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  • 251.
    Beskow, Kristina
    et al.
    MEFOS − Metallurgical Research Institute AB.
    Dayal, P.
    KTH.
    Björkvall, Johan
    MEFOS − Metallurgical Research Institute AB.
    Nzotta, M.
    Uddeholm Tooling AB.
    Sichen, Du
    MEFOS − Metallurgical Research Institute AB.
    A new approach for the study of slag-metal interface in steelmaking2006In: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 74-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus of the present work was to develop a sampler to obtain the physical description of the slag-metal interface in the presence of bulk flow. Industrial trial experiments were carried out in the ladles at Uddeholm Tooling, Hagfors, Sweden using the designed sampler. Samples of the slag-metal interface were successfully taken in both gas stirring and induction stirring modes. The similarities of the appearance as well as the micrographs of the samples suggested that the slag-metal interfaces in the two stirring modes were very similar except in the open eye area. In the case of both stirring modes, metal droplets were found in the slag bulk. On the other hand, no appreciable amount of slag was detected in the metal bulk. Further systematic investigation using a large number of samples is required to obtain a quantitative description of the interface. © 2006 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining.

  • 252.
    Bialik, Marta
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Björklund Jansson, Marianne
    RISE, Innventia.
    Törngren, Per
    RISE, Innventia.
    Influence of wood extractives on calcium balance during kraft cooking2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 253.
    Bialik, Marta
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hoffstedt, Christian
    RISE, Innventia.
    Björklund Jansson, Marianne
    RISE, Innventia.
    Samuelsson, Åsa
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wadsborn, Rickard
    RISE, Innventia.
    Increasing the availability of the kraft pulp mill by the use of process simulation2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 254.
    Bialik, Marta
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Jensen, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ahlroth, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    New challenges regarding nonprocess elements in the liquor and lime cycle2015In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 14, no 7, p. 421-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimal performance of the green liquor plant, recausticizing plant, and lime cycle is vital for adequate white liquor availability and quality as well as for a mill's energy efficiency. Recently, various problems in the liquor and lime cycle have been frequently reported by our industrial partners, including poor performance of green liquor filters or sludge filters, decreased filterability of lime mud, increased lime kiln dead load, and poorquality white liquor. Those problems are most likely caused by an accumulation of nonprocess elements in the liquor and lime cycle due to increased mill closure, increased use of biofuels, or both. Data from the literature and earlier studies have been analyzed with regard to the occurrence and concentration of nonprocess elements in various process streams, including filtered green liquor, green liquor sludge, lime mud, and white liquor. The mineral forms in which nonprocess elements often precipitate were also studied, together with the common knowledge and rules of thumb used by mills for dealing with the problems. The literature data are compared with the newest analytical results from a sampling campaign involving several mills with varying process solutions with respect to nonprocess elements. The consequences and possible recommendations for the mills are presented. Application: Kraft pulp mills can use this information to diagnose and possibly solve problems related to nonprocess elements in day-to-day mill operation.

  • 255.
    Bialik, Marta
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Jensen, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ahlroth, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    New challenges regarding non-process elements in the liquor/lime cycle2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 256.
    Bialik, Marta
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Jensen, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Kulander, Ida
    RISE, Innventia.
    Scaling of manganese in kraft pulping process2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 257.
    Bialik, Marta
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy.
    Jensen, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy.
    Rahman, Haribur
    Chalmers university of technology, Sweden.
    Langer, Vratislav
    Chalmers university of technology, Sweden.
    Na2CO3-Na2SO4-double salt scaling in black liquor evaporators: solubility experiments in model solutions2017In: International chemical recovery conference, May 24-26, 2017, Halifax, Canada, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scaling by Na2CO3-Na2SO4-type solids counts among the most common problems in black liquor evaporation. Previous studies have identified two double salts precipitating from Na-CO3-SO4 solutions: burkeite, Na2CO3·2Na2SO4 and (sodium sulphate) dicarbonate, Na2SO4·2Na2CO3. The latter is believed to be more prone to cause scaling. However, it has long been suspected that other double salts, with largely unknown properties, may form in this system. This work summarizes the results of precipitation studies in the Na2CO3-Na2SO4-(additive) system targeting the transition zone between burkeite and dicarbonate formation. At least one additional double salt has been identified by X-ray diffraction in both bulk crystals and in the scale. The solubility data and the equilibrium liquor compositions have been compared with earlier models

  • 258.
    Bialik, Marta
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Moosavifar, A.
    Sedin, M.
    Theliander, H.
    Using the pitzer method to estimate the boiling point rise in black liquor solutions2009In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 172-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The boiling point rise (elevation) of aqueous industrial solutions is often of significant importance for the design of process conditions, equipment, heat balances, etc. However, few rigorous methods exist for predicting boiling point elevation in complex, multicomponent, electrolyte solutions. An example of such a solution is the black liquor obtained in kraft pulp production: a complex mixture of organic and inorganic ions including Na +, K + OH -, HS - C0 3 2- S0 4 2- S 20 3 2- CH 3COO - various phenolates and many more. This work shows one application of the semi-empirical Pitzer method to the theoretical prediction of the boiling point rise in industrial black liquor solutions. The values of the boiling point elevation were measured in two series of black liquors from representative Swedish mills, including both the original and lignin-lean black liquor at different solid contents. The results show a good agreement between experimental and predicted values at low to moderate solid content, and good qualitative prediction at high solid content.

  • 259.
    Bialik, Marta
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Sedin, Maria
    Theliander, H.
    Application of the pitzer method in estimating the properties of black liquor solutions: A summary2010In: International Chemical Recovery Conference, 2010, Vol. 2, p. 16-23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Pitzer method for calculating activity coefficients in aqueous electrolyte solutions has been widely applied to modeling the properties of numerous industrial systems. Its use in hot, concentrated solutions, an example being black liquor from kraft pulping process, has nevertheless been limited mainly due to a lack of suitable interaction parameters. This paper summarizes our work in implementing the Pitzer method into modeling of double salt solubilities and boiling point rise in industrial black liquors. Two solubility models: for burkeite, Na 2Co 22Na 2S0 4 and for (sodium sulfate) dicarbonate, 2Na 2CO 3Na 2S0 4 were developed based on literature and experimental data, respectively. Boiling point rise was modeled in two types of black liquor: ordinary and lignin-lean after a lignin precipitation stage. The paper also presents our study on a method for estimating new Pitzer interaction parameters in hot solutions of sodium lactate using the boiling point rise data.

