Change search
Refine search result
3456789 251 - 300 of 429
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 251.
    Lundgren, Monica
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Babaahmadi, Arezou
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    State-of-the-Art Report on: Material Type, Requirements and Durability aspects of Sprayed Concrete in Tunnels2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report summarizes a state-of-the-art for sprayed concrete applied for ground support in tunnel environments, in Sweden and several European countries, with focus on the components, the mix design and the guidelines and specifications. It focuses also on the addition of supplementary cementitious materials (SCM), where the use, the common practice and the long-term experience vary from country to country. The report presents numerous examples of applications in Sweden and seven other European countries. It also gives an overview about the possible exposure risks and summarizes the relevant durability issues. Along with specifications in international standards and guidelines it also reviews the national requirements in Sweden, Norway, Finland, Austria, France, Germany and Switzerland.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 252.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Hedenstedt, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jones, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Boström, Sara
    Sweco, Sweden.
    Rekommendation för proaktivt brandskyddsarbete2019Report (Other academic)
  • 253.
    Lööf, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Innovation platsforms: why, how and by whom?2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The complex challenges of today - ranging from social divisions to global warming - are difficult to handle by existing organisations, formed from a logic more suited for tasks and problems that can be clearly defined and divided. In recent years, innovation has often been emphasised as the key to managing complex societal challenges. Various forms of innovation efforts have become increasingly common. For example, investments in development and testing of new technical solutions in areas such as ICT, mobility and sustainable construction, but also solutions with social focus developed for and by the user such as more equal public space and services for sustainable lifestyles. It has become more common to work with concepts such as test beds and ‘living labs’, using design thinking and an experimental methodology in order to develop new solutions and innovation.

    The aim of this brochure is to offer an introduction to the concept of Innovation Platforms. What is an Innovation Platform, how it can be set up and function, and what a city or municipality might gain from working this way? This brochure is based on experiences from several national projects, such as the Swedish six year-long project Innovation Platforms for Sustainable, Attractive Cities (VINNOVA, 2013- 2019), with research overview from the RUGGEDISED-project and giving examples from both The Hague and Rotterdam in the Netherlands and Borås, Kiruna and Lund in Sweden.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 254.
    Macura, Biljana
    et al.
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Johannesdottir, Solveig
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Piniewski, Mikolaj
    Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland.
    Haddaway, Neal
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden; University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Kvarnström, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Effectiveness of ecotechnologies for recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus from anaerobic digestate and effectiveness of the recovery products as fertilisers: A systematic review protocol2019In: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The regular addition of plant-available nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, either as manufactured fertilisers or animal manure, to agricultural soils is needed for global food security. Increased recycling of nutrients back to agriculture from organic waste streams is necessary for increased rural-urban sustainability. Anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and agricultural wastes is widely applied to stabilize the substrate and also capture its energetic value via biogas production. The liquid phase of anaerobic digestate is a concentrated source of nutrients to which nutrient recovery technologies can be applied. Two such promising technologies that could increase nutrient recycling from e.g. wastewater and thereby contribute to environmental amelioration are struvite precipitation and ammonia stripping. By combining anaerobic digestion and nutrient recovery technologies on the digestate, a treatment process that provides both renewable energy and plant nutrients is achieved. This review will examine the effectiveness of ecotechnologies for the recovery and reuse of nitrogen and phosphorus from anaerobic digestate with the aim of reducing the impact of waste on the environment. Methods: We will search for both academic and grey literature published after 2013. English language searches will be performed in 4 bibliographic databases, and Google Scholar, while searches in 41 specialist websites will be performed in English, Finnish, Polish and Swedish. Eligibility screening will be conducted at two levels: title and abstract and full text. Included eligible studies will be subject to a critical appraisal that will assess external and internal study validity. We will extract information on study characteristics, intervention, comparators, effect modifiers, and measured outcomes. Data synthesis will involve narrative synthesis of each included study of sufficient validity. Quantitative synthesis (i.e. meta-analysis) may be possible in cases where a sufficient number of studies report similar types of outcomes. © 2019 The Author(s).

  • 255.
    Malm, Annika
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Kant, H.
    Janson, O.
    Olsson, E.
    Serious gaming will facilitate sustainable stormwater handling in Gothenburg, Sweden2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 256.
    Malm, Annika
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Svensson, Gilbert
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Privata servisledningar för dricksvatten, spillvatten och dagvatten: så långa är de2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to give an indication of the total length of service connection pipes for water, sewerage and stormwater in Sweden divided into public and private pipe lengths. The length of the publicly owned main system for water and wastewater are generally well documented by the municipalities while the service connections are primarily only compiled by number, not the lengths.This report has been put together by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden on behalf of the Swedish Water Development.The service pipe lengths have been produced by estimating key figures for the lengths per type of property and the total amount of each such type of property, summed up to total service pipe lengths for all of Sweden. The result is presented separately for water, sewage water and stormwater pipe lengths and also into public respectively private owned. Sweden’s buildings can be divided into different types of housing according to the assessed unit types: single-family homes, townhouses (including semi-detached), multi-family houses and other buildings such as for operations and community services. Key figures for these building types were compiled using appropriate “study sites” for the purpose of the report. The study sites were extrapolated to the whole of Sweden by multiplying the service pipe length per property with the number of such properties in Sweden.The result shows that there are 25 500 km water, 24 000 km sewage water and 152 000 km stormwater private service pipes in total in Sweden. The length of the publicly owned service pipes is 6 400 km water, 6 800 km sewage water and 4 200 km stormwater. The private water and sewage water service pipes correspond to almost 25 % of the entire water and sewage pipe network respectively. The private stormwater service pipes constitute almost 80 % of the entire stormwater pipe network. This means that the private service connection pipe lengths constitute about half of the total pipe system in Sweden.The key figures for each property category presented in the results section of this report can be used by each municipality to make their own assessment of the service connection pipe length.With this assessment of the service pipe lengths, the proportion of water losses often termed “Unavoidable Average Real Losses” difficult for the municipalities to trace, is also possible to assess. The results from this report imply that the privately owned service connections contribute to half of the inevitable water losses in Sweden.The replacement value for the private service connections in total in Sweden is estimated to over 200 billion SEK.

