when it comes to permission processes.

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  • 280.
    Sobiech, Cilli
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Andersson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Enqvist, Björn
    Combitech AB, Sweden.
    Independent assessment in trials with automated vehicles – Drive Sweden Policy Lab Case 62024Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

     The purpose of case 6 of the Drive Sweden Policy Lab 2023-25 is to examine the scope of an independent assessment in trials with automated road vehicles. The Swedish Transport Agency's regulations and general advice on permission to conduct trials with automated vehicles have recently been amended by adding a general advice that the applicant´s risk assessment should in certain cases be supplemented with a statement from an independent assessor regarding traffic safety (TSFS 2021:4, last amended by TSFS 2022:82). The regulation enables trials with automated vehicles in Sweden since 2017 and clarifies the circumstances under which it is reasonable safe to conduct trials with such vehicles. In the beginning of 2023, a policy lab was initiated with Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, and Austrian actors, which acts as a platform for collaborative policy development by relevant actors facing a common policy related challenge. Vehicle manufacturers, transport providers and operators, authorities, potential assessors, and applied research examine together the scope of independent assessments for trials with automated vehicles. The policy lab generates guidelines for independent assessments by clarifying and exemplifying the application and scope of such assessments in trials with automated vehicles. The policy lab considers knowledge and previous experiences from other transport sectors, from various countries with independent assessment already in place and from relevant EU and UNECE regulations, such as the requirements of independent assessment for the international market e.g., for a type-approval in the EU (ADS compliance assessment) or the proposed process for audits from the working group Validation Methods for Automated Driving as part of WP29. Drive Sweden Policy Lab case 6 is partly financed by Sweden´s innovation agency Vinnova, through its strategic innovation program Drive Sweden, and partly by the project parties.

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  • 281.
    Sobiech, Cilli
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Berglund, Pia
    Einride, Sweden.
    Bergman, Mats
    Telia, Sweden.
    Johansson, Viktor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Nylander, Tomas
    Ericsson, Sweden.
    Skoglund, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektrifiering och pålitlighet.
    Strandberg, Ted
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektrifiering och pålitlighet.
    Safety Case for Autonomous Trucks (SCAT)2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    To aim for market introduction and sustainability of automated vehicles requires technology innovation towards safe products and policy innovation to enable testing on open roads and type approvals. Further, it needs an enabling infrastructure to provide reliable connectivity, business models and increased public acceptance of this new technology. The project SCAT – Safety Case for Autonomous Trucks contributed to this transmission by looking at new policy strategies and system tests to prove how to handle vehicles when introducing this new technology safely. Main objective of the project was to investigate more systematically – from a legal and technical perspective – how to safely operate remote controlled vehicles in mixed traffic and with higher velocity. A safety case for the selected traffic environment has been described and explorative tests have been performed at the AstaZero test site in Sweden. This allowed us to investigate limiting parameters and stress testing the system's boundaries under real conditions with higher velocity – before the actual demo will be run. With regards to policy, we addressed which obligations drivers and road users have according to today's regulations and which of those may need to be handled through technological development, but also through adaptation of legislation in terms of new roles, tasks, and liability when a vehicle is driven automatically. We looked also at if and how these issues are treated in national and international legislation, in Sweden, France and the USA. What we learned from exploring the safety case contributes to practical improvement, theory building and recommendations on how to safely operate the vehicles. Together the partners have developed an approach to advanced argumentation for safety. In our approach, we combined policy lab methodology and an investigation of the technical safety aspects that helped to identify gaps and tests for improved safety. The approach provides step-by-step guidance before future trials. The project was running from October 2020 until September 2022. The consortium consisted of the partners AstaZero, Einride, Ericsson, RISE (coordinator), Telia as well as reference partners in France and the USA.

