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  • 20801.
    Winikka, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Toth, Pal
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center. University of Miskolc, Hungary.
    Jansson, Kjell
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Molinder, Roger
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Sandström, Linda
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Lighty, JoAnn S.
    University of Utah, USA.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Particle formation during pressurized entrained flow gasification of wood powder: Effects of process conditions on chemical composition, nanostructure, and reactivity2018In: Combustion and Flame, ISSN 0010-2180, E-ISSN 1556-2921, Vol. 189, p. 1339-1351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of operating condition on particle formation during pressurized, oxygen blown gasification of wood powder with an ash content of 0.4 wt% was investigated. The investigation was performed with a pilot scale gasifier operated at 7 bar(a). Two loads, 400 and 600 kW were tested, with the oxygen equivalence ratio (λ) varied between 0.25 and 0.50. Particle concentration and mass size distribution was analyzed with a low pressure cascade impactor and the collected particles were characterized for morphology, elemental composition, nanostructure, and reactivity using scanning electron microscopy/high resolution transmission electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. In order to quantify the nanostructure of the particles and identify prevalent sub-structures, a novel image analysis framework was used. It was found that the process temperature, affected both by λ and the load of the gasifier, had a significant influence on the particle formation processes. At low temperature (1060 °C), the formed soot particles seemed to be resistant to the oxidation process; however, when the oxidation process started at 1119 °C, the internal burning of the more reactive particle core began. A further increase in temperature (> 1313 °C) lead to the oxidation of the less reactive particle shell. When the shell finally collapsed due to severe oxidation, the original soot particle shape and nanostructure also disappeared and the resulting particle could not be considered as a soot anymore. Instead, the particle shape and nanostructure at the highest temperatures (> 1430 °C) were a function of the inorganic content and of the inorganic elements the individual particle consisted of. All of these effects together lead to the soot particles in the real gasifier environment having less and less ordered nanostructure and higher and higher reactivity as the temperature increased; i.e., they followed the opposite trend of what is observed during laboratory-scale studies with fuels not containing any ash-forming elements and where the temperature was not controlled by λ.

  • 20802.
    Winkel, Jörgen
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg .
    Birgisdottir, Birna Drofn
    Reykjavik University.
    Edwards, Kasper
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Gunnarsdóttir, Sigrún
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Jarebrant, Caroline
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Johansson Hanse, Jan
    Ulin, Kerstin
    May sustainability of patient flows at hospitals be increased by adding a work environment module to Value Stream Mapping (VSM)?: ANOVO Multicenter study in Denmark, Iceland and Sweden. 8th NOVO Symposium2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20803. Winkel, Jörgen
    et al.
    Birgisdóttir, Birna Drofn
    Dudas, K.
    Edwards, Kasper
    Gunnarsdóttir, Sigrun
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Jarebrant, Caroline
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Johansson Hanse, Jan
    Ulin, Kerstin
    Factors facilitating and inhibiting Value Stream Mapping processes at hospital units in three Nordic countries: A Nordic Multicenter study2014In: 11th International Symposium on Human Factors in Organisational Design and Management 46th Annual Nordic Ergonomics Society Conference. / [ed] Broberg, O., Fallentin, N., Hasle, P., Jensen, P. L., Kabel, A., Larsen, M. E. and Weller, T., Centrum för personcentrerad vård vid Göteborgs universitet (GPCC) , 2014, Vol. 1, p. 127-128Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20804.
    Winkel, Jørgen
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Edwards, Kasper
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Jarebrant, Caroline
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Birgisdóttir, Birna Dröfn
    Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Johansson Hanse, Jan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gunnarsdóttir, Sigrún
    University of Iceland, Iceland; Bifröst University, Iceland.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Ulin, Kerstin
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effect modifiers in intervention research at hospitals in three Nordic countries2016In: Abstract book of the 10th NOVO symposium, 2016, p. 33-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20805. Winkler, D
    Superconducting analogue electronics for research and industry2003In: Supercond. Sci. Technol. 16, pp. 1583-1590, 2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20806.
    Winkler, D
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo, Sensor Systems.
    Superconducting mixers2002In: Chapter E4.7 in Handbook of Superconducting Materials (IOP, Bristol, 2002), Ed. D Cardwell, University of Cambridge, UK; D Ginley, NREL, USA, ISBN Hardback:0750308982, 2002Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20807.
    Winnerstam, Lars
    et al.
    Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Olsson, Karl-Axel
    Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Winblad, Jan, Nyman, Peter
    Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Mikrovåguppslutning: användning av mikrovågsugn för upp- slutning av stål, cement och polyeten1991Report (Refereed)
  • 20808.
    Winnes, Kajsa
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Systemanalys.
    Användning och behov av energi- och miljösystem Sex företagsberätterlser om forskningens betydelse för strategiskt beslutsfattande inom energi- och miljöområdet2013Report (Refereed)
  • 20809.
    Winnes, Kajsa
    et al.
    Energiteknik (ET).
    Holgersson, Pernilla
    Energiteknik (ET).
    Minska 50 till 2050: Nya perspektiv på energieffektivisering av allmännyttans miljonprogramsbostäder2013Report (Refereed)
  • 20810.
    Winther, Thea
    et al.
    Swedish National Heritage Board, Sweden.
    Bannerman, Judith
    Swedish National Heritage Board, Sweden.
    Skogstad, Hilde
    Swedish National Heritage Board, Sweden.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jacobson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Samuelsson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Adhesives for adhering polystyrene plastic and their long-term effect2015In: Studies in Conservation, ISSN 0039-3630, E-ISSN 2047-0584, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 107-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To guide conservators in their decisions in active conservation of polystyrene materials, seven adhesives were tested before and after light ageing. The material was investigated by assessment of working properties, appearance, colour measurement, tensile testing, hardness measurement, assessment of break type, scanning electron microscope imaging, and assessment of reversibility. Based on a survey among conservators, the adhesives included were acrylates (Paraloid® B-72 in acetone: ethanol, or only ethanol, Paraloid® B-67 in isopropanol, Primal® AC 35, Acrifix® 116), epoxies (HXTAL®-NYL-1, Araldite ® 2020) and one cyanoacrylate (Loctite® Super Attack Precision). Adhesives were tested on extruded sheets of transparent, general purpose polystyrene applied on joined edges and as an open layer. Damage to the plastic could be seen for Acrifix® 116 and Loctite® Super Attack Precision. The average break force sensitivity values indicate that the cyanoacrylate was weakened while Acrifix® 116 was strengthened after ageing. In general, the cyanoacrylate was the strongest and Paraloid® B-67 the weakest. Most adhesives showed yellowing after ageing apart from Acrifix® 116 and HXTAL®-NYL-1. The Paraloids, Primal® AC 35, and the epoxies were possible to remove from the plastic.