  • 257.
    Malm, Annika
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Montelius, M.
    Svensson, G.
    Kant, H.
    Swedish Sustainability Index for progress in municipal water and wastewater services2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 258.
    Malm, Annika
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Mårtensson, Helena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Persson, Katrin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Framtidens smarta VA-ledningsnät: lägesrapport2019Report (Other academic)
  • 259.
    Mangold, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Durgun, Özüm
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fastighetsägares förutsättningar för renovering av sina byggnadsbestånd från miljonprogramstiden2018In: Bygg&Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, Vol. 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggsektorn står inför ett stort renoveringsbehov. Byggnader från miljonprogramstiden har nått en ålder då många olika byggnadsdelar når sin förväntade livslängd. Detta renoveringsbehov är inte jämnt fördelat bland Sveriges fastighetsägare. Det stora flertalet av de ännu ej renoverade byggnaderna från miljonprogramstiden ägs av fastighetsbolag knutna till SABO, men det finns även många privata fastighetsägare och bostadsrättsföreningar som har ett eftersläpande renoveringsbehov eller som har renoverat men fortfarande har en hög energianvändning och alltså troligtvis inte genomfört nödvändiga energieffektiviseringsåtgärder. Det finns också olika förutsättningar för att göra de investeringar som krävs, vilket beror på företagens soliditet, fastigheternas värde och möjligheten att få lån, utrymme för hyresökning etc. Detta gör att renoveringstakten inte kommer att täcka renoveringsbehovet och att vissa delar av fastighetsbeståndet kommer att vara mer eftersatt.

  • 260.
    Mangold, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nya digitala verktyg ger bättre bild av renoveringsbehovet2017In: Bygg & Teknik, no 5, p. 4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggsektorn är inne i en period av mycket hög aktivitet. Över 700 000 nya bostäder efterfrågas, samtidigt som miljonprogrammets byggnader börjar nå sin förväntade livslängd. Detta är en enorm utmaning, men det är också en möjlighet, där vi kan nå energi- och klimatmål och skapagoda boendemiljöer till rimlig kostnad.

  • 261.
    Mangold, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Österbring, Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Overland, Conny
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wallbaum, Holger
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Building Ownership, Renovation Investments, and Energy Performance - A Study of Multi-Family Dwellings in Gothenburg2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 5, article id 1684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European building stock was renewed at a rapid pace during the period 1950–1975.In many European countries, the building stock from this time needs to be renovated, and thereare opportunities to introduce energy efficiency measures in the renovation process. Informationavailability and increasingly available analysis tools make it possible to assess the impact of policyand regulation. This article describes methods developed for analyzing investments in renovationand energy performance based on building ownership and inhabitant socio-economic informationdeveloped for Swedish authorities, to be used for the Swedish national renovations strategy in2019. This was done by analyzing measured energy usage and renovation investments made duringthe last 30 years, coupled with building specific official information of buildings and resident areacharacteristics, for multi-family dwellings in Gothenburg (N = 6319). The statistical analyses showthat more costly renovations lead to decreasing energy usage for heating, but buildings that havebeen renovated during the last decades have a higher energy usage when accounting for currentheating system, ownership, and resident socio-economic background. It is appropriate to includean affordability aspect in larger renovation projects since economically disadvantaged groups areover-represented in buildings with poorer energy performance.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 262.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Røyne, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden ; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Moberg, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Life cycle sustainability evaluations of bio-based value chains: Reviewing the indicators from a Swedish perspective2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policymakers worldwide are promoting the use of bio-based products as part of sustainable development. Nonetheless, there are concerns that the bio-based economy may undermine the sustainability of the transition, e.g., from the overexploitation of biomass resources and indirect impacts of land use. Adequate assessment methods with a broad systems perspective are thus required in order to ensure a transition to a sustainable, bio-based economy. We review the scientifically published life cycle studies of bio-based products in order to investigate the extent to which they include important sustainability indicators. To define which indicators are important, we refer to established frameworks for sustainability assessment, and include an Open Space workshop with academics and industrial experts. The results suggest that there is a discrepancy between the indicators that we found to be important, and the indicators that are frequently included in the studies. This indicates a need for the development and dissemination of improved methods in order to model several important environmental impacts, such as: water depletion, indirect land use change, and impacts on ecosystem quality and biological diversity. The small number of published social life cycle assessments (SLCAs) and life cycle sustainability assessments (LCSAs) indicate that these are still immature tools; as such, there is a need for improved methods and more case studies.

  • 263.
    McConville, J. R.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kvarnström, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jönsson, H.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, M.
    Ecoloop, Sweden.
    Source separation: Challenges & opportunities for transition in the Swedish wastewater sector2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 120, p. 144-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A paradigm shift to waste reuse has started in the wastewater sector with many experts calling for greater resource recovery, often facilitated by alternative solutions such as source separation. Source separation has been shown to be advantageous for improving treatment capacity, food security, and efficiency; yet these systems are still immature, considered risky by professionals and scarcely implemented. This study attempts to answer the question of why source separation is still marginalized by examining the Swedish experience with source separated wastewater from the perspective of Technology Innovation Systems (TIS) in order to identify obstacles and policy recommendations. Considering that source-separation is still in a development phase, the study found that source separation works moderately well within the on-site niche and that blackwater systems in general perform better than urine diversion. Knowledge development is found to be the weakest function. A major blocking mechanism is the weakness of interchange between knowledge development and entrepreneurial activity. Policy recommendations include: increased R&D; building networks and communication platforms; and establishing guidelines for technologies, legislation interpretation and organizational models.

  • 264.
    McConville, J. R.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kvarnström, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Maiteki, J. M.
    National Water and Sewerage Corporation, Uganda.
    Niwagaba, C. B.
    Makerere University, Uganda.
    Infrastructure investments and operating costs for fecal sludge and sewage treatment systems in Kampala, Uganda2019In: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 584-593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Like many low-income countries, Uganda is struggling to provide sanitation to its inhabitants. Meeting the Sustainable Development Goal related to sanitation (SDG6) will require major investments in sanitation. This study uses the concept of service regimes to analyze existing sanitation infrastructure and services and their respective costs. The service regimes investigated are the sewage regime and the fecal sludge (FS) regime. The results show that approximately 56% of the fecal flow in Kampala is estimated as ‘safely managed’. The results also show that the annual per capita costs for the sewage regime (USD 186) are more than 13-fold those for the FS regime (USD 14). Additionally, there are large differences in subsidies between the regimes. When allocating public funds, decision-makers are advised to consider (i) number of customers within regimes, (ii) total capital and operating costs of services, (iii) cost allocation between stakeholders, and (iv) infrastructure performance. © 2019, © 2019 The Author(s).