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  • 282.
    Sobiech, Cilli
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Berglund, Pia
    Einride AB, Sweden.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Skoglund, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektrifiering och pålitlighet.
    An approach to link technical safety and policy aspects for system innovation in transport -The case of automated trucks2023Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an approach to better link legal and technical perspectives when investigating how to safely operate remote assisted vehicles in mixed traffic and higher velocities. This approach is applied to prepare for automated trucks in Gothenburg, Sweden. We argue that the challenges we see for the market introduction and sustainability of such vehicles require innovation from a system perspective. Such system innovation includes different dimensions: technology/products, policy/regulations, infrastructure, behavior/values as well as business models, whereas we focus mainly on the first two perspectives here. The proposed innovations support cross border integration for the more comprehensive market introduction of automated goods transport; the approach further includes the legal/policy framework in Sweden, France and the US.

  • 283.
    Sobiech, Cilli
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Schnurr, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Mobility hubs as a prerequisite for intermodality and sustainable transport solutions2020Inngår i: Proceedings of TRA2020 - 8th Transport Research Arena: Rethinking transport - towards clean and inclusive mobility / [ed] Toni Lusikka, Helsinki: Traficom Research Report 7/2020 , 2020Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility hubs – intermodal transport stations – can meet current and future mobility demands and support the transition to a sustainable, low carbon transport system, based on a variety of mode choices. But despite being a key to intermodal travel, they have not developed as they could. A mobility hub framework proposed in this paper can help decision makers finding a solution that both meets user needs and increases the overall efficiency of transport systems. Together with two Swedish municipalities, a Swedish gas station operator and architect-engineers, exemplary sites were studied where mobility hubs could be located, and concepts were developed in order to prepare municipalities for the implementation of a mobility hub. Future adaptivity was taken into consideration for the concept development, in order to outline scalability and adaptivity to future needs and technologies reducing the risks for premature obsolescence.

  • 284.
    Socha, Kasper
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Lund University, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Jens
    Semcon AB, Sweden.
    SMIRK: A machine learning-based pedestrian automatic emergency braking system with a complete safety case2022Inngår i: Software Impacts, ISSN 2665-9638, Vol. 13, artikkel-id 100352Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    SMIRK is a pedestrian automatic emergency braking system that facilitates research on safety-critical systems embedding machine learning components. As a fully transparent driver-assistance system, SMIRK can support future research on trustworthy AI systems, e.g., verification & validation, requirements engineering, and testing. SMIRK is implemented for the simulator ESI Pro-SiVIC with core components including a radar sensor, a mono camera, a YOLOv5 model, and an anomaly detector. ISO/PAS 21448 SOTIF guided the development, and we present a complete safety case for a restricted ODD using the AMLAS methodology. Finally, all training data used to train the perception system is publicly available. © 2022 The Authors