  • 20811.
    Wirdelius, Håkan
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Malmström, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Diujster, Arno
    TNO, The Netherlands.
    Volker, A
    TNO, The Netherlands.
    Krix, D
    Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Germany.
    Stolzenberg, M
    Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Germany.
    Martinez-de-Guerenu, A
    CEIT, Spain.
    Gutierrez, I
    CEIT, Spain.
    Jorge-Badiola, D
    CEIT, Spain.
    van den Berg, FD
    Tata Steel, The Netherlands.
    Kok, PJJ
    Tata Steel, The Netherlands.
    Validation of models for Laser Ultrasonic spectraas a function of the grain size in steel2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce costs of production and increase economic sustainability it is necessary to introducequality assessment in an early stage in the manufacturing process. In the European project(Product Uniformity Control – PUC), the intention is to use ultrasonic information to assessmicrostructure parameters that are related to macroscale qualities such as mechanicalproperties. Laser induced ultrasonic technique (LUS) requires no media and can generate anddetect ultrasonic information at some distance from the component. This technique is thereforeaddressed within this project as a solution to measure ultrasonic properties in an industrialenvironment.Mathematical modelling of the ultrasonic wave propagation problem has been used in order toget a deeper understanding of the physics and to identify ultrasonic properties that can be usedas an indirect measurement of grain size. The use of both analytical and numerical modelsenabled extensive parametric studies together with investigation of ultrasonic interactions withwell-defined individual microstructures.The LUS technique has previously been applied to e.g. monitor grain growth duringthermomechanical processing of metals. These applications identified and used a correlationwith the frequency content of the attenuation. This have been investigated as a possible indirectmeasurement of grain size, also in this project. The models have been used to verify thecorrelations and to evaluate different procedures that could be applied as an industrial solution.The suggested procedure is based on deconvolving two successive echoes and has beenexperimentally validated by two different LUS systems. The reference samples used in thevalidation were produced by changing the annealing temperature and time to obtain a variationin grain sizes. These grain sizes were then identified by EBSD and the samples were examinedin terms of grain size influence on spectral attenuation.

  • 20812.
    Wirström, Niclas
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Behboodi, Arash
    Technical University of Berlin, Germany.
    Lemic, Filip
    Technical University of Berlin, Germany.
    Wolisz, Adam
    Technical University of Berlin, Germany.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Localization using Anonymous Measurements2015In: 2015 International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems, 2015, 10, p. 137-146, article id 7165032Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Range-based IEEE 802.15.4 localization systems currently require relatively high anchor density for indoor deployments. It can therefore be beneficial to use external sources of transmission as additional anchors. We present methods for using WiFi beacons to improve localization accuracy of a range-based IEEE 802.15.4 localization system in cases where only two IEEE 802.15.4 anchor nodes are available. We do this by identifying WiFi beacons from RSSI traces that we dynamically sample online, and applying fingerprinting and range-based methods using the RSSI values of the identified beacons. However, because the data of the WiFi traffic is not decodable by the IEEE 802.15.4 devices, these RSSI measurements lack identifiers that can associate them to specific WiFi Access Points (APs). Therefore, novel methods are required for both fingerprinting and range-based approaches to allow for these additional WiFi APs to be used as anchors. We show by using real-world measurements that our beacon identification method gives a false-positive rate of only 3%, and that if the range measurements to the IEEE 802.15.4 anchors are relatively accurate, with a standard deviation of 1 and 3 m, a localization accuracy improvement of 47% and 24% can be gained, respectively.

  • 20813.
    Wirström, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Misra, Prasant
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Spray: A Multi-Modal Localization System for Stationary Sensor Network Deployment2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a localization system that targets rapid deployment of stationary wireless sensor networks (WSN). The system uses a particle filter to fuse measurements from multiple localization modalities, such as RF ranging, neighbor information or maps, to obtain position estimations with higher accuracy than that of the individual modalities. The system isolates different modalities into separate components which can be included or excluded independently to tailor the system to a specific scenario. We show that position estimations can be improved with our system by combining multiple modalities. We evaluate the performance of the system in both an indoor and outdoor environment using combinations of five different modalities. Using two anchor nodes as reference points and combining all five modalities, we obtain RMS (Root Mean Square) estimation errors of approximately 2.5 m in both cases, while using the components individually results in errors within the range of 3.5 and 9 m.

  • 20814.
    Wirström, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Misra, Prasant
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Spray, Embracing Multimodality2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present Spray, a localization system that compensates for low accuracy of individual localization measurements by combining measurements from multiple localization modalities.

