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  • 251.
    He, Kun
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Cheng, Xudong
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Fire spread among multiple vehicles in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation2023Inngår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 133, artikkel-id 104967Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The characteristics of fire spread among multiple vehicles in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation were investigated by analyzing the experimental data from a series of fire tests in a 1:15 scale tunnel. Further, a simple theoretical model for gas temperature in a tunnel with multiple fire sources was proposed and used in analysis of the experimental data. The results showed that, for objects (wood piles) placed at a same separating distance downstream of the fire, the fire spread occurred faster and faster along the tunnel. Validation of the simplified temperature model for multiple fire sources was made against both model and full-scale tunnel fire tests. The model was further used to predict the critical conditions for fire spread to the second and third objects. Comparisons with the test data showed that average excess temperature of 465 K (or an equivalent incident heat flux of 18.7 kW/m2) could be used as the criterion for fire spread, and this was verified further by other model-scale tests and full-scale tests. The results showed that the critical fire spread distance monotonously increases with the heat release rate, and decreases with the tunnel perimeter. For multiple fire sources with equivalent heat release rates, as the separation distance between the first two fire sources increases, the critical fire spread distance from the second fire source to the third fire source decreases, but the total fire spread distance from the first fire source to the third one increases. If the total heat release rate at the site of a downstream fire source is greater than that at the former fire source, the critical fire spread distance becomes longer.

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  • 252.
    He, Kun
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Shi, Long
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Cheng, Xudong
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Experimental study on the maximum ceiling gas temperature driven by double fires in a tunnel with natural ventilation2024Inngår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 144, artikkel-id 105550Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The maximum gas temperature below the ceiling is an important parameter for tunnel safety. The present study analyzed the characteristics of the maximum excess ceiling gas temperature driven by double fire sources in a naturally ventilated tunnel. A series of small-scale tunnel fire experiments were carried out with different fire separation distances and heat release rates. Theoretical analysis based on the equivalent virtual origin was also performed. The results showed that there exists only one peak gas temperature when the two fire plumes are merged before reaching the ceiling, while two peak gas temperatures can be observed when the two fire plumes are completely separated. The maximum excess gas temperature below the tunnel ceiling gradually decreases with an increasing fire separation distance in the plume merging region (S < Scp). When the fire separation distance increases further (S > Scp), the effect of the fire separation distance on the maximum gas temperature below the ceiling is very limited. Furthermore, a model using an equivalent fire source was proposed to predict the maximum excess gas temperature below the ceiling, considering different plume merging states. The present study contributes to the understanding of the maximum excess gas temperature characteristics of the smoke flow driven by double fires with an equal heat release rate in naturally ventilated tunnels. 

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  • 253.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Lagar och regler vid renovering: en översikt2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ordet renovering existerar inte i något av våra regelverk. Begreppet renovering ingår i det som benämns ändring av en byggnad i vilket ombyggnad ingår som en del.De tekniska egenskapskrav som gäller vid nybyggnad gäller i princip också vid ändring. Vid ombyggnad ska de uppfyllas för hela byggnaden eller, om detta inte är rimligt, den del av byggnaden som påtagligt förnyas genom ombyggnaden. Vid ändring gäller de för ändringen. Enkelt avhjälpta hinder mot tillgänglighet till eller användbarhet av lokaler dit allmänheten har tillträde ska dock alltid avhjälpas.När det gäller ändringar tillkommer dock ett krav på varsamhet, d.v.s. att man tar hänsyn till byggnadens karaktärsdrag och tar till vara byggnadens tekniska, historiska, kulturhistoriska, miljömässiga och konstnärliga värden. En byggnad som är särskilt värdefull från historisk, kulturhistorisk, miljömässig eller konstnärlig synpunkt får inte förvanskas.Kravet på varsamhet och förbudet mot förvanskning innebär att det är nödvändigt att ibland göra avsteg från de rent tekniska egenskapskraven som gäller vid nybyggnad när man genomför en ändring.Ändringsreglerna i BBR och EKS avser att förtydliga vilka av de egenskapskrav som gäller vid nybyggnad som man inte får göra avsteg från och i vilka fall det är möjligt att mot bakgrund av ändringens omfattning och byggnadens förutsättningar göra anpassningar.Vad som avses med ändringens omfattning och byggnadens förutsättningar förtydligas i BBR. När det gäller ändringens omfattning utgås från hur stor del av byggnaden som berörs, konsekvenserna för de tekniska egenskapskraven och byggnadens kulturvär-den. Motiveringar med hänsyn till byggnadens förutsättningar kan dels ha att göra med om det är fråga om omfattande ändringar eller ny användning. I sådana fall finns få skäl till avsteg från nybyggnadsnivån. Är det fråga om en kulturhistoriskt värdefull byggnad finns det större skäl. Tekniska skäl, som t.ex. att utrymme saknas eller att uppfylla ett krav medför att ett annat inte blir uppfyllt på ett godtagbart sätt kan också åberopas. Ekonomiska skäl baserade på byggnadens placering, utformning eller tekniska förutsättningar kan också vara motiveringar. Låg likviditet får dock inte beaktas. Därutöver kan även boendekvaliteter av praktisk eller upplevelsemässig art utgöra skäl för anpassning.Kravnivån vid ändring varierar också beroende på vilket krav det är fråga om. I BBR och EKS används följande terminologi:Ska: I princip inget utrymme för avvikelseSka ...om inte synnerliga skäl: Visst modifieringsutrymme finns om byggnaden ändå kan antas få godtagbara egenskaper och det inte är möjligt att tillgodose kravet fullt ut utan höga kostnader eller påtagligt negativa konsekvenser för övriga tekniska egen-skapskrav eller byggnadens kulturvärden.Ska eftersträvas: Kraven ska tillgodoses om det kan ske till en skälig kostnad och inte medför negativa konsekvenser för övriga tekniska egenskapskrav, byggnadens kulturvärden eller andra boende- och brukarkvaliteter. Har byggnaden redan den eftersträvade egenskapen finns inte utrymme för att försämra den om det inte finns synnerliga skäl.Dock får anpassningar av kraven aldrig medföra en oacceptabel risk för människors hälsa och säkerhetEn hel del av det som står i BBR, EKS och Hissreglerna är allmänna råd och inte absoluta krav, och ger exempel på godtagna konstruktionslösningar. Dessa är inte alltid möjliga att tillämpa vid ändring, utan man måste söka andra lösningar som ändå ger samma säkerhet.Reglerna ger för de olika egenskapskraven vägledning för eventuella anpassningar, förslag på alternativa lösningar t.ex. moderniseringar då äldre byggteknik använts.I hyreslagstiftningen är det främst två aspekter som berör ändringar: Hyresgästinfly-tande vid förbättrings- och ändringsarbete och villkor vid större förändring av hyran. I båda dessa fall krävs godkännande av hyresgäster eller tillstånd av hyresnämnd. Dock står det inget om att hyresgäster kan var med och påverka vad som ska ändras, t.ex. hur omfattande ändringarna ska vara.När det gäller bostadsrätter är det hur stora beslut ska tas som avhandlas. Om alla medlemmar inte är eniga har hyresnämnden en roll även här. En bostadsrättsinneha-vare har rätt att frånträda en bostadsrätt om avgiftsändringarna blir för stora. Bostadssätten återgår då till föreningen, mot skälig ersättning.

  • 254.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Redistribution of chlorides in concrete specimens occurring during storage2021Inngår i: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 54, nr 3, artikkel-id 105Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been observed that storage of specimens with chloride gradients before determining the chloride profile can lead to changes in the shape of the chloride profile. An experimental study to quantify the influence of the duration of the storage period and the storage temperature has been carried out. It comprised three storage periods (7, 28 and 91 days) and two storage temperatures (+ 5 °C and + 20 °C). The specimens had previously been immersed in a 15% NaCl solution for 56 days and were sealed in plastics during storage. The results show that a temperature of + 5 °C diminishes the rate of redistribution considerably, compared to a storage carried out at + 20 °C, and the longer the storage period is, the more redistribution will take place. It is also shown that it is of importance to assure that the sealing of the specimens during storage is capable of maintaining the relative humidity at the surface, so that local redistribution of chlorides close to the surface will not take place. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 255.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Salt-frostprovning av betong med slagg och flygaska2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med projektet har varit att vidareutveckla salt-frostprovningsmetoden (”slab method” i CEN TS/12390-9 och metod A i SS 137244) så att resultatet återspeglar vad som händer på lång sikt under verkliga förhållanden i svenskt klimat i betong med bindemedel som innehåller slagg och flygaska och som därmed kan användas för att vid förprovningen kunna förutse salt-frostbeständigheten hos dessa. Samtidigt har grundläggande kunskaper om saltfrostbeständighet hos betong med tillsats av slagg och flygaska byggts upp. Eftersom det i flera studier visat sig att salt-frostbeständigheten hos speciellt slaggbetong påverkas av karbonatisering har inverkan av karbonatisering studerats. Betong med slagg och flygaska har långsammare hållfasthetstillväxt i tidigt skede och betydelsen av detta har också ingått i undersökningen.I projektet har 14 olika blandningar med varierande bindemedelssammansättningar och vbt=0,45 utsatts för salt-frostprovningsmetoden och fem varianter av den, där bl.a. ålder vid sågning, längd på konditioneringstiden i 65 % RF och koldioxidförhållandena har varierats. Försöken har kompletterats med bestämning av hållfasthetstillväxt, luftporstruktur, viktuppgång under uppfuktning och de 28 första frostcyklerna, inre nedbrytning samt XRD och mikroskopi på ytskiktet. För vissa bindemedelssammansättningar har bruksprover tillverkats och på dessa har sorptionsisotermer tagits fram och TG-analys och mätning med lågtemperaturkalorimetri utförts. Provkroppar för fältexponering vid RV 40 har också tillverkats och lagts ut. Inom projekttiden har dock mätningar på dessa enbart utförts efter en vintersäsong.Slutsatsen vad det gäller den existerande provningsmetodens tillämplighet är att för blandningar med max 20 % slagg eller flygaska så fungerar den tillfredställande utan korrigeringar. Vid högre andelar slagg eller flygaska bör konditioneringen kompletteras med c:a 1 veckas exponering för 1 % CO2, för att beakta den ökade avflagningen på grund av karbonatisering. När det gäller användning på betonger med betydligt långsammare hållfasthetstillväxt än normalt kan provkropparnas ålder vid start av salt-frostcyklingen behöva höjas till max 90 dygn för att bättre återspegla salt-frostresistensen på lång sikt. Det måste i så fall också säkerställas att den aktuella betongen i verkligheten inte utsätts för saltfrostcykler vid en lägre mognadsgrad än vad detta motsvarar.Vad gäller krav på bindemedel för exponeringsklass XF4, så visar det sig att de krav som finns i SS 137003:2015 är fullt relevanta. Max 20 % slagg eller flygaska kan användas utan att salt-frostbeständigheten påverkas mer än marginellt vid vbt = 0,45. 35 % flygaska och 65 % slagg ger mycket stora avflagningar. Vid användning av 35 % slagg hamnar man i en gränszon, vilket eventuellt skulle kunna accepteras om man i det fallet sänker tillåtet vbt till 0,40.