  • 285.
    Sprei, Frances
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kazemzadeh, Khashayar
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Faxer, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Einarson Lindvall, Elin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Rosell, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Melnyk, Kateryna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Habibi, Shiva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Wedlin, Johan
    Tånggudden, Sweden.
    Engdahl, Henrik
    Nimling, Sweden.
    How can e-scooter better contribute to a sustainable transport system?2023Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The eSPARK project examines the sustainability profile of the popular shared e-scooters through policy analysis, usage data analysis, surveys, and life cycle assessment. Policies and attempts to regulate e-scooters in Swedish and European cities are studied and discussed with stakeholders. The LCA-results suggest that factors such as how e-scooters are collected and distributed, and the total ridden kilometers have significant impact on their environmental impact. The project also suggests different methods that can support cities to predict the geographical area of the e-scooters and offers insights about how e-scooters are used in the cities. Usage data and the surveys show that they are used by active people in areas with a lot of activities, especially restaurants and clubs. Users are likely to have a driving license, to frequently use a car but also to have a monthly pass for public transport. Thus, escooters have a potential to mitigate congestion on roads and public transport but may lead to more traffic on bike infrastructure instead.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 286.
    Stancek, Martin
    et al.
    Gratex International a.s., Slovakia.
    Polasek, Ivan
    Gratex International a.s., Slovakia; Comenius University, Slovakia.
    Zalabai, Tibor
    Gratex International a.s., Slovakia.
    Vincur, Juraj
    Comenius University, Slovakia.
    Jolak, Rodi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Chaudron, Michel
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Collaborative software design and modeling in virtual reality2024Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 166, artikkel-id 107369Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software engineering is becoming more and more distributed. Developers and other stakeholders are often located in different locations, departments, and countries and operating within different time zones. Most online software design and modeling tools are not adequate for distributed collaboration since they do not support awareness and lack features for effective communication. Objective: The aim of our research is to support distributed software design activities in Virtual Reality (VR). Method: Using design science research methodology, we design and evaluate a tool for collaborative design in VR. We evaluate the collaboration efficiency and recall of design information when using the VR software design environment compared to a non-VR software design environment. Moreover, we collect the perceptions and preferences of users to explore the opportunities and challenges that were incurred by using the VR software design environment. Results: We find that there is no significant difference in the efficiency and recall of design information when using the VR compared to the non-VR environment. Furthermore, we find that developers are more satisfied with collaboration in VR. Conclusion: The results of our research and similar studies show that working in VR is not yet faster or more efficient than working on standard desktops. It is very important to improve the interface in VR (gestures with haptics, keyboard and voice input), as confirmed by the difference in results between the first and second evaluation. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 287.
    Sternberg, Henrik S.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Magnus
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Decentralized intelligence in freight transport: A critical review2014Inngår i: Computers in industry (Print), ISSN 0166-3615, E-ISSN 1872-6194, Vol. 65, nr 2, s. 306-313Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a research outlook on the concept of decentralized freight intelligence, i.e. autonomous freight making localized routing decisions. A review of research literature on decentralized intelligence in freight transport serves as the foundation of the analysis. The analysis reveals a scarcity of scientific evidence to suggest a successful introduction of decentralized freight intelligence. Among numerous conceptual findings, the analysis reveals a dearth of research on the clear and present challenges of introducing and adopting decentralized freight concepts in contemporary multi organizational open freight systems. For practitioners this paper provides useful input on future ICT development in the transport field. In particular, due to the lack of guidance on adoption of decentralized freight, a focus on non-networked benefits of information technology is to be recommended. Given the large number of projects, papers and various initiatives related to decentralized freight intelligence, this paper, to the authors' best knowledge, provides a novel technology adoption perspective on decentralized freight intelligence research.

  • 288.
    Svanström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish Armed Forces, Sweden.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    A dataset for multi-sensor drone detection2021Inngår i: Data in Brief, E-ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 39, artikkel-id 107521Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of small and remotely controlled unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), referred to as drones, has increased dramatically in recent years, both for professional and recreative purposes. This goes in parallel with (intentional or unintentional) misuse episodes, with an evident threat to the safety of people or facilities [1]. As a result, the detection of UAV has also emerged as a research topic [2]. Most of the existing studies on drone detection fail to specify the type of acquisition device, the drone type, the detection range, or the employed dataset. The lack of proper UAV detection studies employing thermal infrared cameras is also acknowledged as an issue, despite its success in detecting other types of targets [2]. Beside, we have not found any previous study that addresses the detection task as a function of distance to the target. Sensor fusion is indicated as an open research issue as well to achieve better detection results in comparison to a single sensor, although research in this direction is scarce too [3–6]. To help in counteracting the mentioned issues and allow fundamental studies with a common public benchmark, we contribute with an annotated multi-sensor database for drone detection that includes infrared and visible videos and audio files. The database includes three different drones, a small-sized model (Hubsan H107D+), a medium-sized drone (DJI Flame Wheel in quadcopter configuration), and a performance-grade model (DJI Phantom 4 Pro). It also includes other flying objects that can be mistakenly detected as drones, such as birds, airplanes or helicopters. In addition to using several different sensors, the number of classes is higher than in previous studies [4]. The video part contains 650 infrared and visible videos (365 IR and 285 visible) of drones, birds, airplanes and helicopters. Each clip is of ten seconds, resulting in a total of 203,328 annotated frames. The database is complemented with 90 audio files of the classes drones, helicopters and background noise. To allow studies as a function of the sensor-to-target distance, the dataset is divided into three categories (Close, Medium, Distant) according to the industry-standard Detect, Recognize and Identify (DRI) requirements [7], built on the Johnson criteria [8]. Given that the drones must be flown within visual range due to regulations, the largest sensor-to-target distance for a drone in the dataset is 200 m, and acquisitions are made in daylight. The data has been obtained at three airports in Sweden: Halmstad Airport (IATA code: HAD/ICAO code: ESMT), Gothenburg City Airport (GSE/ESGP) and Malmö Airport (MMX/ESMS). The acquisition sensors are mounted on a pan-tilt platform that steers the cameras to the objects of interest. All sensors and the platform are controlled with a standard laptop vis a USB hub.