  • 20815. Wirtanen, G.
    et al.
    Husmark, U.
    Mattila-Sandholm, T.
    Microbial evaluation of the biotransfer potential from surfaces with Bacillus biofilms after rinsing and cleaning procedures in closed food-processing systems.1996In: Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 59, no 7, p. 727-733Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20816. Wirtanen, G.
    et al.
    Mattila-Sandholm, T.
    Manninen, M.
    Ahvenainen, R.
    Rönner, Ulf
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Application of rapid methods and ultrasound imaging in the assessment of the microbial quality of asepticaly packed starch soup.1991In: International Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 26, p. 313-324Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20817.
    Wissmar, S
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    SiGe quantum wells for uncooled long wavelength infra-red radiation (LWIR) sensors2007In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series 2007, Vol. 100, p. 42029-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20818.
    With, G. D.
    et al.
    NRG Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, The Netherlands.
    Michalik, B.
    GIG Central Mining Institute, Poland.
    Hoffmann, B.
    BfS Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Germany.
    Döse, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Development of a European harmonised standard to determine the natural radioactivity concentrations in building materials2018In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 171, p. 913-918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013 the European Commission has published its latest basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation (Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom). The council directive regulates radiation exposure from building materials through the presence of radioactivity (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) in these materials. Pivotal to successful regulation is the availability of a harmonised test method for the determination of the radionuclide concentrations as these nuclides form the basis for dose assessment and compliance. In 2017 a Technical Specification (CEN, 2017) on the determination of the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in construction products was published by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). The purpose of this work is to give an outline of the proposed method, with the protocols for sampling, measurement and data processing as well as a summary of the robustness testing and the expert comments that have been received following the final consultation. 

  • 20819. Wittberg, L.P.
    et al.
    Björkman, M.
    Khokhar, G.
    Mohlin, U.-B.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Dahlkild, A.
    Flow conditions in the grooves of a Low-Consistency refiner2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, no 2, p. 173-183Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20820.
    Wittbom, Cerina
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden; Skåne Association of Local Authorities, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ann-Charlotte
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. Lund University, Sweden.
    Roldin, Pontus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nordin, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden; Sweco Environment, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Staffan
    Lund University, Sweden; University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Switzerland.
    Nilsson, Patrik T.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Pagels, Joakim
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Svenningsson, Birgitta
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Effect of solubility limitation on hygroscopic growth and cloud drop activation of SOA particles produced from traffic exhausts2018In: Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, ISSN 0167-7764, E-ISSN 1573-0662, Vol. 75, no 4, p. 359-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hygroscopicity measurements of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles often show inconsistent results between the supersaturated and subsaturated regimes, with higher activity as cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) than indicated by hygroscopic growth. In this study, we have investigated the discrepancy between the two regimes in the Lund University (LU) smog chamber. Various anthropogenic SOA were produced from mixtures of different precursors: anthropogenic light aromatic precursors (toluene and m-xylene), exhaust from a diesel passenger vehicle spiked with the light aromatic precursors, and exhaust from two different gasoline-powered passenger vehicles. Three types of seed particles were used: soot aggregates from a diesel vehicle, soot aggregates from a flame soot generator and ammonium sulphate (AS) particles. The hygroscopicity of seed particles with condensed, photochemically produced, anthropogenic SOA was investigated with respect to critical supersaturation (sc) and hygroscopic growth factor (gf) at 90% relative humidity. The hygroscopicity parameter κ was calculated for the two regimes: κsc and κgf, from measurements of sc and gf, respectively. The two κ showed significant discrepancies, with a κgf /κsc ratio closest to one for the gasoline experiments with ammonium sulphate seed and lower for the soot seed experiments. Empirical observations of sc and gf were compared to theoretical predictions, using modified Köhler theory where water solubility limitations were taken into account. The results indicate that the inconsistency between measurements in the subsaturated and supersaturated regimes may be explained by part of the organic material in the particles produced from anthropogenic precursors having a limited solubility in water. © 2018, The Author(s).

  • 20821.
    Witte, Kerstin
    et al.
    University of Rostock, Germany; Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Germany.
    Müller, Knut
    Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Germany.
    Grüttner, Cordula
    Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Germany.
    Westphal, Fritz
    Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Germany.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Particle size- and concentration-dependent separation of magnetic nanoparticles2017In: Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, ISSN 0304-8853, E-ISSN 1873-4766, Vol. 427, p. 320-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small magnetic nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution are of great interest for several biomedical applications. When the size of the particles decreases, the magnetic moment of the particles decreases. This leads to a significant increase in the separation time by several orders of magnitude. Therefore, in the present study the separation processes of bionized nanoferrites (BNF) with different sizes and concentrations were investigated with the commercial Sepmag Q system. It was found that an increasing initial particle concentration leads to a reduction of the separation time for large nanoparticles due to the higher probability of building chains. Small nanoparticles showed exactly the opposite behavior with rising particle concentration up to 0.1 mg(Fe)/ml. For higher iron concentrations the separation time remains constant and the measured Z-average decreases in the supernatant at same time intervals. At half separation time a high yield with decreasing hydrodynamic diameter of particles can be obtained using higher initial particle concentrations.

  • 20822.
    Wittgren, Hans Bertil
    et al.
    Sweden Water Research, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden. Lunds universitet, Sweden.
    Berbeyer Cuevas, M.
    Gemit Solutions AB, Sweden.
    Bäckman, Jonas
    Gemit Solutions AB, Sweden.
    A tool to support upstream work2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theupstream work at utilities can be facilitated by a tool for calculatingpollution loads. A web application for mapping sources and performing substanceflow analysis is being developed. It aims to support location of sources,planning of measurement campaigns and evaluation of specific measures.