  • 260.
    Bialik, Marta
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wadsborn, Rickard
    RISE, Innventia.
    Karlholm, Ingeli
    RISE, Innventia.
    Berglin, Niklas
    RISE, Innventia.
    Assessment of scaling risk in a pressurized black liquor gasification pilot plant2010In: International Chemical Recovery Conference, 2010, Vol. 1, p. 279-286Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Black liquor gasification is considered as an interesting alternative to the recovery boiler-based process of green liquor production. Although the handling of the smelt in the two separate processes is similar, the final concentration and temperature of the green liquor from gasification might both be higher. This, together with the S/Na split acquired by the gasification unit, may increase the risk of scaling of slightly soluble salts during green liquor handling. This work uses a previously developed solubility model for sodium carbonate, calcium carbonate and pirssonite, CaCO 3·Na 2CO 3·H 20 in order to evaluate the scaling risk in green liquor obtained from the gasification process. The model, originally based on both gasification green liquor and regular green liquor data, was verified against new samples of green liquor from an experimental gasification unit in Sweden. During the conducted sampling campaign, the following process parameters were varied in order to establish their influence on the final liquor composition: temperature and load of the gasifier, mixing rate in the smelt dissolver, and composition of the dilution water. It has been found that varying the process parameters within the normal operational limits has a relatively small influence, on the composition of the green liquor. The risk for pirssonite precipitation in gasification green liquor was estimated as relatively low, which is consistent with earlier findings. The calculated values of the apparent solubility product were also consistent with previous results.

  • 261.
    Billberg, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Self-compacting concrete for civil engineering structures.: The Swedish experience1999Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extensive CBI project between 1995-98 in co-operation with Swedish National Road administration Construction and Maintenance is the basis describing the Swedish experience of self-compacting concrete, SCC, in civil engineering structures up to the summer of 1999. _x000D_ _x000D_ It's material development originates in mid-eighties Japan, to increase productivity, improve working conditions and especially so in difficult casting conditions. Today it is still characterised as a "special" concrete but on-going development may eventually change this to "conventional" concrete, as the working research experience of self-compacting concrete starts in Sweden only in 1993. _x000D_ _x000D_ SCC is not one concrete but a concrete material possessing certain characteristic properties in the fresh state, completely fills formwork and encloses reinforcement work, entirely under the influence of its own weight alone. Thus, while fulfilling all the normal work of conventional concrete it can be developed for all kinds of applications, including where concrete vibration is impossible. SCC, properties require strict tolerance in plant production and delivery, for variations in the fresh state cannot be compensated by compacting work. Some of the main variables influencing variation, e.g. aggregate moisture and grading are discussed. _x000D_ _x000D_ Handling experiences at construction sites are enlightening with many interesting casting techniques reported from Japan, where casting of completely closed formwork is monitored by sensors, an interesting technique for tunnel applications, etc. Swedish experience shows SCC behaving thixotropically so that a structural build up in fresh concrete occurs soon after placing, resulting in remarkably low form pressures. _x000D_ _x000D_ A CBI mix design model is presented showing that the mix is developed by considering the actual aggregate used at the plant. From this perspective, all plants have the potential of producing SCC, where the mix design model is based on calculating the minimum required paste volume (according to the local aggregate) enabling free flow through narrow obstacles. The paste design is achieved by rheological measurements of the fine mortar phase. The main mechanisms behind particle suspension rheology are discussed. Fresh properties, flowability, stability and blocking are verified using newly developed methods, with slump-flow and L-box as examples of new test methods. _x000D_ _x000D_ A general experience is that hardened SCC properties are superior to conventional concrete in that compressive strength often is 70 to 80 MPa and denseness expressed as chloride ion permeability normally equals to W/B ratios of approximately 0.35 (actual W/C ratio being 0.40). Explanations to these properties are discussed. _x000D_ _x000D_ Future research should be concentrated on plant production quality assurance and production systems where SCC properties are fully utilised. Reports show that total bridge building cost can be reduced by as much as 5 to 15 %.

  • 262. Billberg, Peter
    Variationsstabil - robust - självkompakterande betong.2009In: CBI nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 263. Billberg, Peter
    et al.
    Khayat, K H
    L'uso di additivi modificatori di viscosità per aumentare la robustezza dell `SCC2009In: In concreto : calcestruzzo di qualità (Associazione tecnico-economica del calcestruzzo preconfezionato (ATECAP), ISSN 2039-1218, Vol. 86, p. 74-80Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 264.
    Billberg, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Petersson, Örjan
    Vibreringsfri betong för brogjutningar enligt BRO 941999Report (Refereed)
  • 265.
    Billberg, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Österberg, Thomas
    Självkompakterande betong.: Användningsteknik2002Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    During an earlier performed R&D project on self-compacting concrete, SCC, reported in [1], lack of knowledge was revealed on a number of issues such as for example how form pressure develops relative to different concrete mix designs, casting rates and form types. Also surface damages at the level of the interface between concrete layers was discovered. These questions, along with the experience gained through the construction of civil engineering structures using SCC between the years 1997 and 2000, has been the basis for the formation of the present R&D project. _x000D_ _x000D_ The aims of this project have been to study the thixotropic structural build-up of SCC at rest and to develop new test methods for the quantification of this structural build-up. Both existing as well as newly developed methods was to be investigated. _x000D_ _x000D_ It was also included in the plan to perform full-scale test where the form pressure should be monitored at the same time as the structural build-up was measured using the developed test methods. The goal was to find relationships between the development of form pressures and the variables stated in the project plan and to correlate them to the thixotropic structural build-up. _x000D_ _x000D_ The project started with a literature study on "Thixotropy of cement based materials" which resulted poorly, at least on the topic structural build-up at rest. However, a relatively great deal of information on thixotropy of cement paste was found but very little on the same subject for concrete. Nothing at all was found on the connection between thixotropy and form pressure. _x000D_ _x000D_ To characterise the thixotropic properties of SCC it is necessary to develop new test methods, or at least to modify existing ones. Four methods have been evaluated in the project: undisturbed slump-flow, tixometer, Rap-Act Plasticity meter and a BML viscometer where the measuring sequence was modified. All these methods have shown the ability to verify some kind of structural build up of SCC at rest. _x000D_ _x000D_ A laboratory investigation has been carried out where the mentioned methods were used for characterisation of the thixotropic properties of six different concrete mix designs. The concrete mixes were designed to have different particle concentration within their paste-phase. All methods were capable to register different structural build-ups in correlation with the varied particle concentrations. Unfortunately it was obvious during the laboratory investigation, and throughout of the whole project, that all tested concrete’s showed very short open times compared to those who were obtained in 1998 when three whole bridges was cast using only SCC. I can therefore be stated that the structural build-up of the concrete mixes tested within the framework of this project has not been of thixotropic nature but instead, of an irreversible kind. In other words: the definition of thixotropy has not been fulfilled. _x000D_ _x000D_ In an extension of the laboratory investigations, financed by Cementa AB, a new combination of constituent materials were tested, i.e. superplasticizer and filler material. However, no significant change in open time could be traced from these tests. _x000D_ _x000D_ The formwork used at the full-scale castings on Betongindustris ready mix concrete plant in Tumba south of Stockholm showed to be statically well defined and therefore easy to evaluate by means of form pressures. _x000D_ _x000D_ Totally eight full-scale trials have been performed. Water to cement ratio, W/C, was varied between 0.40 and 0.45 in the two different mix designs used. Casting rates was varied in three levels: approximately 1.0 m/h, 1.4 m/h and 2.2 m/h. Form surfaces consisted of board on one side and of form plywood on the other. Each half area of the form surfaces was oiled while the other was kept untreated. _x000D_ _x000D_ Measured form pressures showed strong correlation with casting rates. But also an increased concrete flowability and shorter time between finished mixing and casting resulted in a relatively higher form pressure. The conventionally vibrated concrete resulted in a form pressure lower than the calculated according to [24] and also lower than the one obtained when casting with the corresponding SCC at the same rate. _x000D_ _x000D_ The overall conclusions that can be drawn from this project are the following: _x000D_ _x000D_ 1) Form pressures obtained when casting with SCC is dominated by chosen casting rates in that an increased rate results in a higher pressure and vice versa. The results also indicate that concrete age and flowability have a clear influence on the form pressure. A shorter duration between mixing and casting increases the form pressure relative to a longer duration and stiffer concrete. _x000D_ 2) The formwork used showed to be statically well defined. _x000D_ _x000D_ 3) All developed methods can register the concrete structural build-up at rest. _x000D_ _x000D_ 4) A throughout problem has been short open time of the concrete tested within the project. This stiffening has not been of thixotropic nature but to a major part irreversible._x000D_