  • 289.
    Svanström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish Armed Forces, Sweden.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Drone Detection and Tracking in Real-Time by Fusion of Different Sensing Modalities2022Inngår i: Drones, ISSN 2504-446X, Vol. 6, nr 11, artikkel-id 317Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Automatic detection of flying drones is a key issue where its presence, especially if unauthorized, can create risky situations or compromise security. Here, we design and evaluate a multi-sensor drone detection system. In conjunction with standard video cameras and microphone sensors, we explore the use of thermal infrared cameras, pointed out as a feasible and promising solution that is scarcely addressed in the related literature. Our solution integrates a fish-eye camera as well to monitor a wider part of the sky and steer the other cameras towards objects of interest. The sensing solutions are complemented with an ADS-B receiver, a GPS receiver, and a radar module. However, our final deployment has not included the latter due to its limited detection range. The thermal camera is shown to be a feasible solution as good as the video camera, even if the camera employed here has a lower resolution. Two other novelties of our work are the creation of a new public dataset of multi-sensor annotated data that expands the number of classes compared to existing ones, as well as the study of the detector performance as a function of the sensor-to-target distance. Sensor fusion is also explored, showing that the system can be made more robust in this way, mitigating false detections of the individual sensors. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 290.
    Svenson, Pontus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Initiation and Formation of Constellations in Systems of Systems2022Inngår i: 2022 17th Annual System of Systems Engineering Conference, SOSE 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, s. 340-345Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems of systems engineering is aimed at developing solutions that provide the capability to fulfil a need that cannot be met by an integrated system. In many SoS, there is a need to solve several tasks at the same time. Each set of constituent systems that collaborate to solve such a task is a constellation. In this paper, we discuss the process of forming such constellations. We focus on collaborative systems of systems and describe conceptual models for the formation of constellations. 

  • 291.
    Svenson, Pontus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Should I Stay or Should I Go?: How Constituent Systems Decide to Join or Leave Constellations in Collaborative SoS2021Inngår i: 2021 16th International Conference of System of Systems Engineering (SoSE), 2021, s. 179-184Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A collaborative system of systems (SoS) is formed when independent organizations decide to cooperate to achieve mutual benefits, while retaining independence of their respective systems. Each constituent system (CS) of the SoS has a set of capabilities, some of which they agree to potentially use in active collaboration with others. Such an active collaboration is called a constellation and can be seen as an instantiation of the SoS which is created to provide a joint capability. Constellations are thus the working-horses of the SoS, but due to the operational independence of the CS, they have a choice whether to join a certain constellation or not. This paper discusses the reasoning and world model that is necessary for a CS to make well-informed decisions to join and leave constellations. We argue that it is necessary for the CS to understand not only the surrounding environment, but also to have models of other CS’ world models as well as of their probable future actions. It must be possible to predict whether other participants will uphold their parts of the collaboration or may defect from it to join another more rewarding constellation despite the agreements made when joining the SoS. The reasoning in the paper is illustrated using examples from two different collaborative SoS in the transportation domain.

  • 292.
    Svenson, Pontus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Situation Awareness and Decision Making for Constituent Systems2020Inngår i: 2020 IEEE 15th International Conference of System of Systems Engineering (SoSE), 2020, s. 361-366Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The constituent systems (CS) that together form a system of systems (SoS) have a continuous need to assess situations and make decisions. In addition to operating in the environment, they also need to decide upon their status in the system of systems and be aware of their relations to constellations in the system of systems. To be able to make the best possible decisions, the constituent systems need to have an accurate situation awareness, i. e., an understanding of the environment they are in, what other elements are present therein and how this will develop in the future. In this paper we present an analysis of the situation awareness needs of a constituent system in different stages of its life-cycle: ignorant of the SoS; prepared forjoining the SoS; a passive CS; an active CS. A conclusion is that CS need to have world models that include information about other objects. Examples from the truck platooning application are given.