  • 20823. Witvrouw, A
    et al.
    Rusu, C
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Jansen, H
    Gunn, R
    Self-aligned 0-level sealing of MEMS devices by a two layer thin film reflow process2004In: Microsystem Technologies: Micro- and Nanosystems Information Storage and Processing Systems, ISSN 0946-7076, E-ISSN 1432-1858, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 364-71Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20824.
    Wivstad, M
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Cederberg, C
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, U
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Användning och beroende av bekämpningsmedel i vattenskyddsområden2009Report (Other academic)
  • 20825.
    Wnuk, K.
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Gorschek, T.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Towards new ways of evaluating methods of supporting requirements management and traceability using signal-to-noise ratio2019In: ENASE 2019 - Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering, SciTePress , 2019, p. 330-339Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing contemporary software solutions requires many processes and people working in synergy to achieve a common goal. Any misalignment between parts of the software production cycle can severely impede the quality of the development process and its resulting products. In this paper, we focus on improving means for measuring the quality of methods used to support finding similarities between software product artifacts, especially requirements. We propose a new set of measures, Signal-to-Noise ratios which extends the commonly used precision and recall measures. We test the applicability of all three types of SNR on two methods for finding similar requirements: the normalized compression distance (NCD) originating from the domain of information theory, and the Vector Space Model originating from computer linguistics. The results obtained present an interesting property of all types of SNR, all the values are centered around 1 which confirms our hypothesis that the analyzed methods can only limit the search space for the analysis. The analyst may still have difficulties in manually assessing the correct links among the incorrect ones.

  • 20826.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Muhammad Sulaman, Sardar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    An Industrial Case Study on Measuring the Quality of the Requirements Scoping Process2016In: Product-Focused Software Process Improvement / [ed] Pekka Abrahamsson, Andreas Jedlitschka, Anh Nguyen Duc, Michael Felderer, Sousuke Amasaki, Tommi Mikkonen, 2016, Vol. 10027, p. 487-494Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision making and requirements scoping occupy central roles in helping to develop products that are demanded by the customers and ensuring company strategies are accurately realized in product scope. Many companies experience continuous and frequent scope changes and fluctuations but struggle to measure the phenomena and correlate the measurement to the quality of the requirements process. We present the results from an exploratory interview study among 22 participants working with requirements management processes at a large company that develops embedded systems for a global market. Our respondents shared their opinions about the current set of requirements management process metrics as well as what additional metrics they envisioned as useful. We present a set of metrics that describe the quality of the requirements scoping process. The findings provide practical insights that can be used as input when introducing new measurement programs for requirements management and decision making.

  • 20827.
    Wogelred, Louise
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Höök, Fredrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Agnarsson, Björn
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Toward multiplexed quantification of biomolecules on surfaces using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry2018In: Biointerphases, ISSN 1934-8630, E-ISSN 1559-4106, Vol. 13, no 3, article id 03B413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate detection and quantification of individual molecules is important for the development of improved diagnostic methods as well as biochemical characterization of disease progression and treatments. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is a surface analysis technique capable of imaging the distribution of specific molecules on surfaces with a high spatial resolution (<1 μm) and high sensitivity. ToF-SIMS is particularly suitable for detection of molecules up to ∼2 kDa, including lipids, whereas larger molecules, such as peptides and proteins, are fragmented during analysis, which makes them difficult to identify. In this study, an approach for extending the molecular detection capability of ToF-SIMS is presented, based on the specific binding of functionalized liposomes to molecular targets on the sample surface and subsequent detection of the liposomes by ToF-SIMS. Furthermore, by using different recognition elements conjugated to liposomes with different lipid compositions, simultaneous detection of different targets was accomplished. This multiplexing capability was investigated for two types of recognition elements (antibodies and cholera toxin) and for target molecules immobilized on surfaces using two frequently applied surface functionalization strategies: a supported lipid bilayer aimed to mimic a cell membrane and a polyethylene glycol modified surface, commonly employed in bioanalytical sensor applications. The efficacy of the conjugation protocols and the specificity of the recognition mechanism were confirmed using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, while fluorescence microscopy was used to validate the ToF-SIMS data and the reliability of the freeze-drying step required for ToF-SIMS analysis. The results demonstrated specific binding of the two types of liposomes to each target and showed a concentration-dependent binding to the targets on the different model surfaces. In particular, the possibility to use the contrasts in the mass spectra of SIMS to identify the concentration dependent coverage of different liposomes opens up new opportunities for multiplexed detection and quantification of molecules at biotechnology relevant interfaces.

  • 20828.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Smite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Supporting Strategic Decision-Making for Selection of Software Assets2016In: Software Business / [ed] Maglyas A., Lamprecht AL., 2016, Vol. 240Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies developing software are constantly striving to gain or keep their competitive advantage on the market. To do so, they should balance what to develop themselves and what to get from elsewhere, which may be software components or software services. These strategic decisions need to be aligned with business objectives and the capabilities and constraints of possible options. These sourcing options include: in-house, COTS, open source and outsourcing. The objective of this paper is to present an approach to support decision-makers in selecting appropriate types of origins in a specific case that maximizes the benefits of the selected business strategy. The approach consists of three descriptive models, as well as a decision process and a knowledge repository. The three models are a decision model that comprises three cornerstones (stakeholders, origins and criteria) and is based on a taxonomy for formulating decision models in this context, and two supporting models (property models and context models).