  • 265.
    McConville, Jennifer R.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden ; SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kvarnström, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jönsson, Håkan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Mats
    Ecoloop, Sweden.
    Is the Swedish wastewater sector ready for a transition to source separation?2017In: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, Vol. 91, p. 320-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Source separation of urine for recycling has been applied in small-scale and decentralized wastewater systems in Sweden for the past 25 years and for blackwater for pollution control even longer. The Swedish experience with source separating nutrient recycling systems is relatively well documented; however, few reports have specifically studied the potential for expansion of this practice. The aim of this study is to fill this knowledge gap by assessing the status of source-separating technologies in Sweden based on transition theory. This study uses a multi-level perspective to determine how ready the Swedish wastewater sector is for transitioning to alternative systems. Given the stability of the existing sewage wastewater regime, it seems unlikely that changes within the regime will lead to a quick and large-scale transition to source separation. Instead, the initiative must come from the niche itself, exploiting institutional cracks in the regime and opportunities from shifting trends in the landscape. If source separation is to be mainstreamed in Sweden, it will need to break into markets within the wastewater jurisdictions. In order to do so, further knowledge needs to be developed that will overcome glitches with immature technologies, uncertain legal conditions/status, investigate potential risks, and clearly define complementary system advantages. This may require the use of new perspectives that focus on holistic sustainable use of resources, including other nutrients than phosphorous, and taking into account global issues such as planetary boundaries and effects from climate change, such as water scarcity. This knowledge can then be used to establish guidelines, norms, and standards, as well as clarify the legislative structures that can support such a transition. There is also a strong need to improve knowledge dissemination regarding best-practices for implementing source-separation technologies and supporting organizational structures. Similarly, support for entrepreneurial activities within the niche needs to increase, not least through strengthening social networks and communication platforms.

  • 266. Meng, Birgit
    et al.
    Fontana, Patrick
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Bürgisser, Philip
    Influence of natural pozzolans on the risk of Alkali Silica Reaction2013In: International Conference on Advances in Cement and Concrete Technology in Africa, BAM Federal Institute for Materials and Testing , 2013, p. 801-808Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 267. Miccoli, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Fontana, Patrick
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Ziegert, Christof
    Perrone, Chiara
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Charakterisierung und Modellierung der mechanischen Eigenschaften von Lehmsteinmauerwerk - Mechanical Characterization and Modelling of Earth Block Masonry2012In: Masonry, ISSN 1432-3427, E-ISSN 1437-1022, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 279-292Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 268. Miccoli, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Garofano, Angelo
    Fontana, Patrick
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Static behaviour of earth block masonry: experimental testing and Finite Element Modelling2014In: 9th International Masonry Conference (IMC), Guimarães, Portugal, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 269.
    Miccoli, Lorenzo
    et al.
    BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –prüfung, Germany.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Pospíšil, Stanislav
    Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Czech Republic.
    Rammed earth walls strengthened with polyester fabric strips: Experimental analysis under in-plane cyclic loading2017In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 149, p. 29-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the mechanical behaviour under pseudo-dynamic loading of structural elements built in rammed earth and strengthened with polyester fabric strips. This strengthening technique was developed to exploit the strength potential of rammed earth and to solve its lack of tensile strength. For this reason, in-plane cyclic tests were carried out to investigate the shear behaviour of unstrengthened and strengthened walls. The strengthening technique requires low-tech equipment and workmanship, uses readily available, not expensive and industrially standardised materials. The experimental results were analysed in terms of stiffness degradation, energy dissipation capacity and equivalent viscous damping. Although the unstrengthened and strengthened walls confirmed a limited ductile behaviour, the findings confirm that the strengthening contributes to limit the spread of the diagonal cracks and provide an increase of strength in terms of horizontal load and displacement capacity.

  • 270.
    Miccoli, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Germany.
    Silva, Rui
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Oliveira, Daniel
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Static behavior of cob: Experimental testing and finite-element modeling2019In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 31, no 4, article id 04019021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to implement a numerical model to reproduce the nonlinear behavior of cob walls under shear loading. Axial compression, pull-off, and diagonal compression tests were carried out to derive the mechanical parameters. In addition, the stressstrain relationships, the nonlinear behavior, and the failure modes were defined. The experimental results were then used to calibrate a finiteelement model. The material behavior was simulated through a macromodeling approach adopting the total strain rotating crack model. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the effects of varying the parameters with higher uncertainty on the structural behavior. The numerical model achieved good correspondence with the experimental results in terms of simulation of the shear stress-shear strain relationship and of damage pattern.

  • 271.
    Mirata, Murat
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Sotenäs kommun, Sweden.
    Harris, Steve
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Fornell, Rickard
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Hackl, Roman
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Sweden.
    Källqvist, Tobias
    Hifab, Sweden.
    Dalväg, Emma
    Hifab, Sweden.
    Broberg, Sarah
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    International and Swedish State of Play in Industrial Symbiosis: A review with proposals to scale up industrial symbiosis in Sweden2018Report (Other academic)
  • 272.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment. Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Dennis
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bagge, Hans
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The Effect of High Occupancy Density on IAQ, Moisture Conditions and Energy Use in Apartments2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 23, article id 4454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Apartments built in Sweden during the record years 1961–1975 with the aim to remedy thehousing shortage and abolish poor standards, were designed for a normal-sized family of 2–4 persons.The mechanical ventilation system, if existing, was primarily designed to ensure an air exchange inthe apartment according to Swedish building regulations. During the last few years, the number ofovercrowded apartments has increased due to housing shortage in general but also due to migration.Another aspect is that the ventilation in many apartments built during the record years is alreadyinsucient at normal occupant load. The question is how doubling or tripling the number ofoccupants and thus, the moisture load will aect the risk of bad air quality and moisture damage.To find out, simulations were made to estimate whether it is possible to obtain sucient air qualityand low risk of moisture damage by only increasing the ventilation rates in existing systems orintroducing new ventilation systems with and without heat recovery and what the consequencewould be in terms of the additional energy demand. Measurements from earlier studies of CO2 andmoisture supply in Swedish apartment buildings were used as input data.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 273.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment. Lund University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Moisture safety of wooden buildings – design, construction and operation2019In: Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering, ISSN 2029-9990, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 29-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, building in wood has increased, mainly due to environmental awareness and targets to decrease the carbon footprint originated from the production of building materials. New technologies such as CLT (cross laminated timber) have accelerated the construction of multi-story wooden buildings. The CLT structure has been used both for housing and offices. Due to the extensive size of the buildings and relatively fast assembly of the buildings, weather protection has not always been used. It is commonly known that building materials sensitive to moisture need to be protected against high moisture conditions and water during construction. If this is not done, there is an increased risk of microbial growth which can result in health problems for future users of the building, extensive costs for the remediation and exchange of materials, but also lack of trust in the construction industry. There are disagreements between the building industry and researchers how sensitive wooden buildings are to exposure to high moisture levels and water during storage at sites and construction. Based on results from several research projects studying moisture conditions both in the laboratory and in the field, recommendations for procurement, storage and handling of wood during construction to assure moisture safety are suggested in this paper.