  • 266.
    Billberg, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Utvärdering av formtrycksmodeller vid gjutning med SKB2012In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 2-3Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 267.
    Billur, E.
    et al.
    Ohio State University.
    Demiralp, Y.
    Ohio State University.
    Groseclose, A.R.
    Ohio State University.
    Wadman, Boel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Altari, T.
    Ohio State University.
    Factors affecting the accuracy of flow stress determined by the bulge test2011In: Special Edition: 10th International Conference on Technology of Plasticity, ICTP 2011, 2011, p. 726-731Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The determination of the flow stress curve at room temperature, using the bulge test under biaxial deformation conditions, has been extensively studied. However, two Issues still deserve close examination: (1) validity of assuming a spherical bulge shape and (2) the effects of yield criterion and/or normal anisotropy. In this paper, we present experimental measurements to validate spherical assumption, as well as a methodology to calculate flow stress curves, all the way up to the failure point, that are free from the effects of anisotropy. Experimental studies were conducted on draw quality steel (DQS) and several grades of Dual Phase (DP) Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). © 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Weinheim.

  • 268.
    Bin Mohamad Sultan, Borhan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion. PSL University, France.
    Gharbi, Oumaïma
    Sorbonne Université, France.
    Ogle, Kevin
    PSL University, France.
    Han, Junsoo
    Sorbonne Université, France.
    On-line inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry: Real-time element-resolved electrochemistry2023In: Current Opinion in Electrochemistry, E-ISSN 2451-9103, Vol. 41, article id 101350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemical techniques are coupled with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission spectrometry for in-line electrolyte analyses. In this way, direct measurement of the elemental dissolution rates in real-time or element-resolved electrochemistry can be carried out, complementary to conventional electrochemical measurements. This methodology can be used to obtain the element-specific reaction mechanisms under either spontaneous or polarized conditions up to part-per-billion level resolution with applications in diverse domains of corrosion science and interfacial reactivity. This review aims to summarize recent research activities using ICP coupled with other analytical techniques to answer specific questions on the mechanism of degradation of materials in aqueous or organic environments including the dissolution of metal oxides, catalysis, reaction stoichiometry, electrochemical kinetics, and photoelectrochemical reactivity.

  • 269.
    Bjurenstedt, Anton
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    GRETA – Fallstudie återvunnen aluminium2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    GRETA – a case study on die-cast secondary aluminium

    In ongoing production at AGES in Kulltorp, die-cast components of a secondary aluminium alloy have been continuously taken out for mechanical testing and microstructure investigations. The aim has been to increase the understanding of whether properties vary and, if so, why. In an industrial and well-controlled process, the properties and performance of the obtained material has been analysed for comparison with the original secondary alloy and its specification to see how the material varies during production. The results showed a uniform quality of the produced castings. The hardness test also showed very even results for each component. No statistical difference between the samples could be demonstrated. This means that even if some data collected from the castings were on the edge of the desired range, the properties have not been significantly affected. In other words, there is a higher potential in recycled alloys than that reported in the standard SS-EN 1706:2021. Solidification rate, possible heat treatment and the amount of defects play a decisive role in the final properties of a cast part. By optimizing these, properties that exceed the standard can be obtained.

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  • 270.
    Bjurenstedtare, Anton
    RISE, Swerea, SWECAST.
    Examination of laser treated aluminium2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The laser treatments of the surfaces have influenced the surface appearance and the microstructure. The effect on the surface appearance is shown in Figure 6. Examination of cross sections revealed a 3-10 μm thick layer of, what appears to be aluminium (based on ocular examination), has formed. The examination in the SEM-EDS gave no answer on the composition of the surface layer formed.

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  • 271. Bjurhager, I.
    et al.
    Olsson, Anne-Mari
    RISE, Innventia.
    Zhang, B.
    Gerber, L.
    Kumar, M.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    Burgert, I.
    Sundberg, B.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ultrastructure and mechanical properties of populus wood with reduced lignin content caused by transgenic down-regulation of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase2010In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 11, no 9, p. 2359-2365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several key enzymes in lignin biosynthesis of Populus have been down-regulated by transgenic approaches to investigate their role in wood lignification and to explore their potential for lignin modification. Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase is an enzyme in the early phenylpropanoid pathway that has not yet been functionally analyzed in Populus. This study shows that down-regulation of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase reduced Klason lignin content by 30% with no significant change in syringyl to guaiacyl ratio. The lignin reduction resulted in ultrastructural differences of the wood and a 10% decrease in wood density. Mechanical properties investigated by tensile tests and dynamic mechanical analysis showed a decrease in stiffness, which could be explained by the lower density. The study demonstrates that a large modification in lignin content only has minor influences on tensile properties of wood in its axial direction and highlights the usefulness of wood modified beyond its natural variation by transgene technology in exploring the impact of wood biopolymer composition and ultrastructure on its material properties.