  • 20829.
    Wojas, Natalia
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wallqvist, Viveca
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Järn, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. Omya International AG, Switzerland.
    Schoelkopf, Joachim
    Omya International AG, Switzerland; Aalto University, Finland.
    Gane, Patrick
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Iceland spar calcite: Humidity and time effects on surface properties and their reversibility2019In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 541, p. 42-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the complex and dynamic nature of calcite surfaces under ambient conditions is important for optimizing industrial applications. It is essential to identify processes, their reversibility, and the relevant properties of CaCO3 solid-liquid and solid-gas interfaces under different environmental conditions, such as at increased relative humidity (RH). This work elucidates changes in surface properties on freshly cleaved calcite (topography, wettability and surface forces) as a function of time (≤28 h) at controlled humidity (≤3–95 %RH) and temperature (25.5 °C), evaluated with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle techniques. In the presence of humidity, the wettability decreased, liquid water capillary forces dominated over van der Waals forces, and surface domains, such as hillocks, height about 7.0 Å, and trenches, depth about −3.5 Å, appeared and grew primarily in lateral dimensions. Hillocks demonstrated lower adhesion and higher deformation in AFM experiments. We propose that the growing surface domains were formed by ion dissolution and diffusion followed by formation of hydrated salt of CaCO3. Upon drying, the height of the hillocks decreased by about 50% suggesting their alteration into dehydrated or less hydrated CaCO3. However, the process was not entirely reversible and crystallization of new domains continued at a reduced rate.

  • 20830.
    Wojtasz-Mucha, Joanna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Cecilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hasani, M
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Theliander, H.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pretreatment and cooking of forest residues2019In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 9454-9471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of processing forest residues by chemical delignification preceded by mild steam explosion. The focus was on using soda pulping, due to its simplicity. Kraft cooking was used for comparison to improve the understanding of the separation of the complex yet promising resource. The raw material consisted of chipped branches, bark, and twigs of mixed hardwood and softwood. Analysis of the raw material proved to be challenging due to the presence of a substantial fraction of extractives. Analysis of the pulps showed that the forest residue delignification was faster than that of wood. The effects of steam explosion were evaluated with the help of composition analysis, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for the molecular weight of lignin, and NMR for the changes in its structure. The impact of steam explosion was found to be limited, possibly due to the relatively small size of the material. 

  • 20831.
    Wolf, Jens
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Ahlroth, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Anheden, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Wadsborn, Rikard
    Stora Enso, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stora Enso, Sweden.
    Model-based performance monitoring in a recovery boiler: proof of concept2017In: International chemical recovery conference, May 24-26, 2017, Halifax, Canada, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of model-based performance monitoring has been tested in a recovery boiler operating in a Swedish kraft pulp mill. Key performance indicators (KPI) have been calculated and used to visualise the degree of fouling of boiler bank, super heaters and economiser of the recovery boiler. The KPIs illustrate the actual degree of fouling independently from the actual thermal load. The presented tool enables an early warning for massive fouling in the boiler. Even smaller changes in boiler performance can be followed enabling operation close to maximum capacity. The tool may also support operators to test modifications of the operation, for instance. A trend for the sticky temperature of dust particles has been added as a first approach to provide a measure for a critical flue gas temperature. That trend in combination with an indirectly measured flue gas temperature adds further value to model-based performance monitoring.

  • 20832.
    Wolf, Jens
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Bialik, Marta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Jensen, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Modelling of precipitation of silicon, aluminium and phosphorus into green liquor dregs2017In: International chemical recovery conference, May 24-26, 2017, Halifax, Canada, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of empirical equations is presented for modelling the precipitation of aluminium, silicon and phosphorous in green liquor plants as a function of initial concentrations of these elements plus magnesium, calcium and alkali in the dissolver. As process parameters, the model includes residence time and temperature. Concentrations, temperature and residence time have been varied according to a factor design plan. Main findings are that in laboratory experiments it was possible to remove aluminium, silicon and phosphorous down to concentrations below their solubility in white liquor thus avoiding accumulation of these elements in the lime cycle. In addition, the experimental work showed that the initial concentrations of aluminium, silicon and phosphorous in raw green liquor have a strong increasing impact on their concentrations in filtered green liquor.

  • 20833. Wolff, C.
    et al.
    Espetvedt, Mari. N.
    Lind, Ann-Kristina
    Rintakoski, S.
    Egenvall, A.
    Lindberg, A.
    Emanuelson, U.
    Completeness of the disease recording systems for dairy cows in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden with special reference to clinical mastitis.2012In: BMC Veterinary Research, Vol. 8, p. 131-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20834.
    Wolff, J-C
    et al.
    Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Örnemark, U
    Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Stability studies and purification procedure for nitrite solutions in view of the preparation of isotopic reference materials1998In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 1031-1041Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20835. Wolfgang, Andreas
    et al.
    Carlsson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Improved Procedure for Measuring Efficiency of Small Antennas in Reverberation Chambers2003In: IEEE AP-S International Symposium and URSI Science Meeting, 2003, , p. 727-730Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20836.
    Woodhouse, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    FODERDATABAS: DELUPPDRAG 6-UPPDATERADE KLIMATAVTRYCK AV FODERMEDE2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    RISE har på uppdrag av Jordbruksverket tagit fram rekommendationer kring klimat-avtryck för ett urval av foderråvaror. Klimatavtryck för foderråvaror och foderbland-ningar är insatsvaror som står för en betydande andel av det sammanlagda klimat-avtrycket i animalieproduktionen. Siffrorna är viktiga indata vid beräkning av en hel

    gårds klimatavtryck som görs i rådgivningen "Klimatkollen" med hjälp av klimat-beräkningsdelen i beräkningsprogrammet Vera. RISE har genomfört litteraturstudie som kompletterats med beräkningar för några råvaror utifrån tillgänglig statistik.

    Uppdraget är ett av sex deluppdrag finansierat med medel från EU:s landsbygdsprogram 2014

    –2020 inom ramen för Jordbruksverkets projekt Minskad klimatpåverkan och förnybar energi (journalnummer 2015–776).

