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  • 251.
    Hanson, Maj
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nilsson, B
    Isberg, P
    Wäppling, R
    Magnetic properties of two-dimensionell arrays of epitaxial Fe (001) submicron particles1999In: J. of Appl. Phys., Vol. 85, no 5, p. 2799-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 252.
    Hanson, Maj
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, Bengt A.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Erik Björn
    Seagate Research, USA.
    Magnetic properties of epitaxial Ni (001) films sub-micron particles2001In: Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, ISSN 0304-8853, E-ISSN 1873-4766, Vol. 236, p. 139-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The magnetic properties of Ni particles with well-defined geometry, prepared by electron lithography from epitaxial Ni (001) films of thickness 50 and 60nm were studied. The particles were circles with diameters 0.6μm and rectangles with sides 0.9μm and 0.3μm, that were positioned in square and rectangular lattices, having lattice constants about twice the particle dimensions. Reference samples and particles with the lattices oriented along the [1 0 0] and [1 1 0] directions were prepared. Hysteresis curves were obtained for particles and reference samples, in the field range ±2T at temperatures between 50 and 300K. The particles were further imaged by magnetic force microscopy. The coercivities of the particles are about the same as that of the reference samples, being of the order of 10mT at room temperature and increasing with decreasing temperature. This may be explained by the temperature dependence of the magnetic anisotropy of the Ni film, estimated to K1=-12.5, -12.8 and -87.6kJm-3 at 295, 250 and 50K, respectively. Whereas the hysteresis curves of the particles are governed by the intrinsic properties of the starting film in low fields, the decreased lateral size influences the behaviour in higher fields as demagnetization effects and features characteristic for annihilation and nucleation of domain walls. One of the samples, rectangles with the long axis along the [1 1 0] direction, has a significantly higher remanence and coercivity than the others. The magnetic images show that the demagnetized state of this sample comprises both single-domain and multidomain particles. Corresponding images showed only multidomain particles in all other samples. Thus it was concluded that the actual size (0.9μm×0.3μm×50nm) is close to the critical size for single domains in Ni.

  • 253.
    Hanson, Maj
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Pedersen, Michael S.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mörup, Steen
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    The influence of particle size interactions on the magnetization susceptibility of nanometre-size particles1995In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 09538984, Vol. 7, p. 9269-9277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the magnetic properties of frozen magnetic liquids containing amorphous Fe1-xCx particles. By varying the particle size and concentration, we could separate single particle effects from interactions. In samples containing particles with median diameters 5.0 nm and 3.8 nm and with spontaneous saturation magnetizations 7.1 kA m-1 and 9.2 kA m -1, effects of particle interactions are observed. For 3.2 nm no interactions were observed. In samples with negligible interactions the superparamagnetic blocking temperature increases with the particle size. The effective anisotropy constant increases with decreasing particle size, implying that the anisotropy is enhanced by surface effects.

  • 254. Hansryd, J
    et al.
    Andrekson, P A
    Westlund, M
    Li, J
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Hedekvist, P O
    Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers their applications2002In: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Vol. 8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 255.
    Hasan, K. U.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden; bCentres of Excellence in Science and Applied Technologies, Pakistan.
    Asif, M. H.
    Linköping University, Sweden; COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan.
    Hassan, M. U.
    COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan.
    Sandberg, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo. RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Nur, O.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Willander, M.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Fagerholm, S.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Strålfors, P.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    A Miniature Graphene-based Biosensor for Intracellular Glucose Measurements2015In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 174, p. 574-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a small and simple graphene-based potentiometric sensor for the measurement of intracellular glucose concentration. A fine borosilicate glass capillary coated with graphene and subsequently immobilized with glucose oxidase (GOD) enzyme is inserted into the intracellular environment of a single human cell. The functional groups on the edge plane of graphene assist the attachment with the free amine terminals of GOD enzyme, resulting in a better immobilization. The sensor exhibits a glucose-dependent electrochemical potential against an Ag/AgCl reference microelectrode which is linear across the whole concentration range of interest (10 - 1000 μM). Glucose concentration in human fat cell measured by our graphene-based sensor is in good agreement with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. 