  • 272.
    Bjurström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden .
    Ohlsson, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Umeå University, Sweden.
    Vikerfors, Andreas
    ReVibe Energy AB, Sweden.
    Rusu, Cristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Tunable spring balanced magnetic energy harvester for low frequencies and small displacements2022In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 259, article id 115568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a novel concept to efficiently harvest vibrational energy at low frequencies and very small displacement. We describe and evaluate an electromagnetic energy harvester which generates power from a magnetic circuit with motion induced variations of an air gap. External vibrations induce oscillations of the gap length around an equilibrium point, due to a linear spring counteracting the magnetic force. The relative position of the spring can be adjusted to optimize the harvester output for excitation amplitude and frequency. A simulation model is built in COMSOL and verified by comparison with lab measurements. The simulation model is used to determine the potential performance of the proposed concept under both harmonic and non-harmonic excitation. Under harmonic excitation, we achieve a simulated RMS load power of 26.5 μW at 22 Hz and 0.028 g acceleration amplitude. From a set of comparable EH we achieve the highest theoretical power metric of 1712.2 µW/cm3/g2 while maintaining the largest relative bandwidth of 81.8%. Using measured non-harmonic vibration data, with a mean acceleration of 0.039 g, resulted in a mean power of 52 μW. Moreover, the simplicity and robustness of our design makes it a competitive alternative for use in practical situations. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 273.
    Bjärestrand, Annika
    RISE, Innventia.
    Upgrading of recycled pulp quality by fractionation and selective refining2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 274.
    Bjärestrand, Annika
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    RISE, Innventia.
    Upgrading recycled pulp quality by fractionation and selective refining2016In: International Paperworld IPW, ISSN 1615-1720, Vol. 2016-January, no 12, p. 40-44Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As recycling rates increase and the consumption of graphic papers decrease it becomes more and more difficult to maintain the recycled fibre quality. Also, increasing ash content in the recycled pulp contributes to the strength challenge ahead for the paper and board producers. The fractionation of recycled fibre in this study was made in order to investigate possible routes for upgrading the recycled pulp strength. A recycled pulp for containerboard was fractionated in pilot scale using a pressure screen and hydrocydones. The pulp was first fractionated using a micro-perforated screen basket into a short fraction, with high ash and fines content, and a long fibre fraction. The following hydrocyclone fractionation of the screen short fraction resulted in a fine fraction with fibrillar fines and a coarse fraction containing low bonding fines and fibre fragments together with most of the ash. The short coarse fraction also had a high dirt content. When the screen long fibre fraction was split in the hydrocyclone fractionation, a fine fibre fraction containing good bonding fibres and fines and a coarse fibre fraction with coarse low bonding fibres were obtained. The coarse long fibre fraction was upgraded, to a strength level comparable to the good bonding fine fraction, by refining with an energy input of only 24 kWh/t calculated on the whole pulp. This selective refining of the coarse long fibre fraction resulted in an improvement of the pulp strength by 20 % when the pulp fractions were mixed back together in the same proportion as they had been separated. Further strength was gained when the low bonding short coarse fraction with high ash content was removed. This study showed that a recycled pulp can be upgraded by selective and appropriate treatment of the different streams, with different properties, produced in a fractionation process.

  • 275.
    Björk, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Athley, Karin
    RISE, Innventia.
    Thomsson, Lars
    RISE, Innventia.
    Advanced techniques to study filler flocs in high shear environments2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 276.
    Björk, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Bouveng, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Holmqvist, Claes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    Holmen AB, Sweden.
    Fibre-based strength aids for increased board stiffness2019In: PaperCon 2019: proceedings, TAPPI Press, 2019, article id PF2.3Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A pilot scale study has been made of the concept of adding fibre-based strength agents (fines enriched (FE)-pulp or highly refined (HR)-pulp) in a board middle ply containing chemithermomechanical bleached pulp (CTMP) in order to increase bending stiffness of the board while maintaining Z-strength. It has been demonstrated that the bending stiffness of a sheet consisting of a top ply and a CTMP based middle ply could be improved by increasing the CTMP fraction and preventing Z-strength loss via addition of a fibre based strength agent. Compared with the reference pulp, both Z-strength and bulk increased for three of the compositions, namely 65% CTMP with 5% strength agent of either FE or HR type and 85% CTMP with 10% HR-pulp. FE-pulp was found to be more efficient than HR-pulp concerning bending stiffness improvement. While the highly-refined fibres of the strength agents had a negative effect on the drainage resistance and press dryness, an increased share of CTMP increased the press dryness linearly. FE-pulp and HR-pulp had the same impact on press dryness. Press solids could be improved by approximately 2% without significantly reducing the bulk by increasing press loads.

  • 277.
    Björk, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Bouveng, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    Holmen AB, Sweden.
    Fines-enriched pulp as a strength agent in a CTMP middle ply2018In: PaperCon 2018: Shaping the future through innovation, TAPPI , 2018, p. 741-760, article id PA5.2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this pilot scale trial, was to evaluate fines-enriched pulp (FE-pulp) as a strength agent in amiddle ply of a board product.A typical CTMP-based middle ply was produced on the FEX pilot paper machine. The stock consisted of CTMP,refined hardwood and softwood pulp, and filler. FE-pulp as strength agent was compared with glue pulp, ahighly refined chemical pulp. FEX sheets and hand sheets made of pulp mixtures were evaluated. Also, thedewatering and pressing conditions on the paper machine were compared.The results confirmed the results of earlier experiments with handsheets; FE-pulp used as strength agent showedto be twice as efficient as glue pulp regarding strength properties without impairing the bulk. Further, thedewatering conditions and press dryness's on the paper machine was comparable at these additions. Thus, allthese results imply that addition of FE-pulp can replace the double amount of glue pulp as a strength agent.

  • 278.
    Björk, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Bouveng, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    Holmen AB, Sweden.
    Production of pulps with an extremely high fines content for use as strength agent2018In: PaperCon 2018: Shaping the future through innovation, TAPPI , 2018, article id PA5.1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to optimize the production of fines-enriched pulp (FE-pulp) from chemical pulp.The first trial was a continuous production of FE-pulp with unbleached and bleached never-dried softwood. Thepulp was refined using a JC00 equipped with SF filling, and screened with a micro-perforated screen basket with250 μm diameter holes, but the produced FE-pulp got low concentration, below 3 g/l.The second trial aimed at optimised conditions, using dried bleached softwood. Three fillings, microbar, AA andFF were evaluated in a JC01 refiner, where microbar was most energy efficient. Microbar and AA reachedtargeted FE-pulp concentration, 10 g/l. The refined pulps were screened with different hole diameters, where, asexpected, larger hole diameters resulted in higher concentration but also lower fines content in the FE-pulps.The last trial, the microbar filling was evaluated for never-dried softwood pulp, unbleached and bleached. Now,the refining of unbleached softwood gave 3 times more fines per kWh/ton compared with first trial.These trials demonstrated the importance of the right refining conditions regarding effect of refiner and type offilling to achieve glue-pulp with high enough fines content. With the right conditions, it was possible to produceFE-pulp with high concentration at moderate energy consumption.