  • 20837.
    Woodhouse, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Pénicaud, Caroline
    University of Paris-Saclay, France.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Sustainability checklist in support of the design of food processing2018In: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, E-ISSN 1614-2373, Vol. 16, p. 110-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To source food ingredients produced by best practice, reducing food loss in the processing line and implementation of new technologies are some examples of changes in the management in the food and drink sector that may offer advantages from a sustainability perspective. There are several tools and methods for evaluating sustainability for a food processing technology but often specific methodological knowledge is essential and many companies may not be able to carry out such a study due to time constraints and lack of data. The aim of this paper is to provide a tool with the format of a qualitative sustainability checklist, based on existing Life Cycle Assessment theory. The checklist is devoted to the design and adaptation of processing in the food industry to clarify the potential hot spots in new process design and is focused on environmental sustainability, although other aspects were conferred as well to demonstrate its potential. To identify the potential of this kind of checklist, it was tested by four food companies. The participant feedback was in general positive. The companies highlighted the benefits of creating awareness of sustainability issues within the company and providing a good overview without data collection. From a scientific point of view, the approach can help to overcome several challenges in sustainability assessment in the agri-food sector, especially some modeling issues and spatio-temporal resolution. © 2018 The Authors

  • 20838. Woudstra, C.
    et al.
    Skarin, H.
    Anniballi, F.
    Auricchio, B.
    De Medici, D.
    Bano, L.
    Drigo, I.
    Hansen, T.
    Löfström, Charlotta
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Hamidjaja, R.
    van Rotterdam, B. J.
    Koene, M.
    Bäyon-Auboyer, M. -H
    Buffereau, J. -P
    Fach, P.
    Validation of a real-time PCR based method for detection of clostridium botulinum types C, D and their mosaic variants C-D and D-C in a multicenter collaborative trial2013In: Anaerobe, ISSN 1075-9964, E-ISSN 1095-8274, Vol. 22, p. 31-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two real-time PCR arrays based on the GeneDisc® cycler platform (Pall-GeneDisc Technologies) were evaluated in a multicenter collaborative trial for their capacity to specifically detect and discriminate Clostridium botulinum types C, D and their mosaic variants C-D and D-C that are associated with avian and mammalian botulism. The GeneDisc® arrays developed as part of the DG Home funded European project 'AnibioThreat' were highly sensitive and specific when tested on pure isolates and naturally contaminated samples (mostly clinical specimen from avian origin). Results of the multicenter collaborative trial involving eight laboratories in five European Countries (two laboratories in France, Italy and The Netherlands, one laboratory in Denmark and Sweden), using DNA extracts issued from 33 pure isolates and 48 naturally contaminated samples associated with animal botulism cases, demonstrated the robustness of these tests. Results showed a concordance among the eight laboratories of 99.4%-100% for both arrays. The reproducibility of the tests was high with a relative standard deviation ranging from 1.1% to 7.1%. Considering the high level of agreement achieved between the laboratories these PCR arrays constitute robust and suitable tools for rapid detection of C.botulinum types C, D and mosaic types C-D and D-C. These are the first tests for C.botulinum C and D that have been evaluated in a European multicenter collaborative trial. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 20839. Woudstra, C.
    et al.
    Tevell Åberg, A.
    Skarin, H.
    Anniballi, F.
    De Medici, D.
    Bano, L.
    Koene, M.
    Löfström, Charlotta
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Hansen, T.
    Hedeland, M.
    Fach, P.
    Animal botulism outcomes in the ani bio threat project2013In: Biosecurity and bioterrorism, ISSN 1538-7135, E-ISSN 1557-850X, Vol. 11, no SUPPL. 1, p. S177-S182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Botulism disease in both humans and animals is a worldwide concern. Botulinum neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum and other Clostridium species are the most potent biological substances known and are responsible for flaccid paralysis leading to a high mortality rate. Clostridium botulinum and botulinum neurotoxins are considered potential weapons for bioterrorism and have been included in the Australia Group List of Biological Agents. In 2010 the European Commission (DG Justice, Freedom and Security) funded a 3-year project named AniBioThreat to improve the EU's capacity to counter animal bioterrorism threats. A detection portfolio with screening methods for botulism agents and incidents was needed to improve tracking and tracing of accidental and deliberate contamination of the feed and food chain with botulinum neurotoxins and other Clostridia. The complexity of this threat required acquiring new genetic information to better understand the diversity of these Clostridia and develop detection methods targeting both highly specific genetic markers of these Clostridia and the neurotoxins they are able to produce. Several European institutes participating in the AniBioThreat project collaborated on this program to achieve these objectives. Their scientific developments are discussed here. © 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  • 20840.
    Wredenberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Björkblad, Anders
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    SK Brott – optimering av brottmekanisk provstav för sega material2013Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande arbete är genomfört som ett samarbetsprojekt mellan Swerea KIMAB AB och kärnkraftverkens materialgrupp. Vid brottmekanisk provning av sega material (typiskt nickelbaslegeringar) får man problem vilka delvis beror på att förlängningsvärdena är så stora att det inte längre går att använda normal lineär brottmekanik. En av de bakomliggande orsakerna till att man stöter på svårigheter är att randeffekterna vid provens ytterkanter blir betydande. Detta i sin tur gör att man måste upp till orealistiska bredder på provstavarna för att rimligt hålla sig inom reglementet för lineär brottmekanik. Grundidén i detta arbete var att nyttja FEM och numerisk optimering för att formge en brottmekanisk provstav på ett sådant sätt att belastningen blir jämn längs sprickfronten och att randeffekterna blir så små att dom kan accepteras. Det kan med andra ord uttryckas som smart design. Den geometri som användes var CT-provstaven. För att åstadkomma önskade utfall applicerades dels sidospår på vas sida längs sprickfronten, dels två hål igenom provstaven. Sidospårens uppgift var att minska randeffekten mot stavens yta och den formades via optimering så att den fick en lämplig utformning under belastning. De två hålen hade till uppgift att ”försvaga” materialet (styvheten) i den centrala delen av sprickfronten. Denna extra frihetsgrad visar sig vara behövlig för att komma fram till en lämplig formgivning. För att bedöma resultaten gjordes jämförelser mot en provstavsbredd om 75 mm, det som inom kärnkraftssektorn bedöms ge acceptabla värden. Resultaten visar att det går att ta ned tjockleken ca 20 % jämfört mot den ”acceptabla provstavsdimension” som idag används med användande av lämpligt utformade sidospår samt genomgående avlastningshål.