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  • 256.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Silva, Nelson
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Eva, Rodum
    Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Norway.
    Torkkeli, Minna
    Finnish Transport Agency, Finland.
    Hejll, Arvid
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    A Nordic method for testing hydrophobic impregnations with regard to prevention of chloride ingress2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Chloride induced corrosion of the reinforcement is the major cause of degradation of reinforced concrete structures. In particular in the Nordic countries, the use of de-icing salts during winter, leads to severe degradation of edge beams in road bridges. Thus, in order to extend the service life and decrease maintenance costs, hydrophobic impregnations are commonly used to prevent or slow down chloride ingress into concrete. There is a harmonised European standard for hydrophobic impregnations, EN 1504-2 [1], but the property “diffusion of chloride ions” is “subject to national standards and regulations”. The transport and road administrations of Sweden, Norway and Finland use different national methods to evaluate the performance of this type of products meaning that the same CEmarked product needs to meet different requirements. Therefore, the transport and road administrations of Sweden, Norway and Finland initiated a project with the aim to establish a common Nordic method for classification of hydrophobic impregnations with regard to their capability to protect concrete from chloride ingress. The project was divided into three phases consisting on the analysis of existing test standards (national and international), a pre-study to evaluate the influence of different tests parameters and a round robin test involving three laboratories (one in each country). A thorough comparison of the existing methods and review of relevant literature made it possible to define which test parameters could be used in the formulation of the new method and which ones required further studies. It was found that the type of surface to be treated, the length of the preconditioning period, the length of the curing period and whether the surface to be impregnated should be soaked with Ca(OH)2-solution or not should be further investigated. The results of the pre-study showed that the application of the impregnation to form surfaces led to somewhat better chloride blocking effect. Despite this, it was decided to use sawn surfaces in the method, since it is much easier to obtain reproducible surface characteristics that way. The characteristics of a form surface depend on e.g. the form material, use of release agents, curing conditions. Saturation of the surface with calcium hydroxide solution before impregnation was found slightly beneficial on the chloride blocking effect compared to when such a treatment was omitted. However, since this did not contribute to the robustness of the test results, it increased the number of experimental steps and it is not representative of practice in real structures, it was decided not to incorporate such a treatment in the new method. The chloride protection slightly increases with the impregnation curing time. It was not clear which factor was most dominant; if the continuous polymerization of the hydrophobic impregnation or the continuous cement hydration. Since enough curing time is necessary for the treatment to be efficient, it was decided that the curing period before exposure to chlorides should be 28 days. With the primary objective of determining the reliability and reproducibility of the new method, a round robin exercise was carried out. Three laboratories were involved in this phase; CBI-Borås in Sweden, SINTEF in Norway and VTT in Finland. The results show that despite some differences in both materials and methods, such as the type of cement or preconditioning and curing environments, highly reproducible results were obtained. In addition, a detailed discussion on the influence of the details of the method on the chloride profiles and on the filter effect is presented. Within the round robin test, the relative humidity before and after impregnation and the dry condition of the powder samples were found to be the major parameters leading to the discrepancy of the results. In addition, handling of the wet concrete surfaces after exposure to chlorides and the time period (and temperature) between the end of the chloride exposure and powder sampling for chloride analysis were found to have surprisingly large effects on the form of the chloride profiles in the samples. Therefore, these parts of the procedures were made much more precise in the final method, in order to increase its reproducibility. The method can be briefly described as follows: Concrete specimens are prepared by sawing 100 mm cubes into two halves, three cubes per test series. The sawn surfaces are defined as exposure faces. Three halves are treated with the hydrophobic impregnation to be tested and the other three halves are kept as untreated references. The specimens are exposed submerged in 15% NaCl-solution for 56 days. After exposure, the chloride ingress is determined by profile grinding and the total amount of penetrated chlorides is calculated. The chloride blocking effect of the hydrophobic impregnations, expressed as the Filter Effect, FE, which is determined as 1 minus the ratio between the amount of penetrated chlorides in treated and in non-treated concrete specimens. The results obtained in both the pre-study and round robin exercise were compared to those obtained with the existing national methods in order to establish proper requirement levels with the new method. Despite the many differences between the methods, it was found that a filter effect of approximately 0.65 correlates well with the existing requirement in the Swedish method and in the Norwegian method. However, given limited data available and also considering data from field investigations, a level of 0.60 is proposed as appropriate for a really well performing hydrophobic impregnation. The method was accepted as a Nordtest method in December 2015 with the denomination NT Build 515.

  • 257.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Suchorzewski, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Gabrielsson, Ida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Kortversion av SVU-rapport 2022:5 ”Klimatförbättrad betong för dricksvattenanläggningar”2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This RISE report is a short version of SVU report 2022:5 “Klimatförbättrad betong för dricksvattenanläggningar” (Low carbon concrete for drinking water infrastructure). The purpose of the project was to clarify if the carbon footprint of concrete for drinking water infrastructure can be lowered by replacing Portland cement with supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) accepted for use in concrete without influencing the quality of the drinking water negatively with regard to trace substances and PAH. In addition to reviewing the literature, leaching tests and LCA analyses were conducted on thirteen concretes mixes with varying binder compositions. The results show that it is possible to replace up to 50 % of the cement with the SCMs, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), silica fume and fly ash. All this may be GGBS and up to 35 % fly ash may be used. This is valid under condition that a drinking water facility which in its entirety is new drinking goes through a tuning period of some days up to a week during which the water quality is monitored before water is delivered to clients. Leaching of some substances is somewhat increased and others are decreased by the replacement of the cement, however the changes are so small that the content in the drinking water in a real facility is only marginally influenced. Which type of binder to use should be decided based on other these materials influence on other concrete properties, for instance on the strength development. The decrease of the carbon footprint is roughly proportional to the cement replacement ratio.

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  • 258.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Parg, Lisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Ellison, Tommy
    BESAB, Sweden.
    Hydrofoberande medel i sprutbetong: Inverkan på egenskaper och beteendet vid sprutning2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande målet med projektet är att få fördjupade kunskaper och erfarenheter när det gäller användning av hydrofoberande medel som tillsätts betongmassan i sprutbetong med lågalkaliska bindemedel, med syfte att förbättra sprutbetongens beständighet och brukbarhet. Resultaten från detta projekt bidrar till ökad förståelse för praktiska möjligheter med och begränsningar för hydrofoberande medel som tillsätts betongmassan i sprutbetong, och därmed minskar behovet av kostsamma fältförsök, med ” trial and error”.En stor del av projektet har ägnats åt att studera inverkan av hydrofoberingsmedlen på egenskaperna i det tidiga stadiet, då de är avgörande för den praktiska tillämpningen. Därutöver har inverkan på egenskaper som hållfasthetsutveckling och vidhäftningshållfasthet mätts. Vilken hydrofobicitet som dessa medel ger betongen har också undersökts. Dessa provningar har främst gjorts på pasta, bruk eller betong som gjutits på konventionellt sätt, alltså inte på sprutbetong. Därutöver har provsprutning gjorts med en betong med ett av medlen samt en referens utan hydrofoberingsmedel för att kartlägga beteendet vid sprutning. På prover av den sprutade betongen har vidhäftningshållfastheten, hydrofobiciteten och kloridinträngningen bestämts.Två hydrofoberande medel, Sitren P 750 (E) och Silres BS 1001 (W) har använts, båda baserade på organosilikater. Medel E grundar sig på modifierad siloxan som är anbringad på silikastoft och medel W är en vattenbaserad emulsion av silan/siloxan. De flesta provningarna har utförts dels med ett rent Portlandcement (Degerhamns Anläggningscement från Cementa) och dels ett Portland-flygaskecement (Slite Anläggning FA från Cementa). Båda är sulfatresistenta och lågalkaliska. Provningar med och utan accelerator har utförts.Använda utan accelerator påverkade medel W bindetid och värmeutveckling i betydligt högre grad än medel E. Medel W hade en klart retarderande effekt. Denna effekt kunde dock i hög grad kompenseras genom tillsats av en accelerator. 28-dygnshållfastheten sänktes med båda hydrofoberingsmedlen, mest med medel W, men även i detta fall kompenserades denna effekt till viss del av acceleratorn. Acceleratorn hade inte samma avgörande effekt när medel E användes.Vid provning på gjuten betong var vidhäftningen bättre och mindre spretig (mindre standardavvikelse) med medel W än med medel E. Hydrofobiciteten hos blandningar med de båda medlen vara jämförbar.Provprutningen genomfördes med medel W och accelerator. Med hydrofoberingsmedel erhölls samma konsitens med mindre mängd vatten. Beteendet vid sprutning med medel W var lika bra som eller något bättre än utan. Hydrofoberingsmedlet påverkade inte sprutbetongens vidhäftning. Vattenabsorptionen hos sprutbetongen med hydrofoberingsmedel var c:a 30 % lägre än utan sådant medel, och motståndet mot kloridinträngning ungefär 40 % bättre.