  • 274.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    The mineralogical composition of sandstone and its effect on sulphur dioxide deposition2008In: Materiales de Construcción, Vol. 58, no 289-290, p. 81-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air pollutants often accelerate stone deterioration in historical buildings and monuments in urban areas. The pollutants are themselves the products of fossil fuel combustion and intensive farming. While this trend seems to have been curbed by strict emission laws in the European Union, in most developing and emerging countries air pollution is an ongoing process due to increasing energy needs and vehicle traffic. Many factors condition natural stone behaviour with respect to gaseous pollutants. Two of the more prominent of such factors are the composition of the atmosphere and the type of stone. Due to their porosity, sandstones are particularly vulnerable to air pollutant attack. Many of the reactions between non-carbonaceous sandstones and these gases are not well understood, however. The present study aimed to acquire an understanding of the processes and factors governing sandstone behaviour when exposed to sulphur dioxide. Seven different sandstones from southern and eastern Germany were analyzed for the study. The binder composition of the stones varied significantly. They also exhibited completely different behaviour in connection with SO 2 sorption. Interestingly, while the amount of SO 2 deposited was unrelated to the specific surface area of the sandstones, this parameter was closely correlated to the iron oxide content. Iron oxide phases are believed to act as a catalyst in the oxidation of SO 2 to SO 3 . The type and amount of clay mineral, in turn, was found to have no significant impact on initial SO 2 deposition in sandstones.

  • 275.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Lundgren, Monica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Babaahmadi, Arezou
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Hydration of concrete binders blended with ground granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash and metakaolin2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes a study on the effects of ground granulated blast furnace slag, low calcium fly ash and metakaolin on the hydration behavior of different binder pastes blended with these SCM. The study investigated early heat development, phase assemblages at different ages, strength gain, changes in porosity and pore sizes, pore water OH-concentration, development of the microstructure and the micro chemistry of the binder pastes.It was shown that all SCM impact the pore size distribution of pastes of different ages. Compared to a reference paste without SCM, SCM containing pastes shift their pore size range to smaller sizes, the more SCM the pastes contain. The total porosity depends on the type of SCM. With slag, there was a tendency to decrease the total porosity with increasing SCM content. With fly ash, total porosity was increased with increasing fly ash content. The strength development of slag and fly ash containing mortars is under that of a Portland cement reference mortar within the first 28 days. However, after 28 d strength gain, in particular with fly ash is considerable compared to the reference. With metakaolin already at early ages a strong increase in strength was observed. After that, the strength development was parallel the one of the reference mortar. Aluminum containing SCM contribute to the formation of AFm phases. AFm phases increase the chloride binding in seawater or deicing salt exposed concretes. In particular metakaolin and fly ash contribute, due to their high alumina content, to the formation of AFm phases but also increase the aluminum content in the C-S-H phases.

  • 276.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Lundgren, Monica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Development of pore structure and hydrate phases of binder pastes blended with slag, fly ash and metakaolin – A comparison2015In: ICCC 2015 Beijing: The 14th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blended binder systems in concrete have been in use for many years. However, over the recent discussions on the sustainability of cement and concrete the topic became of paramount importance for the construction industry. In Sweden blended binder systems in concrete were applied fairly recently and supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) were not used largely before. In Sweden over the last 30 years engineering structures were built, with exceptions, with a low alkali, sulfate resistant Portland cement due to domestic requirements. Therefore, in context to blended binder systems durability is a major point being discussed. Most interest lays in the resistance towards frost, carbonation and chloride penetration and the experience with blended systems was limited. It is therefore the goal of this study to investigate blended binder systems over a longer hydration period of up to two years in context to durability. The results presented here will focus on the porosity and hydrate phase development within the first 90 days of hydration. In this study in total 9 different binder blends were studied. The blends included different replacement levels with granulated blast furnace slag from a Swedish producer, fly ash from a Danish power plant and commercially available metakaolin. The matrix included also one set of factory-blended cements (with interground fly ash and slag). The pore structure was investigated by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), phase development by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD). The results are based on the evaluation of binder paste samples. Compared to a reference series consisting of a CEM I the slag containing series showed a continuous decrease of the total pore volume with increasing slag content over 90 days of hydration. The phase development showed a constant increase in monosulfate and hydrotalcite. The amount of these phases increased with increasing slag content. Notable was consumption of C4AF, which increased with the amount of slag and a decrease of C2S reaction. Compared to the reference Portland cement paste the fly ash containing pastes showed increased total pore volumes when the fly ash was just added. For the cement paste with interground fly ash the porosity development was the same as for the reference paste. The phase development for these series showed up to 28 days of hydration formation of ettringite, hemicarbonate and monocarbonate. After 91 days monosulfate was dominating and the amount of hemicarbonate was decreasing. The paste series with 15 % metakaolin showed a strong decrease in total pore volume compared to the reference series within 2 days. Afterwards the pore volume almost leveled to a constant value. The hydration phases included in the beginning large amounts of monosulfate, ettringite and hemicarbonate but changed after 91 days in favor to ettringite and monocarbonate. The metakaolin blend showed the lowest amounts of portlandite in all series, indicating a strong pozzolanic reactivity. The different hydrate phases, in particular AFm phases can help to explain a different behavior towards, e.g. chloride binding. The pore structure development has a large impact not only on strength development but also for ion and moisture transport as well as for carbonation in all series.

  • 277.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Influence of hydrophobicity and oleophobicity on cleaning graffiti on concrete panels and natural stones2012In: Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting III (ICCRRR), TAYLOR and FRANCIS GROUP, LONDON, UK , 2012, p. 269-275Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anti-Graffiti Systems (AGS) are meant to make the cleaning process more efficient by inserting a layer between the paint and the substrate. This layer can have a low surface energy thus make it difficult for the paint to stick to the substrate or it may be easily removed together with the paint. This paper is presenting results from a study of how hydrophobicity and oleophobicity influence the cleaning efficiency of graffiti paints from concrete and natural stones. The results demonstrated that high hydrophobicity and high oleophobicity are not guaranteeing satisfying cleaning effects. The physical properties of a substrate in combination with the characteristics of the AGS layer decide about the cleaning effect.

  • 278.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Rübner, Katrin
    The microstructure of concrete made with municipal waste incinerator bottom ash as an aggregate component2006In: Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 1434-1443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWI bottom ash), when utilized as an aggregate in concrete, with the cement matrix was investigated. The most prominent reaction observed in lab and field concrete was the formation of aluminium hydroxide and the release of hydrogen gas from aluminium grains reacting in the alkaline environment. The expansive aluminium reaction was identified as a main cause of extensive spalling on the concrete surface. Due to the higher content of bottle glass as part of the ash, in all samples, reaction products of an alkali-silica reaction (ASR) could be observed as well. However, damage due to ASR were less severe than those caused by the aluminium reaction. The expansion rates were low and only a few of the lab samples showed cracking. Microstructural analysis of the samples indicated clearly that a large quantity of the alkali-silica gel which was formed was accommodated in the pores and voids without exerting any strain on the material.