  • 256. Haunstein, H
    et al.
    Schupke, DA
    Duhovnikov, S
    Lehmann, G
    Stavdas, A
    Gunkel, M
    Martensson, J
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Lord, A
    Integrated design operation of a transparent optical network: a systematic approach to include physical layer awareness cost function2007In: IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 45, p. 40-47Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 257. Haunstein, Herbert
    et al.
    Rohde, Harald
    Forzati, Marco
    Pincemin, Erwan
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    Djupsjöbacka, Anders
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Politi, Tanya
    Combating Physical Layer Degradations: Chapter 62010In: Core and Metro Networks / [ed] Alexandros Stavdas, 2010, p. 381-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 258. He, S
    et al.
    Popov, M
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Qiu, M
    Liao, Z
    Simovski, C
    Explicit formulas for obtaining the radiation characteristics of an antenna based on a three-dimensional metallic photonic bandgap structure2001In: Microwave Optical Technology Letter, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 376-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 259. He, S
    et al.
    Popov, M
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Qiu, M
    Simovski, C
    An explicit method for the analysis of guided waves in a line defect channel in a photonic crystal2000In: Microwave Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 236-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 260. He, S
    et al.
    Popov, M
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Qiu, M
    Simovski, C
    The influence of the dielectric-air interface on the radiation pattern of an antenna in a metallic photonics bandgap structure in a dielectric host medium2000In: Microwave Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 367-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 261. He, S
    et al.
    Simovski, C
    Popov, M
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    An explicit efficient method for obtaining the radiation characteristics of wire antennas in metallic photonic bandgap structures2000In: Microwave Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 67-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 262.
    Helander, P
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Measurement of fictive temperature of silica glass optical fibers2004In: Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 39, no 11, p. 3799-800Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 263.
    Helander, P
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Practical aspects on measuring refractive index profiles of non-circular fiberoptic preforms2005In: Measurement Science Technology, Vol. 16, p. 628-32Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 264.
    Hellsing, M.
    et al.
    Materiex AB, Sweden.
    Fokine, M.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Claesson, Åsa
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, L. -E
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Margulis, Walter
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    ToF-SIMS imaging of dopant diffusion in optical fibers2003In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 203-204, p. 648-651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applications of optical fibers in telecommunication and sensing are rapidly emerging where the fiber properties are related to the controlled addition of dopants such as germanium, phosphorous, fluorine and erbium. The modern ToF-SIMS instrument, with its high sensitivity and high lateral resolution, has shown to be an excellent tool to directly analyze cross-sections of as-manufactured fibers. The present work describes ToF-SIMS imaging of the dopant distribution in fluorine, germanium and rare-earth doped fibers where dopants are confined to a few μm in the core. The increased fluorine diffusion in the fluorine doped fibers due to chemical reactions with hydroxyl groups was examined. This process is utilized in the manufacture of thermally stable chemical composition fiber Bragg gratings. We were able to produce ToF-SIMS elemental images with a lateral resolution around 0.5μm showing the detailed distribution of the dopants.

  • 265. Hellsing, Maja
    et al.
    Fokine, M
    Claesson, Åsa
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, L-E
    Margulis, W
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging of dopant diffusion in optical fiber2003In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 203-204, p. 3458-61Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 266. Hellström, S
    et al.
    Chen, Z-H
     Fu, Y
    Qiu, M
    Soltanmoradi, R
    Wang, Q
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Andersson, J Y
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Increased photocurrent in quantum dot infrared photodetector by subwavelength hole array in metal thin film2010In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 96, p. 231110-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 267. Hendriksen, PV
    et al.
    Oxborrow, CA
    Linderoth, S
    Marup, S
    Hanson, M
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Badker, F
    Davies, K
    Swells, SW
    Particle interaction effects in systems of ultrafine iron oxide particles1993In: Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res., Vol. 876, p. 138-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 268. Herlogsson, L
    et al.
    Crispin, X
    Robinson, N D
    Sandberg, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Hagel, O
    Gustafsson, G
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Berggren, M
    Low-Voltage Polymer Field-Effect Transistors Gated Via a Proton Conductor2007In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 97-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low operating voltages for p-channel organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) can be achieved by using an electrolyte as the gate insulator. However, mobile anions in the electrolyte can lead to undesired electrochemistry in the channel. In order to avoid this, a polyanionic electrolyte is used as the gate insulator. The resulting OFET has operating voltages of less than 1€‰V (see figure) shows fast switching (less than 0.3€‰ms) in ambient atmosphere._x000D_