  • 259.
    Hey Tow, Kenny
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Pereira, Joao
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Lindblom, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Fernández-Ruiz, Maria
    University of Alcalá, Spain.
    Martins, Hugo F
    Daza de Valdés Institute of Optics, Spain.
    Rossi, Matteo
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Siw
    LKAB, Sweden.
    van den Berg, Harald
    LKAB, Sweden.
    Monitoring mining induced seismicity using optical fibre sensors during mine exploitation2023Inngår i: Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng, SPIE , 2023, Vol. 643, artikkel-id 1264324Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fibre-optic based sensing technologies are becoming popular in the field of geophysics since enable long range and high spatial resolution acoustic measurements. In this work, we present preliminary results obtained using quasi-distributed Fibre-Bragg grating sensing and Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) to monitor seismic activities in an operational underground mine. 12 FBGs and 800 metres of fiber optic cable was installed in the tunnel lining an operational mine and recorded mine seismicity such as production blasts and a small seismic activity of magnitude 1.41 in September 2022. 

  • 260.
    Holgersson, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Mälarporten, termiska lager i fjärrvärmesystemet2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I området Mälarporten har en storskalig förändring påbörjats. Området har tidigare bestått av gamla, till viss del nedlagda industrier, och kommer till stor del ersättas med bostäder, men också i viss mån kontor. Energi- och effektbehovet i området kommer att förändras mot tidigare vilket innebär att även fjärrvärmesystemet behöver förnyas. Vidare är det troligt att fjärrvärmenätet kommer arbeta med lägre temperaturer då nya fastigheter är av lågenergityp.

    Uppdraget i denna studie är att komplettera Mälarenergis arbete kring det kommande fjärrvärmenätet i området Mälarporten, Västerås med en kort utredning av termiska lager. Studien syftar till att öka kunskapen kring termiska lagers funktion i fjärrvärmenät inför ombyggnationen av fjärrvärmenätet i Mälarporten. Övergripande belyses teknik, viktiga parametrar och nuläget.

    Det finns flera tillämpningar på termiska lager i fjärrvärmesystem. Dels för att utjämna dygnsvariationerna i lasten i nätet, men också variationen över säsong. Vidare finns potential att använda ett termiskt lager i områden där det inte är möjligt med höga termiska effektuttag.

    De flesta installerade lagren idag är av typen sensibla lager men utvecklingen av latenta och termokemiska lager går fort. De latenta lagren är mer tillämpbara än de termokemiska som mestadels befinner sig på forskningsstadiet. Ett exempel på latent lager är snö vilket tillämpas idag i Sundsvall för fjärrkyla. En positiv bieffekt är att ett sådant lager kan underlätta rening av smältvattnet i en stad.

    Både KTH och Chalmers bedriver forskning för att utveckla latenta lagers tillämpningar i fjärrvärme/fjärrkylasystem. Det borde också vara intressant för Mälarenergi att titta närmare på SaltX installation i Berlin samt borrhålslagret i Linköping och befintliga groplager i Malung och Danmark.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 261.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Enerbäck, Oscar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Utvärderingsmetod för utbyggnad av elvägssträckor i Sverige : en delanalys i Genomförbarhetsstudie elväg E222022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation method for development of electric road system network in Sweden – an analysis within the Feasibility study E22-project

    This report is the result of the work package on Evaluation method within the project “Feasibility study of the electric road system pilot E22”. The original objective with the work package was to describe an evaluation method for the introduction of electric road systems. Important objectives for electric road system (ERS) projects and parameters for measuring goal achievement and, customer satisfaction was to be defined. The results are based on documentation from comparable infrastructure projects, workshops and interviews with stakeholders and project partners. The method was kept as originally outlined but instead of identifying objectives, which can depend on the actor that initiates/is the owner of the ERS, we have taken the existing framework and the processes for evaluation of large-scale infrastructure projects that is already established as the starting point. The existing processes and methods are described at the Swedish Transport Administrations websites for industry. The evaluation process is done according to established calculation and evaluation tools with corresponding manuals. The project has focused on identifying parameters that are unique to ERS or of specific importance for the outcome of an ERS project. Consideration was taken to the fact that ERS is a new technology and that there are knowledge gaps especially for the implementation and operational phases that needs to be filled. For these phases extra evaluations could give important feedback during the development of a larger ERS network. The study has not assumed a specific technology for implementation or for the transmission of electricity to the vehicles, i.e., neither overhead line nor road based. The results from this work package shows that there is an existing framework for evaluations that can be used, and many important parameters are already included in this framework. Some additions to the framework´s methods and tools of parameters specific for ERS needs to be done. Examples of parameters for which new evaluation tools need to be developed and included in the existing framework include: • profitability from a business perspective and in comparison, to other alternatives, • climate impact from a life cycle perspective that also includes the vehicle and fuels/energy used for propulsion and • the optimal level of the user fee from a socioeconomic perspective. How often follow-ups are made also needs to be adjusted in the existing framework. Follow-ups needs to be done more frequently and more parameters needs to be evaluated. There is also a need for a learning process and knowledge sharing framework to enable a fast enrollment of electric road systems in a cost-efficient way. Additional evaluations are also required for ERS since it is new technology that has not been implemented on a large scale. Examples of such parameters include operational and maintenance for ERS, accidents, noise, emissions of particulates, impact on plant and animal life, electromagnetic fields and electromagnetic compatibility. As a next step to develop the evaluation methods for the build-out of ERS we recommend to using the first permanent stretch being built between Örebro and Hallsberg to develop a learning process framework and a process for knowledge sharing of planning, procurement and building of ERS. At this first permanent stretch, parameters with uncertainty should also be evaluated. A direct continuation of this project would also be to connect the results from the work-packages on evaluation and upscaling to quantify uncertain parameters to better evaluate their real importance.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 262.
    Honfi, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Leander, John
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Ívar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Decision support for bridge condition assessment2017Inngår i: SMAR 2017 Proceedings, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents the first steps of the development of a theoretical framework for a rational yet practical decision making process concerning the condition assessment of existing bridges in Sweden. The main focus is on how to choose the appropriate level of enhanced conditions assessment considering aspects of model sophistication, uncertainty consideration and knowledge content utilisation. A conceptual case study is presented exemplifying how the framework can be used to structure the assessment actions of a steel bridge subjected to fatigue deterioration.