  • 279.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Schlegel, Moriz-Caspar
    Emmerling, Franziska
    Malaga, Katarina
    Novel techniques for studying damage mechanisms of cementitious matrices affected by sulphate attack2012In: fib symposium Concrete Structures for Sustainable Community / [ed] Bager, D.H., Silfwerbrand, J., 2012, p. 267-270Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 280.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Textile Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete and its Application for Facades2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive powder concrete (RPC) is a fairly novel material with extraordinary strength and durability properties. Due to these properties, it is increasingly being utilized also for external facade cladding thus enabling a considerable reduction in the thickness of concrete elements. Commercial RPC formulations on the market have drawbacks in terms of sustainability due to their high clinker content and heat curing which is often applied to increase final strength and material density. The presented study focusses on improved formulations with higher replacement levels of cement clinker by supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). One different mix formulation was designed and tested in terms of mechanical properties. The formulation was combined with carbon textile reinforcements primarily to enhance the flexural and tensile behavior of the material. The results showed that even with clinker replacement levels of up to 33 % of the total binder amount, a satisfactory mechanical performance of the RPC mix could still be achieved. Fairly steep strength gains rendered heat treatment unnecessary. The incorporation of carbon textile fiber grids proved to be effective in improving the post peak performance of the RPC. However, their performance depended strongly on the bond between the carbon grid and the RPC. Higher moister contents in the concrete proved to reduce the bond strength between the carbon textile and the cement paste. This is maybe less relevant for facades but structural elements with textile reinforcement and RPC might perform less well in completely submerged environment.

  • 281.
    Munthe, Christian
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nijsingh, Niels
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany.
    de Fine Licht, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers Institute of Technology, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, DG Joakim
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The Ethics of Antibiotic Resistance: Towards an Agenda for Feasible and Justified Global Health Policy2019In: Bioethics, ISSN 0269-9702, E-ISSN 1467-8519, Vol. 33, no 7, p. 731-733Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 282.
    Myhr, Anders
    et al.
    Pure Logic AS, Norway.
    Röyne, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Brandtsegg, Andreas.
    Pure Logic AS, Norway.
    Bjerkseter, Catho
    Pure Logic AS, Norway.
    Throne-Holst, Harald
    Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway.
    Borch, Anita
    Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway.
    Wentzel, Alexander
    SINTEF Industry, Norway.
    Røyne, Anja
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Towards a low CO 2 emission building material employing bacterial metabolism (2/2): Prospects for global warming potential reduction in the concrete industry2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 4, article id e0208643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of concrete is one of the most significant contributors to global greenhouse gas emissions. This work focuses on bio-cementation-based products and their potential to reduce global warming potential (GWP). In particular, we address a proposed bio-cementation method employing bacterial metabolism in a two-step process of limestone dissolution and recrystallisation (BioZEment). A scenario-based techno-economic analysis (TEA) is combined with a life cycle assessment (LCA), a market model and a literature review of consumers’ willingness to pay, to compute the expected reduction of global GWP. Based on the LCA, the GWP of 1 ton of BioZEment is found to be 70–83% lower than conventional concrete. In the TEA, three scenarios are investigated: brick, precast and onsite production. The results indicate that brick production may be the easiest way to implement the products, but that due to high cost, the impact on global GWP will be marginal. For precast production the expected 10% higher material cost of BioZEment only produces a marginal increase in total cost. Thus, precast production has the potential to reduce global GWP from concrete production by 0–20%. Significant technological hurdles remain before BioZEment-based products can be used in onsite construction scenarios, but in this scenario, the potential GWP reduction ranges from 1 to 26%. While the potential to reduce global GWP is substantial, significant efforts need to be made both in regard to public acceptance and production methods for this potential to be unlocked. © 2019 Myhr et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  • 283.
    Myrbeck, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. RISE Urban Water Management.
    Användning av recirkulerade fosforprodukter från avlopp – gödslingseffekt och upplägg av odlingstester2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of the strategic work at RISE Research Institutes of Sweden to generate andspread knowledge on recovery and reuse of nutrients in Sweden. The aim of the report is to help ensure that high-quality products which are attractive for agricultural use emerge from Swedish wastewater treatment plants. The findings can be useful in further work on quality assurance of attractive recovered phosphorus products as fertilisers. Over 200 000 tons of dry matter sludge are produced annually at Swedish wastewater treatment plants, containing in total around 5400 tons of phosphorus that could potentially be reused inagriculture. Apart from direct spreading of bio-sludge on farmland, many different extraction technologies have been developed to recover and thus recycle phosphorus and other nutrients from wastewater and sludge. These different technologies extract phosphorus in different compounds with varying properties as a fertiliser in agriculture. The report reflects on and describes the properties of compounds produced by existing extraction technologies and estimates their value as fertilisers based on fertiliser experiments described in the literature.Two phosphorus compounds that appear particularly interesting are 1) phosphoric acid, a rawmaterial in the production of N-P-K and N-P products and certain forms of superphosphate, and 2) struvite, which has a fertiliser effect comparable to that of super-phosphate. However, it is difficult to assess and compare the fertiliser effect, or plant availability, of recovered phosphorus compounds in a fair manner. As soon as the compound touches the soil,all kinds of processes commence releasing phosphorus in plant-available forms or perhaps binding it in even stronger ways to soil minerals. The pH of the soil, but also its texture,composition of minerals, redox potential and current phosphorus concentration, are factors influencing the actual processes that take place. Other contextual factors such as climate also affect the complicated turnover of phosphorus in soil. However, once applied to farmland, all phosphorus compounds contribute to the pool of plant-available phosphorus in either the shortor long term. Phosphorus compounds that become available in the long term are valuable froma nutrient storage point of view. However, for a highly phosphorus-demanding crop on a phosphorus-deficient soil, rapid delivery of plant-available phosphorus is required. The variation between different types of soil is often great, but an attempt is made in this report to present amore general ranking of different recovered compounds from wastewater or sludge extraction(based on their function as a phosphorus fertiliser according to the literature). The table below summarises the compounds and provides a rough estimate of their general function as phosphorus fertiliser, where 1 indicates good fertilising effect and 4 indicates weak fertilising effect.