  • 269.
    Hertel, Stefan
    et al.
    Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany.
    Waldmann, Daniel
    Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany.
    Jobst, Johannes
    Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany.
    Albert, Andreas
    Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany.
    Albrecht, Martin
    Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany.
    Reshanov, Sergey A.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Schöner, Adolf
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Krieger, Michael
    Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nurnberg, Germany.
    Weber, Heiko B.
    Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nurnberg, Germany.
    Tailoring the graphene/silicon carbide interface for monolithic wafer-scale electronics2012In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 3, article id 957Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphene is an outstanding electronic material, predicted to have a role in post-silicon electronics. However, owing to the absence of an electronic bandgap, graphene switching devices with high on/off ratio are still lacking. Here in the search for a comprehensive concept for wafer-scale graphene electronics, we present a monolithic transistor that uses the entire material system epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide (0001). This system consists of the graphene layer with its vanishing energy gap, the underlying semiconductor and their common interface. The graphene/semiconductor interfaces are tailor-made for ohmic as well as for Schottky contacts side-by-side on the same chip. We demonstrate normally on and normally off operation of a single transistor with on/off ratios exceeding 10 4 and no damping at megahertz frequencies. In its simplest realization, the fabrication process requires only one lithography step to build transistors, diodes, resistors and eventually integrated circuits without the need of metallic interconnects.

  • 270. Hey, R 
    et al.
    Noharet, B 
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Sjöberg, H 
    Internet remote-controlled optical correlator based on 256x256 FLC spatial light modulators1999In: J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt., Vol. 1, p. 307-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 271. Hllstig, E
    et al.
    Åhgren, J
    Allard, L
    Sjöqvist, L
    Engström, D
    Hård, S
    Agren, D
    Junique, S
    Wang, Q
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Noharet, B
    Retrocommunication utilizing electroabsorption modulators non-mechanical beam steering2005In: Optical Engineering, Vol. 44, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 272. Hofmann, U G
    et al.
    Bär, M
    Detemple, P
    Kindlundh, M
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Norlin, P
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Acute multisite recording probes for neurons in mice men2004In: MST News, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 14-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 273.
    Holm, J
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    A fluorescence detection selection device for DNA-molecules bound to microspheres1999In: Nucleosides & Nucleotide, Vol. 16, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 274. Holm, J
    et al.
    Ahlfeldt, H
    Svensson, M
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Vieider, C
    Through-etched Silicon Carriers for Passive Alignment of Optical Fibers to Surface-Active Optoelectronic Components2000In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 82, no 1, p. 245-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 275.
    Hummelgard, Christine
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo. Senseair AB, Sweden.
    Bryntse, I.
    Senseair AB, Sweden.
    Bryzgalov, M.
    Senseair AB, Sweden.
    Henning, J. -A
    Senseair AB, Sweden.
    Martin, H.
    Senseair AB, Sweden.
    Norén, M.
    Senseair AB, Sweden; Dr. Norén Consulting, Germany.
    Rödjegard, H.
    Senseair AB, Sweden.
    Low-cost NDIR based sensor platform for sub-ppm gas detection2015In: Urban Climate, E-ISSN 2212-0955, Vol. 14, p. 342-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a new low-cost non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) based sensor platform for sub-ppm gas detection. The aim of the sensor platform development was to create a cost-effective, mass-producible and highly accurate device. Due to its sensitivity, the platform is well suitable for measuring and detecting gases like carbon dioxide, methane, dinitrogen oxide, ammonia, ethanol vapour, refrigerants, etc. The sensor is based on the White-cell NDIR approach and realizes a path length of 1.28 m in a device with an external length of less than 10 cm. High mechanical accuracy of the optical system, temperature controlled optics, highly stable electronics and an optimized mirror surfaces allow a detection level as low as 0.007 ppm.

