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  • 251.
    Szpieg, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Giannadakis, K.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Varna, J.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Time-dependent nonlinear behavior of recycled polypropylene in high tensile stress loading2011In: Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, ISSN 0892-7057, E-ISSN 1530-7980, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 625-652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inelastic mechanical behavior in tension of a recycled polypropylene (rPP and a rPP with addition of 10% of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (rPP + MAPP) was characterized and compared. The time-dependent response was decomposed into nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic parts and each of them quantified. It was found that the elastic properties did not degrade during loading. The addition of MAPP did not change the mechanical properties of the rPP. A nonlinear material model was developed and the involved parameters (stress-dependent functions) were identified. The model was then validated in a stress controlled test at a constant stress rate. © The Author(s), 2011.

  • 252.
    Szpieg, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Wysocki, Maciej
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Asp, Leif
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Development and characteristics of a fully recycled CF/PP composite2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fully recycled carbon fibre reinforced polypropylene (rCF/rPP) composite material has been developed and characterised. This new, randomly oriented short fibre composite was manufactured by press forming with a fibre volume fraction of 40 %. A series of tensile tests using rectangular specimens cut in four different directions (0°, 90°, ±45°) in the composite plate were performed to confirm in-plane material isotropy. Models to predict stiffness and strength of the short fibre rCF/rPP composite were also employed and validated using experiments. To model the viscoelastic and viscoplastic responses of the composite, an inelastic material model was employed and characterised using a series of creep and recovery tests. From the creep tests, it was found that the time and stress dependence of viscoplastic strains follows a power law. The viscoelastic response of the composite was found to be linear in the investigated stress range. The material model was validated in constant stress rate tensile tests and the agreement was good, even close to the rupture stress.

  • 253.
    Szpieg, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Wysocki, Maciej
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Asp, Leif
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Mechanical performance and modelling of a fully recycled modified CF/PP composite2012In: Journal of composite materials, ISSN 0021-9983, E-ISSN 1530-793X, Vol. 46, no 12, p. 1503-1517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fully recycled carbon fiber reinforced maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP)-modified polypropylene (rCF/rPP) composite material has been developed and characterized. This new composite was manufactured employing papermaking principles, dispersing the recycled carbon fibers (rCF) in water, and forming them into mats. Two layers of the recycled polypropylene (rPP) films manufactured using press-forming were sandwiched between three rCF preform layers in a stack. The stack was heated and press-formed resulting in a composite plate with a nominal thickness of 1.20 mm and a fiber volume fraction of 40%. A series of tensile tests using rectangular specimens cut in four different directions (0°, 90°, ± 45°) in the composite plate were performed to confirm in-plane material isotropy. Models to predict stiffness and strength of the short fiber rCF/rPP composite were also employed and validated using experiments. The models were found to be in good agreement with experimental results. Fiber length distribution measurements were performed before (unprocessed) and after (processed) composite manufacturing to investigate the influence of processing on fiber degradation. The results revealed a significant reduction in fiber length by the press-forming operation. To model the viscoelastic and viscoplastic responses of the composite an inelastic material model was employed and characterized using a series of creep and recovery tests. From the creep tests, it was found that the time and stress dependence of viscoplastic strains follows a power law. The viscoelastic response of the composite was found to be linear in the investigated stress range. The material model was validated in constant stress rate tensile tests and the agreement was good, even close to the rupture stress. © The Author(s) 2011.

  • 254.
    Szpieg, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Wysocki, Maciej
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Asp, Leif
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Novel composites from recycled constituents2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Only a small fraction of the waste generated by use and manufacturing of carbon-based composites is currently reused. However, due to European Union (EU) regulations and limited amount of landfilling, the industry is forced to consider recycling solutions already during the manufacturing process. The following work is devoted to the development of a technique for manufacture of novel engineering materials from recycled carbon fibres and thermoplastic matrix. Fibre preforms are manufactured employing a papermaking technique for dispersing the carbon fibres. The polypropylene (PP) matrix was reprocessed into a film. The carbon fibre preforms and PP films were stacked and composite materials were subsequently manufactured by press forming and evaluated.

  • 255.
    Szpieg, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Wysocki, Maciej
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Asp, Leif
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Recycled polypropylene aimed as composites precursor material2009In: Plastics, rubber and composites, ISSN 1465-8011, E-ISSN 1743-2898, Vol. 38, p. 412-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research is to assess the stability and processability of recycled polypropylene (PP) materials for their suitability for use as matrix material in polymer composite. The work comprises development and characterisation of matrix precursors from recycled PP. The reused PP considered comes from two sources: PP from the self-reinforced PP Pure processing scrap and an automotive grade developed to offer an even material quality. To assess the thermal stability of two PP qualities for subsequent composite manufacturing, oxidation induction time (OIT), melting point Tm, decomposition temperature 7d and viscosity μ were investigated. The results indicate, that Pure processing scrap is very well stabilised and therefore suitable for multiple processing, whereas the automotive grade recycled PP cannot be used for this purpose. Fibres for subsequent composite preforming were spun by melt spinning from the Pure scrap processing and its mechanical properties were characterised. © Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining 2009.