  • 279.
    Björk, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Bouveng, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    Engstrand, Per
    Use of fines-enriched chemical pulp to increase CTMP strength2021In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 255-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, fines-enriched pulp (FE-pulp)-the fine fraction of highly-refined kraft pulp-was benchmarked against highly-refined kraft pulp (HRK-pulp) as a strength agent in eucalyptus chemithermomech. pulp (CTMP). Both the FE-pulp and the HRK-pulp were produced from unbleached softwood kraft pulp, and equal amounts of those strength agents were added to the original CTMP, as well as to washed CTMP, where most of the fines had been removed. The effects of the added strength agents were evaluated with laboratory handsheets. The FE-pulp proved to be twice as effective as HRK-pulp. Both HRK-pulp and FE-pulp increased the strength of the CTMP handsheets. The bulk of the handsheets decreased, however, as well as the drainability. The addition of 5% FE-pulp resulted in the same strength increase as an addition of 10% HRK-pulp, as well as the same decrease in bulk and CSF. For the handsheets of washed CTMP, the strengths were not measurable; the CTMP lost the sheet strength when the CTMP-fines content was reduced through washing. The reduced strength properties were compensated for by the addition of chem. pulp fines that proved to be an efficient strength agent. The addition of 5% FE-pulp restored the strength values, and at a higher bulk and higher drainability.

  • 280.
    Björk, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging. Mittuniversity, Sweden.
    Bouveng, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    Holmen AB, Sweden.
    Engstrand, Per
    Mittuniversity, Sweden.
    Use of fines-enriched chemical pulp to increase CTMP strength2021In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 255-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, fines-enriched pulp (FE-pulp)-the fine fraction of highly-refined kraft pulp-was benchmarked against highly-refined kraft pulp (HRK-pulp) as a strength agent in eucalyptus chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP). Both the FE-pulp and the HRK-pulp were produced from unbleached softwood kraft pulp, and equal amounts of those strength agents were added to the original CTMP, as well as to washed CTMP, where most of the fines had been removed. The effects of the added strength agents were evaluated with laboratory handsheets. The FE-pulp proved to be twice as effective as HRK-pulp. Both HRK-pulp and FE-pulp increased the strength of the CTMP handsheets. The bulk of the handsheets decreased, however, as well as the drainability. The addition of 5% FE-pulp resulted in the same strength increase as an addition of 10% HRK-pulp, as well as the same decrease in bulk and CSF. For the handsheets of washed CTMP, the strengths were not measurable; the CTMP lost the sheet strength when the CTMP-fines content was reduced through washing. The reduced strength properties were compensated for by the addition of chemical pulp fines that proved to be an efficient strength agent. The addition of 5% FE-pulp restored the strength values, and at a higher bulk and higher drainability. Application: In this study, we show how the strength of a CTMP sheet can be improved by adding fine material from kraft pulp.

  • 281.
    Björk, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Muhic, Dino
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Hagman, Anton
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Halonen, Helena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Stock Preparation as a Key Operation for Making High-Quality Wet Moulded Fibre Products2022In: TAPPICon Conference 2022, TAPPI Press , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the global pursuit for sustainable packaging solutions, usage of different paper raw material is one of the key components to fulfil the goal. Moulded fibre products allow usage of different fibre raw material, although for today, with some restrictions. For example, recycled fibre is of varying quality and can be a challenging material to use for thermoformed wet moulding applications. Further, CTMP strength potential should be further utilized for this application. In both cases, the stock preparation is crucial. The relationship between fibre type, stock preparation, processing and performance needs to be investigated to define how to best produce high-quality wet moulded fibre products using a specific fibre type. To be able to study this a laboratory equipment for manufacturing of high-quality wet moulded fibre products has been set up. Moreover, two test methods to evaluate properties important for trays have been developed; one to evaluate how much load the tray can take and one to evaluate how much the tray will warp during handling. Together with an optimised stock preparation for different fibre raw materials studies can be performed, which aim at increased usage of fibre qualities such as recycled fibre or CTMP for high-quality moulded fibre products. 

  • 282.
    Björk, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    RISE, Innventia.
    Bouveng, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    Production of a fine fraction using micro-perforated screens2015In: Paper Conference and Trade Show (PaperCon 2015), TAPPI Press, 2015, Vol. 1, p. 543-560Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 283.
    Björk, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Bouveng, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Usage of Fines-enriched pulp to increase strength in CTMP2017In: Paper Conference and Trade Show, PaperCon 2017: Renew, Rethink, Redefine the Future, TAPPI Press, 2017, Vol. 3, p. 1607-1631Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fines-enriched pulp (FE-pulp) was benchmarked against glue pulp as strength agent in eucalypt CTMP. FE-pulp was produced by combining high intensity multiple-pass refining with a fractionation in a microperforated screen basket. The fraction passing through the holes of the screen is the FE-pulp. The FE-pulp comprises of secondary fines, created in the refiner, and flexible, fibrillated highly-refined fibres or fibre fragments. Glue pulp is highly refined kraft pulp, commonly added as a strength agent in middle plies of board products, or between plies to increase the plybond. Equal amounts of FE-pulp and glue pulp were added to the original CTMP as well as to washed CTMP, where most of the CTMP-fines had been removed. The effects of the strength agents were evaluated using laboratory sheets. Both glue pulp and FE-pulp increased the strength of the CTMP sheets. The bulk of the sheets decreased however. When 5 % FE-pulp was added, the tensile index increased by more than 50 %, and the tensile energy absorption and z-strength increased by more than 100 %. FE-pulp proved to be twice as effective as glue pulp. The addition of 5 % FE-pulp resulted in the same relative strength increase as an addition of 10 % glue pulp. The washed CTMP lost all strength when the CTMP-fines content was reduced from 17 % to 3% through washing. The addition of 5 % FE-pulp restored the strength values, and at a higher bulk. The drainability in terms of CSF of that stock was much higher when compared to the original pulp.