  • 263.
    Honfi, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Lechner, Thomas
    NCC AB, Sweden.
    Köhler, Jochen
    NTNU, Norway.
    Rational maintenance of timber bridges2017Inngår i: Conference proceedings, ICTB 2017. 3rd International Conference on Timber Bridges / [ed] Gustafsson, Anders; Pousette, Anna; Hagman, Olle; Ekevad, Mats, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper provides some ideas about how decisions concerning maintenance of timber bridges should be made in a rational way. First, a brief discussion is provided concerning the evolution of maintenance strategies in general and it is suggested that maintenance of timber bridges should follow a risk-based approach. Then the discussion moves on to the condition assessment of timber bridges with a main focus on inspection and monitoring. The use of non-destructive testing methods and structural health monitoring is highlighted with regard to collecting useful information for maintenance decisions. It is argued that the information collected, should be used in a Bayesian decision analysis framework, which is especially useful in quantifying to value of information and thus the worth of various inspection and monitoring alternatives.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 264.
    Honfi, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Leander, John
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson Ivanov, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Ívar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Plos, Mario
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Carneiro, Erica
    NCC AB, Sweden.
    Lechner, Thomas
    NCC AB, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Jonas
    NCC AB, Sweden.
    Gabrielsson, Henrik
    Tyréns AB, Sweden.
    Inspection and monitoring of bridges in Sweden2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides an overview about recent research activities and current practice concerning inspection and monitoring of the structural performance of bridges and the related decision-making process. A brief review of common methods of collecting information on structural performance of bridges is presented, followed by a description of the use of the information collected in structural analysis and maintenance planning. An overview about the state of the art is given including recent scientific developments. Finally, the current Swedish practice for bridge management is presented.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 265.
    Hongisto, Valtteri
    et al.
    Turku University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Alakoivu, Reijo
    Turku University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Virtanen, J
    Turku University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Hakala, J.
    Turku University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Saarinen, P.
    Turku University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Laukka, J.
    Turku University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Jarnerö, Kirsi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Keränen, J.
    Turku University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Sound insulation dataset of 30 wooden and 8 concrete floors tested in laboratory conditions2023Inngår i: Data in Brief, E-ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 49, artikkel-id 109393Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a Finnish-Swedish consortium project, a large amount of sound insulation tests was conducted for several intermediate floors in laboratory conditions to serve various scientific research questions. The dataset contains 30 wooden and 8 concrete constructions which are commonly used between apartments in multistorey buildings. Impact sound insulation was determined according to ISO 10140-3 standard using both tapping machine and rubber ball as standard sound sources. Airborne sound insulation was determined according to the ISO 10140-2 standard. The data are special since they have a broad frequency range: 20−5000 Hz. Data are reported in 1/3-octave frequency bands and the single-number values of ISO 717-1 and ISO 717-2 are also reported. Detailed construction drawings are available for all reported constructions. The data are highly valuable for research, education, and development purposes since all data were obtained in the same laboratory (Turku University of Applied Sciences, Turku, Finland), and all the constructions were built by the same installation team. © 2023 The Authors

  • 266.
    Horjales, Ximena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Samskapande process för en ny stadsdel - Nya Remonthagen2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport introducerar stadsutvecklingsprojektet i Nya Remonthagen, som strävar efter att skapa en modern och hållbar stadsdel där interaktion, lärande och samverkan står i fokus. Projektet, genom Stiftelse Jamtli, har tagit på sig rollen som samverkansplattform och styr mot att involvera olika grupper i planeringsprocessen för att forma en gemensam mötesplats. Syftet med analysen är att förstå hur det iterativa samskapandet har påverkat projektets framgång, förtroendeuppbyggnad och engagemang från olika aktörer. För att förstå detta samskapande process delas rapporten i vision, tillvägagångsätt, resultat och slutsatser dessa leder till.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 267.
    Huang, Chen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ramachandra, Vasudev
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Modelling thermal runaway initiation and propagation for batteries in dwellings to evaluate tenability conditions2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal propagation is one of the major challenges when batteries will be used in dwellings in large scale. It means the exothermic reactions in the cell are out of control and can lead to a fast release of flammable and toxic gases. In a system involving a large number of cells, thermal runaway can rapidly propagate from one battery cell to the whole system, which means substantial fire and explosion risks, an event that is important to mitigate and prevent. Multi-physics simulations together with full-scale testing is a cost-effective method for designing safer batteries. This project aims at simulating thermal runaway initiation and propagation using a multi-physics commercial software GT-Suite. 

    A battery thermal runaway model containing 12 prismatic cells based on 3-D Finite Element approach was built using GT-Suite. The computed thermal runaway time instants versus thermal runaway cell number were compared with full-scale experimental data with reasonable agreement. Quantitative sensitivity study on the model input parameters and model space and time resolutions on the computed start time instant and time duration of thermal runaway were performed. The thermal runaway model was then extended with an electric equivalent sub-model to simulate the short circuit. With the electrical model acting as the input to the thermal model, the most interesting output of the simulation is the change in temperature of the cells, dependent on the current in the cells, with respect to time. The current is determined by the value of the external resistance through which the short takes place and the voltage level of the battery pack. The obtained results from the above short circuit simulations can only be used as a starting point and not as absolute values for neither triggering the thermal model nor for accurately simulating a battery under an electrical load. Furthermore, GT-Suite was applied to simulate the gas dispersion inside a room. A comparative study of the dispersion of toxic gases during thermal runaway, utilising an arbitrary release of HCN to represent the battery gases, in a small compartment with natural ventilation was investigated and the results compared the same situation simulated in FDS. The pipe based modelling supported by GT-Suite has limited applicability and overestimated the concentrations close to the ceiling whereas the lateral concentrations where underestimated. 

    The multi-physics model for battery thermal runaway process is promising and worth to be applied with care for designing safer batteries in combination with full-scale testing. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 268.
    Hult, Åsa
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Perjo, Liisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Smith, Göran
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Region Västra Götaland, Sweden; University of Sydney, Australia.
    Shared Mobility in Rural Contexts: Organizational Insights from Five Mobility-as-a-Service Pilots in Sweden2021Inngår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, nr 18, artikkel-id 10134Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a growing interest in using Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) as a tool to address rural transport problems, the question of how to organize such a concept remains unanswered. To address this knowledge gap, this article explores organizational elements of rural MaaS pilots. The analysis, which is based on participatory observation and interviews with actors involved in five pilots in rural areas of Sweden, reveals that the motives of the actors involved in rural MaaS both overlap with and diverge from the frequently stated objectives of urban MaaS developments. Both concepts center on complementing and extending public transport, but while urban MaaS is underpinned by the fight against climate change, congestion, and local pollution, the main objective of rural MaaS is to reduce transport poverty. The analysis, moreover, illustrates that despite the geographic differences, actors involved in rural MaaS pilots face similar organizational challenges as have been reported from urban MaaS developments. In both cases, actors struggle with finding their roles, mitigating uncertainties, distributing responsibilities, and negotiating business models. Finally, the analysis finds that rural MaaS puts higher expectations on user involvement than urban MaaS and identifies a risk that rural MaaS developments might contribute to spatial injustice since the studied pilots only supported rural communities with high social capital.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 269.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Quant, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Pramanik, Roshni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Olofsson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Electric Vehicle Fire Safety in Enclosed Spaces2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Lately, concerns regarding fires in electric vehicles in enclosed spaces such as in road tunnels and parking garages have been raised and there are indications that parking of electric vehicles may be prohibited in some spaces. For the success of electromobility and the transition from fossil to renewable fuels, it is important to understand the risks and consequences of fires in electric vehicles and to provide technical solutions if necessary, so as not to hinder the widespread adoption of electric vehicles.

    In this work, a literature review on fires in vehicles has been conducted. The focus was on fires in enclosed spaces involving electric vehicles. A comprehensive risk assessment of electric vehicle fires was performed using systematic hazard identification. In addition, a workshop with representatives from three Swedish fire and rescue services was carried out to evaluate the emergency rescue sheets/response guides.

    The main conclusions are; That statistics regarding vehicle fires need to be improved, as of today the root causes of fires are missing in the data, which could potentially result in non-fact based regulations; The data studied in this work does not imply that fires in electric vehicles are more common than fires in internal combustion engine vehicles; Fires in electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles are similar in regards to the fire intensity and peak heat release rates. 

    The most effective risk reductions measures on vehicle level, to decrease the number of fires in EVs, could not be defined based on that relevant data on the root causes of fires in EVs are currently not publicly accessible. The most effective risk reduction measures, to limit fire spread, on infrastructure level were the use of fire sprinkler systems, fire detection systems (early detection) and increased distance between parked vehicles.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Electric Vehicle Fire Safety in Enclosed Spaces
  • 270.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Quant, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Mallin, Tove
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Analysis of combustion gases and fire water run-offs from passenger vehicle fires2023Inngår i: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden , 2023Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the IEA Global EV Outlook 2022, Norway, Iceland, and Sweden were reported to have the highest electric car shares of the new car market: 86%, 72% and 43%, respectively. Electrification of the transport sector has multiple benefits but has also raised some concerns. Fires in electric vehicles are reported almost daily in the media and social media channels. However, fires starting in an electric vehicle traction battery (i.e., lithium-ion battery) are rare. If the traction battery catches fire, it can be difficult to extinguish since the battery pack in an electric vehicle is generally well protected and difficult to reach. To cool the battery cells, firefighters must prolong the application duration of suppression agent. This results in the use of large amounts of water, that potentially could carry pollutants into the environment. In this work, the analysis of extinguishing water from passenger vehicle fires are reported. Three large-scale vehicle fire tests were performed, the vehicles used were both conventional petrol fuelled and battery electric. Tests were performed indoors at RISE, Borås and the test setup allowed analysis of both combustion gases and extinguishing water. Results show that all analysed extinguishing water was highly contaminated. Additionally, the ecotoxicity analysis of the extinguishing water showed that the extinguishing water was highly toxic towards the tested aquatic species, independent of the traction energy of the vehicle.