  • 293.
    Svenson, Pontus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Resilience in systems of systems: electrified transport systems2021Inngår i: 2021 16th International Conference of System of Systems Engineering (SoSE), 2021, s. 162-167Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport system is a large system of systems which currently faces challenges because of the climate-change-induced need to decrease the use of fossil fuels. The aim of mitigating climate change is realized in many parts of the transport system, concurrently and at high pace, which brings with it many challenges for the resilience of the system. By resilience, we mean the ability of a system to adapt due to disruptions and surprises. There are numerous links between the different systems that form the transport system and the actors responsible for available choices in the system of systems need to be identified. The aim of this paper is to identify requirements for developing a method for increasing resilience in the transport system. In this study a description of the electrified goods transport system as a system of systems is developed through a combination of researchers from different areas and discussions with experts mainly in the field of transport and governance. The resulting system of systems is presented in the paper together with a list of measures that will aid the development of a resilient electrified goods transport system. The measures are divided into technology, organisation and behaviour.

  • 294.
    Svenson, Pontus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Olsson, Thomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Constituent Systems Quality Requirements Engineering in Co-opetitive Systems of Systems2022Inngår i: 2022 17th Annual System of Systems Engineering Conference, SOSE 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, s. 347-352Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems of systems consist of independently owned, operated, and developed constituent systems that work together for mutual benefit. Co-opetitive systems of systems consist of constituent systems that in addition also compete. In this paper, we focus on quality requirement engineering for a constituent systems developer in such SoS. We discuss the needs and requirements of a structured quality requirements engineering process, with examples taken from the transportation domain, and find that there is a need for mediators and agreements between constituent systems developers to enable quality data exchange. 

  • 295.
    Svenson, Pontus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Reichenberg, Frida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fordon och automatisering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    A design method for collaborative systems of systems applied to Metropolitan Multi-Mode Transport System2021Inngår i: 2021 16th International Conference of System of Systems Engineering (SoSE), 2021, s. 13-18Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems of systems arise when independently owned, operated and developed systems can achieve mutual benefits by working together. In collaborative systems of systems, there is no directing entity that instructs others how and when to collaborate. Instead, the collaboration relies on independent decisions by the constituent systems to form collaborating constellations, and the benefits are emergent properties of this. In this paper, we describe a design method for engineering collaborative systems of systems. We apply the method to the design of a collaborative system of systems for mobility in a rural setting close to an urban area and to truck platooning.