  • 284.
    Björk, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    Holmen, Sweden.
    Engstrand, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Production of fines from refined kraft pulp by fractionation with micro-perforated screens2021In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 456-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective in this work was to obtain a fine fraction of kraft pulp, with as high concentration as possible, in a pilot-scale fractionation with micro-perforated screen baskets. The influence of screen basket surface, hole size, feed concentration, pulp type and refining segment design was investigated. The results showed that a smooth screen basket surface improved the fractionation efficiency of the unrefined pulp compared to a profiled screen basket, despite a larger hole size. A significantly higher fine fraction concentration was obtained when using refined hardwood pulp compared to when using softwood pulp, which was explained with its lower average fibre length and narrower and thus more flexible fibre fragments. The pilot trials also showed that the screening process could be operated at feed concentrations similar to those directly after a refiner, 30-40 g/l. This was demonstrated in a process layout with partial recirculation where a refiner and a micro-perforated screen basket were operated in series in pilot scale. 

  • 285.
    Björk, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Lindgren, Margareta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Single-stage hydrocyclone fractionation of refined bleached softwood pulp2017In: Paper Conference and Trade Show, PaperCon 2017: Renew, Rethink, Redefine the Future, 2017, Vol. 2, p. 878-905Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Refined bleached chemical softwood was fractionated using a hydrocyclone in a fine and a coarse fraction. The trials were done at three inject concentrations, three coarse fraction volume ratios, and with pulps refined with two refining levels.

    A large difference in sheet properties between fine and coarse fraction was observed. Compared with the feed pulp, the relative change in the sheet properties increased more in the fine fractions than it decreased in the coarse fractions. Increased fines proportion had a positive effect on all properties up to a certain level when a further improvement could not be observed. Interestingly, the fine fractions of both refining levels reached the same absolute strength level, both for the tensile properties and z-strength. The fine fractions at the highest coarse fraction mass ratios contained more fines, and the mean fibre was shorter and narrower. This led to higher density but also a decrease of the stretch-at-break and z-strength values.

    When comparing these results with previous fractionation results for unrefined pulp, it was found that inject concentration did not have a large effect on thickening in the present study. As for the refined pulp, the tensile index increased with fines proportion for the unrefined pulp, however, only up to a certain fines proportion where a maximum values was reached. The increase was larger for the refined pulps which had higher fines proportion.

  • 286.
    Björklund Jansson, Marianne
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Bialik, Marta
    RISE, Innventia.
    Törngren, Per
    RISE, Innventia.
    New insights into soap solubility and separation during kraft cooking2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 287.
    Bladh, Madeleine
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SWECAST.
    Wessén, M.
    Jönköping University.
    Dahle, A.K.
    University of Queensland.
    Shear band formation in shaped rheocast aluminium component at various plunger velocities2010In: Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, ISSN 1003-6326, E-ISSN 2210-3384, Vol. 20, no 9, p. 1749-1755Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 288.
    Blanco, N.
    et al.
    EPS-University of Girona.
    Gamstedt, E.K.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Asp, Leif
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Costa, J.
    EPS-University of Girona.
    Mixed-mode delamination growth in carbon-fibre composite laminates under cyclic loading2004In: International Journal of Solids and Structures, ISSN 0020-7683, E-ISSN 1879-2146, Vol. 41, no 15, p. 4219-4235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Delamination growth under fatigue loads in real composite components generally develops in a non-constant propagation mode. The aim of the investigation described in this article was to develop a model capable of predicting the fatigue delamination growth in a general case, under varying mode mix conditions. The crack growth development in essentially unidirectional laminates of carbon-fibre reinforced epoxy was analysed in terms of the Paris law for different constant propagation modes: mode I (double-cantilever beam test), mode II (end-notched flexure test) and different mixed-modes I/II (mixed-mode bending test). The dependence of the Paris law parameters on mode mix is compared with the existing models in the literature. It is shown that these models do not reproduce the non-monotonic dependence on mode mix which has been observed in experimental data. Therefore, an improved phenomenological model is introduced and compared with the experimental data obtained by other researchers. To check the ability of the model to predict variable mixed-mode fatigue delamination, the mixed-mode end-loaded split test was employed and the experimental results were compared to the predictions of the model. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the dependency of the crack propagation rates on the degree of mode mix are also discussed on the basis of fractographic analysis. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 289.
    Blell, Rebecca
    et al.
    CNRS Institut Charles Sadron, France.
    Lin, Xiaofeng
    CNRS Institut Charles Sadron, France.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Ankerfors, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Pauly, Matthias
    CNRS Institut Charles Sadron, France; Université de Strasbourg, France.
    Felix, Olivier
    CNRS Institut Charles Sadron, France.
    Decher, Gero
    CNRS Institut Charles Sadron, France; Université de Strasbourg, France; International Center for Frontier Research in Chemistry, France.
    Generating in-Plane Orientational Order in Multilayer Films Prepared by Spray-Assisted Layer-by-Layer Assembly2017In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 84-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a simple yet efficient method for orienting cellulose nanofibrils in layer-by-layer assembled films through spray-assisted alignment. While spraying at 90° against a receiving surface produces films with homogeneous in-plane orientation, spraying at smaller angles causes a macroscopic directional surface flow of liquid on the receiving surface and leads to films with substantial in-plane anisotropy when nanoscale objects with anisotropic shapes are used as components. First results with cellulose nanofibrils demonstrate that such fibrils are easily aligned by grazing incidence spraying to yield optically birefringent films over large surface areas. We show that the cellulosic nanofibrils are oriented parallel to the spraying direction and that the orientational order depends for example on the distance of the receiving surface from the spray nozzle. The alignment of the nanofibrils and the in-plane anisotropy of the films were independently confirmed by atomic force microscopy, optical microscopy between crossed polarizers, and the ellipsometric determination of the apparent refractive index of the film as a function of the in-plane rotation of the sample with respect to the plane of incidence of the ellipsometer.

  • 290.
    Blomqvist, Per
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Sandinge, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Experimental evaluation of fire toxicity test methods2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental evaluation of the most common bench-scale tests methods for fire toxicity was conducted by RISE Fire Research. The background of the work was the on-going discussion in the fire community on the applicability and relevance of these test methods.

    The test methods included in the programme were the ISO/TS 19700 steady-state tube furnace (SSTF), the controlled atmosphere cone calorimeter (CACC), and the EN 45545-2 smoke chamber test (SC). In these tests the production of selected toxic gases was quantitatively analysed using FTIR. Tests for the measurement of toxic gas production were made with eleven different materials used as test specimens, both combustible and non-combustible materials. The materials were commercially available insulation products provided by EURIMA, the sponsor of the project. These materials should not be regarded as typical or fully representative of a product category.