  • 256.
    Szpieg, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Wysocki, Maciej
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Asp, Leif
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Reuse of polymer materials and carbon fibres in novel engineering composite materials2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work was devoted to the development of a technique for manufacture of a novel engineering material from carbon fibres and thermoplastic matrix recyclates. Fibre preforms were manufactured employing a papermaking technique for dispersing the carbon fibres. The polypropylene (PP) matrix recyclate was reprocessed into a film. The carbon fibre preforms and PP films were stacked and composite materials were subsequently manufactured by press forming. The mechanical behaviour of carbon fibre preforms was characterised by a compaction test and compared to the results obtained by consolidation test of the carbon fibres reinforced PP composites. The consolidation experiments were found to follow the trend from compaction tests allowing prediction of the amount of polymer material needed, fibre volume fraction as well as composites thickness. The resulting dispersion of fibres and void content were evaluated by microscopy. © 2009 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining.

  • 257.
    Säämänen, Arto
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    The effect of spraying and rolling process factors on styrene emission during the application of unsaturated polyester resins2002In: AIHAJ - Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, ISSN 1529-8663, E-ISSN 2163-3711, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 474-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years the awareness of the problems caused by styrene emission during the processing of unsaturated polyester resins has enlarged. The spray-up application of gel coats is especially problematic, and it produces high styrene emission rates. The emission of styrene has been reduced through material changes, work practice controls, and add-on controls. However, the influence of the spray-up process factors on styrene emission has not been studied before. The aim of this study was to examine possibilities to reduce styrene emission by optimization of spray-up process factors. The following factors were studied under controlled laboratory conditions: orifice size and angle of the spray gun tip, spraying pressure, distance between spray gun and mold, and shape of the mold. The influence of the rolling pattern during lamination was also studied. Several significant factors were found. High pressure and long spraying distance increased both the unit styrene emission and the emission rate. The orifice size had two effects; a large orifice decreased the amount of styrene emitted per sprayed amount of resin but increased the emission rate of styrene. The shape of the mold did not affect the styrene emission. Styrene emission is greater if the entire mold area is rolled. To achieve lower emission is it necessary to roll an area as small as possible; this is especially important if a large mold is laminated. The results showed that emission of styrene can be reduced significantly by an optimal selection of the spray gun settings and the way of working. Optimal settings also increased the transfer efficiency resulting in decreased material loss.

  • 258.
    Tsampas, Spyros Anastasios
    et al.
    GKN Aerospace Engine Systems, Sweden.
    Fernberg, Patrik S.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Long-term high temperature and fire degradation of carbon/polyimide composites2019In: ECCM 2018 - 18th European Conference on Composite Materials, Applied Mechanics Laboratory , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 259.
    Tsampas, Spyros
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Development of novel high T-g polyimide-based composites. Part II: Mechanical characterisation2018In: Journal of composite materials, ISSN 0021-9983, E-ISSN 1530-793X, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 261-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the mechanical performance assessment of a newly developed carbon fibre-reinforced polyimide composite system T650/NEXIMID (R) MHT-R is presented. This system was subjected to a series of mechanical tests at ambient and elevated temperature (320?) to determine basic material properties. Moreover, an additional test was conducted, using a T650/NEXIMID (R) MHT-R laminate in which the fibre sizing was thermally removed prior to laminate manufacturing, to investigate the effect of fibre treatment on mechanical performance. The experimental results indicated that the T650/NEXIMID (R) MHT-R composites along with exceptionally high T-g (360-420?) exhibited competitive mechanical properties to other commercially available polyimide and epoxy-based systems. At elevated temperature, the fibre-dominated properties were not affected whilst the properties defined by matrix and fibre/matrix interface were degraded by approximately 20-30%. Finally, the fibre sizing removal did not affect the tensile and compressive strength, however, the shear strength obtained from short-beam shear test was deteriorated by approximately 15%.