  • 271.
    Hägg, Linus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Berg, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology Sweden.
    Finita elementberäkningar av KL-skivor i Matlab: Slutrapport2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den platt- och skivlösare som utvecklats inom projektet Träinnovation i Norr (TiiN) har vidareutvecklats för beräkning av ortotropa skivor och plattor. Den vidareutvecklade lösaren är att betrakta som ett steg på vägen mot det långsiktiga målet att utveckla en enkel men riktig platt- och skivlösare för KL-trä. Plattlösaren har med goda resultat verifierats mot såväl en konstruerad lösning som mot beräkningar i Abaqus. Det har tyvärr inte varit möjligt att inom ramen för projektet verifiera skivlösaren.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 272.
    Hörteborn, Axel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Allision modelling in IWRAP Mk II - A verification and sensitivity study2024Inngår i: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Collision and Grounding of Ships and Offshore Structures, ICCGS 2023, CRC Press/Balkema , 2024, s. 51-58Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessment is important both while planning to build new infrastructure and for maintenance of existing structures. The probability of ship-structure allisions could be estimated with IWRAP Mk II, which is a commonly used software for estimating maritime risks. However, the research coverage of the software is limited with regards to groundings and allisions. The aim of this study is to verify how IWRAP Mk II estimates the accident probability. To perform this verification a separate tool is constructed, OMRAT, based on the same theory as IWRAP Mk II. The aim is also to highlight the sensitivity of different parameters in these types of models. It is concluded that IWRAP Mk II estimates the probability of allisions and groundings with the same equations. Another conclusion is that some parameters have a linear effect on the accident probabilities and other parameters are also influenced by the model layout.

  • 273.
    Hörteborn, Axel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Allision modelling in IWRAP Mk II – A verification and sensitivity study: Chapter 82023Inngår i: Advances in the Collision and Grounding of Ships and Offshore Structures: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 9th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COLLISION AND GROUNDING OF SHIPS AND OFFSHORE STRUCTURES (ICCGS 2023), NANTES, FRANCE, 11-13 SEPTEMBER 2023, CRC Press, 2023, Vol. 12, s. 51-58Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessment is important both while planning to build new infrastructure and for maintenance of existing structures. The probability of ship-structure allisions could be estimated with IWRAP Mk II, which is a commonly used software for estimating maritime risks. However, the research coverage of the software is limited with regards to groundings and allisions. The aim of this study is to verify how IWRAP Mk II estimates the accident probability. To perform this verification a separate tool is constructed, OMRAT, based on the same theory as IWRAP Mk II. The aim is also to highlight the sensitivity of different parameters in these types of models. It is concluded that IWRAP Mk II estimates the probability of allisions and groundings with the same equations. Another conclusion is that some parameters have a linear effect on the accident probabilities and other parameters are also influenced by the model layout.

  • 274.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Metoder för att testa dukar och membran i tunnlar och bergrum2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Tunnel and rock lining systems are used for drainage and icing protection. These systems can consist of any combination of concrete, metal, plastic or textile. The report summaries the available methods, both for testing and for installation. The large variation in both systems and test methods often make it difficult for constructors or designer to understand the importance of different methods. The report gives indication of what type of linings exists and how to ensure the fire safety of such systems. Fire safety properties can be verified in three different ways: #1 Full systems can be tested in full scale fire tests, #2 a section of the system can be tested in standardized furnace tests, or #3 plastic and/or textile membrane can be tested with regards to requirements on fire spread. It is suggested to require that a fire should not be able to propagate in the system. This can be verified with #3 above requiring class B, C or D according to EN 13501-1. If the lining system offers structural fire protection, it can be verified suing #2 above.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 275.
    Ioannou, Ioanna
    et al.
    University College London, UK.
    Aspinall, Willy
    University College London, UK.
    Bouffier, Christian
    INERIS, France.
    Carreira, Elisabete
    INOV, Portugal.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Strukturer och Komponenter.
    Lange, David
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Melkunaite, Laura
    DBI, Denmark.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Rosetto, Tiziana
    University College London, UK.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Teixeira, Rui
    DAS Divisão de Águas e Saneamento, Portugal.
    IMPROVER D2.1 Methodology for identifying hazard scenarios to assess  the resilience of critical infrastructure2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical infrastructure is exposed to a wide range of hazards, capable to disrupt its operations in various degrees. This raises the question of which hazard scenario an operator shall use to assess the resilience of their critical infrastructure asset. Various techniques aiming to prioritize the various risks are commonly used in the literature. This study proposed an 8-step methodology, which aims to rank the risks of pre-defined hazard scenarios by eliciting the opinions of the stakeholders through a structured expert elicitation technique termed paired comparison. The novelty of the proposed technique is its ability to quantify the degree of disagreement regarding the ranking order of the scenarios and thus to capture the uncertainty associated with these risks.

     

    The proposed methodology has been applied to four living labs, namely: the Oresund region, the port of Oslo, the A31 Highway in France and the potable water network in Barreiro. The applications aims to rank scenarios of natural and operational hazards according to their disaster- and emergency-risk. Despite the small number of participants, the results provide an excellent basis for further discussion regarding the most likely disaster or emergency risk scenarios. For most living labs, the ranking of the hazards using paired comparison was successful in identifying the scenarios associated with the highest risk. Overall, ranking the natural hazards according to their disaster- or emergency-risk has been associated with a higher degree of consensus than the ranking of the operational hazards reflecting on the higher complexity and perhaps the limited understanding of the later.

     

    In more detail, snow storm is the hazard with the highest disaster risk for the A31 Highway. Similarly, earthquake is the hazard with the highest disaster risk for the water network in Barreiro. Three meteorological hazards ranked the highest for both the likelihood to occur and to cause disaster to the Øresund region. By contrast, the ranking of the hazards for the port of Oslo identified several scenarios with similar likelihood to cause disaster, which ranked very different in their likelihood to occur in the next 5 years. This raises question as to whether the most of least likely to occur scenarios is most suitable which can be answered in collaboration with the stakeholders.

     

    With regard to the operational hazards, the contamination of the water in the water source or the distribution network due to an accident at the high-risk industrial SEVECO operations has been identified as the single scenario with the highest risk of disaster for the water network in Barreiro. Three events including a multiple day strike and two accidents in the wet bulk terminal have been identified as having the highest disaster risk for the port of Oslo. By contrast, no operational hazards can be identified as having the highest risk of occurrence for the A31 highway and the Øresund region

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    IMPROVER D2.1
  • 276.
    Isaksson, Sven
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bergentall, Martina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Sensor-Based Hygiene Monitoring in Restrooms and Related Areas – A Review2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Cleaning, cleanliness, and hygiene are all undeniably central factors in human well-being, impacting both sensory experiences and the mitigation of infection spread. With the ongoing societal shift towards increased digitalization and automation, there is a growing interest in leveraging technology to rationalize and improve cleaning processes. Cleaning management systems utilizing connected sensors have emerged to optimize cleaning schedules in diverse settings such as restaurants, healthcare facilities, offices, shops, warehouses, and public spaces. This literature review report explores the vast landscape of publications addressing the topic of sensors that may provide viable data for decision-making algorithms in cleaning management systems. It also includes a few illustrating examples of commercially available sensors, as well as a list of some cleaning management systems on the market that employ sensors and data. Such systems may for instance exploit consumption data, detect visitor presence, and are often utilizing gas sensors. Gas sensors, being able to measure air quality, are maybe of particular interest for improving cleaning of restrooms. Some may be able to detect pure gases (like carbon dioxide), some react to several gases, and some are able to capture complex odours. Literature indicates that advancements in nano materials will likely lead to stable, energy-efficient gas sensors with increased sensitivity and selectivity. Electronic noses, arrays of gas sensors trained by algorithms, enable detection of complex odours and may enhance the selectivity of gas sensors. However, challenges persist, urging the need for continued improvement in gas sensor technology and smell sensing solutions, especially if to be integrated into Internet of Things (IoT) solutions. The review outlines various principles underlying gas sensors, emphasizing the preference for stable, low-energy technologies in IoT applications. While chemiresistive sensors exhibit promise, historical limitations in their sensitivity and selectivity have led to preferring other principles for certain applications, such as non-dispersive infrared and photoacoustic spectroscopy sensors. The review also describes technologies available for detecting other phenomena, including optical, ultrasound, and radar sensors. It is also underscored the potential in combining multiple sensor technologies to comprehensively assess soiling, tailored to specific environmental contexts. Despite significant progress, literature indicates that much work remains to fully exploit the capabilities of these integrated techniques for timely and efficient cleaning in diverse settings.

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  • 277.
    Jabbari, Mona
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. CitUpia AB, Sweden.
    Fonseca, Fernando
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Smith, Göran
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. University of Sydney Business School, Australia.
    Conticelli, Elisa
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Tondelli, Simona
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Ribeiro, Paulo
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Papageorgiou, George
    European University Cyprus, Cyprus.
    Ramos, Rui
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    The Pedestrian Network Concept: A Systematic Literature Review2023Inngår i: Journal of Urban Mobility, ISSN 2667-0917, Vol. 3, artikkel-id 100051Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of urban spaces that foster sustainable practices requires new analytical and structural approaches to spatial planning. An appropriate pedestrian network could significantly contribute to sustainable urban development goals, particularly by promoting sustainable mobility and pedestrian friendliness. With such goals, several attempts have been made to develop suitable models for pedestrian networks. However, something that is missing from the current literature is a framework that incorporates the main findings of the various studies as an integrated concise concept of the pedestrian network. To address this knowledge gap, this paper reviews studies on pedestrian networks and evaluates this concept based on the systematic 3W1H analysis method, which asks where, what, who, and how. In essence, the following questions are thus analyzed: Where is the pedestrian network located, What criteria play a role in the pedestrian network's performance, Who uses the pedestrian network, and How can the pedestrian network be analyzed? In this context, a systematic literature review is carried out by investigating studies conducted during the period 2001 to 2023 that appear in the Scopus database. The paper presents the results of the review of a selection of 67 papers dealing with pedestrian networks. Findings show that different models have been developed based on particular characteristics. Overall, researchers aimed to identify the most suitable network based on specific criteria for optimizing the walking experience in urban areas. By synthesizing the findings reported in these papers, this paper arguably contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of pedestrian networks, provides insights into the prioritization of design phases, facilitates the use of pedestrian network assessment models for future research, and creates a bigger picture for urban planners with a multidimensional view to a new sustainable urban structure.