  • 20841.
    Wredenberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Larsson, P.-L.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    On the stability of delamination growth at scratching of thin film structures2011In: JCT Research, ISSN 1547-0091, E-ISSN 2168-8028, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 707-717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scratching of thin film/substrate structures is studied theoretically and numerically. The results are discussed in connection to delamination initiation and in particular subsequent growth at scratching. The material behavior of the film is described by classical elastoplasticity accounting for large deformations. The deformation of the substrate is neglected indicating that the results are pertinent to soft thin films. The numerical investigation is performed using the finite element method (FEM) and the numerical strategy is discussed in some detail. The results from this study show that delamination growth at thin film scratching is a stable feature with crack arrest occurring at a decreasing load. © 2011 ACA and OCCA.

  • 20842.
    Wright, David A.
    et al.
    Ag Research, New Zealand.
    Zydenbos, Sue M.
    Ag Research, New Zealand.
    Wessman, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces.
    O’Callaghan, Maureen
    Ag Research, New Zealand.
    Townsend, Richard J.
    Ag Research, New Zealand.
    Jackson, Ttrevor A.
    Ag Research, New Zealand.
    van Koten, Chikako
    Ag Research, New Zealand.
    Mansfield, Sarah
    Ag Research, New Zealand.
    Surface coating aids survival of Serratia entomophila (Enterobacteriaceae) in granules for surface application2017In: Biocontrol science and technology (Print), ISSN 0958-3157, E-ISSN 1360-0478, Vol. 27, no 12, p. 1383-1399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nonspore-forming bacterium Serratia entomophila may be used to control the New Zealand grass grub (Costelytra giveni) but is sensitive to environmental stress and must be formulated to improve survival. Existing formulations require subsurface application limiting the area that can be treated. Formulations that allow delivery by broadcast methods are desirable to reduce application costs and increase the potential for aerial application to inaccessible areas. Two formulations were prepared for use in experiments examining the persistence and movement of inoculum through soil. When granules were applied to the soil surface, bacterial survival was negligible in uncoated core, but improved with increasing thickness of the coating. Both survival of bacteria and release into the soil were influenced by soil moisture content. Granules at <12% soil moisture showed high bacterial mortality and reduced delivery to the soil, while at 28% soil moisture most bacteria were released to the soil. There was a high level of survival of the applied bacteria within granules at 20% and 28% soil moisture. The formulations maintained viability of S. entomophila in granules stored under ambient conditions for more than 6 months. In laboratory and field tests, the application of granules caused disease in the target grass grub larvae, whether application was applied to the surface or subsurface. In field trials, broadcast applied granules could produce equivalent disease to thin-coat granules drilled into the soil, but these levels of disease were associated with the occurrence of precipitation shortly after application.

  • 20843. Wright, P
    et al.
    Bergman, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Flood, Martin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Clarkson, P.
    Herzberg, K.
    Onsite Measurements for Power-Quality Estimation at the Sweden - Poland HVDC Link2014In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 472-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A discussion of the power-quality (PQ) aspects of HVDC systems is given, in particular, harmonic aspects. This is followed by a description of the apparatus and their installation as part of an onsite measurement campaign at the Sternö;, classical HVDC station on the SwePol HVDC link. PQ results are presented, including the current and voltage characteristics of the station, converter harmonics, filtered harmonics, noncharacteristic harmonics, switch-on current, and system unbalance.

  • 20844.
    Wright, P. S.
    et al.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Christensen, A. E.
    Trescal, Denmark.
    Davis, P. N.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Larson, B.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Lippert, T.
    Trescal, Denmark.
    Patel, P.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Power quality propagation measurements in smart grids2016In: 2016 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2016), 2016, article id 7540458Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of Power Quality (PQ) to the operation and management of electrical power networks is described. A discussion is given on the propagation of PQ phenomena. Preparations for a measurement campaign using multiple GPS synchronised digitisers and associated transducers on an island operating with high renewable penetration (Smart Grid) are described. Results from this campaign will be used to formulate models for PQ propagation that can be used to plan and manage future Smart Grids.

  • 20845.
    Wu, Da
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, SWeden.
    Larsson, Ragnar
    Chalmers University of Technology, SWeden.
    Rouhi, Mohammad
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Modeling and Experimental Validation of the VARTM Process for Thin-Walled Preforms.2019In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, no 12, article id E2003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, recent shell model is advanced towards the calibration and validation of the Vacuum-assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) process in a novel way. The model solves the nonlinear and strongly coupled resin flow and preform deformation when the 3-D flow and stress problem is simplified to a corresponding 2-D problem. In this way, the computational efficiency is enhanced dramatically, which allows for simulations of the VARTM process of large scale thin-walled structures. The main novelty is that the assumptions of the neglected through-thickness flow and the restricted preform deformation along the normal of preform surface suffice well for the thin-walled VARTM process. The model shows excellent agreement with the VARTM process experiment. With good accuracy and high computational efficiency, the shell model provides an insight into the simulation-based optimization of the VARTM process. It can be applied to either determine locations of the gate and vents or optimize process parameters to reduce the deformation.