  • 260.
    Tsampas, Spyros
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    RISE, Swerea, SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Joffe, Roberts
    RISE, Swerea, SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mechanical performance of novel high TG polyimide matrix carbon fibre-reinforced laminates2015In: ICCM International Conferences on Composite Materials, International Committee on Composite Materials , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, an assessment of the mechanical performance of a newly developed carbon fibre-reinforced polyimide composite system T650/NEXIMID® MHT-R is presented. This system was subjected to a series of mechanical tests at ambient temperature in order to determine the tensile, compressive, flexural and interlaminar shear properties. Moreover, an additional testing campaign was conducted, using a T650/NEXIMID® MHT-R laminate in which the sizing had been thermally removed prior to manufacturing, in order to investigate the effect of fiber treatment on the mechanical performance. The experimental results indicated that the T650/NEXIMID® MHT-R composites along with exceptionally high Tg (~370-420ºC) exhibited very good elastic properties in comparison with other polyimide and epoxy-based systems and, although slightly lower than the best results from literature, promising strength values. Finally, the thermal removal of the sizing did not affect the tensile, compression and flexural properties, however the interlaminar shear strength was significantly deteriorated.

  • 261.
    Tsampas, Spyros
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Greenhalgh, E. S.
    Imperial College London, UK.
    Failure investigation of polymeric composite components2015In: JEC Composites Magazine, ISSN 1639-965X, Vol. 52, no 98, p. 46-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fractographic analysis, i.e. the examination and interpretation of fracture surfaces, provides an insight into the causes and location of failure. Previously considered as a "black art", specialists now relate fracture morphologies to failure mechanisms with confidence and provide information about the failure sequence and source of failure initiation. This technique gives great feedback and can allow better design for next-generation parts.

  • 262.
    Tsampas, Spyros
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Greenhalgh, E. S.
    Imperial College London, UK.
    Ankersen, J.
    GKN Aerospace CTC, UK.
    Curtis, P. T.
    Physical Sciences Department DSTL, UK.
    Compressive failure of hybrid multidirectional fibre-reinforced composites2015In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 71, p. 40-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the hybridisation of multidirectional carbon fibre-reinforced composites as a means of improving the compressive performance is studied. The aim is to thoroughly investigate how hybridisation influences the laminate behaviour under different compression conditions and thus provide an explanation of the "hybrid effect". The chosen approach was to compare the compressive performance of two monolithic carbon fibre/epoxy systems, CYTEC HTS/MTM44-1 and IMS/MTM44-1, with that of their respective hybrids. This was done by keeping the same layup throughout ((0/90/45/-45)2S) while replacing the angle plies in one case or the orthogonal plies in the other case with the second material, thus producing two hybrid systems. To investigate the compressive performance of these configurations, compact and plain compression test methods were employed which also allowed studying the sensitivity of compressive failure to specimen geometry and loading conditions. The experimental results and the subsequent fractographic analysis revealed that the hybridisation of selective ply interfaces influenced the location and severity of the failure mechanisms. Finally, in light of this knowledge, an update of the generic sequence of events, previously suggested by the authors, which lead to global fracture in multidirectional fibre-reinforced composites under compression is presented. 

  • 263.
    Vahlund, Fredrik
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Using a finite volume approach to simulate the mould filling in compression moulding2003In: Journal of reinforced plastics and composites (Print), ISSN 0731-6844, E-ISSN 1530-7964, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 499-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mould filling simulation of an automotive hood geometry was performed using a general purpose finite volume computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The simulation was performed as a homogenous multi-phase model using mass sinks to remove excess air from the computational domain and performed in three-dimensions. The kinematic boundary condition was modelled using a hydrodynamic friction at the mould boundaries corresponding to that in the Barone and Caulk approximation. The fibre orientation distribution was simulated throughout the closure phase using the Folgar Tucker equation for the reorientation of the fibres and orientation tensors to describe the local orientation for each element. The paper presents the methodology for, and the possibilities of, using a general purpose CFD code for these kinds of simulations. Both mould filling simulations in general can be performed and special cases where the standard simplifications of the governing equations are not valid can be investigated.

  • 264.
    Vahlund, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Gebart, Rikard
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Squeeze flow rheology in large tools1999In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Flow Processes in Composite Materials, Plymouth, UK, July 1999, , p. 365-372Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 310t hydraulic press has been modified for squeeze flow rheology studies so that large tools and high closing velocities can be achieved. Isothermal squeeze flow experiments of GMT have been performed for closing velocities up to 30 mm/s and maximum closing forces of 1000 kN. Successful power law fits of closing velocity versus closing force data have been performed for the velocity interval 3-30 mm/s.