  • 278.
    Jacobson, Jan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Westgaard Berg, Kari
    Lörenskog Kommune, Norway.
    Bügel, Daniel
    Kunnskapsbyen Lilleström, Norway.
    Flink, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Thorsén, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Tornvall, Charlotta
    Borås Stad, Sweden.
    Lie Venjum, Mari
    Lörenskog Kommune, Norway.
    Självkörande bussar i stadstrafik - förstudie2018Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Automated road transport is regarded as a key enabler for sustainable transport. One example is the use of small automated buses as a supplement to already existing public transport services. There are several manufacturers of these kind of buses, and field trials are in progress.

    The goal of the pre-project is to evaluate the feasibility and criteria for transport with automated buses in two middle-sized Nordic municipalities, Lørenskog in Norway and Borås in Sweden, by analyzing at least two different test-cases in each location. Feasibility, adaptation to existing traffic and conditions for public acceptance are described. The pre-project concludes that automated buses are possible in these two municipalities. Further test and demonstrations should be made.

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  • 279.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Direct shear tests on large natural and artificially induced rock fractures in a new laboratory equipment2023Inngår i: Proceedings of the ISRM 15th International Congress on Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering & 72nd Geomechanics Colloquium: Challenges in Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering / [ed] Schubert, W. & Kluckner, A., Salzburg: Austrian Society for Geomechanics , 2023, s. 2709-2714, artikkel-id 1827Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A direct shear equipment for testing rock fractures up to 400×600 mm size, and up to 5 MN force in both normal and shear loading directions, was developed. Normal loading and direct shear tests under constant normal stiffness (CNS) and constant normal load (CNL) conditions were conducted on 300×500 mm specimens, one planar steel joint and two natural and two tensile induced rock fractures. Design targets, e.g. system to maintain undisturbed fractures up to testing and high system stiffnesses to achieve well-controlled shear tests, were verified by the experiments. A new optical system for local deformation measurements was used to accurately determine fracture displacements besides conventional non-local deformation measurements. The determined normal stiffnesses were similar previous results from the literature on smaller fractures, whereas the shear stiffness data are novel. The results provide a new insight into processes at the onset of fracture slip.

  • 280.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Mas-Ivars, Diego
    Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kasani, Hossein A
    Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Canada.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    MEKANISKA EGENSKAPER HOS STORABERGSPRICKOR2024Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Experimentella undersökningar av skjuvegenskaperna hos bergsprickor i hårt berg har generellt fokuserat på mindre sprickprover för normalspänningar på upp till 20 MPa, representativa för ett kärnbränsleförvar på ca 400 meters djup. Vid stora sprickprover har skjuvegenskaperna generellt bestämts för låga spänningar, på någon eller några MPa. För att få en förståelse för inverkan av sprickornas storlek för skjuvegenskaperna vid höga normalspänningar är det avgörande att genomföra skjuvförsök på stora bergsprickor (> 200 mm) i hårt berg under höga normalspänningar. I projektet Parameterization of Fractures, POST (2014–2016), studerades skaleffekterna genom in situ-försök, småskaliga skjuvförsök och beräkningssimuleringar. Det konstaterades att laboratorieexperiment under kontrollerade förhållanden och på stora bergprover är nödvändiga för att få tillförlitliga resultat. Det konstaterades också att in-situ-försök är komplexa med stora underliggande osäkerheter och är samtidigt kostsamma. I det pågående projektet POST 2 som startade 2017 har bergsprickor på upp till 500 mm provats i en ny unik laboratorieutrustning, jämte provning av mindre sprickor, vid höga normalspänningar för både CNL och CNS förhållanden och med ny mätteknik. Teknik för att tillverka replikaprover av bergsprickor har utvecklats och provats med syfte att göra lastparameterstudier. Kvaliteten hos geometriavbildningen hos replikaproverna och sprickornas geometrier har uppmätts med högupplöst skanning. I denna artikel presenteras en del av resultaten från projektet. Resultaten från projektet är tillämpbara för andra områden med undermarkskonstruktioner såsom projektering av tunnlar och bergrum för infrastrukturprojekt och gruvor.

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  • 281.
    Jacobsson, Mikael
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Betongskador i vattenverk2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten ger en översikt över betongskador i svenska vattenverk. Den presenterarbilder på typiska betongskador, hur de kan uppstå och var man kanhitta dem i vattenreningsprocessen. Den ska inspirera vattenverkens personalatt lägga märke till betongskador i tid. Detta för att undvika mycketgenomgripande reparationer av allvarligare skador i framtiden.Betong är det i särklass vanligaste materialet i svenska vattenverk. Det ärmycket hållfast, men det finns det flera kemiska och fysikaliska processersom påverkar materialet negativt. Nedbrytningen av betongen kan ses påbassängernas sidor, både våta och torra. Men det är inte helt ovanligt att skadoruppstår även inuti en betongkonstruktion utan att det syns på utsidan.Oavsett var skadorna börjar kan tillsynes obetydliga betongskador göra attkonstruktionens bärighet försämras avsevärt.De flesta vattenverk lider av likartade betongskador. Yterosion och urlakningav betongytan är de vanligaste formerna av synliga betongskador påden våta sidan. På den torra sidan är det vanligare med armeringskorrosion,sprickbildning och läckage. De skador som är vanligast inuti en betongkonstruktionär expansion, korrosion och svartrost. Svartrost bildas när armeringsjärnkorroderar under syrefattiga förhållanden. Den expanderar intepå samma sätt som annan rost utan kan fylla ut håligheter i betongen utanatt det syns på ytan. De inre skadorna är särskilt allvarliga eftersom det kanvara svårt att observera dem utan att det görs en utförlig tillståndsbedömning.Inre skador kan på sikt göra att hela konstruktionens bärighet gårförlorad. Därför är det viktigt att regelbundet låta undersöka betongkonstruktionerna.Projektet genomfördes av CBI Betonginstitutet, som utför åtskilliga tillståndsbedömningarpå betongkonstruktioner i Sverige varje år. I många fallvisar det sig att konstruktionerna är i relativt dåligt skick. Troligen beror detpå att de flesta skador utvecklas mycket långsamt och gradvis. Dessutomär vattenverkspersonalen inte alltid medveten om hur betongskador kan seut eller hur allvarliga de kan vara. Om medvetenheten hos personalen höjdesskulle troligen många betongskador upptäckas tidigare och reparationerskulle kunna sättas in innan skadorna har blivit allvarliga och kostsammaatt åtgärda.Även om en skada upptäcks behöver den inte alltid repareras direkt.I stället bör man om man hittar en skada låta en betongexpert utföra entillståndsbedömning på konstruktionen. Det innebär att man undersökeromfattningen av konstruktionens skador, om de behöver repareras omedelbarteller senare, vilken form av reparation som bör utföras och med vilkamaterial. Man kan också få rekommendationer om hur den reparerade konstruktionenkan skyddas i fortsättningen. Om en reparation inte behöverutföras direkt bör i stället konstruktionen övervakas med vissa tidsintervall.

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  • 282.
    Jagerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Zissis, Georges
    Université Toulouse Iii, France.
    Merschbrock, Christoph
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Sweden.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    EU ecodesign requirements for waste handling of lighting: perspectives from France and Sweden2022Inngår i: 2022 Joint Conference - 11th International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Domestic Appliances and Lighting and 17th International Symposium on the Science and Technology of Lighting, EEDAL/LS:17 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Circular economy is becoming an important topic for lighting design, research, and industry. Recent legislation, like the EU's ecodesign regulation, has established circularity, reparability, and recyclability as requirements for the industry. This article investigates what happens at the end-of-life stages of lighting products through questionnaires and interviews conducted with experts in Sweden and France. The focus is on understand the impact of the new EU requirements on industrial practice in France and Sweden. Moreover, the article provides ideas for practical improvement of both product recyclability and waste handling of luminaires and light sources.

  • 283.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Development and application of a novel AR-tool being used in energy renovations2022Inngår i: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. Volume 1085, Issue 1, 2022, Article number 012059, Page 61DUMMY, Institute of Physics , 2022, nr 1Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of the buildings in Sweden were constructed before national energy codes became effective. Although performing energy renovations and/or energy-related maintenances can significantly improve the energy performance of these buildings, the energy renovation rate is very low in Sweden. The low energy renovation rate is associated with various challenges including lack of technical drawings to specify the position of hidden objects and lack of information about material specifications. An augmented reality (AR) tool was therefore developed to not only locate the position of hidden objects but also create IFC files being used by BIM management systems. The tool was later applied in real practice to evaluate its effectiveness in detecting hidden objects. The analyses of results showed that the application of the AR tool in energy renovations and/or energy efficiency-related maintenances can be beneficial as it could successfully locate hidden objects. However, the application of the AR-tool had different limitations related to the sensitivity of sensors in detecting hidden objects, connections between the software programs and hardware devices to integrate the digital information into the real-life environment, and finally time required for setting up the AR tool. 