  • 276. Huyang, G
    et al.
    Canning, J
    Aslund, M-L
    Naqshbandi, M
    Gibson, B
    Petermann, Ingemar
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Stocks, D
    Crossley, M-J
    Porphyrin doped sol-gel lined structured optical fibres for local remote sensing2011In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 36, no 11, p. 1975-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 277. Huyang, G
    et al.
    Petermann, Ingemar
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Canning, J
    Naqshbandi, M
    Crossley, MJ
    Characterisation functionalisation of cold-processed titania sol-gel layers on silica silicate surfaces2012In: Optical Materials Express, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 222-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 278.
    Hyllander, Gunilla
    et al.
    LKAB, Sweden.
    Ökvist, Lena Sundqvist
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, MEFOS.
    Malmberg, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, MEFOS.
    Eriksson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, MEFOS.
    Olsson, Erik T.
    SSAB EMEA AB, Sweden.
    Zetterlund, Erik
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Tarasenko, Oleksander V.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Innovative measurement technique for raceway monitoring2012In: 6th Int. Congress on the Science and Technology of Ironmaking 2012, ICSTI 2012 - Including Proceedings from the 42nd Ironmaking and Raw Materials Seminar, and the 13th Brazilian Symp. on Iron Ore, 2012, Vol. 3, p. 1732-1743Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When raceway conditions are changed, e.g blast parameters or selection of injection material, additional measurements and monitoring of raceway can support evaluation of the effects on raceway conditions. Two types of measurement methods have been tested during injection trials with BF flue dust at the SSAB EMEA BF in Oxelösund and the LKAB Experimental Blast Furnace (EBF®). The raceway depth was measured using microwave technique and a camera was installed for viewing the raceway when the peep hole was occupied by the depth measurements equipment. Temperature estimation was made on thermal radiation guided via an optical fibre from the raceway to a spectrometer. Evaluation methods were developed based on Planck radiation law. The measurement techniques and their use for monitoring of raceway conditions are discussed.