  • 265.
    Varna, J.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zrida, H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fernberg, P.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Microdamage analysis in thermally aged CF/polyimide laminates2016In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1757-8981, E-ISSN 1757-899X, Vol. 139, no 1, article id 012050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microdamage in layers of CF Thornel® T650 8-harness satin woven composite with thermosetting polyimide NEXIMID® MHT-R resin was analysed. After cooling to room temperature multiple intra-bundle cracking due to tensile transverse thermal stresses was observed in the studied [(+45/-45)/(90/0)]2s composite. The composite was subjected to thermal cycling quantifying the increase of crack density in layers. Comparison of two ramps with the same lowest temperature shows that the highest temperature in the cycle has a significant detrimental effect. Exposure for 40 days to 288°C caused many new cracks after cooling down to room temperature. Both aged and not aged specimens were tested in uniaxial quasi-static tension. Cracking was analysed using fracture mechanics and probabilistic approaches. Cracking in off-axis layers was predicted based on Weibull analysis of the 90- layer. The thermal treatment degraded the cracking resistance of the surface layer and of the next layer.

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  • 266.
    Varna, Janis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Asp, Leif E.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Microdamage in composite laminates: Experiments and observation2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first mode of damage in fiber reinforced composite laminates is usually intralaminar cracking in layers with off-axis orientation regarding the main loading direction. This papers analyzes the most typical methods used for the characterization of the damage state: edge replicas, optical microscopy, x-ray images, acoustic emission, speckle interferometry and Raman spectroscopy.

  • 267.
    Varna, Janis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Loukil, Mohamed S.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Effective transverse modulus of a damaged layer: Potential for predicting symmetric laminate stiffness degradation2017In: Journal of composite materials, ISSN 0021-9983, E-ISSN 1530-793X, Vol. 51, no 14, p. 1945-1959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The old concept of the effective stiffness of a 90-layer with intralaminar cracks is revisited performing 3-D FEM parametric analysis of symmetric and balanced laminates. It is shown, focusing on the effective transverse modulus, that the expected dependence of this property on composite elastic properties and laminate lay-up is very weak and follows very simple rules. Calculations show that the effective longitudinal modulus and Poisson’s ratio of the layer are not affected at all by intralaminar cracking. Simple fitting curve for effective transverse modulus change with normalized crack density is obtained from analysis of GF/EP cross-ply laminate. It is shown, comparing with FEM results and experimental data, that this expression can be used as a ‘master curve’ in laminate theory to predict macroscopic elastic property change with crack density in laminates with very different lay-ups and made of different unidirectional composites.

  • 268.
    Viljanen, E.K.
    et al.
    University of Turku.
    Lassila, L.V.J.
    University of Turku.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Vallittu, P.K.
    University of Turku.
    Degree of conversion and flexural properties of a dendrimer/methyl methacrylate copolymer: Design of experiments and statistical screening2005In: Dental Materials, ISSN 0109-5641, E-ISSN 1879-0097, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 172-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of photosensitive initiator and activator concentrations on the degree of conversion and flexural properties of an experimental photopolymerized dental copolymer containing dendrimer. Methods: The experimental resin system consisted of a dendrimer with 12 methacrylate groups and methyl methacrylate in a mass ratio of 80:20. The initiator and activator used were camphorquinone and 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate, whose concentrations varied individually from 1 to 4wt%. The degree of conversion was determined with FTIR spectroscopy, and flexural strength and flexural modulus with the three-point bending test. The experiments were designed and analyzed, and the results plotted with Modde 5.0 software. Results: The highest degree of conversion was obtained with 2.5wt% initiator and activator concentrations, the highest flexural strength with 2.5wt% initiator and 1.0wt% activator concentration, and the highest flexural modulus with 1.0wt% initiator and activator concentrations. Significance: The results indicated that the degree of conversion increased, and flexural strength and flexural modulus decreased, with increasing initiator and activator concentrations. The high concentrations of initiator probably inhibited the transmittance of the active wavelengths to the depths of the samples (the inner filter effect), resulting in inhomogeneous conversion and thus decreased mechanical properties. © 2004 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 269.
    Vyas, Gaurav
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    André, Alann
    University of Florence, Italy.
    Sala, Ramses
    Technical University of Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Toward lightweight smart automotive hood structures for head impact mitigation: Integration of active stiffness control composites2019In: Journal of Intelligent Materials Systems and Structures, ISSN 1045-389X, E-ISSN 1530-8138, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 71-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, novel material concepts for high-performance carbon fiber–reinforced composites with active stiffness control were presented in the literature. Although this new class of intelligent, smart, and responsive materials has wide application potential, actual design concepts using active stiffness control are still rare. The integration of smart materials into conventional products often requires radically new design concepts. This communication presents an innovative automotive hood design concept, which integrates active stiffness control composites in order to achieve improved design performance trade-offs in terms of structural weight reduction and vulnerable road user safety. The integration of active stiffness control composites in the hood structure aims to enable active stiffness reduction of the hood or bonnet structure in order to reduce head impact injuries in case of a collision, while satisfying the structural stiffness requirements and lightweight objectives under normal operating conditions. The design concept is investigated using simulation-based evaluation of static, dynamic, and lightweight design criteria. The results are promising, and the presented concept design is a step toward the realization of lightweight smart hood structures for head impact mitigation. Several design features could also be of interest for the integration of active stiffness control composites, in other applications. © The Author(s) 2019.