  • 284.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Drivers and barrios in using augmented reality in renovation projects - literature review2022Inngår i: E3S Web Conf. Volume 362, 2022, 2022, Vol. 362Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases is of utter importance for the mitigation of climate change mitigation. In Sweden, the building and service sector is responsible for 21% of total greenhouse gas. Renovating existing buildings, more specifically those which were constructed before 1980, can significantly contribute to the reduction in energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases. Because the majority of these buildings are in need for renovation. But the energy renovation and energy efficiency-related maintenance rate in Sweden is very low due to lack of technical drawings and documentation of information about material specifications and structure systems. Adoption of augmented reality technologies can be beneficial as these technologies present digital information in the context of the physical environment. However, the level of adoption of these technologies in renovation and maintenance projects is still very low. This paper expands the technology acceptance model to evaluate determinants of users’ acceptance of augmented reality technologies in renovation and maintenance projects.

  • 285.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Nordlöf, Beatrice
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Multifunktionella klimatanpassningsåtgärder -Ansvar, arbetssätt och utmaningar2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Multifunctional climate adaptation measures – Responsibilities, cooperation and challenges Climate adaptation measures within already built-up urban environments is complex, due to several factors. A large number of actors are required for success, but both the responsibility of each actor and the distribution of responsibility between these actors are unclear. Success depends to a large extent on the ability to cooperate between the various actors operating in an area. This project uses interviews, co-production and literature studies to describe the challenges, identify blockages and support the collaboration between the various parties. The project identified uncertainties regarding the laws required to manage climate adaptation measures in built-up urban environments that we needed to address. This resulted in an expansion of the project with a focus on the law around climate risks regarding socially important activities which is presented in Climate adaptation of socially important activities – legal challenges, RISE report 2024:14, ISBN 978-91- 89896-59-8 written by Jenny Lundahl (2024). A newly created collaboration model is presented here focusing on the startup phase. It is supplemented with tips on methods and tools that can facilitate the work, and a description of different ways to sort how to single out responsibilities and where the cost for the measures taken will be localized.

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  • 286.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Genell, Anders
    VTI, Sweden.
    Askemar, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Hur påverkar hälsoeffekter planeringen avelektrifierade byggarbetsplatser?2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    How does health and environment affect electrification of working sites? Electrification of construction sites mainly relates to climate emissions, but the local environment is also affected through reduced emissions of exhaust gases and engine noise. This work presents a way to take into account both noise and air pollution in the choice of which work machines should be electrified in the first place. The work is based on interviews and literature about emissions from different types of work machines, about how decisions about which work machines are used in different types of contracts are made, as well as current legislation about noise and air pollution and the exposure that people are at risk of being exposed to in different situations. The project also presents a first draft of a model to be able to compare different working equipment, but does not go into how noise and exhaust gases should be valued between each other, nor on emission factors for the combustion engines that the electric work machines are expected to replace. Instead, the focus is on identifying the decision-making paths and aligning the various expert areas of noise and air in the choice of which work machine should be prioritized for electrification.

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  • 287.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Genell, Anders
    VTI, Sweden.
    Val av vägbeläggning : Hur påverkas buller, partiklar (vägdamm) och rullmotstånd?2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Pavement choice - effects on noise, road dust and rolling resistance.

    A literature review of environmental effects related to the choice of road pavement is presented here, starting from noise-reduced pavements, and with a focus on non-exhaust particles, as a great deal of research is being performed in the area of road dust. A simple description of pavements based on the Swedish Transport Administration's requirements introduces the description of the relationship between pavements and the three areas of noise, road dust and rolling resistance. The conclusions are that environmental aspects are important to address already when choosing the pavement. There is great potential to limit the negative environmental effects through pavement choices, especially if simpler connections can be made, e.g. using the ideas we present in this report. We recommend further research on functional relationships, especially in the particle domain where the relationships between pavement and emissions of non-exhaust particles is seldom quantified. The relationships between pavement and each of the parameters; noise; non-exhaust particles; and rolling resistance, need to be modelled to be able to understand the processes fully, preferably including friction. Road dust also creates a risk of reducing the acoustic life of porous pavements, i.e. a type of pavement reducing noise emissions. Including the resuspension of road dust in the emissions is of great importance to increase the possibilities of using pavement choices to limit road dust emissions. A first detailed description is published in this report.

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  • 288.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Lööf, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Lane, Anna-Lena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Normkritik och samarbeten inom fastighetsautomation2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Norms, gender and collaboration in proptech Here, an engineering approach to norm criticism is used to study a male-dominated interdisciplinary digitization project in the area of prop tech. In property automation (prop tech) the participants are in principle exclusively men, and thus the platforms and program development that will be the basis for all prop tech development are coded in a male context. There are also major challenges, as in most interdisciplinary groups, where the balance of power is often skewed through different norms. The project has mainly addressed challenges due to the interdisciplinary groups, while the gender perspective has been given less focus. The focus on norms has been assigned a full work package, with a similar budget as the other work packages focused on other areas and the norm work package has interacted very closely with all parts of the project, including the more technical ones. In this way, the norm critics has created a platform of its own in the project, based on how a norm critical analysis could be offered to help other work packages in their tasks. Based on the work on norms; discussions, workshops and surveys have been supplemented with interviews, in close collaboration with other work packages. Through the norm-critical analysis, different groups, both within the project and in the industry around prop tech, have been identified. Differences between these groups relate to understanding of different types of technology, priorities, communication and balance of power. Norm criticism has been a way of supporting the entire project in both the expansion of business models and interaction between the various scientific areas that are part of the project. The norm criticism has been well received by the project group and many are aware that the industry is facing a change that requires new ways of thinking, new business models and new collaboration models. There is a new awareness in both the conversations within the project and the surveys and interviews based on the understanded need to see multiple perspectives. This awareness has also been used to broaden the business model. The understanding that it is more difficult to see the order of power for those who belong to the prioritized group has also increased. At the same time, we see a large effect of personal, or corporate, interest in norm criticism, which strongly influences how respondents react to the questions about norm criticism. The project shows that the method of using norm criticism in collaborative processes between different groups has been successful.

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  • 289.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Strandberg, Bo
    Lund University, Sweden; Region Skåne, Sweden.
    Wallqvist, Viveca
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Lund University, Sweden.
    A new method and first results for comparing emissions of fumes during construction of asphalt surfaces2024Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 422, artikkel-id 135736Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel laboratory methodology for analysing hot asphalt fumes from various paving materials is presented and evaluated. This method facilitates comparative assessments, aiming to enhance occupational safety for asphalt workers and ensure safe implementation of new paving materials. Comparative analyses of emissions to air were conducted on standard asphalt and rubber-modified asphalt at different temperatures. The temperature significantly influences PAH emissions. Rubber-modified asphalt demonstrated higher PAH emissions at equivalent temperatures compared to standard asphalt, predominantly naphthalene. Even heavier PAHs as benzo(a)pyrene were occasionally high. Notably, at recommended working temperatures the standard asphalt resulted in higher emissions, comprising heavier PAHs compared to rubber asphalt. © 2024 The Authors

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  • 290.
    Jarnerö, Kirsi
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Lindström, Tom ()
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Digitalisering/robotisering–utvecklingsfronten för trä-/hybridmaterial i byggande: 4 besöksrapporter från studieresa till Schweiz 13-15/3 2019 med besök påuniversitet, högskolor, forskningsinstitut samt företag2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 291.
    Jarnerö, Kirsi
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Schirén, Whokko
    Linnéuniversity, Sweden.
    Bjälklagsvibrationer – Vad innebär den nya EK5?2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Floor vibrations – Implications of the new EC5? This report presents the design methodology principles for the revised section for the control of vibrations in wooden floors, as well as the proposal for dividing timber floors into performance levels and quality selection, as found in Eurocode 5 With the aim of presenting how different floors commonly used in Sweden performs with respect to the new methodology, the results from a limited parameter study are presented. A total of eight different floor types were examined, including floor structures with load-bearing beams made of structural timber, glulam, LVL, and I-joists. The study also looked at rib joists with T-beams made of glulam combined with an LVL board, as well as floor structures with a load bearing CLT board. The following parameters were varied to study effect on the stiffness of the structures: • the centre distance between beams • the web height of the beam cross-section for rib-floor slabs, • thickness of load bearing CLT board. The maximum span for each floor structure was decided by finding the maximum span for each floor structure which meets the ultimate limit state and the serviceability limit state conditions, both with respect to deformations and vibrations for residential and office buildings set by the new EC5. The stiffness of each floor was then increased to study the effect of stiffness on the performance levels. Response factors were calculated for each case. Note! Direct comparison of the floor structures is not possible since the calculations are based on different span widths for each floor type. Since the calculations are based on each floor type’s unique conditions, it is not possible to compare the floor structures directly. Instead, comparisons must be made based on how a variation in stiffness affects the performance level of each individual floor type. The parameter study shows that for the light floor structures with discrete beams, spacing the beams closer changes the response factor slightly but it typically stays within the values for performance level V, i.e. between 24 and 36. For the other floor structures, rib floor and CLT, increasing the stiffness resulted in a larger change in performance and some floors changed floor performance level. The performance levels and quality choices introduced in the new methodology for checking vibrations in timber floors, makes it easier and clearer for clients and builders to achieve a consensus on what vibration comfort to expect in the finished building. This is an opportunity to reduce the risk of complaints and avoid having to take action to correct a perceived lack of quality. The current advice in the national annex for the Eurocode EKS12 specifies that the deflection for a 1 kN point load is limited to 1.5 mm, which corresponds to the upper deflection limit for performance level V. Performance level V is the worst performance level allowed for the quality choice ‘Economy’ for offices and homes in multi-family buildings. This means that the proposal on quality choice does not provide any tightening compared to the Swedish requirement in EKS12. However, the fact that performance level VI is allowed for dwellings in single-family houses with an upper limit value for deflection of 2.0 mm suggests that the proposal mitigates the requirement contained in EKS12.