  • 20846. Wu, Huayong
    et al.
    Zonta, D.
    Pozzi, M.
    Zanon, P.
    Ceriotti, M.
    Mottola, Luca
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Picco, G. P.
    Guna, S.
    Murphy, A. L.
    Corrà, M.
    Wireless Sensors for Permanent Monitoring of Heritage Buildings2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20847.
    Wu, Rui
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Processing line inclusion (PLI) and joint line hooking (JLH) in Cu-OFP friction stir weld – part 1: metallographic examinations2011Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Six samples were extracted at positions 16°, 42°, 67°, 98.5°, 123°, and 338° from a circle friction stir weld (FSW) of Cu-OFP, designated internally FSWL08/KL059, in order to examine if there is processing line inclusions (PLI) in the FSW. The samples were metallographically prepared, were annealed in hydrogen, and were electrolytically polished and etched, respectively. The samples were examined macro- and microscopically. Chemical compositions of the particles/inclusions inside PLI were quantitatively determined. The PLI did find on the retreating side of FSW on all six investigated samples. Usually, the PLI consists of two parts, an axial PLI and a radial PLI. The axial PLI, commonly 1~2 mm long, occurred about 7~9 mm right above the joint line hooking (JLH) in the FSW. It is often separated and crack-like. It is thought to be a remaining part of slit/JLH. The radial PLI continued from the axial PLI and followed to a large extent the contour of processing line on the retreating side. It could be as long as the processing line. The axial PLI at the position 42° went through entire thickness of the investigated sample, indicating that it is very likely that the axial PLI may have penetrated all the way along the FSW. Particles/inclusions were detected inside the PLI. The particles/inclusions consist of mainly silicon-oxide, as well as aluminium-, potassium-, calcium-, and sodium-oxides. In the present case, both hydrogen annealing and electrolytic polishing and etching revealed the PLI effectively and apparently. The JLH bent downwards and towards the outer surface. It was about 3.5~5 mm away from the root of the FSW. It is recommended to carry out tensile and creep tests to determine and to evaluate the PLI’s impact on the integrity of copper canisters. Keywords: Processing line inclusions (PLI), joint line hooking (JLH), Cu-OFP, friction stir (FSW), metallography, hydrogen annealing, electrolytic polishing and etching, oxide, integrity.

  • 20848.
    Wu, Rui
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Pettersson, Niklas
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Martinsson, Åsa
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Sandström, Rolf
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Cell structure in cold worked and creep deformed phosphorus alloyed copper2014In: Materials Characterization, ISSN 1044-5803, E-ISSN 1873-4189, Vol. 90, p. 21-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examinations on as-received, cold worked, as well as cold worked and creep tested phosphorus-alloyed oxygen-free copper (Cu-OFP) have been carried out to study the role of the cell structure. The cell size decreased linearly with increasing plastic deformation in tension. The flow stress in the tests could also be correlated to the cell size. The observed relation between the flow stress and the cell size was in excellent agreement with previously published results. The dense dislocation walls that appeared after cold work in tension is likely to be the main reason for the dramatic increase in creep strength. The dense dislocation walls act as barriers against dislocation motion and their presence also reduces the recovery rate due to an unbalanced dislocation content. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  • 20849.
    Wu, Rui
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Sandström, Rolf
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Influence of multiaxial stresses on creep properties of phosphorus alloyed oxygen free copper2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus alloyed oxygen free copper (Cu-OFP) canisters are planned to be used for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The copper canisters will be subjected to creep under multiaxial stress states in the repository. Creep tests have therefore been carried out using double notch specimens having a notch acuity of 0.5 in Cu-OFP at 75°C. The creep results from the notched specimens are compared with those from the smooth ones. It shows that the creep lifetime for notched specimens can be estimated to be two orders of magnitude or more longer than that for the smooth ones, indicating notch strengthening for the investigated Cu-OFP material. Metallographic examinations after failure show that pores and creep cavities to a limited extent are observed only adjacent to fracture. To interpret the tests for the notched creep specimens, finite element computations have been performed with a new basic model for primary creep without fitting parameters. The creep strain versus time could be simulated successfully. Initially the stresses at the notches are almost twice as high as in the centre of the specimens. The highest stresses are relaxed rapidly. At the studied temperature 75°C, the creep exponent of Cu-OFP is about 85, thus, deep down in the power-law breakdown regime. This contributes strongly to the homogenous stress distribution across the centre section. Since the redistribution of stresses has taken place before large creep deformation has occurred, the specimens are not notch sensitive in agreement with observations. Copyright © 2009 by ASME.

  • 20850.
    Wu, Rui
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Sandström, Rolf
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Jin, L.-Z.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Creep crack growth in phosphorus alloyed oxygen free copper2013In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 583, p. 151-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creep crack growth (CCG) has been studied in phosphorus-alloyed oxygen-free copper (Cu-OFP) at 22, 75, 175, and 215. °C with compact tension (CT) specimens. At 175 and 215. °C, the cracks grew about 10. mm before final instantaneous failure. In contrast, there was no visible crack growth at 22 and 75. °C. Strongly deformed grains were observed adjacent to the cracks at 175 and 215. °C. Intergranular creep cavities were found around the cracks. At 22 and 75. °C, deformed grains and some cavities as well as microcracks were observed close to the crack tip.A model for crack propagation based on creep damage formation has been formulated to interpret the test results. Rupture criteria based on both creep ductility exhaustion and grain boundary cavitation were taken into account. The contribution from the ductility exhaustion to the creep damage dominated at the lower two test temperatures whereas the contribution from grain boundary cavitation at the higher test temperatures. The model can describe the influence of temperature on the observed creep crack propagation. It can also account for the observed cavitation in a qualitative way. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

414415416417418419420 20801 - 20850 of 21786
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