  • 270.
    Wienrich, M.
    et al.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Kalinka, G.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Greenhalgh, E.S.
    Imperial College London, UK.
    Carreyette, S.
    UMECO Composites Technology Centre, UK.
    Bistritz, M.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Shirshova, N.
    Imperial College London, UK.
    Houllé, M.
    Nanocyl S.A, Belgium.
    Asp, L.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Bismarck, A.
    Imperial College London, UK.
    Fontana, Q.P.V.
    UMECO Composites Technology Centre, UK.
    Impact of ionic liquid on the mechanical performance of matrix polymer for fibre reinforced materials for energy storage2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the concept of using structural materials such as carbon fibre reinforced plastics as energy storage devices, new matrix polymers are required. These polymers must provide ionic conductivity as well as adequate mechanical strength. In the EU-Project StorAGE this requirements are fulfilled by adding ionic liquid to commercial polymers. The mechanical properties of these mixtures materials were characterized by using a 3-point-bending device. In addition, single fibre pull test were performed in order to get information on the interfacial shear strength. Adding of ionic liquid has an impact on the mechanical performance of the materials. A decrease of the flexural strength and modulus of less than 10% of the value of the reference materials took part. The interfacial shear strength decreased to a value of around one third compare to the reference material.

  • 271.
    Wilhelmsson, D
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gutkin, Renaud
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Edgren, F
    GKN Aerospace Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Asp, L E
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    An experimental study of fibre waviness and its effects on compressive properties of unidirectional NCF composites2018In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 107, p. 665-674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a comprehensive experimental study on effects of different fibre waviness characteristics on the compressive properties of unidirectional non-crimp fabrics (NCF) composites is presented. The fibre waviness ranges from periodic to random with medium to large misalignment angles. As expected, fibre waviness is found to strongly impair the compressive mechanical properties of the composite. It is demonstrated that the maximum fibre misalignment alone can be used to accurately predict strength with analytical kinking criteria. Furthermore, there is a direct correlation between waviness and a knock-down factor on stiffness with approximately 5%/degree mean fibre misalignment angle. Analysis of the extension of the misaligned regions (defects) provides additional evidence that defect extension in the transverse direction is more critical than in the longitudinal direction, supporting earlier theoretical predictions in the open literature.

  • 272.
    Wilhelmsson, D.
    et al.
    GKN Aerospace Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Rikemanson, D.
    GKN Aerospace Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Bru, Thomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Asp, L. E.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Compressive strength assessment of a CFRP aero-engine component – An approach based on measured fibre misalignment angles2019In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 233, article id 111632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we apply a recently developed methodology to assess the compressive strength of an aero-engine component based on measured fibre misalignment angles. The component is a fan outlet guide vane made from a carbon fibre reinforced polymer, which was manufactured and tested by GKN Aerospace in Sweden. The main novelty with this work is that kink-band formation is predicted from measurements of fibre misalignment angles with high spatial resolution in a real component. In addition, we validate the recently published “defect severity model” on unidirectional specimens of the same material system as the aerospace component. We confirm high accuracy of the model for prediction of compressive strength on unidirectional composite laminates. Further work is however needed to extend the methodology for cases where progressive damage leads to final failure. 

  • 273.
    Willgert, Markus
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, SICOMP. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Malmström, Eva E.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Mats K.G.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cellulose nanofibril reinforced composite electrolytes for lithium ion battery applications2014In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 2, no 33, p. 13556-13564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of a series of four composite electrolytes for lithium ion battery applications. The two-phase electrolytes are composed of a soft, ionic conductive poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) matrix having stiff nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF) paper as reinforcement to provide mechanical integrity. The reinforcing CNF is modified in order to create covalent bonds between the phases which is particularly beneficial when swelling the composite with a liquid electrolyte to enhance the ionic conductivity. After swelling the composite polymer electrolyte, forming a gelled structure, values of ionic conductivity at 5 × 10-5 S cm-1 and an elastic modulus around 400 MPa at 25 °C are obtained. 

  • 274.
    Williams, Justin
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Preliminary Material and Manufacturing Tests for Bridge Deck2000Report (Refereed)
  • 275.
    Wojtasz-Mucha, Joanna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Cecilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, SICOMP. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hasani, M
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Theliander, H.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pretreatment and cooking of forest residues2019In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 9454-9471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of processing forest residues by chemical delignification preceded by mild steam explosion. The focus was on using soda pulping, due to its simplicity. Kraft cooking was used for comparison to improve the understanding of the separation of the complex yet promising resource. The raw material consisted of chipped branches, bark, and twigs of mixed hardwood and softwood. Analysis of the raw material proved to be challenging due to the presence of a substantial fraction of extractives. Analysis of the pulps showed that the forest residue delignification was faster than that of wood. The effects of steam explosion were evaluated with the help of composition analysis, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for the molecular weight of lignin, and NMR for the changes in its structure. The impact of steam explosion was found to be limited, possibly due to the relatively small size of the material. 