  • 296.
    Söderman, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    GLAD Godsleverans under den sista milen med självkörande fordon - sammanfattning av GLAD-projektet2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en sammanfattning av studierna som gjordes i GLAD-projektet (GLAD: Goods deliveries under the last mile with automated delivery vehicles). GLAD var ett forsknings- och utvecklingsprojekt som hade det övergripande syftet att generera ökad kunskap om användares behov, samt om de tekniska, affärsmässiga och policyrelaterade utmaningar som automatiska leveransfordon (eng. Automated delivery vehicles, ADV) kan innebära. GLAD-projektet genomfördes under juni 2020 och september 2022 och koordinerades av RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Projektet delfinansierades av Trafikverket (ref. no. TRV 2020/26017). Parterna i GLAD-projektet var RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Aptiv AB, Combitech AB, Clean Motion AB och Högskolan i Halmstad.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 297.
    Söderman, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Typical and critical traffic situations with small electric delivery vehicles – indications for future Automated Delivery Vehicles2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated what typical traffic situations drivers of small manual delivery vehicles (MDV) are facing during their daily routes and how they handle these, sometimes critical, traffic situations. The purpose was to get an understanding of what challenges future automated delivery vehicles (ADV) may encounter and need to manage. Nine drivers of MDVs at one of Postnord’s terminals in Gothenburg, Sweden, were interviewed about their daily working tasks, their experiences of typical and critical situations and how they handle these situations. The interviews showed that many potentially critical situations were related the MDV’s relative slow speed (max 45 km/h). They could not always keep the same speed as other vehicles, which resulted in other vehicles driving closely behind the MDV and overtaking the MDV in narrow and busy roads. The interviews also revealed that the drivers often need to remove obstacles. Since an ADV cannot solve these kinds of problems like human drivers do the ADVs’ Operational Design Domain (ODD) may need to be adapted to the ADV’s capacity, e.g. being free of obstacles. The letters and packages are delivered to the addressees by the drivers. With ADVs, these “hand-over” operations need to be either taken care of by someone at the addressees or be replaced by a delivery system that does not involve the hand-over to the addressees. Another matter is that some general traffic rules are often vaguely formulated (“… adapt the speed to the bicycles…”, “…adjust the speed so there is no danger…”, “…to… in time…”) and leave much to the drivers to interpret their meanings and to act accordingly. How ADVs should comply with this kind of traffic rules could be a challenge. The drivers’ gained experiences seemed to be key to handle unforeseen events and to solve problems as they occur, for example through compensating behaviour, such as position in lane, acceleration/deceleration, steering manoeuvres etc. A “dynamic learning function” could be an important feature to implement in a future ADV-system. Overall, the interviews showed that the drivers are handling complex traffic situations and environments and that they need to manage many practical tasks to deliver the letters and packages to the addressees. Without human drivers a delivery system with ADVs would require a systems perspective throughout the whole logistics chain.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 298.
    Söderman, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Use cases and high-level requirements for safe interactions between automated delivery vehicles and human operators in a terminal2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Small electric Autonomous Delivery Vehicles (ADV) can play an important role in future logistic chains under the last mile deliveries. In terminals where ADV are loaded with goods it is important that the interactions between the ADVS and the goods handling personnel is safe. Two workshops with developers of self-driving vehicles, researchers in the area of human-machine interaction and goods handling personnel form Postnord were conducted to identify challenges, needs and requirements regarding the design of ADV and the terminals för ADV. Due to COVID19, the workshops were carried out online and a video was shown to the participants demonstrating an ADV operating in a location representing a terminal. The two main objectives for this study were to gain understanding of the interactions between the ADV and human operators in the terminal and to identify high-level functional requirements for safe and efficient deployment of ADVs in terminals. The identified use cases related to (i) the ADV’s operations in the terminal, from entering to leaving the terminal and (ii) use cases where human operators interacted with the ADV, e.g. for loading/unloading goods. For each use case a high-level functional requirement was formulated. Human operators will most likely have important roles in delivery chains with ADV, such as loading and unloading of goods, as well as managing problems the ADV cannot solve. Consequently, how to design the human - ADV interactions will be critical from safety and efficiency points of view.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 299.
    Söderman, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Clasen, Rasmus
    Aptiv AB, Sweden.
    Bergström, Gustaf
    Combitech AB, Swedden.
    Collings, Williams
    Clean Motion AB, Sweden.