    [table, see fulltext]

    It is not only the fertiliser effect that determines the attractiveness of a product to farmers. Other decisive factors are competitive price, physical properties of the product that are compatible with modern cultivation techniques and machinery, and a well-defined nutrient content that is homogeneous and stable over time.Tests to assess and evaluate the fertiliser properties of recovered phosphorus products are currently based on varying and often simplified methodologies, meaning that data from different producers are difficult to compare. This report highlights the need for developing comparable and applicable tests for recovered phosphorus products. It also considers relevant parameters to analyse and suggests an appropriate test set-up. The plant availability and effect of nutrients in (recovered) fertiliser products can be assessed in three steps:

    1. Chemical determination and content quantification of phosphorus forms and environmental toxins.
    2. Greenhouse cultivation experiments.
    3. Field cultivation tests.
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 284. Månsson, Hans
    et al.
    Henrik, Radomski
    Olenfalk, Pia
    Trägårdh, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Edwards, Ylva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Lundgren, Dennis
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Mansfeldt, Nikolaj
    Kinnmark, Mikael
    Nilsson, Alexander
    Norderup Michelson, Elisabeth
    Jutewik, Mikael
    Hellqvist, Peter
    Bylin, Anders
    Ullsten, Åsa
    Wallin, Magnus
    Samuelsson, Hans
    Svenningsson, Catharina
    Gustavsson, Per
    Olofsson, Mikael
    Antonsson, Ulf
    Skärin, Jörgen
    Lejonmark, Sebastian
    Grönatakhandboken: Betong, isolering och tätskikt2017Report (Other academic)
  • 285.
    Nakos Lantz, Helena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Märkning av Värmepumpar- Heat Pump Keymark2017In: KYLA & VÄRME, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 286.
    Nasr, A.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Björnsson, I.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ivanov, O. L.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, J.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Kjellström, E.
    SMHI Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
    A qualitative prioritization of the risks imposed on bridges due to climate change2019In: IABSE Symposium, Guimaraes 2019: Towards a Resilient Built Environment Risk and Asset Management - Report, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) , 2019, p. 80-87Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change and its impacts on infrastructures may seriously affect the functionality of societies. Despite the alarming potential consequences climate change pose, not enough effort has been directed towards averting these impacts or managing them in some other way (e.g. mitigation, reduction, etc.). Well-functioning infrastructure networks play a key role in societies’ resilience and their ability to cope with climate-induced hazards. Therefore, ensuring the efficient performance of infrastructure networks, even during climate related emergencies, is central to the resilience of societies in the face of climate change. At the heart of a resilient transportation infrastructure network lays robust bridge structures. This paper builds on previous work where the potential risks from climate change on bridges were surveyed. Here, a qualitative risk prioritization scheme for bridges to rank these risks is presented. The aim of this work is hence to provide a tool for determining which of these risks are more worthy of closer investigation. The suggested framework is based on the basic elements of risk; i.e. hazard, exposure, vulnerability, and consequences. Several indices reflecting these four components and their different characteristics are introduced. Subsequently, a method for ranking the different risks based on these indices is presented. This framework can be used to optimize investments in adapting bridges to climate change.

  • 287.
    Nasr, Amro
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Björnsson, I.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Larsson Ivanov, O.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, J.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kjellström, E.
    SMHI, Sweden.
    A review of the potential impacts of climate change on the safety and performance of bridges2019In: Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure, ISSN 2378-9689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACTAn overabundance of evidence, both observational and from model projections, indicate that changes to the climate system are taking place at unprecedented rates. Although the magnitudes of these changes involve large uncertainties, the fact that our climate is changing is unequivocal. To ensure an unimpaired functionality of our societies,it is therefore of crucial importance to study the potential climate change impacts on infrastructure. Taking into account that bridges have a considerably long service life, it is of direct relevance to ascertain their reliable performance against climate change risks. This paper synthesizes the findings of over 190 research articles to identify the potential risks climate change may pose on bridges. Over 30 potential risks, supported by pertinent previous bridge damage (or failure) cases, are identified, categorized, and linked to the projected future climate changes. The identified risks can be used as a basis for future risk prioritization by bridge managers.

  • 288.
    Nasr, Amro
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Ivar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Ivanov, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jonas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kjellström, Erik
    SMHI Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
    Towards a holistic prioritization of climate-change risks for bridges2019In: 13th International Conference on Applications of Statistics and Probability in Civil Engineering, ICASP13, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the projected changes in the climate include considerable uncertainties, especially with downscaling, there is irrefutable evidence that the climate is changing at an unprecedented and alarming rate. In recent studies, some of the potential climate-change risks on bridges have been identified. The sheer number of these potential risks provokes two questions. Firstly, for a certain risk of interest (e.g. increased scour rate) which bridges should be prioritized from an inventory of bridges? Secondly, for a specific bridge, which of these risks are more critical? This paper proposes a method that can be used for addressing these two questions while considering the uncertainties intrinsic to the problem. Although this paper focuses on addressing the first question, a discussion on how the proposed method can be used for answering the second is also presented. The suggested method is based on four risk components

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 289.
    Nasr, Amro
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kjellström, Erik
    SMHI Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Ivar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Ivanov, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jonas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bridges in a changing climate: a study of the potential impacts of climate change on bridges and their possible adaptations2019In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change may have multifaceted impacts on the safety and performance of infrastructure. Accounting for the different ways in which potential climate change scenarios can affect our infrastructure is paramount in determining appropriate adaptation and risk management strategies. Despite gaining some attention among researchers in recent years, this research area is still largely uninvestigated. Several studies have indicated bridges to be especially susceptible to the effects of climate change. This article presents the potential impacts of climate change on bridges and combines the findings of close to 70 research articles to construct a broad list of their possible adaptation techniques. Although this study focuses on bridges, many of the presented climate change impacts and their adaptations are of relevance also to other types of infrastructure.

  • 290.
    Nasr, Amro
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Larsson Ivanov, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Ivar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Johansson, Jonas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kjellström, Erik
    SMHI Swedish Meteorological andHydrological Institute, Sweden.
    Klimatförändringars inverkan på broars säkerhet och prestanda : En översyn av potentiella effekter och anpassningsåtgärder2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vår infrastruktur kommer att påverkas av klimatförändringar, både nu och i framtiden.För att kunna säkerställa infrastrukturens funktion och uppfylla de säkerhetskrav somfinns kommer det därför att krävas investeringar i anpassningsåtgärder. Men åtgärder börinte tas på utifrån bristfällig kunskap, det är därför väsentligt att i förväg kartlägga vilkatyper av påverkan som kan förväntas och vilka åtgärder som är rimliga att genomföra.Denna rapport sammanfattar resultat från studier av risker med klimatförändringar ochdess potentiella effekter på broar, då dessa konstruktioner kan komma att påverkas avolika ändringar i klimatet. I studierna har 243 forskningsartiklar och rapporter från helavärlden gåtts igenom för att identifiera potentiella risker för broar på grund av ändringari klimatet. Det bör nämnas att resultaten i rapporten inte är fokuserade på Sverige utanhar ett internationellt perspektiv; de flesta av de identifierade riskerna är dock relevantaför svenska förhållanden, medan andra är mer relevanta i andra delar av världen.Totalt har 31 olika risker identifierats och kategoriserats i sju olika huvudkategorier enligtföljande:• Beständighet (riskgrupp D),• Funktion (riskgrupp S),• Geoteknik (riskgrupp G),• Ökad belastning (riskgrupp I),• Olyckslaster (riskgrupp A),• Extrema naturhändelser (riskgrupp E)• Drift (riskgrupp O).