  • 276.
    Wu, Da
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, SWeden.
    Larsson, Ragnar
    Chalmers University of Technology, SWeden.
    Rouhi, Mohammad
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Modeling and Experimental Validation of the VARTM Process for Thin-Walled Preforms.2019In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, no 12, article id E2003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, recent shell model is advanced towards the calibration and validation of the Vacuum-assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) process in a novel way. The model solves the nonlinear and strongly coupled resin flow and preform deformation when the 3-D flow and stress problem is simplified to a corresponding 2-D problem. In this way, the computational efficiency is enhanced dramatically, which allows for simulations of the VARTM process of large scale thin-walled structures. The main novelty is that the assumptions of the neglected through-thickness flow and the restricted preform deformation along the normal of preform surface suffice well for the thin-walled VARTM process. The model shows excellent agreement with the VARTM process experiment. With good accuracy and high computational efficiency, the shell model provides an insight into the simulation-based optimization of the VARTM process. It can be applied to either determine locations of the gate and vents or optimize process parameters to reduce the deformation.

  • 277.
    Wysocki, Maciej
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Asp, Leif
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Toll, S.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Larsson, R.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Two phase continuum modelling of composites consolidation2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a finite element (FE) code for modelling of pressure driven axisymmetric consolidation of composite material from commingled yarns is presented. The proposed model is developed on the basis of a two phase continuum model incorporated in an FE framework. The applicability of the code to axisymmetric geometries is demonstrated by analysis of the consolidation, i.e. resin infiltration and fibre bundle network deformation, of a GF/PP pressure vessel. In this numerical example, two different sets of processing conditions are presented. Based on these analysis results conclusions on the process ability of the investigated vessel configuration and manufacturing scheme are drawn and processing recommendations are given. © Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining 2009.

  • 278.
    Wysocki, Maciej
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Larsson, R.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Toll, S.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Modelling the consolidation of partially impregnated prepregs2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A finite element model is developed to solve consolidation problems for composites manufacturing. The model is developed from a generic two-phase continuum theory allowing for coupling between the solid and fluid responses. The code is applied to a case study consisting of consolidation of a hat stringer to evaluate nonlinear effects.

  • 279.
    Wysocki, Maciej
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Rouhi, Mohammad
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Vyas, Gaurav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Toll, Staffan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Constitutive models for transversely isotropic fibreprefrom in composite manufacturing2016In: 13th International Conference on Flow Processes in Composite Materials (FPCM 13), 2016, article id 20Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present contribution is an attempt to model a prepreg that is assumed to have approximatelystraight and parallel fibers which in an unloaded state has a transversely isotropicsymmetry about the fiber axis n. It is further assumed that the prepreg behaves elastic undera purely volumetric deformation, as well as under axial stretching in the fiber direction.A two-scale flow highly coupled to the fiber bed deformation is also being modelled usingporomechanics. The framework comprises a nonlinear compressible fiber network saturatedwith incompressible fluid phase.

  • 280.
    Wysocki, Maciej
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Szpieg, Magdalena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Hellström, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Ohlsson, F.
    Oxeon AB, Sweden.
    The out-of-plane behaviour of spread-tow fabrics2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the constitutive compressive behaviour of nearly parallel spread-tow textile reinforcement is studied. The striking result of our analysis is that the spread-tow type of reinforcement should obey linear relation between force and deformation. This is in contrast to standard textile reinforcements that obey a power-law type of behaviour. To support the theoretical investigation we have developed an test rig who's chief purpose is to achieve compression between nearly perfectly parallel surfaces. This is achieved using a mechanical arrangement consisting of a ball-joint.