    Development of self-driving and control room functions and of external HMI for automated delivery vehicles2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Road users may need additional information to a vehicle’s speed and position in lane to understand the behavior and intentions of self-driving vehicles, such as external Human Machine Interface (eHMI), i.e. visual signals (lights) indicating the vehicle's status, behavior and intentions, especially in environments where self-driving vehicles are expected to drive at low speeds, for example, in urban environments. The study in this report developed and implemented self-driving functions and control room functions in an automated delivery vehicle (ADV), as well as developed an eHMI concept to communicate the vehicle’s states, intentions, and behaviour to the surroundings. The software stack and the development of the main features of the self-driving driving capabilities including the lateral controller are described in this report. Further, modules such as the Representational State Transfer (REST) for communication, the remote control of the ADV and the eHMI communication interface with the vehicle signals are presented. A lesson learned from the study is that further refinement in repeatability of the initial conditions of the system is essential. Most of the individual parts of the chain from a command to the ADV were created via the user interface in the Autonomous Transport Management System (ATMS). However, the whole chain was hard to achieve, and the need of frequent testing and integration was evident and faults in the chain could result in cumbersome and long procedures to restart the integration test. The study also revealed issues with the stability of the entire system. Several eHMI concepts have been developed in industry and in research. However, up to this date there are no standards or established frameworks for the design of eHMI. Nevertheless, guidelines and recommendations have been proposed in different studies, for example that eHMI should be consistent with existing eHMI, address road users in general and not tell or instruct other road users what to do. The eHMI-concept developed in this study conveyed the following messages: Automation mode, Acceleration, Deceleration and Delivery mode. A model for an eHMI-strategy is also proposed. The eHMI prototype on the ADV in this study was composed of LED lights with multiple color options, an ECU with CAN hardware and software that controlled the eHMI. The initial idea was to use vehicle data from the CAN bus, such as speed and steering angle and the control algorithm worked technically, but the eHMI for acceleration and deceleration were activated/inactivated too fast (within 1-2 seconds) for an observer to perceive and grasp the meaning of the eHMI. A lesson learned was that the activation/inactivation of the eHMI should, therefore, be executed by the computer that manages the autonomous driving functions in the ADV.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 300.
    Söderman, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Clasen, Rasmus
    Aptiv AB, Sweden.
    Bergström, Gustaf
    Combitech AB, Swedden.
    Collings, Williams
    Clean Motion AB, Sweden.
    People’s understanding of external HMI and their experiences of interacting with an automated delivery vehicle in a terminal context2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated how the participants in a scenario of a terminal for goods handling perceived to interact with an automated delivery vehicle (ADV) for loading/unloading and how they understood the external Human Machine Interfaces (eHMI), i.e., visual signals on the ADV that communicate the ADV’s behaviour, mode and intentions. The objectives were (i) to test and validate the self-driving functions; (ii) to test and validate the control room functionalities and (iii) to evaluate how the participants understood the eHMI and (iv) to evaluate how they experienced to interact with the ADV in specific situations. The eHMI communicated four messages; Acceleration (from stand still), Deceleration (to stand still), Unplanned stop and Delivery mode. The participants were introduced to the scenario and instructed to act the role of being newly employed at a terminal for loading/unloading goods. There were two situations they were asked to handle: (i) the ADV had stopped (unplanned) due to an obstacle in front which had to be removed for the ADV to drive on, and (ii) to load/unload the ADV when it had stopped at a designated place for loading/unloading. The participants marked on a 5-point scale how easy/difficult it was to understand the different eHMI (eHMI communicated Acceleration from standstill, Deceleration to standstill, Unplanned stop and Load/Unload mode) and how safe/unsafe they felt to approach and interact with the ADV. The same procedures were repeated three times. The results showed that the participants thought it was easy to understand the different eHMI on the ADV, specifically the types of eHMI that are on vehicles today, such as hazard lights and turning indicators. The results also revealed that the context, i.e. terminal scenario, the situations, and the work tasks, was a contributing factor to their understanding of the eHMI. The participants’ previous and gained experiences also contributed to their understanding of the eHMI. The participants thought it was safe to approach the ADV, for example to remove the obstacle in front of the ADV, much because they assumed that such close interactions with the ADVs could happen often and, therefore, they assumed it was safe to interact closely to the ADV. The size of the ADV (smaller than a regular car) was also mentioned as a contributing factor. The self-driving functions in the ADV were integrated in the ADV’s system architecture. A challenge was to obtain stability in the system with repeated driving cycles. The Autonomous Transport Management System (ATMS) was put in a cloud service to enable remote testing, and to facilitate repeated integration tests as well as test-cycles with the ADV. The information in the messages sent to the ADV included, for example, the coordinates for the route and the control signals for the eHMI. In addition, a function was implemented to reset the ATMS easily when it entered a faulty state. The control of the LED lights for the eHMI was managed by the main Vehicle Control Unit (VCU) which provided more accurate output from the eHMI compared to using the vehicle data.

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