    Utöver dessa riskkategorier har även en kortare analys av samverkande händelser gjorts,dvs. händelser där två eller flera klimatfaktorer eller effekter samverkar och ger en störresammantagen effekt än om de inträffar var för sig. En avslutande del om möjligaanpassningsåtgärder har även inkluderats, där metoder funna i litteraturen för att hanterade olika riskerna som identifierats beskrivs.Den viktigaste slutsatsen i rapporten är att ett stort antal risker finns för broar.Föreliggande rapport bidrar därmed till att lyfta fram dessa risker och synliggöra desseffekter. De två klimatfaktorer som påverkar flest risker för broar är temperaturhöjningoch ökad eller minskad nederbörd, de kan individuellt eller kombinerat påverka 25 av de31 identifierade riskerna. Beroende på förutsättningarna för en specifik bro (dvs.geografiskt läge, platsegenskaper, konstruktivt system, etc.) varierar de potentiellaklimateffekterna och deras möjliga konsekvenser. En bedömning av sannolikheten för enviss risk att inträffa, eller en prioritering av de olika riskerna, tas därmed inte upp irapporten. Sådana mer detaljerade kontextspecifika studier pågår och kommer attredovisas framöver inom ramen för projektet.

  • 291.
    Negreira, Juan
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Glebe, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Low-frequency behaviour of a sound field inside a reverberant room: Measurements and numerical prediction tools2019In: Building Acoustics, ISSN 1351-010X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 93-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The low-frequency properties of a room (where statistical methods in the standards cannot be applied directly) are often hard to estimate due to strong modal behaviour. The situation gets complicated by the fact that variations in the furnishing can have an impact on the modal patterns and therefore can also influence the results of measurements at certain points, in spite of the room properties being the same. The latter can hinder the achievement of acoustic comfort in dwellings, even if they comply with the current regulations, especially due to the fact that low-frequency noise is left outside the scope, since the standards currently in force do not require measurements below 100 Hz (albeit Sweden set 50 Hz as lower limit). This article aims to study variations of the sound field that results of varying the position of three moderately absorbing boards, which emulate how very sparse furniture can impact the sound field when relocated in the room. Furthermore, the potential of numerical models as prediction tools for such problems is pointed out.

  • 292.
    Niklasson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Gustavsson, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ryde, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Persson, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Schüßler, Ingmar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Branschgemensam forskning för småskaliga biobränslepannor inför ekodesign2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New domestic biofuel boilers must meet the Ecodesign Directive by 2020. In a market survey from 2014, none of 11 tested pellet boilers did meet all requirements, clearly indicating a developmental need. In the present project boiler manufacturers and research institutes have collaborated in response to the combustion engineering challenges.

    For pellet boilers, the biggest challenge with the Ecodesign Directive is that performance is largely calculated from partial load operation (low load). Previously, performance has only been determined at nominal load and the design has been optimized accordingly. In this project, tests have been run with two modern pellet boilers that have different types of pellet burner: one with horizontal burner tube and one with an underfeed burner cup. The results show that sufficient combustion performance could be maintained at partial load with both burner types. However, the tube burner exhibited significantly lower emissions at partial loads, probably due to the combustion zone in this burner being protected from heat radiation exchange with cooling boiler walls. A rather extensive work was laid down to provide the cup burner with a protective collar that would protect the combustion zone. However, it did not result in any significant improvement, probably because the supply of secondary air did not become optimal. A more extensive work is required to develop an optimal burner design of this type.

    For wood log boilers, it is a challenge to comply with the NOx requirements of the Ecodesign Directive of 200 mg / Nm³. A variety of temperature measurements in a wood log boiler resulted in the exclusion of thermal NOx formation. The boiler was fitted with a flue gas recirculation system, but it did not reduce the NOx emission. Then different varieties of wood fuels were tested. The NOx emission could be reduced to meet the requirement using barked birch wood. Chemical analyzes showed that the birch bark contained 0.49% nitrogen compared to 0.09% in the stock. Spruce logs also gave low NOx emissions, but that fuel resulted in increased CO and OGC emissions. For wood log boilers to meet the requirements for CO, OGC and dust, optimization is required under the wood's final combustion phase. At this stage, emissions are at its highest, due to the decreasing heat output while the airflow tends to cool down the flue gas faster than the combustible gases burn out. The optical particle measurement showed a clear correlation between dust and CO in the flue gas. If the boiler meets the CO limit, there are good chances that the requirement for particles also will be met.

    The efficiency specified in the Ecodesign Directive is calculated based on the fuel's higher heating value. In addition, some loss factors are subtracted. This implies that the boiler must not have unnecessarily large heat losses or excessive electricity consumption to meet the requirements. Measurements showed that the biggest loss occurs with the heat in the flue gas. The second largest loss is heat from the boiler body. For the efficiency, the importance of a well-insulated boiler body increases in the case of partial loads. The two pellet boilers used in the project were well suited to meet the eco-directive directive's efficiency requirements.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 293.
    Niklasson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ryde, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    On-line monitoring of agglomeration in fluidised bed boilers2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Combustion in fluidized beds has several benefits, but a potential problem is bed agglomeration causing defluidisation. The most used counter measure is to regularly renew the bed material, inferring costs for new sand and deposition of spent material. For an adaptive optimization there is a need of a method which indicates when bed agglomeration is initializing, before it is too late to counteract.

    In this project, the conductivity of fluidized beds has been measured by a novel in-situ probe. The probe has been tested in a fluidized bed of sand and ashes at temperatures up to 1000°C. In addition, the probe has been tested in a fluidized bed while burning different fuels.