  • 279. Höchst, A
    et al.
    Scheuerer, R
    Stahl, H
    Fischer, F
    Metzger, L
    Reichenbach, R
    Lrmer, F
    Kronmuller, S
    Watcham, S
    Rusu, C
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Stable thin film encapsulation of acceleration sensors using polycrystalline silicon as sacrificial encapsulation layer2004In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 114, p. 355-361Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 280. Höglund, L
    et al.
    Holtz, P O
    Pettersson, H
    Asplund, C
    Wang, Q
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Almqvist, S
    Malm, H
    Petrini, E
    Andersson, J Y
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Bias mediated tuning of the detection wavelength in asymmetrical quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors2008In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 93, p. 203512-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 281. Höglund, L
    et al.
    Holtz, P O
    Pettersson, H
    Asplund, C
    Wang, Q
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Almqvist, S
    Smuk, S
    Petrini, E
    Andersson, JY
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Bias temperature dependence of the escape processes in quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors2008In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 93, p. 1035201-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 282. Höglund, L
    et al.
    Holtz, P O
      Pettersson, H
    Asplund, C
    Wang, Q
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Malm, H
    Almqvist, S
    Petrini, E
    Andersson, J Y
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Optical pumping as artificial doping in quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors2009In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 94, p. 53503-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 283. Höglund, L
    et al.
    Karlsson, K F
    Holtz, P O
    Pettersson, H
    Pistol, M E
    Wang, Q
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Almqvist, S
    Asplund, C
    Malm, H
    Petrini, E
    Andersson, J Y
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Energy level scheme of InAs/InxGa1?xAs/GaAs quantum-dots-in-a-well infrared photodetector structures2010In: PHYSICAL REVIEW, Vol. b82, p. 35314-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 284. Isaksson, J
    et al.
    Kjäll, P
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, D
    Robinson, N
    Berggren, M
    Richter-Dahlfors, A
    Electronic control of Ca2+ signalling in neuronal cells using an organic electronic ion pump2007In: Nature Materials_x000D_, Vol. 6, no 9, p. 673-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 285. Isaksson, J
    et al.
    Nilsson, D
    Kjall, P
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Robinson, N D
    Richter-Dahlfors, A
    Berggren, M
    Electronically Controlled Ph Gradients Proton Oscillations2008In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 9, p. 303-309Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 286.
    Jacobsen, G
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Error-rate floors in intradyne QPSK systems with quadruple phase extraction – comparison of block sliding Processor Unit update2011In: Journal of optical communications, ISSN 0173-4911, E-ISSN 2191-6322, Vol. 31, p. 180-3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 287.
    Jacobsen, G
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Laser phase noise induced error-rate floors in differential n-level phase-shift-keying coherent receivers2010In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 46, no 10, p. 698-700Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 288.
    Jacobsen, G
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Gillner, L
    Fransson, O
    On the use of OSNR for BER monitoring in optical networks2000In: Journal of Optical Communication, Vol. 21, p. 20-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 289.
    Jacobsen, G
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Kazovsky, LG
    Xu, T
    Popov, S
    Li, J
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Zhang, Y
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Friberg, AT
    Phase noise influence in optical OFDM systems employing RF pilot tone for phase noise cancellation2011In: Journal of optical communications, ISSN 0173-4911, E-ISSN 2191-6322, Vol. 32, p. 141-5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 290.
    Jacobsen, G
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Lidon, M
    Xu, T
    Popov, S
    Friberg, AT
    Zhang, Y
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Influence of Pre- Post-compensation of Chromatic Dispersion on Equalization Enhanced Phase Noise in Coherent Multilevel Systems2011In: Journal of optical communications, ISSN 0173-4911, E-ISSN 2191-6322, Vol. 32Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 291.
    Jacobsen, G
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Persson, U
    Gillner, L
    Vanin, E
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Wingstrand, S
    Pump power dependent black box EDFA model2000In: Journal of Optical Communication, Vol. 21, p. 675-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 292.
    Jacobsen, G
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Vanin, E
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Novel optical direct-detection D16PSK Gray code receiver using two interferometers simple multilevel electrical processing2009In: J. Opt. Commun., Vol. 31, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 293.
    Jacobsen, G
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Vanin, E
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Forzati, M
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Wang, L
    Practical design model of DnPSK systems using direct BER counting rigorous BER modeling2008In: Journal of optical communications, ISSN 0173-4911, E-ISSN 2191-6322, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 226-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 294.
    Jacobsen, G
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Wildhagen, P
    A general rigorous WDM receiver model targeting 10 - 40 Gb/s channel bit-rates2001In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, p. 966-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 295.
    Jacobsen, G
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Xu, T
    Popov, S
    Li, J
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Friberg, AT
    Zhang, Y
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    EEPN CD study for coherent optical nPSK nQAM systems with RF pilot based phase noise compensation2012In: Optics Express, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 20, no 8, p. 8862-70Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 296.
    Jacobsen, G
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Xu, T
    Popov, S
    Li, J
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Friberg, AT
    Zhang, Y
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Receiver implemented RF pilot tone phase noise mitigation in coherent optical nPSK nQAM systems2011In: Optics Express, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 19, no 15, p. 14487-94Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 297.
    Jacobsen, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Aurelius, A
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Anders, Berntson
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    BER Model for Rx ISI Effects in WDM Systems Accounting for General LPF Impulse Responses for Correlation of Quadrature Polarization Noise Contributions2007In: Journal of Optical Communications, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 52-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In [1] a rigorous model for Rx ISI effects caused by optical and electrical filtering in the receiver was presented aiming at 10-40 Gbit/s WDM system design applications. The model is applicable for general types of optical and electrical filtering. The model assumes Gaussian distributed noise contributions in the optical domain for in-phase and quadrature noise components in orthogonal polarization states and that these noise contributions are un-correlated. The optical filter is specified via the correlation function and the electrical filter via the impulse response. A limitation of the model was that only positive impulse responses could be accounted for when the noise properties of the receiver is specified. We present here an extension of the model in [1] to account in rigorous form also for negative impulse responses when determining the noise properties of the receiver. As a major theoretical result the formulation is extended to account for correlation between quadrature noise contributions - as it may e.g. be caused by four wave mixing effects in the transmission fiber - and noise contributions in orthogonal polarizations states - that may be due to saturation effects in cascaded optical amplifiers in the transmission path. The formulation leads to a Hermitian form of the covariance matrix. It is however to be noted that the covariance matrix in the situation with positive impulse response is positive definite (with positive eigenvalues) whereas in the general situation it is not positive definite and may have positive as well as negative eigenvalues. However, the Hermitian form allows in all cases a straightforward analytical formulation of the moment generating function (MGF) which in turn specifies the BER. The model is included in the simulation tool VPI-transmissionMaker™WDM and numerical examples for a 10 Gbit/s pre-amplified Rx shows that the influence of a negative impulse response may be (up to) several orders of magnitude in the BER.

  • 298.
    Jacobsen, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo. Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Carlsson, A
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo. Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Anders, Berntson
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo. Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    New rigorous model for Rx ISI effects in WDM systems2004In: Journal of optical communications, ISSN 0173-4911, E-ISSN 2191-6322, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 241-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a model for Rx ISI effects using a new and completely general and rigorous dynamic Rx model for-mulation aiming at 10–40 Gbit/s WDM system design applications. The signal shaping part of an electrical fil-ter is modelled in the optical domain using the filter impulse response to modify the signal vector and the covariance matrix. In this way inter-symbol-interference (ISI) effects from any type of electrical filter – specified by the filter impulse response – can be described. The formulation leads to a Hermitian form of the covariance matrix, thus allowing a straightforward analytical formu-lation of the moment generating function (MGF) which in turn specifies the bit-error-ratio (BER). Numerical ex-amples for a 10 Gbit/s pre-amplified Rx shows that the ISI leads to (up to) several dBʼs degradation in sensitivity. Thus it is imperative to account for the Rx ISI effect in rigorous and accurate form in any general WDM trans-mission model.