    The evaluation of the results from the different test methods was divided into combustible test specimens and non-combustible test specimens. That was because the test conditions in the first case are greatly influenced by the combustion behaviour of the test specimen, while in the second case the test conditions are more constant.

    A general observation was that there in many cases was correlation between both species composition and level of toxic gas species yields between test methods when the combustion conditions were similar. In cases where yields differed significantly it could in most cases be explained by clear differences in test conditions.

    For combustible materials it was concluded that the SSTF offers the best means for conducting tests at pre-decided and controlled flaming combustion conditions. The CACC does not give steady-state flaming combustion and the influence of vitiation was limited in the tests made. The SC generally accumulates a mixture of gases from both flaming and non-flaming combustion periods in a test, and the yields measured do not in those cases represent any specific combustion stage.

    For non-combustible materials a general observation was that any of the test methods investigated in principle could be used since the influence on the test conditions from the material itself is limited compared to combustible materials. However, there were specific properties and limitations of the different test methods observed that are important to consider.

    Download full text (pdf)
    RISE Report 2018_40
  • 291.
    Boda, Ulrika
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Fully Screen-Printed Stretchable Organic Electrochemical Transistors2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stretchable organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are promising for wearable applications within biosensing, bio-signal recording, and addressing circuitry. Efficient large-scale fabrication of OECTs can be performed with printing methods but to date there are no reports on high-performance fully printed stretchable OECTs. Herein, this challenge is addressed by developing fully screen-printed stretchable OECTs based on an architecture that minimizes electrochemical side reactions and improves long-term stability. Fabrication of the OECTs is enabled by in-house development of three stretchable functional screen-printing inks and related printing processes. The stretchable OECTs show good characteristics in terms of transfer curves, output characteristics, and transient response up to 100% static strain and 500 strain cycles at 25% and 50% strain. The strain insensitivity of the OECTs can be further improved by strain conditioning, resulting in stable performance up to 50% strain. Finally, an electrochromic smart pixel is demonstrated by connecting a stretchable OECT to a stretchable electrochromic display. It is believed that the development of screen-printed stretchable electrochemical devices, and OECTs in particular, will pave the way for their use in wearable applications and commercial products. © 2023 The Authors. 

  • 292. Bohlin, E.
    et al.
    Coppe, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Johansson, C.
    Edström, P.
    Modelling of brightness decrease of coated cartonboard as an effect of calendering: Microroughness and effective refractive index aspects2010In: 11th Advanced Coating Fundamentals Symposium Proceedings: The Latest Advances in Coating Research and Development, 2010, p. 51-65Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calendering of coated paper leads to a brightness decrease. The mechanism for this is not clear, although it has been discussed in the past. One common explanation is that the porosity of the coating layer decreases and hence scattering. By comparing simulated and measured results this paper shows that modifications of the surface properties account for the brightness decrease of GCC coated substrates with calendering. The effect of a deformable cartonboard substrate is investigated here and compared to a less deformable plastic film substrate. From simulations based on a two-layer Kubelka-Munk model, it is shown that the brightness decrease of the cartonboard due to calendering has a negligible contribution to the brightness decrease of the coated cartonboard. The brightness decrease was similar for coated plastic film and coated cartonboard. The thickness of GCC coated plastic films was not affected by calendering irrespectively of the pigment and latex size distribution. Monte Carlo light scattering simulations, taking into account the measured decrease of surface microroughness and increased effective refractive index, showed that surface modifications accounted for most of the observed brightness decrease of the GCC coated substrate, whereas the bulk scattering and absorption coefficients were not affected by calendering. It is also shown that the scattering coefficient is significantly dependent on the coat weight whereas the physical absorption coefficient is not.

  • 293.
    Bolelli, G.
    et al.
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Lyphout, Christophe
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Berger, L. -M
    Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Testa, V.
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Myalska-Głowacka, H.
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland.
    Puddu, P.
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Sassatelli, P.
    Il Sentiero International Campus Srl, Italy.
    Lusvarghi, L.
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Wear resistance of HVOF- and HVAF-sprayed (Ti,Mo)(C,N)–Ni coatings from an agglomerated and sintered powder2023In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 512-513, article id 204550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    (Ti,Mo)(C,N)-25 wt% Ni coatings obtained by spraying an agglomerated and sintered feedstock powder using different high velocity air-fuel (HVAF) and high velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) deposition processes are comparatively analysed for their sliding, abrasion and impact resistance. All HVOF-sprayed coatings are particularly dense, with ≈800 HV hardness (tested at 100 gf, 300 gf and 500 gf). In-flight oxidation resulted in some embrittlement, as revealed by scratch tests. In ball-on-disk sliding against an Al2O3 counterpart, they maintained a mild wear regime (wear rates ≤10−6 mm3/(N⋅m)) from room temperature up to 600 °C, with better performance in comparison to Cr3C2–NiCr reference coatings. At room temperature, the Ti(C,N) hard phase limited the abrasive cutting by counterbody asperities. At 400 °C and 600 °C, the coatings developed a thin, protective oxide tribofilm. They also exhibited no interface delamination in cyclic impact tests. However, they suffered higher wear (≈3–5 × 10−3 mm3/(N⋅m)) in high-stress particle abrasion testing, particularly when compared to HVAF-sprayed Cr3C2–NiCr. Gaining improved control over in-flight oxidation of (Ti,Mo)(C,N)–Ni during spraying is probably the key to overcome this limitation. The HVAF-sprayed (Ti,Mo)(C,N)–Ni coating exhibited severe interlamellar decohesion under all test conditions, as the limited melting degree of the feedstock did not compensate for the intrinsic microstructural inhomogeneity of the powder particles. 