    The results show that the conductivity of the bed increases with temperature and concentration of ash. The conductivity varies strongly between different fuels. The signal from the probe reacts strongly to the onset of severe bed agglomeration, but it is hard to find any consistent tendencies that can be applied to predict it.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 294.
    Nilsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Jahnke, Marcus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Tactics for Norm-Creative Innovation2018In: Series. International Journal of TV Serial Narratives, ISSN 2405-8726, E-ISSN 2169-0820, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 375-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a set of norm-creative innovation tactics developed in collaborative design research projects with the objective of creating more inclusive solutions. Unawareness of social norms are exemplified through some of the flaws design has contributed to. The norm-creative approach explored in this paper involves a first step of being norm-critical, i.e. challenging social norms that contributes to inequalities and social exclusion, and a second step of being norm-creative, i.e. developing design solutions that counteract such norms through design thinking of what might be. The tactics were developed by extracting and articulating knowledge and experiences from various strands of design methodologies, successively tweaked with norm-creative perspectives and then probed in a series of collaborative design projects. The resulting tactics serve three key roles: Firstly, they contribute in iterative explorations of several stances and action possibilities. Secondly, they promote change of awareness through increasing understanding of diverse user experiences and social exclusion, and thirdly, they contribute both in thinking new about what is and what might be, thereby affording innovative prospects. Tactics for norm-creative innovation can for these reasons be one way of raising awareness and contributing to social sustainability through design. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 295.
    Nogal, Maria
    et al.
    Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Assessment of road traffic resilience assuming stochastic user behaviour2019In: Reliability Engineering & System Safety, ISSN 0951-8320, E-ISSN 1879-0836, Vol. 185, p. 72-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When assessing the resilience of road transport networks, users’ response should be considered as they represent the main capability of the system to adapt to changes when any disruptive event occurs and to recover afterwards. Given the variability in users’ response, it seems deterministic approaches might not be adequate to represent the real system performance, thus, a stochastic perspective is required. This paper presents a new approach to assess the resilience of a traffic network when suffering from a disruptive event, considering the stochastic behaviour of the users, where their decisions will be biased by their perception of the traffic conditions rather than by the actual conditions. This approach provides more realistic patterns than the deterministic approach, mainly in terms of recovery times. The real traffic network Luxembourg-Metz has been used to illustrate the approach.

  • 296.
    Nogal, Maria
    et al.
    Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    O'Connor, Alan
    Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    Resilience of road transport systems considering the stochastic response of travellers2019In: 13th International Conference on Applications of Statistics and Probability in Civil Engineering, ICASP13, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human actors are seen as the main capability to enhance the resilience of road transportsystems against disturbing scenarios. This paper compares different approaches to introduce users’behaviour into the resilience assessment. The consideration of the stochastic nature of human responsecombined with dynamic traffic modelling enables a comprehensive resilience assessment approach.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 297.
    Nore, Kristine
    et al.
    Norwegian Institute of Wood Technology, Norway.
    Nyrud, Anders Q.
    Norwegian Institute of Wood Technology, Norway.
    Kraniotis, Dimitios
    Oslo and Akershus University, Norway.
    Skulberg, Knut R.
    Hedmark University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Englund, Finn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Aurlien, Tormod
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Moisture buffering, energy potential, and volatile organic compound emissions of wood exposed to indoor environments2017In: Science and Technology for the Built Environment, ISSN 2374-4731, E-ISSN 2374-474X, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 512-521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of wood in built environments has been increasing during the last decades, and more focus has been set on the influence of wood surfaces on indoor environments on the objective and subjective measures of human well-being. In addition, the moisture buffer capacity of hygroscopic materials, such as wood, has been under investigation in order to quantify the impact of wooden surfaces on energy savings in buildings. The current study presents the results of wood surfaces and indoor air temperatures as well as indoor air relative humidity measured in two solid timber test houses. The findings reveal a substantial effect on wood surface temperature under fluctuating indoor relative humidity due to the latent heat of sorption of water vapors. The results were compared with hygrothermal numerical simulations, showing good agreement and the validated numerical model was used in order to quantify the energy performance in a bathroom when the latent heat of sorption is exploited. The combination of wood with a well-controlled HVAC system in rooms with moisture production shows significant potential for indirect energy savings by adjusting the indoor temperature and exploiting the increase of surface temperature in the hygroscopic structure. Furthermore, the emissions of volatile organic compounds from pine wood were studied in laboratory facilities, with focus on the variations of emissions due to diurnal fluctuations in air humidity. Human participants were exposed in a large test chamber to a concealed source of volatile organic compound emissions in the form of fresh pine wood, while the actual exposure reached air levels of monoterpenes up to 18 mg/m3 during the intervention situation. Perceptions of air quality and mucosal irritation effects were reported in a standard questionnaire during this double-blind test with no irritation effects reported.

  • 298.
    Norefjäll, Fredric
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Fernqvist, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Innovationsförmåga för ett hållbart transportsystem: Trafikverket och samverkande aktörers processer för innovations- och omställningsförmåga2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta dokument sammanfattar arbetet som utförts under förstudien till forskningsprojektet: Innovationsförmåga för ett hållbart transportsystem – Trafikverkets och samverkande aktörers processer för innovations- och omställningsförmåga. Syftet med forskningsprojektet är att bidra till att Trafikverkets innovationsarbete får genomslag för omställningen av transportsystemet. Genom ökad kunskap om hur egna strukturer och processer för innovation påverkar och påverkas av, exempelvis andra aktörer, specifika marknadsvillkor eller normer, stärker detta projekt arbetet för ett hållbart transportsystem.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 299.
    Norefjäll, Fredric
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Talalasova, Elena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Tekie, Haben
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Barriers for industrial waste recycling in the context of circular transition: lessons from Mistra Closing the Loop2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the final deliverable from a task within the national research program Mistra Closing the Loop (CTL). It aimed at analysing the barriers and drivers for industrial waste recycling as a part of transition towards a circular society. In doing so, we drew on the experiences from five projects participating in CTL. Found below is a graphical abstract capturing both of the logic behind the research and the main results.

    Industrial recycling as part of a broader transition towards a more circular society faces an overwhelming number of obstacles on all system levels. Apart from being a source of despair, long, unprioritised lists of barriers can lead to diffusion of efforts and resources while attempting to tackle them all at once. In addition, these barriers have traditionally been regarded as separate entities, and little is known about the relationships between them. In this report, we argue for a shift in how we study and act on the barriers for circular transition. More specifically, we call for:

    • a need to better understand the links, relationships and dynamics between different barriers and barrier groups• a need for methodological experimentation and more action-oriented research• a more targeted approach, where resources are pulled towards tackling a few barriers with a scientifically demonstrated potential to accelerate the change

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 300.
    Norén, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Moisture safety of tall timber facades2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Moisture safety of tall timber facades

    The main purpose of the project was to facilitate safe design of sustainable and cost-effective solutions for wood facades of high-rise buildings. Studies have been carried out of different designs of the wall itself and of different details in the wall. Direct and indirect consequences of moisture damage have been considered but mainly risk of mould or decay. Façade details with high risk were identified e.g. window and balcony, and the types of damage that may occur, and what the consequences may be. Based on this, some damage scenarios were selected where detailed solutions were analysed more carefully. Details were also compared with modified designs with improvements such as addition of a sealing strip or plate covering. LCA and LCC have been calculated for some damage scenarios to show consequences of damages and the importance of well-executed designs and details.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
3456789 251 - 300 of 429
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
v. 2.35.10