  • 299.
    Jacobsen, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Xu, Tianhua
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Tianjin University, China.
    Popov, Sergei Yu
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Jie
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Friberg, Ari T.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhang, Yimo
    Tianjin University, China.
    Phase noise influence in coherent optical OFDM systems with RF pilot tone: Digital IFFT multiplexing and FFT demodulation2012In: Journal of optical communications, ISSN 0173-4911, E-ISSN 2191-6322, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 217-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a comparative study of the influence of dispersion induced phase noise for CO-OFDM systems using Tx channel multiplexing and Rx matched filter (analogue hardware based); and digital FFT multiplexing/ IFFT demultiplexing techniques (software based). An RF carrier pilot tone is used to mitigate the phase noise influence. From the analysis, it appears that the phase noise influence for the two OFDM implementations is very similar. The software based system provides a method for a rigorous evaluation of the phase noise variance caused by Common Phase Error (CPE) and Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI) and this, in turns, leads to a BER specification. Numerical results focus on a CO-OFDM system with 1 GS/s QPSK channel modulation. Worst case BER results are evaluated and compared to the BER of a QPSK system with the same capacity as the OFDM implementation. Results are evaluated as a function of transmission distance, and for the QPSK system the influence of equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN) is included. For both types of systems, the phase noise variance increases significantly with increasing transmission distance. An important and novel observation is that the two types of systems have very closely the same BER as a function of transmission distance for the same capacity. For the high capacity QPSK implementation, the increase in BER is due to EEPN, whereas for the OFDM approach it is due to the dispersion caused walk-off of the RF pilot tone relative to the OFDM signal channels. For a total capacity of 400 Gbit/s, the transmission distance to have the BER < 10-4 is less than 277 km. For an RF pilot located in the center of the OFDM band in a CO-OFDM implementation with n-level PSK channel modulation the current results suggest that the walk-off effect is equivalent to the EEPN impact in a single channel n-level PSK system with the same capacity. This observation is important for future design of coherent long-range systems since it shows that there is a free choice between CO-OFDM and a high capacity nPSK implementation at least as long as the phase noise influence is concerned.

  • 300.
    Jacobsen, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Xu, Tianhua
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Popov, Sergei Yu
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sergeyev, Sergey V.
    Aston University, United Kingdom.
    Phase noise influence in coherent optical DnPSK systems with DSP based dispersion compensation2014In: Journal of optical communications, ISSN 0173-4911, E-ISSN 2191-6322, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 57-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a comparative study of the influence of dispersion induced phase noise for n-level PSK systems. From the analysis, we conclude that the phase noise influence for classical homodyne/heterodyne PSK systems is entirely determined by the modulation complexity (expressed in terms of constellation diagram) and the analogue demodulation format. On the other hand, the use of digital signal processing (DSP) in homodyne/intradyne systems renders a fiber length dependence originating from the generation of equalization enhanced phase noise. For future high capacity systems, high constellations must be used in order to lower the symbol rate to practically manageable speeds, and this fact puts severe requirements to the signal and local oscillator (LO) linewidths. Our results for the bit-error-rate (BER) floor caused by the phase noise influence in the case of QPSK, 16PSK and 64PSK systems outline tolerance limitations for the LO performance: 5 MHz linewidth (at 3-dB level) for 100 Gbit/s QPSK; 1 MHz for 400 Gbit/s QPSK; 0.1 MHz for 400 Gbit/s 16PSK and 1 Tbit/s 64PSK systems. This defines design constrains for the phase noiseimpact in distributed-feed-back (DFB) or distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) semiconductor lasers, that would allow moving the system capacity from 100 Gbit/s system capacity to 400 Gbit/s in 3 years (1 Tbit/s in 5 years). It is imperative at the same time to increase the analogue to digital conversion (ADC) speed such that the single quadrature symbol rate goes from today's 25 GS/s to 100 GS/s (using two samples per symbol). 

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