  • 281.
    Wysocki, Maciej
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Toll, S.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Larsson, R.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Press forming of commingled yarn based composites: The preform contribution2007In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 67, p. 515-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of press forming commingled yarn composites is studied and modelled based on the theory of porous media. Two sub processes are considered: (1) the wetting and compaction of individual bundles and (2) the overall preform deformation. An experimental method is introduced, to study these two sub processes separately. The experiment suppresses the fluid pressure build-up, and thus the process of wetting and bundle compaction, by draining the resin into a porous wall. In consequence, the measured response consists only of the preform contribution. Finally, the total response is simulated and tested against independent consolidation experiments. It was demonstrated that the present approach gives better predictions compared to models based on the bundle response only. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 282.
    Wysocki, Maciej
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Toll, S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, R.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Asp, Leif
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Anisotropic and tension-compression asymmetric model for composites consolidation2010In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 284-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A constitutive model for anisotropic and tension-compression asymmetric response of a fibrous preform is developed and solved using a FE software. Applicability of the method to complex geometries is demonstrated by analysis the consolidation of an axisymmetric filament wound pressure vessel made from commingled yarns. Three different winding patterns are considered. In conclusions, the consolidation of the whole vessel, except at the opening, is prevented by the loading mode, where the pressure is applied on the interior. To succeed in manufacturing of this type of pressure vessel, use of an oversized preform that allows extension in the fibre direction is suggested. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 283.
    Zang, W.L.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Gudmundson, Peter
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Kinked cracks in an anisotropic plane modeled by an integral equation method1991In: International Journal of Solids and Structures, ISSN 0020-7683, E-ISSN 1879-2146, Vol. 27, no 14, p. 1855-1865Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A boundary integral method for cracks in an anisotropic material is presented. The method is based on the integral equation for the resultant forces along the cracks. The integral kernels contain only a weak logarithmic singularity, which simplifies the numerical implementation. Crack closure is also taken into account in the numerical formulation. Numerical tests are presented to illustrate the efficiency and the reliability of the proposed method. © 1991.

  • 284.
    Zang, W.L.
    et al.
    The Royal Institute of Technology.
    Gudmundson, Peter
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Kinked cracks in bonded half-planes modeled by an integral equation method1992In: International Journal of Fracture, ISSN 0376-9429, E-ISSN 1573-2673, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 65-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the integral equation for resultant forces along a crack, a boundary integral equation method for the solution of kinked cracks in bonded half-planes is presented. The equation only contains a weak logarithmic singularity and is valid for every point along the crack lines. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the efficiency and reliability of the method. © 1992 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  • 285.
    Zangani, D.
    et al.
    D'Appolonia SpA.
    Robinson, M.
    University of Newcastle Upon Tyne.
    Gibson, A.G.
    University of Newcastle Upon Tyne.
    Torre, L.
    University of Perugia.
    Holmberg, Anders
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Numerical simulation of bending and failure behaviour of z-core sandwich panels2007In: Plastics, rubber and composites, ISSN 1465-8011, E-ISSN 1743-2898, Vol. 36, no 9, p. 389-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The failure behaviour of fibreglass sandwich panels with structured internal cores (z-cored panels) was studied in bending. A finite element model was developed for the simulation of three point bending tests and this has been validated against experimental results. The model was able to predict both the elastic response and, more importantly, the failure behaviour of the structure. It is therefore suitable for use in the optimising the design of z-core sandwich panels for transport applications. The same modelling approach was also applied to the structural behaviour of a larger sandwich panel with a metallic insert which was employed in the design of a semitrailer as part of a demonstration of the viability of the technology. © 2007 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining.

  • 286.
    Zhuang, Linqi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pupurs, Andrejs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of neighboring fibers on energy release rate during fiber/matrix debond growth2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper fiber/matrix interface debond growth in unidirectional composites subjected to mechanical tensile loading is analyzed using fracture mechanics principles of energy release rate (ERR). The objective of the present study is to analyze the effect of neighboring fibers on the ERR. 5-cylinder axisymmetric FEM models with adjustable inter-fiber distance were used for ERR calculations. The results show that the ERR slightly increases with the inter-fiber distance in the case of long debonds. For short debonds, however, because the stress-state is more complex, it was found that the debond propagates in a mixed Mode I and Mode II and contribution of each mode to the ERR depends on the actual debond length. It was found that for very small debond lengths ERR significantly increases with the inter-fiber distance.

  • 287.
    Zhuang, Linqi
    et al.
    Texas A&M University, USA; Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pupurs, Andrejs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Talreja, Ramesh
    Texas A&M University, USA ; Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ayadi, Zoubir
    University of Lorraine, France.
    Effects of inter-fiber spacing on fiber-matrix debond crack growth in unidirectional composites under transverse loading2018In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 109, p. 463-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy release rate (ERR) of a fiber–matrix debond crack in a unidirectional composite subjected to transverse tension is studied numerically. The focus of the study is the effect of the proximity of the neighboring fibers on the ERR. For this, a hexagonal pattern of fibers in the composite cross-section is considered. Assuming one fiber to be debonded at certain initial debond arc-length, the effect of the closeness of the surrounding six fibers on the ERR of the crack is studied with the inter-fiber distance as a parameter. Using an embedded cell consisting of discrete fibers in a matrix surrounded by the homogenized composite, a finite element model and the virtual crack closure technique are used to calculate the ERR. Results show that the presence of the local fiber cluster accelerates the crack growth up to a certain initial crack angle, beyond which the opposite effect occurs. It is also found that the residual stress due to thermal cooldown reduces the ERR. However, the thermal cooldown is found to enhance the debond growth in plies within a cross-ply laminate.