  • 294. Bolin, L
    et al.
    Johanson, K
    Svensk natursten vinnare i längden2014In: Sten, no 3, p. 22-23Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 295.
    Bolin, M.H.
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Svennersten, K.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Wang, X.
    Linköping University.
    Chronakis, Ioannis
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Richter-Dahlfors, A.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jager, E.W.H.
    Linköping University.
    Berggren, M.
    Linköping University.
    Nano-fiber scaffold electrodes based on PEDOT for cell stimulation2009In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 142, no 2, p. 451-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronically conductive and electrochemically active 3D-scaffolds based on electrospun poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nano-fibers are reported. Vapour phase polymerization was employed to achieve an uniform and conformal coating of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with tosylate (PEDOT:tosylate) on the nano-fibers. The PEDOT coatings had a large impact on the wettability, turning the hydrophobic PET fibers super-hydrophilic. SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were grown on the PEDOT coated fibers. The SH-SY5Y cells adhered well and showed healthy morphology. These electrically active scaffolds were used to induce Ca2+ signalling in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. PEDOT:tosylate coated nano-fibers represent a class of 3D host environments that combines excellent adhesion and proliferation for neuronal cells with the possibility to regulate their signalling. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 296.
    Borgström, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Influence of strain rate, temperature and chemical composition on high silicon ductile iron2021In: Minerals, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the use of solution hardened ductile iron is limited by brittleness under certain conditions. If chassis components are subjected to loads having high strain rates exceeding those imposed during tensile testing at sub-zero temperatures, unexpected failure can occur. Therefore, it is the purpose of this review to discuss three main mechanisms, which have been related to brittle failure in high silicon irons: intercritical embrittlement, the integrity of the ferritic matrix and deformation mechanisms in the graphite. Intercritical embrittlement is mainly attributed to the formation of Mg-and S-rich grain boundary films. The formation of these films is suppressed if the amount of free Mg-and MgS-rich inclusions is limited by avoiding excess Mg and/or by the passivation of free Mg with P. If the grain boundary film is not suppressed, the high silicon iron has very low elongations in the shakeout temperature regime: 300 to 500◦ C. The integrity and strength of the ferrite are limited by the reduced ordering of the silicumferrite with increasing silicon content, once the “ordinary” ferrite is saturated at 3% silicon, depending on the cooling conditions. Finally, the graphite damaging mechanisms are what dictate the properties most at low temperatures (sub −20◦ C). © 2021 by the author. 

  • 297.
    Borgström, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Hammersberg, Peter
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hamberg, Kenneth
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Björkegren, Lars-Erik
    LEB Casting Technology, Sweden.
    Lindkvist, Joachim
    Volvo Group, Sweden.
    Modelling the Variation of Tensile Properties of High-Silicon Ductile Iron2018In: One Hundred Twenty-Second Annual Metalcasting Congress, 2018, Vol. 126, p. 155-164, article id art. nr 18-040Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For an optimized gating system, the influence of chemical composition can be controlled to a greater extent than in non-optimized conditions, where hidden mechanisms prevail. In this work, GJS-600-10 (EN 1563:2012) solid-solution-strengthened ferritic spheroidal graphite iron with advantageous machinability due to uniform hardness, has been used to elucidate interaction effects and create a material regression model to predict the tensile properties. In this case, key predictors are related to the tensile properties (Rp0,2, Rm, A), of over 120 industrial tensile specimens from 10 years of research. A partial least square (PLS) regression reveals that elements in the steel scrap strongly affect elongation, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength. The analysis reveals that strength to a great extent can be predicted by the chemical composition whereas ductility also depends on other factors.

  • 298.
    Borrega, Marc
    et al.
    Aalto university, Finland ; VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Finland.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Ahvenainen, Patrik
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Ceccherini, Sara
    Aalto university, Finland.
    Maloney, Thaddeus
    Aalto university, Finland.
    Rautkari, Lauri
    Aalto university, Finland.
    Sixta, Herbert
    Aalto university, Finland.
    Birch wood pre-hydrolysis vs pulp post-hydrolysis for the production of xylan-based compounds and cellulose for viscose application2018In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 190, p. 212-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrothermal treatments of birch wood and kraft pulp were compared for their ability to extract the xylan and produce viscose-grade pulp. Water post-hydrolysis of kraft pulp produced a high-purity cellulosic pulp with lower viscosity but higher cellulose yield than traditional pre-hydrolysis kraft pulping of wood. Post-hydrolysis of pulp also increased the crystallite dimensions and degree of crystallinity in cellulose, and promoted a higher extent of fibril aggregation. The lower specific surface area in post-hydrolyzed pulps, derived from their larger fibril aggregates, decreased the accessibility of –OH groups. However, this lower accessibility did not seem to decrease the pulp reactivity to derivatizing chemicals. In the aqueous side-stream, the xylose yield was similar in both pre- and post-hydrolysates, although conducting post-hydrolysis of pulp in a flow-through system enabled the recovery of high purity and molar mass (∌10 kDa) xylan for high-value applications.

  • 299.
    Bostan, Lars
    et al.
    Faserinstitut Bremen E.V, Germany.
    Hosseinaei, Omid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Fourné, Renate
    FOURNÉ Maschinenbau GmbH, Germany.
    Herrmann, Axel
    Faserinstitut Bremen E.V, Germany; University of Bremen, Germany.
    Upscaling of lignin precursor melt spinning by bicomponent spinning and its use for carbon fibre production2021In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 379, no 2209, article id 20200334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Upscaling lignin-based precursor fibre production is an essential step in developing bio-based carbon fibre from renewable feedstock. The main challenge in upscaling of lignin fibre production by melt spinning is its melt behaviour and rheological properties, which differ from common synthetic polymers used in melt spinning. Here, a new approach in melt spinning of lignin, using a spin carrier system for producing bicomponent fibres, has been introduced. An ethanol extracted lignin fraction from LignoBoost process of commercial softwood kraft black liquor was used as feedstock. After additional heat treatment, melt spinning was performed in a pilot-scale spinning unit. For the first time, biodegradable polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was used as a spin carrier to enable the spinning of lignin by improving the required melt strength. PVA-sheath/lignin-core bicomponent fibres were manufactured. Afterwards, PVA was dissolved by washing with water. Pure lignin fibres were stabilized and carbonized, and tensile properties were measured. The measured properties, tensile modulus of 81.1 ± 3.1 GPa and tensile strength of 1039 ± 197 MPa, are higher than the majority of lignin-based carbon fibres reported in the literature. This new approach can significantly improve the melt spinning of lignin and solve problems related to poor spinnability of lignin and results in the production of high-quality lignin-based carbon fibres. This article is part of the theme issue 'Bio-derived and bioinspired sustainable advanced materials for emerging technologies (part 2)'. © 2021 The Author(s).

  • 300.
    Boubitsas, Dimitrios
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Use of limestone in cement: The effect on strength and chloride transport in mortars2013In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, no 47/1, p. 61-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes studies carried out to examine the influence_x000D_ on strength and chloride ingress when Portland cement is replaced_x000D_ with limestone filler. In the chloride ingress study both an_x000D_ accelerated method and field exposure measurements up to one_x000D_ year were employed. The results show that the method of_x000D_ measuring the resistance to chloride ingress can have a major_x000D_ influence on the assessment of the effect of different binders._x000D_ Further, the effect on chloride resistance, when replacing Portland_x000D_ cement with limestone filler is strongly dependent of the_x000D_ replacement ratio. The effect on compressive strength when_x000D_ replacing Portland cement with limestone filler is also strongly_x000D_ dependent of the replacement ratio.

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