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    fulltext
  • 292.
    Javadi, Hossein
    et al.
    Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain.
    Urchueguía, Javier F.
    Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain.
    Badenes, Borja
    Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain.
    Mateo, Miguel Á.
    Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain.
    Nejad Ghafar, Ali
    Implenia Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Arun Chaudhari, Ojas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Zirgulis, Giedrius
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Lemus, Lenin G
    Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain.
    Laboratory and numerical study on innovative grouting materials applicable to borehole heat exchangers (BHE) and borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) systems2022Inngår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 194, s. 788-804Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a laboratory-scale prototype of a borehole field has been designed and built to assess various innovative grouting products in a fully controlled environment. Three novel grout formulations are developed and evaluated: enhanced grout, a mixture of enhanced grout and microencapsulated phase change material, and a mixture of enhanced grout and shape stabilized phase change material. The objective is to evaluate the enhancement in their thermal properties (i.e., thermal conductivity and thermal energy storage capacity) compared to those using a commercial reference grout. Besides, three-dimensional numerical modeling is performed to provide a better understanding of the heat transfer and phase transition inside and outside the grout columns and to study the capability of the developed grouts to be used in a borehole heat exchanger or as borehole thermal energy storage system. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there have been just a few numerical studies on using phase change materials inside borehole heat exchangers to assess thermal energy storage applications. The experimental and numerical results showed much higher efficiency of the grout developed with a high thermal conductivity than the reference grout in terms of heat transfer in both the grout column and the surrounding sand. Furthermore, the results indicated the noticeable influence of the microencapsulated phase change material's presence in the grout formulation in terms of heat absorption/storage during the phase transition (from solid to liquid). However, it is concluded that reengineering shape stabilized phase change material should be conducted to make it more appropriate for thermal energy storage applications.

  • 293.
    Joborn, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Linköping University. Sweden.
    KAJT Projektkatalog 2024-03-31: BRANSCHPROGRAMKAPACITET I JÄRNVÄGSTRAFIKEN2024Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Sammanställning av aktuella projekt inom Branschprogram Kapacitet i järnvägstrafiken (KAJT).

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 294.
    Joborn, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Ranjbar, Zohreh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Effekter av tidiga och sena godståg2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förseningsbidrag, kritiska störningar och småförseningar är nya mätetal som skapats för att förtydliga sambandet mellan störningar under ett tågs färd och dess slutliga punktlighet. I denna rapport beskriver vi dels hur man kan generalisera de nya mätetalen till att kunna appliceras på godståg som ofta är före tidtabellen. Resultat visar att för att öka punktligheten för godståg är det också viktigt att beakta de delar av resorna då tågen ligger före sin tidtabell, eftersom tappad tid även då kan göra att tågen till slut ”trillar över punktlighetskanten’’. Vidare belyser vi hur de tidiga (och sena) godstågen påverkar andra tåg genom en fallstudie på Godsstråket Mjölby-Luleå för tåg under oktober 2019, och resultaten indikerar att de tidiga tågen inte bidrar till opunktlighet utan de nyttjas i operativ trafik för att prioritera andra tåg för att snabba upp andra tågs resor.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 295.
    Joborn, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Ranjbar, Zohreh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Effektsamband mellan störningar och punktlighet för resandetåg2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förseningsbidrag, kritiska störningar och småförseningar är nya mätetal som skapats för att förtydliga sambandet mellan störningar under ett tågs färd och dess punktlighet. I denna rapport analyserar vi effektsamband mellan störningstid och punktlighet med hjälp av förseningsbidrag för några resandetågslinjer i Sverige.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 296.
    Joborn, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Wahlborg, Magnus
    Trafikverket, Sweden.
    KAJT Projektkatalog 2023-03-31: BRANSCHPROGRAMKAPACITET I JÄRNVÄGSTRAFIKEN2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanställning av aktuella projekt inom Branschprogram Kapacitet i järnvägstrafiken (KAJT).

  • 297.
    Jockwer, Robert
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Norbäck, Viktor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Ziethén, Rune
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Dölerud, Erik
    Modvion AB, Sweden.
    Naveda, Leo Anderson
    Modvion AB, Sweden.
    Åkerström, Carl-Johan
    Modvion AB, Sweden.
    FATIGUE RESISTANCE OF ADHESIVE BONDED CONNECTIONS WITH AND WITHOUT INTERNAL STEEL PLATES IN LARGE TIMBER STRUCTURES2023Inngår i: World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2023), 2023, s. 2118-2124Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A modular wooden wind turbine tower has been developed by the Swedish company Modvion AB, where the prefabricated modular elements are connected by glued timber-timber edge joints and by hybrid timber joints with bonded-in perforated steel plates. The application of wood-based products in such a demanding application and highperformance structure is challenging and a variety of questions had to be solved to ensure a reliable performance. The fatigue performance of the adhesive bonded connections has been evaluated in a research project and is presented in this paper. Test specimens of the fatigue resistance of the adhesive and the bond line has been developed. Different stress ratios with alternating loads and high numbers of load cycles have been tested. The results of the tests are presented in this paper.

  • 298.
    Johannesdottir, Solveig L
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Harder, Robin
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Recovery and reuse of plant nutrients in human excreta and domestic wastewater : Mapping the implementation in practice in Sweden2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 299.
    Johansson, Magnus
    et al.
    VTI, Sweden.
    Vierth, Inge
    VTI, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Cullinane, Kevin
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The climate and environmental effects of policies for moving freight transport from road to other modes: The case of Sweden2024Inngår i: Case Studies on Transport Policy, ISSN 2213-624X, E-ISSN 2213-6258, Vol. 15, artikkel-id 101151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to determine how policy instruments which aim to achieve a modal shift of long-haul freight transport from road to rail or sea affect the direct emissions to air of greenhouse gases, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxides, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter. The analysis is conducted in two stages. First, a range of forecasts reflecting different assumptions are applied using the Swedish national freight transport model (SAMGODS) to derive a range of possible future developments of emissions levels up to 2030 and 2040. This has involved determining emission factors per tonne-km for each of the SAMGODS model's six road freight vehicle types, eleven freight train variants and 22 ship types. The model outcomes are then compared to those of the base year of 2017. Second, the effects of two hypothetical modal shift policy instruments are analyzed with respect to their potential impact on emissions to air. The effects of these two policy instruments are evaluated for the base-year of 2017 and for the 2030 and 2040 forecasts. The paper also analyzes whether the Swedish climate objective for domestic transport in 2030 can be expected to be fulfilled given different forecasts and policy instruments. Within the context of a predicted large increase in total freight tonne-km (between 31 and 53%), emissions of greenhouse gases are calculated to decrease by 50 to 60% by 2040. This means that the Swedish freight transport sector will not achieve its share of greenhouse gas emissions reductions necessary to attain the national climate objective of a 70% reduction by 2030. Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) are forecast to reduce by between 60 and 75%, emissions of sulfur dioxides to reduce by between 41 and 50%, emissions of volatile organic compounds to increase by 8 to 30% and emissions of particulate matter (from exhaust and tyre/road wear) are calculated to increase by between 13 and 33%. Using modal shift policy instruments to achieve greenhouse gas reductions is calculated to attain worse results over time, by 2040 it might even be counterproductive. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 300.
    Johansson, Marie
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Prefabricerade ytterväggselement för KL-trästommar2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Prefabricated external wall elements for CLT systems

    This is a first pre-study to how building with cross-laminated timber (CLT) as a frame system in buildings could be made more efficient using prefabricated exterior wall elements as frame completion for CLT buildings. In carrying out this study, CLT building in Sweden as a rule involves an efficient frame erection of the CLT elements, but with a relatively slow phase to assemble the exterior frame completion. External frame completion of CLT buildings is usually carried out on construction scaffolding, where the layers of insulation and surface layer are built up on site. Prefabrication of the outer layers of the CLT frame that is lifted into place has the potential to save a lot of labor time and thus costs. The report presents requirements and practical aspects that must be taken into account in order for prefabricated exterior wall elements to be feasible in terms of requirements and in practice. The purpose of the report has also been to give tips, inspiration and ideas to consider when producing prefabricated exterior wall elements. In the study, an example solution has been developed with the aim of being wood based to as high degree as possible. The result shows that with relatively simple means it is possible to build a prefabricated wall element that meets established requirements. It is desirable that the outer wall elements are hung in place with the minimum possible finishing work on the facade. When it comes to the division of external wall elements, it is practical to follow a similar division and measurements as for the CLT boards to facilitate handling, assembly and lifting. It should be avoided to have sockets (window panes, door holes and the like) that are broken in its interface between the external wall elements to facilitate uniformity in the dimensioning of the elements. The study shows that it is realistic to create prefabricated exterior wall elements for CLT frames.

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