  • 288.
    Zrida, Habiba
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; University of Lorraine, France.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ayadi, Zoubir
    University of Lorraine, France.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Microcracking in thermally cycled and aged Carbon fibre/polyimide laminates2017In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 94, p. 121-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon fibre T650 8-harness satin weave fabric composites with thermosetting polyimide resin designed for high service temperatures are solidified at 340 °C. High thermal stresses develop after cooling down to room temperature, which lead to multiple cracking in bundles of the studied quasi-isotropic composite. The composites are subjected to two thermal cycling ramps and the increase of crack density in each bundle is quantified. Comparison of two ramps with the same lowest temperature shows that the highest temperature in the cycle has a significant effect on thermal fatigue resistance. During thermal aging tests at 288 °C the mechanical properties are degrading with time and the crack density after certain aging time is measured. Aging and fatigue effects are separately analysed showing that part of the cracking in thermal cycling tests is related to material aging during the high temperature part of the cycle. Numerical edge stress analysis and fracture mechanics are used to explain observations. The 3-D finite element edge stress analysis reveals that there is large edge effect that induces a large difference in the damage state between the different layers on the edge. The linear elastic fracture mechanics explains the higher initiated and propagated crack density in the surface layers comparing to the inner layers.

  • 289.
    Zrida, Habiba
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ayadi, Zoubir
    Ecole Européenne D'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux, France.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effective stiffness of curved 0°-layers for stiffness determination of cross-ply non-crimp fabric composites2014In: Journal of reinforced plastics and composites (Print), ISSN 0731-6844, E-ISSN 1530-7964, Vol. 33, no 14, p. 1339-1352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the 0°-tow waviness on axial stiffness of cross-ply non-crimp fabric composites is analysed using multiscale approach. The curved 0°- and 90°-layers are represented by flat layers with effective stiffness properties and classical laminate theory is used to calculate the macroscopic stiffness. The effective 0°-layer stiffness is calculated analysing isolated curved 0°-layers subjected not only to end loading, but also to surface loads. The surface loads are identified in a detailed finite element analysis and approximated by a sinus shaped function with amplitude depending on the waves parameters. The sinus shaped surface loads are then applied to an isolated curved 0°-layer finite element model together with end loading to calculate the effective stiffness of the layer. Finally, the effective 0°-layer stiffness was successfully used to calculate the macroscopic stiffness of the composite proving validity of the approach being used and showing that, without losing accuracy, elastic properties in the 90°-layers with bundle structure can be replaced by the transverse stiffness of the homogenised 90°-layer material.

  • 290.
    Zrida, Habiba
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ayadi, Zoubir
    Ecole Européenne D'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux, France.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Master curve approach to axial stiffness calculation for non-crimp fabric biaxial composites with out-of-plane waviness2014In: Composites Part B: Engineering, ISSN 1359-8368, E-ISSN 1879-1069, Vol. 64, p. 214-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of 0°-tow out-of-plane waviness on the biaxial non-crimp-fabric (NCF) composite axial stiffness is investigated. Homogenizing, the bundle mesostructure of the NCF composite is replaced by layers. Then the composite is represented by a laminate with flat layers with effective stiffness properties representing the curved 0°-layer and the 90°-layer with varying thickness. It is shown that the NCF composite knock-down factor characterizing the stiffness degradation has almost the same dependence on wave parameters as the knock-down factor for the curved 0°-layer. Numerical analysis showed that 90°-layer knock-down factor versus amplitude curves for different wavelength can be reduced to one master curve which can be described by a one-parameter expression with the parameter dependent on the used material. This observation is used to obtain high accuracy for analytical predictions for knock-down factors for cases with different wavelength and amplitudes based on two FE calculations only.

  • 291.
    Åström, Timas
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Outlook for technical textiles in the Nordic countries [Aussichten für technische Textilien in den nordischen Ländern]2003In: AVR Allgemeiner Vliesstoff-Report, ISSN 1704060, no 4, p. s. 10-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    General economic information on industrial textiles in Scandinavia is presented. Areas in which Nordic companies are particularly successful include: automotive and agricultural textiles, sportswear, building textiles, medical textiles, protective garments and safety textiles. Those sectors in which Nordic countries are particularly successful are airbag fabrics, geotextiles, sun protection fabrics, papermakers' felts, camouflage screens and fabric-reinforced composites. The impact of labour costs on manufacturing is discussed. Product development is noted.

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